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Sample records for cancer primary peritoneal

  1. Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecologic Cancer Foundation wins The 2001 Associations Advance America “Award of Excellence” Press Release: Gynecologic Cancer Foundation Named One of “America’s Best 100 Charities” Press Release: Gynecologic Cancer Foundation ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal ... primary peritoneal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal ...

  3. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  4. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition or to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ... PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  5. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  6. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  7. Epacadostat Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Hyang

    2013-01-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy is a disease that constitutes a medical emergency, but one that can be reversed with thiamine repletion if it is recognized early. Patients with cancer have a high risk of Wernicke encephalopathy because of malnutrition, the use of chemotherapeutic agents, and disease progression. Korsakoff syndrome can follow or accompany Wernicke encephalopathy. Although patients can recover from Wernicke encephalopathy via rapid repletion of thiamine, few patients recover from Korsakoff syndrome. Here, the case of a 76-year-old female patient who had primary peritoneal cancer and developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome as a result of prolonged nutritional imbalance and fast-growing tumor cells is reported. The patient's neurologic symptoms improved, but she did not recover from the psychiatric effects of the disease. PMID:24474922

  9. Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome in primary peritoneal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyang

    2013-09-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy is a disease that constitutes a medical emergency, but one that can be reversed with thiamine repletion if it is recognized early. Patients with cancer have a high risk of Wernicke encephalopathy because of malnutrition, the use of chemotherapeutic agents, and disease progression. Korsakoff syndrome can follow or accompany Wernicke encephalopathy. Although patients can recover from Wernicke encephalopathy via rapid repletion of thiamine, few patients recover from Korsakoff syndrome. Here, the case of a 76-year-old female patient who had primary peritoneal cancer and developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome as a result of prolonged nutritional imbalance and fast-growing tumor cells is reported. The patient's neurologic symptoms improved, but she did not recover from the psychiatric effects of the disease. PMID:24474922

  10. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  11. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  12. Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  13. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Vaccine Therapy and IDO1 Inhibitor INCB024360 in Treating Patients With Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Who Are in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-17

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  16. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Ruxolitinib Phosphate, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-21

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. Primary peritoneal cancer in BRCA carriers after prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.; Vrachnis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The presence of deleterious mutations in breast cancer (BRCA)-1 or BRCA-2 gene has a decisive influence on the development of various types of neoplasms, such as breast, ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers. Primary peritoneal cancer is an aggressive malignancy which, due to the absence of a specific screening test, cannot be diagnosed in its early stages. As a risk-reducing option, prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and mastectomy are often proposed in BRCA gene carriers. The effectiveness of a preventive surgical treatment is, however, unclear in the development of peritoneal cancer. Material and Methods An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases. Results The total number of patients who underwent prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was 1,830, of whom 28 presented with peritoneal cancer (1.53%). The age of the included patients ranged from 48 to 61 years. BRCA-1 was present in 9 out of 28 patients and BRCA-2 in 2 patients, while the type of BRCA was unclear in 17 patients. Salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in 23 out of 28 patients, while oophorectomy was carried out in 5 patients. The interval from initial risk-reducing surgical treatment to the presentation of peritoneal cancer ranged from 12 to 84 months. Conclusion Modification of the follow-up guidelines and increase in healthcare providers’ awareness may reduce the risk of peritoneal cancer.

  19. Carboplatin and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without ATR Kinase Inhibitor VX-970 in Treating Patients With Recurrent and Metastatic Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Activated T-cell Therapy, Low-Dose Aldesleukin, and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That is Stage III-IV, Refractory, or Recurrent

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-15

    Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  1. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  2. EGEN-001 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-11

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  3. Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  4. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  5. Olaparib and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  6. Veliparib and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  7. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle or eating habits. Avoiding things known to cause cancer. Taking medicines to treat a precancerous condition or ... called the endometrium. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system. In recent years, ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. [New FIGO classification of ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer].

    PubMed

    Höhn, A K; Einenkel, J; Wittekind, C; Horn, L-C

    2014-07-01

    During recent years paramount changes have occurred in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and recent clinical studies identified new prognostic factors. Consequently, the FIGO has established a new staging system collectively covering carcinomas derived from the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and primary peritoneal cancers as well as malignant ovarian germ cell and sex-cord stromal tumors. The new staging system started on 01 January 2014. Major changes occurred in the FIGO IC/T1c stage with surgical spill (FIGO IC1/T1c1) versus capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface (FIGO IC2/T1c2) versus malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal washings (FIGO IC3/T1c3). The regional lymph node metastases were subcategorised using a cut-off value of 10 mm as the largest dimension of the metastatic deposits. Distant metastases (excluding peritoneal metastases) were substaged as FIGO IVA/M1a in cases of cytologically or histologically proven pleural involvement and as FIGO IVB/M1b in cases of parenchymal metastases and metastases in extra-abdominal organs (including lymph nodes outside the peritoneal cavity and the inguinal lymph nodes). PMID:24899496

  11. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-13

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Belinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer or Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  13. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  17. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Information about ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatment, prevention, genetics, causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National Cancer Institute.

  19. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2015 for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Okamoto, Aikou; Ito, Kiyoshi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Nao; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The fourth edition of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer was published in 2015. The guidelines contain seven chapters and six flow charts. The major changes in this new edition are as follows-(1) the format has been changed from reviews to clinical questions (CQ), and the guidelines for optimal clinical practice in Japan are now shown as 41 CQs and answers; (2) the 'flow charts' have been improved and placed near the beginning of the guidelines; (3) the 'basic points', including tumor staging, histological classification, surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and palliative care, are described before the chapter; (4) the FIGO surgical staging of ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer was revised in 2014 and the guideline has been revised accordingly to take the updated version of this classification into account; (5) the procedures for examination and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are described; (6) information on molecular targeting therapy has been added; (7) guidelines for the treatment of recurrent cancer based on tumor markers alone are described, as well as guidelines for providing hormone replacement therapy after treatment. PMID:27142770

  3. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-02

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  5. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Everolimus and Letrozole in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor Positive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-14

    Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  9. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  11. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  12. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  13. Single-port or Classic Laparoscopy Compared With Laparotomy to Assess the Peritoneal Cancer Index in Primary Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bresson, Lucie; Allard-Duclercq, Clemence; Narducci, Fabrice; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Lesoin, Anne; Ahmeidi, Abesse; Leblanc, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A thorough laparoscopic assessment of the abdominopelvic cavity is a crucial step in the workup of primary advanced epithelial ovarian cancer to decide whether up-front cytoreductive surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the best option for adequate management. The purpose of our study was to compare single-port laparoscopy (SPL), classic laparoscopy (CL), and laparotomy using the peritoneal cancer index (PCI). Patients treated for Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage 3 or 4 epithelial ovarian cancer were included in our study when they underwent a PCI evaluation by laparoscopy followed by laparotomy for cytoreduction. According to the technique used for the "noninvasive" procedure (SPL vs CL), 2 groups were compared retrospectively. The individual records of all patients were reviewed and analyzed. From 2011 to 2014, 21 patients were assessed for PCI by SPL plus laparotomy versus 21 by CL plus laparotomy. The clinicopathological features were similar in both groups (not significant [NS]), except for performance status >0, which was more frequent in the SPL group (39% vs 6%, p = .04). Quotation of PCI was possible for all patients. Nonbrowsing areas marked 3 procedures in the SPL group and 2 procedures in the CL group (NS). The mean PCI score and the score of each region assessed by SPL and CL were comparable with the evaluation by laparotomy (NS). Completeness of cytoreduction was achieved in 78% of cases in both groups (NS). SPL and widely mini-invasive procedures seem to be effective tools compared with laparotomy to adequately assess the resectability of a peritoneal carcinomatosis using the PCI. PMID:27068278

  14. Randomized trial of oral cyclophosphamide and veliparib in high-grade serous ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers, or BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kummar, Shivaani; Oza, Amit M.; Fleming, Gini F.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Gandara, David R.; Naughton, Michael J.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Morgan, Robert J.; Szabo, Peter M.; Youn, Ahrim; Chen, Alice P.; Ji, Jiuping; Allen, Deborah E.; Lih, Chih-Jian; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Walsh, William D.; McGregor, Paul M.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Williams, Paul M.; Kinders, Robert J.; Conley, Barbara A.; Simon, Richard M.; Doroshow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, demonstrated clinical activity in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors in a phase 1 trial. To define the relative contribution of PARP inhibition to the observed clinical activity, we conducted a randomized phase 2 trial to determine the response rate of veliparib in combination with cyclophosphamide compared to cyclophosphamide alone in patients with pretreated BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer or in patients with pretreated primary peritoneal, fallopian tube, or high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). Methods Adult patients were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide alone (50 mg orally once daily) or with veliparib (60 mg orally once daily) in 21-day cycles. Crossover to the combination was allowed at disease progression. Results Seventy-five patients were enrolled and 72 were evaluable for response; 38 received cyclophosphamide alone and 37 the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Treatment was well tolerated. One complete response was observed in each arm, with three partial responses (PR) in the combination arm and six PRs in the cyclophosphamide alone arm. Genetic sequence and expression analyses were performed for 211 genes involved in DNA repair; none of the detected genetic alterations were significantly associated with treatment benefit. Conclusion This is the first trial that evaluated single agent, low dose cyclophosphamide in HGSOC, peritoneal, fallopian tube, and BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers. It was well tolerated and clinical activity was observed; the addition of veliparib at 60 mg daily did not improve either the response rate or the median progression free survival. PMID:25589624

  15. Intraperitoneal Bortezomib and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Primary peritonitis due to group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, M; Ehrenberg, E; Grieco, R; Chamovitz, B; Burke, M; Snyder, D; Book, M

    2000-04-01

    Primary peritonitis is a rare condition occurring, by definition, in patients without underlying causes, such as perforated viscus, pre-existing ascites, or nephrosis. We report a case of primary peritonitis and shock due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, a rare etiology. A review of the world's literature shows a predilection for women to have this condition. The entry site is obscure in most cases. Asymptomatic genital tract colonization may be a portal of entry in some women. Shock or toxic shock syndrome often accompany the abdominal findings. Laparotomy to exclude a perforated viscus may be unavoidable. Despite the significant morbidity, expeditious and appropriate antibiotic therapy is curative. PMID:10777203

  17. Talazoparib and HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Metastatic Advanced Solid Tumor or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  18. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib or Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-13

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride With Atezolizumab and/or Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dissemination represents a devastating form of gastric cancer (GC) progression with a dismal prognosis. There is no effective therapy for this condition. The 5-year survival rate of patients with peritoneal dissemination is 2%, even including patients with only microscopic free cancer cells without macroscopic peritoneal nodules. The mechanism of peritoneal dissemination of GC involves several steps: detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor, survival in the free abdominal cavity, attachment to the distant peritoneum, invasion into the subperitoneal space and proliferation with angiogenesis. These steps are not mutually exclusive, and combinations of different molecular mechanisms can occur in each process of peritoneal dissemination. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular events involved in peritoneal dissemination is important and should be systematically pursued. It is crucial to identify novel strategies for the prevention of this condition and for identification of markers of prognosis and the development of molecular-targeted therapies. In this review, we provide an overview of recently published articles addressing the molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination of GC to provide an update on what is currently known in this field and to propose novel promising candidates for use in diagnosis and as therapeutic targets. PMID:27570420

  2. Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-14

    Peritoneal dissemination represents a devastating form of gastric cancer (GC) progression with a dismal prognosis. There is no effective therapy for this condition. The 5-year survival rate of patients with peritoneal dissemination is 2%, even including patients with only microscopic free cancer cells without macroscopic peritoneal nodules. The mechanism of peritoneal dissemination of GC involves several steps: detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor, survival in the free abdominal cavity, attachment to the distant peritoneum, invasion into the subperitoneal space and proliferation with angiogenesis. These steps are not mutually exclusive, and combinations of different molecular mechanisms can occur in each process of peritoneal dissemination. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular events involved in peritoneal dissemination is important and should be systematically pursued. It is crucial to identify novel strategies for the prevention of this condition and for identification of markers of prognosis and the development of molecular-targeted therapies. In this review, we provide an overview of recently published articles addressing the molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination of GC to provide an update on what is currently known in this field and to propose novel promising candidates for use in diagnosis and as therapeutic targets. PMID:27570420

  3. Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Judge, Meagan J; Clarke, Blaise A; Davidson, Ben; Gilks, C Blake; Hollema, Harry; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Mikami, Yoshiki; Stewart, Colin J R; Vang, Russell; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive pathological report is essential for optimal patient management, cancer staging and prognostication. In many countries, proforma reports are used but these vary in their content. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is an alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the European Society of Pathology, with the aim of developing an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. This will reduce the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish and maintain standardised cancer reporting data sets. The resultant standardisation of cancer reporting will benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. We describe the development of a cancer data set by the ICCR expert panel for the reporting of primary ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma and present the 'required' and 'recommended' elements to be included in the report with an explanatory commentary. This data set encompasses the recent International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists staging system for these neoplasms and the updated World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. The data set also addresses issues about site assignment of the primary tumour in high-grade serous carcinomas and proposes a scoring system for the assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The widespread implementation of this data set will facilitate consistent and accurate data collection, comparison of epidemiological and pathological parameters between different populations, facilitate research and hopefully will result in improved patient management. PMID:26089092

  4. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  5. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Treatment of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    März, Loreen; Piso, Pompiliu

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal seedings of a colorectal tumor represent the second most frequent site of metastasis (after the liver). In the era of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-only chemotherapy, the prognosis was poor for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases. Within the last few years, new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents have improved the prognosis; however, the response to these treatments seems to be lower than that for liver metastases. The combination of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have further improved both disease-free survival and overall survival. Keeping this in mind, every patient presenting with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer should be evaluated and receive adequate treatment, if possible in the above-mentioned combination. This paper reviews recent advancements in the therapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:26424828

  7. Primary peritoneal angiosarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Litvan, Juan; Aghazarian, Marta; Wiley, Elizabeth; Guleria, Sonia; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2014-09-01

    Peritoneal angiosarcoma is an extremely rare sarcoma (0.01287% incidence per 100,000) with an aggressive clinical course and a poor prognosis. We herein report a case of a young man with diagnosis of angiosarcoma whose tumor adhering to the inferior wall of his bladder and omentum was initially thought to be rhabdomyosarcoma. His disease state progressively worsened, despite initiation of different types of chemotherapies. Blood was tested for cytokine and soluble receptor levels. Unexpectedly and never previously reported, very high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), osteopontin, and prolactin were found. Surprisingly, angiogenic cytokines levels were low. The patient died 5 months after initial presentation. In the present report, we discuss the difficulties in diagnosing this rare sarcoma and possible therapeutic targets, including the IL-6 pathway that may provide more effective ways in controlling this cancer in its metastatic stage. PMID:25202083

  8. Olaparib or Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib Compared With Standard Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Francisella tularensis Peritonitis in Stomach Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Linus X.; Safdar, Amar

    2004-01-01

    Tularemia with peritonitis developed in a 50-year-old man soon after diagnosis of stomach cancer with metastasis. The ascites grew Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, which was identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The infection resolved with antimicrobial treatment. Antibodies detected 4 weeks after onset disappeared after chemotherapy-associated lymphopenia. PMID:15663872

  11. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of matched primary and peritoneal metastatic gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Huang, J Y; Chen, Y N; Yuan, F; Zhang, H; Yan, F H; Wang, M J; Wang, G; Su, M; Lu, G; Huang, Y; Dai, H; Ji, J; Zhang, J; Zhang, J N; Jiang, Y N; Chen, S J; Zhu, Z G; Yu, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 40% of global gastric cancer cases occur in China, with peritoneal metastasis being the prevalent form of recurrence and metastasis in advanced disease. Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for predicting and treatment of peritoneal metastasis, resulting in a 6-month average survival time. By comprehensive genome analysis will uncover the pathogenesis of peritoneal metastasis. Here we describe a comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis of one advanced gastric cancer case, including non-cancerous mucosa, primary cancer and matched peritoneal metastatic cancer. The peripheral blood is used as normal control. We identified 27 mutated genes, of which 19 genes are reported in COSMIC database (ZNF208, CRNN, ATXN3, DCTN1, RP1L1, PRB4, PRB1, MUC4, HS6ST3, MUC17, JAM2, ITGAD, IREB2, IQUB, CORO1B, CCDC121, AKAP2, ACAN and ACADL), and eight genes have not previously been described in gastric cancer (CCDC178, ARMC4, TUBB6, PLIN4, PKLR, PDZD2, DMBT1and DAB1).Additionally,GPX4 and MPND in 19q13.3-13.4 region, is characterized as a novel fusion-gene. This study disclosed novel biological markers and tumorigenic pathways that would predict gastric cancer occurring peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26330360

  12. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of matched primary and peritoneal metastatic gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Huang, J. Y.; Chen, Y. N.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, H.; Yan, F. H.; Wang, M. J.; Wang, G.; Su, M.; Lu, G; Huang, Y.; Dai, H.; Ji, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. N.; Jiang, Y. N.; Chen, S. J.; Zhu, Z. G.; Yu, Y. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 40% of global gastric cancer cases occur in China, with peritoneal metastasis being the prevalent form of recurrence and metastasis in advanced disease. Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for predicting and treatment of peritoneal metastasis, resulting in a 6-month average survival time. By comprehensive genome analysis will uncover the pathogenesis of peritoneal metastasis. Here we describe a comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis of one advanced gastric cancer case, including non-cancerous mucosa, primary cancer and matched peritoneal metastatic cancer. The peripheral blood is used as normal control. We identified 27 mutated genes, of which 19 genes are reported in COSMIC database (ZNF208, CRNN, ATXN3, DCTN1, RP1L1, PRB4, PRB1, MUC4, HS6ST3, MUC17, JAM2, ITGAD, IREB2, IQUB, CORO1B, CCDC121, AKAP2, ACAN and ACADL), and eight genes have not previously been described in gastric cancer (CCDC178, ARMC4, TUBB6, PLIN4, PKLR, PDZD2, DMBT1and DAB1).Additionally,GPX4 and MPND in 19q13.3-13.4 region, is characterized as a novel fusion-gene. This study disclosed novel biological markers and tumorigenic pathways that would predict gastric cancer occurring peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26330360

  13. Quantitation of Intra-peritoneal Ovarian Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, Kyle A; Metzinger, Matthew N; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Mortality is due to diagnosis of 75% of women with late stage disease, when metastasis is already present. EOC is characterized by diffuse and widely disseminated intra-peritoneal metastasis. Cells shed from the primary tumor anchor in the mesothelium that lines the peritoneal cavity as well as in the omentum, resulting in multi-focal metastasis, often in the presence of peritoneal ascites. Efforts in our laboratory are directed at a more detailed understanding of factors that regulate EOC metastatic success. However, quantifying metastatic tumor burden represents a significant technical challenge due to the large number, small size and broad distribution of lesions throughout the peritoneum. Herein we describe a method for analysis of EOC metastasis using cells labeled with red fluorescent protein (RFP) coupled with in vivo multispectral imaging. Following intra-peritoneal injection of RFP-labelled tumor cells, mice are imaged weekly until time of sacrifice. At this time, the peritoneal cavity is surgically exposed and organs are imaged in situ. Dissected organs are then placed on a labeled transparent template and imaged ex vivo. Removal of tissue auto-fluorescence during image processing using multispectral unmixing enables accurate quantitation of relative tumor burden. This method has utility in a variety of applications including therapeutic studies to evaluate compounds that may inhibit metastasis and thereby improve overall survival. PMID:27500635

  14. A phase Ib trial of docetaxel, carboplatin and erlotinib in ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Vasey, P A; Gore, M; Wilson, R; Rustin, G; Gabra, H; Guastalla, J-P; Lauraine, E P; Paul, J; Carty, K; Kaye, S

    2008-01-01

    The safety and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib with docetaxel/carboplatin were assessed in patients with ovarian cancer. Chemonaive patients received intravenous docetaxel (75 mg m−2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5) on day 1 of a 3-week cycle, and oral erlotinib at 50 (cohort 1), 100 (cohort 2a) or 75 mg day−1 (cohort 2b) for up to six cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities were determined in cycle 1. Forty-five patients (median age 59 years) received treatment. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 1/5/5 patients (cohorts 1/2a/2b). The MTD of erlotinib in this regimen was determined to be 75 mg day−1 (cohort 2b; the erlotinib dose was escalated to 100 mg day−1 in 11 out of 19 patients from cycle 2 onwards). Neutropaenia was the predominant grade 3/4 haematological toxicity (85/100/95% respectively). Common non-haematological toxicities were diarrhoea, fatigue, nausea and rash. There were five complete and seven partial responses in 23 evaluable patients (52% response rate). Docetaxel/carboplatin had no measurable effect on erlotinib pharmacokinetics. In subsequent single-agent maintenance, erlotinib was given at 100–150 mg day−1, with manageable toxicity, until tumour progression. Further investigation of erlotinib in epithelial ovarian carcinoma may be warranted, particularly as maintenance therapy. PMID:18506181

  15. A phase Ib trial of docetaxel, carboplatin and erlotinib in ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Vasey, P A; Gore, M; Wilson, R; Rustin, G; Gabra, H; Guastalla, J-P; Lauraine, E P; Paul, J; Carty, K; Kaye, S

    2008-06-01

    The safety and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib with docetaxel/carboplatin were assessed in patients with ovarian cancer. Chemonaive patients received intravenous docetaxel (75 mg m(-2)) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5) on day 1 of a 3-week cycle, and oral erlotinib at 50 (cohort 1), 100 (cohort 2a) or 75 mg day(-1) (cohort 2b) for up to six cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities were determined in cycle 1. Forty-five patients (median age 59 years) received treatment. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 1/5/5 patients (cohorts 1/2a/2b). The MTD of erlotinib in this regimen was determined to be 75 mg day(-1) (cohort 2b; the erlotinib dose was escalated to 100 mg day(-1) in 11 out of 19 patients from cycle 2 onwards). Neutropaenia was the predominant grade 3/4 haematological toxicity (85/100/95% respectively). Common non-haematological toxicities were diarrhoea, fatigue, nausea and rash. There were five complete and seven partial responses in 23 evaluable patients (52% response rate). Docetaxel/carboplatin had no measurable effect on erlotinib pharmacokinetics. In subsequent single-agent maintenance, erlotinib was given at 100-150 mg day(-1), with manageable toxicity, until tumour progression. Further investigation of erlotinib in epithelial ovarian carcinoma may be warranted, particularly as maintenance therapy. PMID:18506181

  16. Treatment strategies for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Imano, Motohiro; Okuno, Kiyotaka

    2014-03-01

    Although the treatment of gastric cancer improves the clinical outcomes, the survival of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis is still very poor. Effective drugs against peritoneal metastasis, coupled with new therapeutic modalities, are needed to improve the prognoses of these patients. Paclitaxel and TS-1 are candidate drugs for peritoneal metastasis, and intraperitoneal chemotherapy and targeted therapy are potential new therapeutic modalities. Two phase II studies using TS-1 and intraperitoneal and systemic paclitaxel for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis showed respectable survival results. In addition, peritoneal metastatic lesions showed high levels of epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (ECAM) and very low levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), thus indicating that an anti-ECAM monoclonal antibody, catumaxomab, would be effective against gastric cancer-derived peritoneal metastasis. Although catumaxomab and intraperitoneally administered paclitaxel are not generally used in Japan at present, these treatment strategies might therefore be effectively used in Japan in the near future. PMID:23677598

  17. Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Tuberculosis: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Amer Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a 39-year-old female patient presenting with gastric cancer and tuberculous peritonitis. The differential diagnosis between advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis and early gastric cancer with peritoneal tuberculosis (TB), and the treatment of these two diseases, were challenging in this case. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for peritoneal TB if the patient has a history of this disease, especially in areas with a high incidence of TB, such as South Korea. An early diagnosis is critical for patient management and prognosis. A surgical approach including tissue biopsy or laparoscopic exploration is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27433397

  18. Palonosetron Hydrochloride in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Primary Abdominal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-11

    Anal Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Liver Cancer; Nausea and Vomiting; Pancreatic Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  19. A phase II study of GM-CSF and rIFN-γ1b plus carboplatin for the treatment of recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Apte, Sachin M.; Cohen, Lorenzo; Bassett, Roland L.; Iyer, Revathy B.; Wolf, Judith K.; Levenback, Charles L.; Gershenson, David M.; Freedman, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of carboplatin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and recombinant interferon gamma 1b (rIFN-γ1b) in women with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer. Methods In this phase II study, patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer were treated with subcutaneous GM-CSF and rIFN-γ1b before and after intravenous carboplatin until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. All patients had measurable disease and a chemotherapy-free interval ≥6 months. Response was determined using RECIST criteria and CA 125 levels. Results Between 2003 and 2007, 59 patients received a median of 6 cycles of therapy (range, 1 to 13 cycles). Median age at enrollment was 61 years (range, 35 to 79 years). Median time to progression prior to enrollment was 11 months (range, 6 to 58 months). Of 54 patients evaluable for response, 9 (17%) had a complete response, 21 (39%) had a partial response, and 24 (44%) had progressive disease. The overall response rate was 56% (95% CI: 41% to 69%). With a median follow-up of 6.4 months, median time to progression was 6 months. Myeloid derived cells and platelets increased on day 9 of each chemotherapy cycle. The most common adverse effects were bone marrow suppression, carboplatin hypersensitivity, and fatigue. Responders reported improved quality of life. Conclusion This pre and post-carboplatin cytokine regimen resulted in a reasonable response and a hematologic profile that could invite further evaluation of its components in the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:19264351

  20. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Ifosfamide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Persistent or Recurrent Uterine, Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  1. Cytoreductive Surgery plus HIPEC for Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Goéré, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Occurring either synchronously or metachronously to the primary tumor, peritoneal metastases (PM) are diagnosed in 8 to 20 % of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Prognosis of these patients appears to be worse than those with other sites of metastases. While systemic therapy has shown significant prolongation of survival in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, the outcomes in the subset of patients with PM has been much inferior. Over the last 2 decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been effective in substantially prolonging survival in patients with colorectal PM and have the potential to cure certain patients as well. This article reviews the current evidence for CRS and HIPEC to treat colorectal PM as well as future research going on in this form of locoregional treatment. PMID:27065708

  2. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the management of gastrointestinal cancers with peritoneal metastases: Progress toward a new standard of care.

    PubMed

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2016-07-01

    Peritoneal metastases from gastrointestinal cancer was, in the past, accepted as an inevitable component of the natural history of these diseases. It is a major cause of intestinal obstruction, fistula formation, and bowel perforation as the recurrent malignancy progresses to a terminal condition. Peritoneal metastases may be caused by full thickness penetration of the bowel wall by the primary cancer or by spilled cancer cells released into the peritoneal space by surgical trauma. Two new surgical technologies that have evolved to manage peritoneal metastases are cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). This combined treatment strategy uses peritonectomy procedures and visceral resections to reduce the disease in the abdomen and pelvis to a macroscopic volume. Then, HIPEC is used to preserve the complete cytoreduction by controlling the minimal residual disease. Since the extent of peritoneal metastases, as measured by the peritoneal cancer index (PCI), is crucial to a favorable outcome, prognostic indicators are used to select patients for treatment. The combined treatment may be used to prevent peritoneal metastases in gastrointestinal cancer patients having a resection of the primary malignancy. This is especially important in gastric cancer patients with serosal invasion. The combined treatment may be used synchronously with the primary cancer resection if peritoneal metastases are already apparent. The treatment is most frequently used with metachronous peritoneal metastases diagnosed in follow-up. Cure of peritoneal metastases is an option in selected patients and its knowledgeable use is progressing towards a new standard of care. PMID:27347669

  3. Effect of urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    DING, YOUCHENG; ZHANG, HUI; LU, AIGUO; ZHOU, ZHUQING; ZHONG, MINGAN; SHEN, DONGWEI; WANG, XUJING; ZHU, ZHENGGANG

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a primary cause of mortality in patients with gastric cancer. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been demonstrated to be associated with tumor cell metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the uPA system in gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis. Expression of uPA, uPA receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in four gastric cell lines (AGS, SGC7901, MKN45 and MKN28) was measured by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. uPA activity was detected using a uPA activity kit. Peritoneal implantation models of rats were established by injecting four gastric cancer cell lines for the selection of the cancer cells with a high planting potential. Biological behaviors, including adhesion, migration and invasion, were determined using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Expression of the uPA system was observed to be highest in the SGC7901 cells among the four gastric cell lines. uPA activity was observed to be highest in the MKN45 cells and lowest in the AGS cells. Furthermore, peritoneal implantation analysis demonstrated that no peritoneal tumors were identified in the AGS cells, whilst the tumor masses observed in the SGC7901 and MKN45 cells were of different sizes. The survival times of the rats injected with the MKN28 and SGC7901 cells were longer than those of the rats injected with the MKN45 cells. Antibodies for uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 in the uPA system had the ability to inhibit the adhesion, migration and invasion of peritoneal metastasis in the gastric cancer cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the uPA system was positively associated with peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer. PMID:27313768

  4. FDG PET/CT in Peritoneal Metastasis From Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Serkan; Asa, Sertac; Kupik, Osman

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men. The prognosis in prostate cancer is greatly worsened by the presence of metastases, which are most commonly found in bone, lung, liver, and brain. The peritoneum is an extremely uncommon metastatic site for prostate cancer, even in autopsy series. We present a case of FDG PET/CT demonstration of peritoneal metastasis from prostate cancer. PMID:27187732

  5. Primary Gastro Intestinal Lymphoma Presenting as Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Chandrashekar Shastry; Jackaya, Reuben Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is very rare compared to gastrointestinal tract lymphoma arising Secondary to Primary nodal disease. Extra nodal lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly being the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. They are indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions and clinically non-specific. Here, we have an interesting case where a patient presented with peritonitis and was found to have a perforated swelling in jejunum. Subsequently resection and anastomosis was done. Biopsy showed lymphoma. Patient was evaluated further by doing CECT of abdomen and thorax, which didn’t show any other site of lymphadenopathy. Patient improved with chemotherapy and is on regular follow up. Perforation in patient undergoing treatment for lymphoma are common but presentation of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma as perforation is rare and needs proper evaluation and management. PMID:27134938

  6. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  7. Diagnosis and management of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Halkia, Evgenia; Spiliotis, John; Sugarbaker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The management and the outcome of peritoneal metastases or recurrence from epithelial ovarian cancer are presented. The biology and the diagnostic tools of EOC peritoneal metastasis with a comprehensive approach and the most recent literatures data are discussed. The definition and the role of surgery and chemotherapy are presented in order to focuse on the controversial points. Finally, the paper discusses the new data about the introduction of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:22888339

  8. Peritonitis

    MedlinePlus

    Acute abdomen ... of blood, body fluids, or pus in the abdomen ( intra-abdominal abscess ). Types of peritonitis are: Spontaneous ... The belly (abdomen) is very painful or tender. The pain may become worse when the belly is touched or when you ...

  9. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about ovarian cancer? What is ovarian cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... section . Other cancers that are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer Primary peritoneal carcinoma Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is ...

  10. Modeling the Early Steps of Ovarian Cancer Dissemination in an Organotypic Culture of the Human Peritoneal Cavity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Pamela N; Schryver, Elizabeth M; Lengyel, Ernst; Kenny, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of ovarian cancer metastasis is markedly different from that of most other epithelial tumors, because it rarely spreads hematogenously. Instead, ovarian cancer cells exfoliated from the primary tumor are carried by peritoneal fluid to metastatic sites within the peritoneal cavity. These sites, most notably the abdominal peritoneum and omentum, are organs covered by a mesothelium-lined surface. To investigate the processes of ovarian cancer dissemination, we assembled a complex three-dimensional culture system that reconstructs the lining of the peritoneal cavity in vitro. Primary human fibroblasts and mesothelial cells were isolated from human omentum. The fibroblasts were then mixed with extracellular matrix and covered with a layer of the primary human mesothelial cells to mimic the peritoneal and omental surfaces encountered by metastasizing ovarian cancer cells. The resulting organotypic model is, as shown, used to examine the early steps of ovarian cancer dissemination, including cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and proliferation. This model has been used in a number of studies to investigate the role of the microenvironment (cellular and acellular) in early ovarian cancer dissemination. It has also been successfully adapted to high throughput screening and used to identify and test inhibitors of ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:26780294

  11. Ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer staging: Rationale and explanation of new FIGO staging 2013.

    PubMed

    Prat, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers have a similar clinical presentation and are treated similarly, and current evidence supports staging all three cancers in a single system. The primary site (i.e., ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum) should be designated where possible. The histologic type should be recorded. Intraoperative rupture ("surgical spill") is IC1; capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface is IC2; and positive peritoneal cytology with or without rupture is IC3. The new staging includes a revision of stage III patients; assignment to stage IIIA1 is based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes without intraperitoneal dissemination. Extension of the tumor from the omentum to the spleen or liver (stage IIIC) should be differentiated from isolated parenchymal metastases (stage IVB). PMID:25890882

  12. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, an extremely rare malignancy: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    YUN, WOO-SUNG; BAE, JUNG-MIN

    2016-01-01

    Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC) is an extremely rare malignancy that was first described in 1959. This type of cancer arises from the peritoneal epithelium and is similar to serous ovarian carcinoma. A diagnosis of PPSC is typically made based on the Gynecology Oncology Group criteria; however, a correct differential diagnosis of PPSC is difficult preoperatively. The current study describes the case of a 66 year-old female patient presenting with abdomen distension. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed abundant ascites in the abdominal cavity and omental infiltration. The results of positron emission tomography/CT showed hot uptake in the greater omentum. Furthermore, preoperative serum cancer antigen-125 levels were 1,032 U/ml. Upon surgical exploration, a whitish mass and nodule were found in the greater omentum. Therefore, omentectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a diagnosis of PPSC. PPSC is extremely rare with few cases cited in the current literature. The present study describes a rare case of PPSC with a review of the literature. PMID:27313741

  13. Differences in occupational mortality from pleural cancer, peritoneal cancer, and asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Inskip, H; Winter, P; Pannett, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether the increased risk of disease related to asbestos in occupations from the construction and engineering industries applies equally to pleural cancer, peritoneal cancer, and asbestosis. METHODS--Analysis was based on deaths among men aged 20-74 in England and Wales during 1979-80 and 1982-90. (n = 1,656,096). Information about cause of death and the last full time occupation of decedents was derived from death certificates. Proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation were calculated for each of pleural cancer, peritoneal cancer, and asbestosis. RESULTS--Altogether, 2848 deaths were attributed to cancer of the pleura, 362 to cancer of the peritoneum, and 281 to asbestosis. When occupations were ranked according to PMRs from these diseases, striking differences were found. The category of construction workers which included laggers had the highest mortality from peritoneal cancer (PMR 990, 64 deaths), but a PMR of only 160 (77 deaths) for pleural cancer. In contrast, several occupations with much higher mortality from pleural tumours had no excess of peritoneal cancer. PMRs for asbestosis related more closely to those for peritoneal than pleural cancer. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that the exposure-response relations for diseases related to asbestos are not all linear, and that risks of pleural mesothelioma may be underestimated by simple extrapolation from observations in cohorts with heavy exposure. PMID:8535500

  14. Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma as content of an incarcerated umbilical hernia: A case-report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Varga-Szabó, D.; Papadakis, M.; Pröpper, S.; Zirngibl, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Umbilical hernia is a common finding in many cases, posing potentially life-threatening complications, such as incarceration or strangulation. The presence of malignancy in hernia sacs is, however, rather rare. Presentation of case Here we report on a case of primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma found through histological examination of omental tissue, resected due to an incarcerated umbilical hernia of an 84-years-old woman. There was no macroscopic sign of malignancy during operation; only after routine examination of histological sections the diagnosis was found. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first report of primary peritoneal cancer as content of an umbilical hernia. This is a rare neoplasm and histologically identical to epithelial ovarian carcinoma. For this reason, the diagnosis is usually based on the histological finding and exclusion of a primary ovarian tumor. Primary peritoneal cancer has a poor outcome in general. Early diagnosis is, therefore, essential for effective treatment. Conclusion Histological analysis of resected hernia sac or content should be performed routinely to discover malignant diseases in the background of a hernia. PMID:26748210

  15. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  16. Primary ventriculo-peritoneal shunts in treatment of hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Stark, G. D.; Drummond, M. B.; Poneprasert, S.; Robarts, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    In 50 children suffering from open myelomeningocele, a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was employed as the primary procedure for control of hydrocephalus. In 11 cases the system was ultimately replaced by a ventriculo-atrial shunt, though this may not always have been necessary. In the remaining 39 patients satisfactory control of hydrocephalus was achieved. Obstruction, particularly of the peritoneal catheter, occurred frequently in the first 6 months but no revisions were required after 2 years. It is concluded that while ventriculo-peritoneal and ventriculo-atrial shunts achieve comparable success in controlling hydrocephalus, the former, due to the relatively innocuous complications, offers significant long-term advantages. PMID:4593818

  17. [Patient receiving peritoneal dialysis after treatment of ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Krzanowska, Katarzyna; Miarka, Przemysław; Krzanowski, Marcin; Sułowicz, Wiadysław

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is one of the three available options for renal replacement therapy. This method of treatment of end-stage renal disease gives patients relatively high sense of independence and control over their disease, especially in comparison with hemodialysis, and therefore is often preferable method for young individuals wishing to lead an active lifestyle. We present a case of 22 year old female patient with stage 5 of chronic kidney disease, which is a consequence of multi-agent chemotherapy for endo-dermal sinus tumor of the right ovary (diagnosed at the age of 13). Particularly important in the context of treating our patient with peritoneal dialysis is the fact of confirmed metastases into the peritoneum, which was the reason for the use of chemotherapy reserved for high-risk patients (ifosfamide + etoposide + cisplatin). The selected program of chemotherapy provided effective eradication of cancer, but a side effect of treatment was renal tubular damage. In the period from 03.2006 to 05.2007 our patient required hemodialysis (with gradually reduce dose of dialysis), at a later time to 12.2011 patient did not require renal replacement therapy (stable renal function were observed at the stage 4 of chronic kidney disease), but in 12.2011 resumption of dialysis was necessary and the patient, in accordance with her selection, is receiving peritoneal dialysis. Qualification of our patient for treatment with peritoneal dialysis was associated with reasonable concern about the ability to provide acceptable adequacy of dialysis. Apprehensions proved to be unfounded, the clinical observation of the patient presents proper ratios of dialysis adequacy. Our patient was also qualified for renal transplantation. PMID:25546920

  18. Colorectal cancer-promoting activity of the senescent peritoneal mesothelium

    PubMed Central

    Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Maksin, Konstantin; Kucińska, Małgorzata; Piotrowska, Hanna; Murias, Marek; Woźniak, Aldona; Szpurek, Dariusz; Książek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers metastasize into the peritoneal cavity in a process controlled by peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). In this paper we examined if senescent HPMCs can intensify the progression of colorectal (SW480) and pancreatic (PSN-1) cancers in vitro and in vivo. Experiments showed that senescent HPMCs stimulate proliferation, migration and invasion of SW480 cells, and migration of PSN-1 cells. When SW480 cells were injected i.p. with senescent HPMCs, the dynamics of tumor formation and vascularization were increased. When xenografts were generated using PSN-1 cells, senescent HPMCs failed to favor their growth. SW480 cells subjected to senescent HPMCs displayed up-regulated expression of transcripts for various pro-cancerogenic agents as well as increased secretion of their products. Moreover, they underwent an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the Smad 2/3-Snail1-related pathway. The search for mediators of senescent HPMC activity showed that increased SW480 cell proliferation was stimulated by IL-6, migration by CXCL8 and CCL2, invasion by IL-6, MMP-3 and uPA, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by TGF-β1. Secretion of these agents by senescent HPMCs was increased in an NF-κB- and p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. Collectively, our findings indicate that in the peritoneum senescent HPMCs may create a metastatic niche in which critical aspects of cancer progression become intensified. PMID:26284488

  19. Imaging of peritoneal deposits in ovarian cancer: A pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhara, Sheragaru Hanumanthappa; Triveni, Gowramma Sannanaik; Kumar, Rahul

    2016-05-28

    As per incidence, ovarian carcinoma is the second most common gynaecological malignancy in women. In spite of advanced technology, patient awareness and effective screening methods, epithelial ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage (stage III). Surgical debulking of disease is mainstay of improving the patient survival even in advanced stages. Thus exact delineation of cancer spread in the abdominal cavity guides the surgeon prior to the surgery, help them to decide resectability of lesion and plan for further need of other surgical speciality or need of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Imaging particularly well-planned contrast-enhanced computed tomography answers most of the queries raised by the treating surgeon. The aim of this article is to review the way ovarian carcinoma spread in the peritoneal cavity and to stress the accurate interpretation of cancer deposits on imaging which can help the treating team to reach optimal management of patients. PMID:27247717

  20. Imaging of peritoneal deposits in ovarian cancer: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhara, Sheragaru Hanumanthappa; Triveni, Gowramma Sannanaik; Kumar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    As per incidence, ovarian carcinoma is the second most common gynaecological malignancy in women. In spite of advanced technology, patient awareness and effective screening methods, epithelial ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage (stage III). Surgical debulking of disease is mainstay of improving the patient survival even in advanced stages. Thus exact delineation of cancer spread in the abdominal cavity guides the surgeon prior to the surgery, help them to decide resectability of lesion and plan for further need of other surgical speciality or need of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Imaging particularly well-planned contrast-enhanced computed tomography answers most of the queries raised by the treating surgeon. The aim of this article is to review the way ovarian carcinoma spread in the peritoneal cavity and to stress the accurate interpretation of cancer deposits on imaging which can help the treating team to reach optimal management of patients. PMID:27247717

  1. Primary cystic peritoneal masses and mimickers: spectrum of diseases with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Arraiza, María; Metser, Ur; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Khalili, Korosh; Hanbidge, Anthony; Kennedy, Erin; Ghai, Sangeet

    2015-04-01

    Cystic lesions within the peritoneum have been classified classically according to their lining on histology into four categories-endothelial, epithelial, mesothelial, and others (germ cell tumors, sex cord gonadal stromal tumors, cystic mesenchymal tumors, fibrous wall tumors, and infectious cystic peritoneal lesions). In this article, we will proceed to classify cystic peritoneal lesions focusing on the degree of radiological complexity into three categories-simple cystic, mildly complex, and cystic with solid component lesions. Many intra-abdominal collections within the peritoneal cavity such as abscess, seroma, biloma, urinoma, or lymphocele may mimic primary peritoneal cystic masses and need to be differentiated. Clinical history and imaging features may help differentiate intra-abdominal collections from primary peritoneal masses. Lymphangiomas are benign multilocular cystic masses that can virtually occur in any location within the abdomen and insinuate between structures. Ultrasound may help differentiate enteric duplication cysts from other mesenteric and omental cysts in the abdomen. Double-layered wall along the mesenteric side of bowel may suggest its diagnosis in the proper clinical setting. Characteristic imaging features of hydatid cysts are internal daughter cysts, floating membranes and matrix, peripheral calcifications, and collagenous pericyst. Non-pancreatic psuedocysts usually have a fibrotic thick wall and chylous content may lead to a fat-fluid level. Pseudomyxoma peritonei appears as loculated fluid collections in the peritoneal cavity, omentum, and mesentery and may scallop visceral surfaces. Many of the primary cystic peritoneal masses have specific imaging features which can help in accurate diagnosis and management of these entities. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum of cystic peritoneal masses is necessary to distinguish from other potential cystic abdominal mimicker masses. PMID:25269999

  2. Treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer by maximal cytoreduction and HIPEC: a preliminary report on 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Maurizio; Sammartino, Paolo; Framarino, Maria Luisa; Biacchi, Daniele; Cortesi, Enrico; Sibio, Simone; Accarpio, Fabio; Luciani, Claudio; Palazzo, Antonella; di Giorgio, Angelo

    2013-10-01

    Although peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer is a rare event it frequently causes morbidity and mortality. Current literature provides scarce information on its management. We report outcomes in 5 patients (mean age 59.4 years) with peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer treated with maximal cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) by the closed technique, at 40 °C for 1 h with cisplatin 75 mg/m(2). The primary breast cancer was a ductal carcinoma in 3 patients and a lobular carcinoma in 2. Mean peritoneal cancer index was 20.2. In 4 of the 5 patients surgery achieved macroscopic complete cytoreduction. One patient died of disease at 56 months, 4 are alive and disease-free at 13, 45, 74 and 128 months. These encouraging outcomes suggest that cytoreduction and HIPEC is a promising approach to offer to highly selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer and that this approach merit investigation in a larger series. PMID:23523180

  3. Efficacy and safety of selenium nanoparticles administered intraperitoneally for the prevention of growth of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Kang; Tan, Yanping; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jinsong

    2014-07-01

    Peritoneal implantation of cancer cells, particularly postoperative seeding metastasis, frequently occurs in patients with primary tumors in the stomach, colon, liver, and ovary. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is associated with poor prognosis. In this work, we evaluated the prophylactic effect of intraperitoneal administration of selenium (Se), an essential trace element and a putative chemopreventive agent, on peritoneal implantation of cancer cells. Elemental Se nanoparticles were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, into which highly malignant H22 hepatocarcinoma cells had previously been inoculated. Se concentrations in the cancer cells and tissues, as well as the efficacy of proliferation inhibition and safety, were evaluated. Se was mainly concentrated in cancer cells compared to Se retention in normal tissues, showing at least an order of magnitude difference between the drug target cells (the H22 cells) and the well-recognized toxicity target of Se (the liver). Such a favorable selective distribution resulted in strong proliferation suppression without perceived host toxicity. The mechanism of action of the Se nanoparticle-triggered cytotoxicity was associated with Se-mediated production of reactive oxygen species, which impaired the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Our results suggest that intraperitoneal administration of Se is a safe and effective means of preventing growth of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity for the above-mentioned high-risk populations. PMID:24727439

  4. Continuous Hyperthermic Peritoneal Perfusion (CHPP) With Cisplatin for Children With Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-29

    Peritoneal Neoplasms; Retroperitoneal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Neoplasms; Sarcoma; Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

  5. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  6. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  7. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  9. Primary Peritoneal Mesothelioma Resulting in Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Frontario, S. Christopher N.; Loveitt, Andrew; Goldenberg-Sandau, Anna; Liu, Jun; Roy, Darshan; Cohen, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 76 Final Diagnosis: Peritoneal mesothelioma epithelioid type Symptoms: Alternating bowel habits • ascites • small bowel obstruction • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Exploratory laparotomy • excisional biopsy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare malignancy that affects the serosal surfaces of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is the second most common site of mesothelium affected following the pleura. The aggressive nature and vague presentation pose many obstacles in not only diagnosis but also the treatment of patients with this disease. Case Report: We present a case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction secondary to carcinomatosis secondary to primary peritoneal mesothelioma. The patient had multiple risk factors with asbestos exposure and prior therapeutic radiation. Conclusions: We discuss the highly varied and elusive presentation of peritoneal mesothelioma. Cumulative asbestos exposure, either directly or indirectly, remains the leading cause of mesothelioma. However, there are other non-asbestos etiologies. Small bowel obstruction often is a late-presenting symptom of widespread tumor burden. A concise review of the current diagnostic and surgical treatment of primary peritoneal mesothelioma demonstrates that early diagnosis and implementation remains vital. PMID:26222965

  10. Appendicitis complicated by appendiceal metastasis via peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Naoki; Furonaka, Makoto; Kikutani, Kazuya; Haji, Keiko; Fujisaki, Seiji; Nishida, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Peritoneal disseminations from lung cancer are difficult to detect during the patient's clinical course. Therefore, complications of this condition are unclear. We report a case in which peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer complicated appendicitis. A 74-year-old man with lung cancer who was receiving maintenance therapy presented at our hospital because of abdominal pain. It was the seventh day after the 14th cycle of maintenance therapy with bevacizumab. He was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The resected appendix showed acute appendicitis complicated by appendiceal metastasis from lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma was observed predominantly in the serous membrane from the neck to the tail of the appendix. The distribution of the adenocarcinoma was diffuse. Peritoneal dissemination was considered the route of metastasis. He was admitted to the palliative care unit 10 months after appendectomy. Appendiceal metastasis via peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer complicated appendicitis in our patient who had been receiving bevacizumab. PMID:27512565

  11. Appendicitis complicated by appendiceal metastasis via peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furonaka, Makoto; Kikutani, Kazuya; Haji, Keiko; Fujisaki, Seiji; Nishida, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritoneal disseminations from lung cancer are difficult to detect during the patient's clinical course. Therefore, complications of this condition are unclear. We report a case in which peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer complicated appendicitis. A 74‐year‐old man with lung cancer who was receiving maintenance therapy presented at our hospital because of abdominal pain. It was the seventh day after the 14th cycle of maintenance therapy with bevacizumab. He was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The resected appendix showed acute appendicitis complicated by appendiceal metastasis from lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma was observed predominantly in the serous membrane from the neck to the tail of the appendix. The distribution of the adenocarcinoma was diffuse. Peritoneal dissemination was considered the route of metastasis. He was admitted to the palliative care unit 10 months after appendectomy. Appendiceal metastasis via peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer complicated appendicitis in our patient who had been receiving bevacizumab. PMID:27512565

  12. [A Case of Radical Resection for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer with Positive Peritoneal Cytology Treated with Chemoradiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Sato, Ryohei; Takizawa, Kazuyasu; Yuza, Kizuki; Soma, Daiki; Hirose, Yuki; Morimoto, Yuta; Miura, Kohei; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Takano, Kabuto; Sakata, Jun; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-11-01

    A 54-year-old female patient was admitted with obstructive jaundice. The patient was diagnosed with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer of the head with invasion to the super mesenteric artery and the third portion of the duodenum. A biliary- and gastric-enteric bypass surgery was performed, and peritoneal lavage cytology was positive during surgery. After 6 courses of gemcitabine and S-1 combination chemotherapy, the CA19-9 level was normalized and the primary tumor shrank to 79% of its original size. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed that distant metastasis was not detected and the peritoneal lavage cytology was negative. After additional chemoradiation therapy, a pancreaticoduodenectomy was perfomed. Microscopic investigation revealed that about 60% of the cancer tissue had been replaced by fibrosis and no cancer cells were found at the surgical margin. The patient was alive with no evidence of recurrence 17 months after radical surgery. PMID:26805372

  13. Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kwon, Woo Sun; Lee, Won Seok; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Hyo Song; Park, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Tae Soo; Park, Jong-Lyul; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Seon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics. PMID:26811494

  14. Prognostic Relevance of the Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score Compared to the Peritoneal Cancer Index for Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jia Lin; Ong, Whee Sze; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Tan, Grace Hwei Ching; Soo, Khee-Chee; Teo, Melissa Ching Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) is a widely established scoring system that describes disease burden in isolated colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CPC). Its significance may be diminished with complete cytoreduction. We explore the utility of the recently described Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score (PSDSS) and compare its prognostic value against PCI. Methods. The endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and survival less than 18 months (18 MS). Results. Fifty patients underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) for CPC from 2003 to 2014, with 98% achieving complete cytoreduction. Median OS was 28.8 months (95% CI, 18.0–39.1); median PFS was 9.4 months (95% CI, 7.7–13.9). Univariate analysis showed that higher PCI was significantly associated with poorer OS (HR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03–1.20) and PFS (HR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03–1.14). Conversely, PSDSS was not associated with either endpoint. Multivariate analysis showed that PCI, but not PSDSS, was predictive of OS and PFS. PCI was also able to discriminate survival outcomes better than PSDSS for both OS and PFS. There was no association between 18 MS and either score. Conclusion. PCI is superior to PSDSS in predicting OS and PFS and remains the prognostic score of choice in CPC patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC. PMID:27006828

  15. [The role of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of primary peritoneal mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Estrada Saiz, R V; Loscos Valerio, J M; García-Paredes, J; del Pozo Camarón, A; Estrada Pérez, V

    1995-05-01

    In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of laparoscopy on the diagnosis of some unusual causes of ascites, such as primary mesothelioma, usually overlooked by other diagnostic modalities, like ultrasound, computed tomography and cytology of the ascitic fluid. We describe three cases of primary peritoneal mesothelioma among 27 patients with exudative ascites submitted to laparoscopy at our institution during the past two years. The final diagnosis inaccessible to the conventional diagnostic modalities, was reached only by laparoscopy. PMID:7626302

  16. Molecular targeting therapy using bevacizumab for peritoneal metastasis from gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kouhuji, Kikuo; Miyagi, Motoshi; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peritoneal metastasis from gastric cancer, using the gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 compared with the high potential peritoneal dissemination gastric cancer cell line MKN-45P. METHODS: The supernatant of culture medium of MKN-45 cells or MKN-45P cells was collected and the concentrations were measured of various cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, growth factor and angiogenic factors, including VEGF. We performed an initial pilot study to explore whether bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF, had any suppressive effect on the peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer in an experimental nude mouse model of peritoneal metastasis. RESULTS: The concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein in the culture supernatant were each significantly higher than each of those for MKN-45. In the in vivo study, the volume of ascites and the mitotic index were significantly lower in the therapy group than in the non-therapy group. The survival curve of the therapy group was significantly higher than that of the non-therapy group. These results suggested that VEGF was correlated with peritoneal metastasis from gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Findings suggested that bevacizumab for inhibiting VEGF could suppress peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer. PMID:24701416

  17. CD44 variant 6 is correlated with peritoneal dissemination and poor prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tjhay, Francisca; Motohara, Takeshi; Tayama, Shingo; Narantuya, Dashdemberel; Fujimoto, Koichi; Guo, Jianying; Sakaguchi, Isao; Honda, Ritsuo; Tashiro, Hironori; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumor initiation and metastasis in several types of human cancer. However, the contribution of ovarian CSCs to peritoneal metastasis remains unresolved. The cell adhesion molecule CD44 has been identified as a major marker for CSCs in solid tumors, including epithelial ovarian cancer. CD44 exists as a standard form (CD44s) and also as numerous variant isoforms (CD44v) generated by alternative mRNA splicing. Here we show that disseminated ovarian tumors in the pelvic peritoneum contain highly enriched CD44v6-positive cancer cells, which drive tumor metastasis and are responsible for tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Clinically, an increased number of CD44v6-positive cancer cells in primary tumors was associated with a shortened overall survival in stage III–IV ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, a subpopulation of CD44v6-positive cancer cells manifested the ability to initiate tumor metastasis in the pelvic peritoneum in an in vivo mouse model, suggesting that CD44v6-positive cells show the potential to serve as metastasis-initiating cells. Thus, the peritoneal disseminated metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer is initiated by the CD44v6-positive subpopulation, and CD44v6 expression is a biomarker for the clinical outcome of advanced ovarian cancer patients. Given that a distinct subpopulation of CD44v6-positive cancer cells plays a critical role in peritoneal metastasis, definitive treatment should target this subpopulation of CD44v6-positive cells in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:26250934

  18. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With High Risk Primary or Recurrent Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-15

    Cervical Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Cancer; Vulvar Carcinoma; Peritoneal Neoplasms

  19. Molecular Mechanism Linking BRCA1 Dysfunction to High Grade Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancers with Peritoneal Permeability and Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Desai, A; Xu, J; Aysola, K; Akinbobuyi, O; White, M; Reddy, VE; Okoli, J; Clark, C; Partridge, EE; Childs, Ed; Beech, DJ; Rice, MV; Reddy, ESP; Rao, VN

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer constitutes the second most common gynecological cancer with a five-year survival rate of 40%. Among the various histotypes associated with hereditary ovarian cancer, high-grade serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSEOC) is the most predominant and women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 have a lifetime risk of 40–60%. HGSEOC is a challenge for clinical oncologists, due to late presentation of patient, diagnosis and high rate of relapse. Ovarian tumors have a wide range of clinical presentations including development of ascites as a result of deregulated endothelial function thereby causing increased vascular permeability of peritoneal vessels. The molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Studies have shown that fallopian tube cancers develop in women with BRCA1 gene mutations more often than previously suspected. Recent studies suggest that many primary peritoneal cancers and some high-grade serous epithelial ovarian carcinomas actually start in the fallopian tubes. In this article we have addressed the molecular pathway of a recently identified potential biomarker Ubc9 whose deregulated expression due to BRCA1 dysfunction can result in HGSEOC with peritoneal permeability and formation of ascites. We also discuss the role of downstream targets Caveolin-1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of ascites in ovarian carcinomas. Finally we hypothesize a signaling axis between Ubc9 over expression, loss of Caveolin-1 and induction of VEGF in BRCA1 mutant HGSEOC cells. We suggest that Ubc9-mediated stimulation of VEGF as a novel mechanism underlying ovarian cancer aggressiveness and ascites formation. Agents that target Ubc9 and VEGF signaling may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to impede peritoneal growth and spread of HGSEOC. PMID:26665166

  20. Effect of Tubal Sterilization Technique on Risk of Serous Ovarian and Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LESSARD-ANDERSON, Collette R.; HANDLOGTEN, Kathryn S.; MOLITOR, Rochelle J.; DOWDY, Sean C.; CLIBY, William A.; WEAVER, Amy L.; SAUVER, Jennifer ST.; BAKKUM-GAMEZ, Jamie N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of excisional tubal sterilization on subsequent development of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC). Methods We performed a population-based, nested case-control study using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. We identified all patients with a diagnosis of serous EOC or PPC from 1966 through 2009. Each case was age-matched to 2 controls without either diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated from conditional logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for prior hysterectomy, prior salpingo-oophorectomy, oral contraceptive use, endometriosis, infertility, gravidity, and parity. Results In total, we identified 194 cases of serous EOC and PPC during the study period and matched them with 388 controls (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [15.2] years). Fourteen cases (7.2%) and 46 controls (11.9%) had undergone tubal sterilization. Adjusted risk of serous EOC or PPC was slightly lower after any tubal sterilization (OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.29–1.17]; P=.13). The rate of excisional tubal sterilization was lower in cases than controls (2.6% vs 6.4%). Adjusted risk of serous EOC and PPC was decreased by 64% after excisional tubal sterilization (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.13–1.02]; P=.054) compared with those without sterilization or with nonexcisional tubal sterilization. Conclusions We present a population-based investigation of the effects of excisional tubal sterilization on the risk of serous EOC and PPC. Excisional methods may confer greater risk reduction than other sterilization methods. PMID:25316178

  1. A comprehensive treatment for peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer with curative intent.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Y; Canbay, E; Li, Y; Coccolini, F; Glehen, O; Sugarbaker, P H; Morris, D; Moran, B; Gonzaletz-Moreno, S; Deraco, M; Piso, P; Elias, D; Batlett, D; Ishibashi, H; Mizumoto, A; Verwaal, V; Mahtem, H

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) developed a novel comprehensive treatment consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and perioperative chemotherapy (POC) for the treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) from gastric cancer with curative intent. This article reviews the results of this treatment and verifies its indication. In this strategy, peritoneal cancer index (PCI) is determined by laparoscopy, and a peritoneal port is placed. Neoadjuvant bidirectional intraperitoneal/systemic chemotherapy (NIPS) is performed for 3 cycles, and then laparotomy is performed. Cytoreductive surgery with peritonectomy procedures and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) are performed. Multivariate analyses showed that completeness of cytoreduction, pathologic response to NIPS and PCI level and cytologic status after NIPS, as independent prognostic factors. PCI less than cut-off level after NIPS, negative cytology after NIPS, and positive response to NIPS were identified as the indications for comprehensive treatment. Patients who hold these criteria should be considered as the candidates for CRS and HIPEC. PMID:27160355

  2. Tumor-environment biomimetics delay peritoneal metastasis formation by deceiving and redirecting disseminated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; Mariën, Lore; Jones, Christopher J; De Craene, Bram; Berx, Geert; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Remon, Jean-Paul; Ceelen, Wim; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Geest, Bruno G; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is life threatening and is the result of an extensive communication between disseminated cancer cells, mesothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). CAFs secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins creating a receptive environment for peritoneal implantation. Considering cancer as an ecosystem may provide opportunities to exploit CAFs to create biomimetic traps to deceive and redirect cancer cells. We have designed microparticles (MP) containing a CAF-derived ECM-surface that is intended to compete with natural niches. CAFs were encapsulated in alginate/gelatine beads (500-750 μm in diameter) functionalised with a polyelectrolyte coating (MP[CAF]). The encapsulated CAFs remain viable and metabolically active (≥35 days), when permanently encapsulated. CAF-derived ECM proteins are retained by the non-biodegradable coating. Adhesion experiments mimicking the environment of the peritoneal cavity show the selective capture of floating cancer cells from different tumor origins by MP[CAF] compared to control MP. MP[CAF] are distributed throughout the abdominal cavity without attachment to intestinal organs and without signs of inflammatory reaction. Intraperitoneal delivery of MP[CAF] and sequential removal redirects cancer cell adhesion from the surgical wound to the MP[CAF], delays peritoneal metastasis formation and prolongs animal survival. Our experiments suggest the use of a biomimetic trap based on tumor-environment interactions to delay peritoneal metastasis. PMID:25907048

  3. French National Registry of Rare Peritoneal Surface Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Rare Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Peritoneal Mesothelioma; Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Psammocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Carcinoma; Diffuse Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis; Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasms

  4. Cognitive function during and six months following chemotherapy for front-line treatment of ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study☆

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Lisa M.; Huang, Helen Q.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Robinson, William R.; Johnson, Rhonda; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Mannel, Robert S.; Puls, Larry; Davidson, Susan A.; Method, Michael; Lele, Shashikant; Havrilesky, Laura; Nelson, Tina; Alberts, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Changes in cognitive function have been identified in and reported by many cancer survivors. These changes have the potential to impact patient quality of life and functional ability. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to quantify the incidence of change in cognitive function in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients throughout and following primary chemotherapy. Methods Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, untreated ovarian cancer and had planned to receive chemotherapy. Web-based and patient reported cognitive assessments and quality of life questionnaires were conducted prior to chemotherapy, prior to cycle four, after cycle six, and six months after completion of primary therapy. Results Two-hundred-thirty-one evaluable patients entered this study between May 2010 and October 2011. At the cycle 4 time point, 25.2% (55/218) of patients exhibited cognitive impairment in at least one domain. At the post-cycle 6 and 6-month follow up time points, 21.1% (44/208) and 17.8% (30/169) of patients, respectively, demonstrated impairment in at least one domain of cognitive function. There were statistically significant, but clinically small, improvements in processing speed (p < 0.001) and attention (p < 0.001) but not in motor response time (p = 0.066), from baseline through the six-month follow up time period. Conclusions This was a large, prospective study designed to measure cognitive function in ovarian cancer. A subset of patients had evidence of cognitive decline from baseline during chemotherapy treatment in this study as measured by the web-based assessment; however, changes were generally limited to no more than one domain. PMID:26456812

  5. Metronomic chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin for inoperable malignant bowel obstruction because of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, S.; Li, S.; Yu, H.; Li, S.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Ma, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Malignant bowel obstruction (mbo) is a common complication in advanced gastric cancer because of peritoneal dissemination. A multicentre prospective study reported that patients with peritoneal dissemination of gastric origin survive for a median of 3.1 months. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the efficacy and safety of metronomic combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in inoperable mbo from peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. Methods Gastric cancer patients diagnosed with inoperable mbo because of peritoneal dissemination were treated with infusional 5-fluorouracil 300 mg/m2 daily on days 1–5 and 8–12, and cisplatin 5 mg/m2 daily on days 1–4 and 8–11 every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was symptom control (remission of obstruction); the secondary endpoint was symptom control time and survival; the tertiary endpoint was adverse effects. Results Between January 2013 and December 2014, 26 patients received the study treatment. Before treatment, 18 patients (69.2%) were nil per os, and 8 (30.8%) could consume liquids. After a mean of 3.3 cycles of the study treatment, just 4 patients (15.4%) was still nil per os. Of the remaining 22 patients, 3 (11.5%) could consume liquids, 7 (26.9%) could consume soft solids, and 12 (46.2%) ate a full diet. The improved ability to eat was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Median duration of remission from mbo was 105 days. Median survival was 182 days. The 3-month survival rate was 69.2%, and the 6-month survival rate was 53.8%. Treatment was well tolerated, with grade iii toxicities consisting of thrombocytopenia in 1 patient (3.84%) and mucositis in 2 patients (7.7%). No abnormalities in serum creatinine were observed. Conclusions Metronomic combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin is well tolerated and shows activity in inoperable mbo because of peritoneal dissemination in

  6. [Four Cases of Primary Small Intestinal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nomi, Masako; Tanaka, Keita; Mase, Takahiro; Nagao, Shuji; Kawamoto, Shunji; Yoshida, Takahisa

    2015-11-01

    Primary small intestinal cancer is very rare. We experienced 4 cases from 2001 to 2013. Case 1: A 46-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and melena. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a tumor in the jejunum. We performed partial resection and lymph node dissection. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, SEN0H0P0M0. He has been recurrence-free for 13 years. Case 2: An 84-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Gastroscopy showed a tumor in the upper jejunum, and she was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Postoperative diagnosis was SEN0H0P0M0. She has been alive for 7 years. Case 3: A 66-year-old woman presented with epigastric discomfort and back pain. Examinations confirmed poorly differentiated small intestinal adenocarcinoma with multiple liver and lymph node metastases. She refused chemotherapy and died 1 month later. Case 4: A 60-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. CT revealed a tumor in the jejunum. Gastroscopic biopsy led to a diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. We performed partial resection but there was extensive lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination (cSIN2H0P3M1) so curative resection was impossible. Two courses of chemotherapy with S-1 and CDDP were administered. However, chemotherapy was not effective. He died 3.5 months after the first operation. Based on 2 of our cases, the prognosis for primary small intestine adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis or peritoneal dissemination was poor, with survival of less than 6 months. However, N0 cases without peritoneal dissemination can achieve long-term survival with curative resection. We report these cases with a review of previously reported cases in the literature. PMID:26805145

  7. A Phase II Trial of Intraperitoneal EGEN-001, An IL-12 Plasmid Formulated with PEG-PEI-Cholesterol Lipopolymer in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ronald D.; Sill, Michael W.; Davidson, Susan A.; Muller, Carolyn Y.; Bender, David P.; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Behbakht, Kian; Huh, Warner K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the toxicity and antitumor activity of EGEN-001 in platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Eligible patients had weekly IP infusion of EGEN-001 at a dose of 24 mg/m2. Toxicity and antitumor activity were evaluated using CTCAE and RESIST criteria, respectively. Co-primary endpoints were tumor response and survival without progression (PFS) for at least 6 months. Survival without progression before going onto a subsequent therapy (EFS) for at least six months was also considered. Results A total of 58 EGEN-001 cycles were administered to 20/ 22 enrolled patients (median 2 cycles, range 1–9). The most frequently associated adverse events related specifically to EGEN-001 treatment were grade 1/2 fatigue, fever, chills, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Three of 20 EGEN-001 treated patients evaluable for toxicity elected to withdraw from the study motivated in part by grade 1 treatment related toxicities. There were no patients with partial or complete response (0%; 90% CI 0~10.9%). Seven (35%) of 16 patients evaluable for response had stable disease, and 9 (45%) had progressive disease. Six (30%) patients had a PFS of greater than six months, although three had gone off study and onto other therapies before six months. The estimated six-month EFS was 15%. The median PFS and OS was 2.89 and 9.17 months, respectively. Conclusion EGEN-001 at the dose and schedule evaluated was associated with some but limited activity and was seemingly less tolerated in platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24708919

  8. Multidisciplinary therapy for treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Elnemr, Ayman; Endou, Yoshio; Hirano, Mitsumasa; Mizumoto, Akiyoshi; Takao, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Masumi; Miura, Masahiro; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    There is no standard treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from gastric cancer. A novel multidisciplinary treatment combining bidirectional chemotherapy [neoadjuvant intraperitoneal-systemic chemotherapy protocol (NIPS)], peritonectomy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) and early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been developed. In this article, we assess the indications, safety and efficacy of this treatment, review the relevant studies and introduce our experiences. The aims of NIPS are stage reduction, the eradication of peritoneal free cancer cells, and an increased incidence of complete cytoreduction (CC-0) for PC. A complete response after NIPS was obtained in 15 (50%) out of 30 patients with PC. Thus, a significantly high incidence of CC-0 can be obtained in patients with a peritoneal cancer index (PCI) ≤ 6. Using a multivariate analysis to examine the survival benefit, CC-0 and NIPS are identified as significant indicators of a good outcome. However, the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with peritonectomy and perioperative chemotherapy make stringent patient selection important. The best indications for multidisciplinary therapy are localized PC (PCI ≤ 6) from resectable gastric cancer that can be completely removed during a peritonectomy. NIPS and complete cytoreduction are essential treatment modalities for improving the survival of patients with PC from gastric cancer. PMID:21160926

  9. Benign splenosis mimicking peritoneal seeding in a bladder cancer patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Splenosis is a post-traumatic autotrasplantation and proliferation of splenic tissue in ectopic sites. These implants may mimic malignancy in healthy patients or peritoneal metastases in cancer patients. When a previous history of splenic injury is known, the finding of soft tissue nodules in many thoracic and abdominal locations might raise the suspicion of the benign condition of splenosis, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery or chemotherapy. Case presentation A 56-year-old man with history of persistent hematuria from bladder cancer was referred to our Institution for suspected peritoneal carcinosis. For staging purposes he underwent abdominal computed tomography and ultrasound. The integration of patient's history and imaging results led to the diagnosis of peritoneal splenosis. The patient therefore underwent regular Trans Urethral Resection of Bladder for the known malignancy; while no treatment was necessary for splenosis. Two years follow-up was negative for metastases. Conclusion Splenosis is a benign condition after traumatic splenectomy which should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis with peritoneal seeding of malignancy because its appearance may resemble malignancy. PMID:20062618

  10. Integrated Molecular Profiling of Human Gastric Cancer Identifies DDR2 as a Potential Regulator of Peritoneal Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Kurashige, Junji; Hasegawa, Takanori; Niida, Atsushi; Sugimachi, Keishi; Deng, Niantao; Mima, Kosuke; Uchi, Ryutaro; Sawada, Genta; Takahashi, Yusuke; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Inomata, Masashi; Kitano, Seigo; Fukagawa, Takeo; Sasako, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Sasaki, Shin; Mori, Masaki; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Baba, Hideo; Miyano, Satoru; Tan, Patrick; Mimori, Koshi

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent, incurable metastasis occurring in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC). However, molecular mechanisms driving peritoneal dissemination still remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that drive the peritoneal dissemination of GC. We performed combined expression analysis with in vivo-selected metastatic cell lines and samples from 200 GC patients to identify driver genes of peritoneal dissemination. The driver-gene functions associated with GC dissemination were examined using a mouse xenograft model. We identified a peritoneal dissemination-associated expression signature, whose profile correlated with those of genes related to development, focal adhesion, and the extracellular matrix. Among the genes comprising the expression signature, we identified that discoidin-domain receptor 2 (DDR2) as a potential regulator of peritoneal dissemination. The DDR2 was upregulated by the loss of DNA methylation and that DDR2 knockdown reduced peritoneal metastasis in a xenograft model. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of the DDR2 signaling pathway, effectively suppressed peritoneal dissemination. DDR2 was identified as a driver gene for GC dissemination from the combined expression signature and can potentially serve as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting GC peritoneal dissemination. PMID:26934957

  11. Peritoneal tumor spread in serous ovarian cancer-epithelial mesenchymal status and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Katharina; Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Aust, Stefanie; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Reiner, Agnes Teresa; Grimm, Christoph; Horvat, Reinhard; Zeillinger, Robert; Pils, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the biological mechanisms underlying apparently different modes of peritoneal tumor spread in serous ovarian cancer: miliary (widespread, millet-like lesions) versus non-miliary (bigger, exophytically growing implants). Tumor tissues and ascites from 23 chemotherapy naive patients were analyzed by RNA-sequencing and flow cytometry. On the basis of differential gene expression between miliary and non-miliary, gene signatures were developed. A calculated tumor spread factor revealed a significant independent negative impact of miliary spread on overall survival (HR 3.77; CI95 1.14–12.39; p = 0.029) in an independent cohort of 165 serous ovarian cancer patients. Comparing previously published epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signatures, non-miliary spread correlated significantly with a reduced epithelial status. We conclude that serous ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease with distinct modes of peritoneal tumor spread, differing not only in clinical appearance, but also in molecular characteristics and outcome.. EMT, peritoneal inflammation status, and therapeutic options are discussed. Significance More than half of serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients present with a newly described type of intraperitoneal tumor spread, associated with differences in the inflammation status, activated oncogenic pathways, lack of EMT, and thus reduced overall survival. Both, the diminished immune reaction and the enhanced epithelial and malignant characteristics of the tumor cells open new avenues for therapeutic options and strategies, like Catumaxomab, already in clinical use. PMID:25991672

  12. Detection methods and clinical significance of free peritoneal tumor cells found during colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sibio, Simone; Fiorani, Cristina; Stolfi, Carmine; Divizia, Andrea; Pezzuto, Roberto; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Bagaglini, Giulia; Sammartino, Paolo; Sica, Giuseppe Sigismondo

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal washing is now part of the standard clinical practice in several abdominal and pelvic neoplasias. However, in colorectal cancer surgery, intra-peritoneal free cancer cells (IFCC) presence is not routinely investigated and their prognostic meaning is still unclear. When peritoneal washing results are positive for the presence of IFCC a worse outcome is usually expected in these colorectal cancer operated patients, but it what is not clear is whether it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. It is authors’ belief that one of the main reasons why IFCC are not researched as integral part of the routine staging system for colon cancer is that there still isn’t a diagnostic or detection method with enough sensibility and specificity. However, the potential clinical implications of a routine research for the presence IFCC in colon neoplasias are enormous: not only to obtain a more accurate clinical staging but also to offer different therapy protocols, based on the presence of IFCC. Based on this, adjuvant chemotherapy could be offered to those patients found to be positive for IFCC; also, protocols of proactive intraperitoneal chemotherapy could be applied. Although presence of IFCC appears to have a valid prognostic significance, further studies are needed to standardize detection and examination procedures, to determine if there are and which are the stages more likely to benefit from routine search for IFCC. PMID:26425265

  13. Who will benefit from noncurative resection in patients with gastric cancer with single peritoneal metastasis?

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang; Li, Chen; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya; Yao, Xuexin; Zhu, Zhenggang

    2014-02-01

    The value of noncurative resection for patients with gastric cancer with single peritoneal metastasis is still debatable. This study was undertaken to evaluate the survival benefit of resection in those patients. From 2006 to 2009, 119 patients with gastric cancer with single peritoneal metastasis were identified during surgery. Sixty-three of them had noncurative resection; the remainder had nonresection. Clinicopathological variables and survival were analyzed. Overall survival of patients in the noncurative resection group was longer than that in the nonresection group (14.869 vs 7.780 months). This survival advantage was still significantly better in the P1/P2 patients who underwent noncurative resection (mean survival time 21.164 vs 7.636 months, P = 0.001), but not in the P3 group (P = 0.489). Multivariate analysis indicated that only noncurative resection retained a significant association with better prognosis in P1/P2 patients. The perioperative mortality rate in the resection group was not significantly higher than that of the noncurative group (P = 0.747). Noncurative resection can prolong the survival of patients with gastric cancer with single P1/P2 peritoneal metastasis. This surgical approach should not be taken into account for those patients with P3 gastric cancer. PMID:24480211

  14. General Information about Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  15. Endoglin overexpression mediates gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination by inducing mesothelial cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Xu, Hui-Mian; Song, Yong-Xi; Xing, Ya-Nan; Huang, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Liu, Xing-Yu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Ying-Ying

    2016-05-01

    Peritoneal dissemination (PD), which is highly frequent in gastric cancer (GC) patients, is the main cause of death in advanced GC. Senescence of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) may contribute to GC peritoneal dissemination (GCPD). In this study of 126 patients, we investigated the association between Endoglin expression in GC peritoneum and the clinicopathological features. The prognosis of patients was evaluated according to Endoglin and ID1 expression. In vitro, GC cell (GCC)-HPMC coculture was established. Endoglin and ID1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cell cycle and HPMC senescence were analyzed after harvesting HPMC from the coculture. GCC adhesion and invasion to HPMC were also assayed. Our results showed that positive staining of Endoglin (38%) was associated with a higher TNM stage and higher incidence of GCPD (both P < .05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the patients who were Endoglin positive had a shorter survival time compared with Endoglin-negative patients (P = .02). Using the HPMC and GCC adherence and invasion assay, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β)1-induced HPMC senescence was attenuated by silencing the Endoglin expression, which also prevented GCC attachment and invasion. Our study indicated a positive correlation between Endoglin overexpression and GCPD. Up-regulated Endoglin expression induced HPMC senescence via TGF-β1 pathway. The findings suggest that Endoglin-induced HPMC senescence may contribute to peritoneal dissemination of GCCs. PMID:27067789

  16. Primary peritonitis by Streptococcus pyogenes. A condition as rare as it is aggressive.

    PubMed

    Abellán Morcillo, Israel; González, Antonio; Selva Cabañero, Pilar; Bernabé, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old female patient who presented to the emergency room for abdominal pain standing with impaired general status, fever of up to 38.7ºC, and somnolence. Upon arrival the patient had a heart rate of 115 bpm, hypotension (80/40 mmHg),acute respiratory distress, and both hepatic and renal failure. During her examination the patient was drowsy and had a diffusely tender abdomen with peritoneal irritation signs. Blood tests revealed 22,000 WBCs (82%N), CRP 32.4 mg/dL, total bilirubin 3.2 mg/dL, GOT 300 U/L, GPT 160 U/L, LDH 200 U/L, AP 310 U/L, 91,000 platelets, creatinine2.3 mg/dL, and PA 64%. An abdominal CT scan was performed, which revealed a minimal amount of free intraperitoneal fluid with no other findings. Given the patient's poor status an exploratory laparoscopy was carried out, which found a moderate amount of diffuse purulent exudate, particularly in interloop and lesser pelvis areas, with no additional findings. Following surgery she was transferred to the intensive care unit on wide spectrum antibiotics .Peritoneal exudate cultures from the surgical procedure revealed Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient had a favorable outcome being subsequently discharged from hospital at day 10 after the procedure. S. pyogenesis a beta hemolytic streptococcus well known as a cause of pharyngotonsillar, skin and soft tissues infection. Primary peritonitis by S.pyogenesis a rare condition with only a few isolated cases reported. PP cases by S.pyogenes predominantly involve previously healthy young women. PP diagnosis is usually retrospective, when other causes have been ruled out by surgery and culture is positive post hoc. An appropriate differential diagnosis from conditions such as gram-negative shock, staphylococcal toxic shock, meningococcal disease, viral infection, etc., is crucial. Abdominal CT may be helpful but a variable amount of free intraperitoneal fluid is usually the only finding. The surgical approach is usually laparoscopy

  17. Oral administration of FAK inhibitor TAE226 inhibits the progression of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Hui-fang; Takaoka, Munenori; Bao, Xiao-hong; Wang, Zhi-gang; Tomono, Yasuko; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Ohara, Toshiaki; Fukazawa, Takuya; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Naomoto, Yoshio

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel FAK inhibitor TAE226 suppressed FAK activity in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 suppressed proliferation and migration, with a modest effect on adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FAK by siRNA made no obvious difference on cancer cell attachment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 treatment suppressed the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral administration of TAE226 prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. -- Abstract: Peritoneal dissemination is one of the most terrible types of colorectal cancer progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a crucial role in the biological processes of cancer, such as cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival, all of which are essential for the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Since we and other groups have reported that the inhibition of FAK activity exhibited a potent anticancer effect in several cancer models, we hypothesized that TAE226, a novel ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to target FAK, can prevent the occurrence and progression of peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, TAE226 greatly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells, while their adhesion on the matrix surface was minimally inhibited when FAK activity and expression was suppressed by TAE226 and siRNA. In vivo, when HCT116 cells were intraperitoneally inoculated in mice, the cells could attach to the peritoneum and begin to grow within 24 h regardless of the pretreatment of cells with TAE226 or FAK-siRNA, suggesting that FAK is not essential, at least for the initial integrin-matrix contact. Interestingly, the treatment of mice before and after inoculation significantly suppressed cell attachment to the peritoneum. Furthermore, oral administration of TAE226 greatly reduced the size of disseminated tumors and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Taken

  18. Timing of Referral for Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing in Patients with Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Novetsky, Akiva P.; Smith, Kylie; Babb, Sheri A.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Hagemann, Andrea R.; Thaker, Premal H.; Powell, Matthew A.; Mutch, David G.; Massad, L. Stewart; Zighelboim, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess patients' preferences of the timing of referral for genetic counseling and testing in relation to the diagnosis, treatment and recurrence of ovarian, tubal, or primary peritoneal cancers. Methods/Materials Ninety-two patients who underwent counseling and testing by one certified genetic counselor were identified. Introductory letter, consent form and questionnaire were mailed to gather information regarding factors influencing the decision to undergo genetic counseling and testing and opinions regarding optimal timing. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Results Of 47 consenting women, 45 underwent testing. Eight (18%) were found to have a genetic mutation. Women lacked consensus about the optimal time for referral for and to undergo genetic testing, though women with stage I disease preferred testing after completion of chemotherapy. Most women were comfortable receiving the results by phone, but 1/3 preferred an office visit. Conclusions Patients' views regarding the best time to be referred for and undergo counseling and testing varied greatly. Due to the high mortality of this disease, clinicians should discuss referral early and personalize the timing to each patient. The subset of patients who prefer results disclosure during an office visit should be identified at the time of their initial counseling. PMID:23748176

  19. The angiogenesis regulator vasohibin-1 inhibits ovarian cancer growth and peritoneal dissemination and prolongs host survival.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Saga, Yasushi; Koyanagi, Takahiro; Takei, Yuji; Machida, Sizuo; Taneichi, Akiyo; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Sato, Yasufumi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells stimulated by several angiogenic growth factors and displays autocrine activity to regulate angiogenesis via a negative feedback mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect of VASH1 on ovarian cancer progression using VASH1-expressing ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The growth ability of ovarian cancer cells engineered to express the VASH1 gene remained unchanged in vitro. However, we showed that VASH1 secretion by tumor cells inhibited the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further, animal experiments showed that VASH1 expression inhibited tumor angiogenesis and growth. In a murine model of peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells, VASH1 inhibited peritoneal dissemination and ascites, resulting in significantly prolonged survival in mice. This indicates that VASH1 exerts an antitumor effect on ovarian cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis in the tumor environment. These findings suggest that a novel therapy based on VASH1 could be a useful therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. PMID:26460696

  20. The angiogenesis regulator vasohibin-1 inhibits ovarian cancer growth and peritoneal dissemination and prolongs host survival

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, YOSHIFUMI; SAGA, YASUSHI; KOYANAGI, TAKAHIRO; TAKEI, YUJI; MACHIDA, SIZUO; TANEICHI, AKIYO; MIZUKAMI, HIROAKI; SATO, YASUFUMI; MATSUBARA, SHIGEKI; FUJIWARA, HIROYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells stimulated by several angiogenic growth factors and displays autocrine activity to regulate angiogenesis via a negative feedback mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect of VASH1 on ovarian cancer progression using VASH1-expressing ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The growth ability of ovarian cancer cells engineered to express the VASH1 gene remained unchanged in vitro. However, we showed that VASH1 secretion by tumor cells inhibited the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further, animal experiments showed that VASH1 expression inhibited tumor angiogenesis and growth. In a murine model of peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells, VASH1 inhibited peritoneal dissemination and ascites, resulting in significantly prolonged survival in mice. This indicates that VASH1 exerts an antitumor effect on ovarian cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis in the tumor environment. These findings suggest that a novel therapy based on VASH1 could be a useful therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. PMID:26460696

  1. The peritoneal tumour microenvironment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Leinster, D Andrew; Kulbe, Hagen; Everitt, Gemma; Thompson, Richard; Perretti, Mauro; Gavins, Felicity N E; Cooper, Dianne; Gould, David; Ennis, Darren P; Lockley, Michelle; McNeish, Iain A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Balkwill, Frances R

    2012-06-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) disseminates early and extensively throughout the peritoneal space, causing multiple lesions that are a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular composition of peritoneal tumour deposits in patient biopsies and their evolution in mouse models using immunohistochemistry, intravital microscopy, confocal microscopy, and 3D modelling. Tumour deposits from the omentum of HGSC patients contained a prominent leukocyte infiltrate of CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, with occasional neutrophils. Alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) (α-SMA(+) ) pericytes and/or fibroblasts surrounded these well-vascularized tumour deposits. Using the murine bowel mesentery as an accessible mouse peritoneal tissue that could be easily imaged, and two different transplantable models, we found multiple microscopic tumour deposits after i.p. injection of malignant cells. Attachment to the peritoneal surface was rapid (6-48 h) with an extensive CD45(+) leukocyte infiltrate visible by 48 h. This infiltrate persisted until end point and in the syngeneic murine ID8 model, it primarily consisted of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and CD68(+) macrophages with α-SMA(+) cells also involved from the earliest stages. A majority of tumour deposits developed above existing mesenteric blood vessels, but in avascular spaces new blood vessels tracked towards the tumour deposits by 2-3 weeks in the IGROV-1 xenografts and 6 weeks in the ID8 syngeneic model; a vigorous convoluted blood supply was established by end point. Inhibition of tumour cell cytokine production by stable expression of shRNA to CXCR4 in IGROV-1 cells did not influence the attachment of cells to the mesentery but delayed neovascularization and reduced tumour deposit size. We conclude that the multiple peritoneal tumour deposits found in HGSC patients can be modelled in the mouse. The techniques described here may be useful for assessing treatments that target the disseminated

  2. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:26162490

  3. [Introduction of Chemotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer Showing Oncologic Emergency Caused by Peritoneal Dissemination--Report of Tow Cases].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Miyata, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Akita, Hirofumi; Gotoh, Kunihito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Shogo; Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Sakon, Masato; Yano, Masahiko

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report 2 patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal dissemination who were successfully treated with chemotherapy after undergoing treatment for an oncologic emergency caused by peritoneal dissemination. Case 1 involved obstruction of the sigmoid colon caused by peritoneal dissemination. After urgent colostomy, S-1/IP IV paclitaxel chemotherapy was introduced. The patient continued the therapy for 2 years and 2 months. Case 2 involved acute renal failure due to bilateral ureter obstruction and obstructive jaundice caused by peritoneal dissemination. This patient underwent emergency treatment consisting of Double-J ureteral stent insertion and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage. He was successfully started on chemotherapy with S-1/oxaliplatin/IP paclitaxel. He continued the therapy for 8 months without symptoms. Aggressive treatment might be effective for advanced gastric cancer showing oncologic emergency. PMID:26805263

  4. [A Case of Long-Term Survival of a Patient with Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Keisuke; Shitara, Kenji; Fukunari, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yudai; Kato, Tomotaka; Okajima, Chisato; Hayashi, Tetsuji; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 75-year-old man with a history of gastrectomy with combined resection of the transverse colon ligament for gastric cancer in July 2011. He was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (tub2, tub1), L, Ant-Gre, type 2, pT4b (SI: transverse colon ligament) and pN3b, H0, M0, P0, CY0, Stage ⅢC. On abdominal computed tomography 7 months after surgery a peritoneal metastasis was seen near the transverse colon. The patient was treated with resection for peritoneal dissemination with part of the transverse colon. Three years after the last surgery, the patient is still alive without relapse. PMID:26805244

  5. Special cancer microenvironment in human colonic cancer: Concept of cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI) and implication of subperitoneal fibroblast in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated. This characteristic tumor area was termed cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (CMPI). We elucidated histoanatomical layer‐dependent heterogeneity of fibroblast in colonic tissue. Furthermore, subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) play a crucial role in tumor progression and metastasis in CMPI. Our ELI and CMPI concept contributes not only to objective pathological diagnosis, but also sheds light on biological research of special cancer microenvironments detectable in human colorectal cancers. Herein, we describe the diagnostic utility of ELI and morphological alteration in advanced colorectal cancers to determine the phenomenon that occurs when tumors invade around the peritoneal surface. Next, biological research of CMPI is reviewed to stress the importance of pathological research to establish new biological concepts. PMID:26816328

  6. Peritoneal dissemination from high-grade appendiceal cancer treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC)

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Kathleen A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have shown variability in survival outcomes when used to treat peritoneal surface disease (PSD) from appendiceal and colorectal cancers. The primary goal of this study was to examine outcomes for high-grade appendiceal (HGA) and high-grade colonic primaries after CRS-HIPEC to determine if a significant difference exists between the two groups. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients with peritoneal dissemination from appendiceal and colonic primaries were identified in a prospectively maintained database of 1,223 CRS-HIPEC procedures performed between 1991 and 2015. Patient demographics, performance status resection status, tumor grade, nodal status, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed with biopsy-proven PSD being classified according to primary site. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and outcomes compared. Results The study identified 171 CRS-HIPEC procedures for 165 patients: 110 (66.7%) for HGA and 55 (33.3%) for high-grade colonic lesions. Observed median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for both groups were the same at14.4 and 18 months, respectively. Median survival according to resection status for R0/R1, R2a, and R2b/c were 36, 15.6, and 8.4 months (P<0.0001). Median OS for those who received preoperative chemotherapy versus those who did not were 14.4 and 20.4 months, respectively (P=0.01). For those who received preoperative chemotherapy, no difference was apparent in the DFS interval (P=0.34). Multivariate predictors of OS included resection status (P<0.0001) and lymph node involvement (P=0.0005). Conclusions Preoperative chemotherapy offered no clear DFS or OS benefit, for HGA or high-grade colon cancer patients. Complete cytoreduction offered the greatest survival benefit to both groups with a correlating drop in survival to resection status. Outcomes for high grade appendiceal cancer are remarkably

  7. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of the dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and the maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and post-menopausal hormones for women are associated with significant reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:20420944

  8. Ultra-deep sequencing detects ovarian cancer cells in peritoneal fluid and reveals somatic TP53 mutations in noncancerous tissues.

    PubMed

    Krimmel, Jeffrey D; Schmitt, Michael W; Harrell, Maria I; Agnew, Kathy J; Kennedy, Scott R; Emond, Mary J; Loeb, Lawrence A; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Risques, Rosa Ana

    2016-05-24

    Current sequencing methods are error-prone, which precludes the identification of low frequency mutations for early cancer detection. Duplex sequencing is a sequencing technology that decreases errors by scoring mutations present only in both strands of DNA. Our aim was to determine whether duplex sequencing could detect extremely rare cancer cells present in peritoneal fluid from women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). These aggressive cancers are typically diagnosed at a late stage and are characterized by TP53 mutations and peritoneal dissemination. We used duplex sequencing to analyze TP53 mutations in 17 peritoneal fluid samples from women with HGSOC and 20 from women without cancer. The tumor TP53 mutation was detected in 94% (16/17) of peritoneal fluid samples from women with HGSOC (frequency as low as 1 mutant per 24,736 normal genomes). Additionally, we detected extremely low frequency TP53 mutations (median mutant fraction 1/13,139) in peritoneal fluid from nearly all patients with and without cancer (35/37). These mutations were mostly deleterious, clustered in hotspots, increased with age, and were more abundant in women with cancer than in controls. The total burden of TP53 mutations in peritoneal fluid distinguished cancers from controls with 82% sensitivity (14/17) and 90% specificity (18/20). Age-associated, low frequency TP53 mutations were also found in 100% of peripheral blood samples from 15 women with and without ovarian cancer (none with hematologic disorder). Our results demonstrate the ability of duplex sequencing to detect rare cancer cells and provide evidence of widespread, low frequency, age-associated somatic TP53 mutation in noncancerous tissue. PMID:27152024

  9. Reduced angiogenesis in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer through gelatinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wada, Norihito; Otani, Yoshihide; Kubota, Tetsuro; Kimata, Masaru; Minagawa, Akiko; Yoshimizu, Nobunari; Kameyama, Kaori; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Fujii, Masato; Kumai, Koichiro; Okada, Yasunori; Kitajima, Masaki

    2003-01-01

    Marimastat is a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor that inhibits almost all major MMPs, key enzymes in gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. We investigated the ability of marimastat to inhibit tumor angiogenesis in the severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mouse/human gastric cancer model of peritoneal dissemination. A human stomach adenocarcinoma cell line, TMK-1, was injected intraperitoneally into SCID mice. On the 7th day after tumor inoculation, the administration of marimastat (27 mg/kg/day) was initiated and the treatment was continued for 2 weeks using subcutaneously-inoculating mini-osmotic pumps. On the 21st day, the mice were killed and the disseminated nodules were evaluated. Total weights, numbers, and the microvascular density of the disseminating nodules were significantly lower in mice treated with marimastat compared to the control group. Film in situ zymography demonstrated that net gelatinolytic activity in the tissues was weaker in treated-group nodules than in control-group nodules. Thus, our results suggested that marimastat inhibited peritoneal dissemination of human gastric cancer cells through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, possibly involving the down-regulation of gelatinases, in SCID mice injected with human gastric cancer cells. PMID:14524532

  10. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  11. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  12. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  13. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer or Recurrent Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  14. The role of HIPEC in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer: between lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Di Vita, Maria; Cappellani, Alessandro; Piccolo, Gaetano; Zanghì, Antonio; Cavallaro, Andrea; Bertola, Giulio; Bolognese, Antonio; Facchini, Gaetano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Di Francia, Raffaele; Cardì, Francesco; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2015-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most dreadful neoplastic diseases and remains the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients who develop peritoneal metastasis have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of less than 6 months. Despite being the cause of 60% of deaths from gastric cancer, peritoneal metastasis can still be considered a local disease and a local multidisciplinary approach can improve the prognosis even in this end-stage disease. At present, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the most widely accepted treatment for peritoneal surface diseases and can be performed in patients with different stages of cancer and with various antitumoral drugs. We performed a systematic review of the current status of HIPEC in the treatment of gastric peritoneal metastasis in an attempt to obtain answers to the questions that still remain: do results differ with these different methods? Does HIPEC exert a significant effect on the intracavitary delivery of drugs? Which patients should be treated and which should not? What can we expect from this approach in terms of survival, morbidity, and mortality? On reviewing the literature, despite the lack of trials comparing the different methods, we found that HIPEC has been shown to be an effective tool whenever a complete or an almost complete resection of the peritoneal implants can be performed. Therefore, it is advisable to refer all at-risk patients to specialized centers to be enrolled in randomized trials to achieve truly reliable results. PMID:25406023

  15. Cancer Antigen 125 as a Biomarker in Peritoneal Dialysis: Mesothelial Cell Health or Death?

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Harpaul; Bargman, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration or appearance rate of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent has been used for many years as a biomarker for mesothelial cell mass in patients on PD. However, this marker has limitations, and emerging evidence has raised doubts as to its significance. This review explores our current understanding of CA125, its prominent role in studies of “biocompatible” PD solutions, and the ongoing uncertainty concerning its interpretation as a measure of mesothelial cell health. PMID:23843586

  16. Is gastrointestinal dysfunction induced by gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis relevant to impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongqun; He, Yan; Tong, Jinxue; Sun, Lingyu; Yang, Dongdong; Li, Huaming; Ao, Ning; Jin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qifan

    2011-03-01

    Although impaired gastrointestinal motility from gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis (GCPM) causes extraordinary pain, its cause is unclear. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are apparently pacemaker cells, and their loss could cause motor dysfunction. In this study, we developed a mouse model for GCPM, and investigated electrophysiological changes in the small intestine and attendant changes in ICC. We found decreased ICC and disrupted electrical rhythm in the model. Pathologic ICC changes were well described. Cancer peritoneal metastasis may impair intestinal myoelectrical activity by damaging ICC and ICC networks. Interstitial cells of Cajal will be a target of palliative treatment and merit further study. PMID:21207119

  17. Microdistribution of fluorescently-labeled monoclonal antibody in a peritoneal dissemination model of ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Mikako; Paik, David S.; Paik, Chang H.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2010-02-01

    The microdistribution of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies within a tumor is important for determining clinical response. Nonuniform microdistribution predicts therapy failure. Herein, we developed a semiquantitative method for measuring microdistribution of an antibody within a tumor using in situ fluorescence microscopy and sought to modulate the microdistribution by altering the route and timing of antibody dosing. The microdistribution of a fluorescently-labeled antibody, trastuzumab (50-μg and 150-μg intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), and 100-μg intravenous injection (i.v.)) was evaluated in a peritoneal dissemination mouse model of ovarian cancer. In addition, we evaluated the microdistribution of concurrently-injected (30-μg i.p. and 100-μg i.v.) or serial (two doses of 30-μg i.p.) trastuzumab using in situ multicolor fluorescence microscopy. After the administration of 50-μg i.p. and 100-μg i.v. trastuzumab fluorescence imaging showed no significant difference in the central to peripheral signal ratio (C/P ratio) and demonstrated a peripheral-dominant accumulation, whereas administration of 150-μg i.p. trastuzumab showed relatively uniform, central dominant accumulation. With concurrent-i.p.-i.v. injections trastuzumab showed slightly higher C/P ratio than concurrently-injected i.p. trastuzumab. Moreover, in the serial injection study, the second injection of trastuzumab distributed more centrally than the first injection, while no difference was observed in the control group. Our results suggest that injection routes do not affect the microdistribution pattern of antibody in small peritoneal disseminations. However, increasing the dose results in a more uniform antibody distribution within peritoneal nodules. Furthermore, the serial i.p. injection of antibody can modify the microdistribution within tumor nodules. This work has implications for the optimal delivery of antibody based cancer therapies.

  18. Imaging in assessing hepatic and peritoneal metastases of gastric cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatic and peritoneal metastases of gastric cancer are operation contraindications. Systematic review to provide an overview of imaging in predicting the status of liver and peritoneum pre-therapeuticly is essential. Methods A systematic review of relevant literatures was performed in Pubmed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and the China Biological Medicine Databases. QUADAS was used for assessing the methodological quality of included studies and the bivariate model was used for this meta-analysis. Results Totally 33 studies were included (8 US studies, 5 EUS studies, 22 CT studies, 2 MRI studies and 5 18F-FDG PET studies) and the methodological quality of included studies was moderate. The result of meta-analysis showed that CT is the most sensitive imaging method [0.74 (95% CI: 0.59-0.85)] with a high rate of specificity [0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00)] in detecting hepatic metastasis, and EUS is the most sensitive imaging modality [0.34 (95% CI: 0.10-0.69) ] with a specificity of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99) in detecting peritoneal metastasis. Only two eligible MRI studies were identified and the data were not combined. The two studies found that MRI had both high sensitivity and specificity in detecting liver metastasis. Conclusion US, EUS, CT and 18F-FDG PET did not obtain consistently high sensitivity and specificity in assessing liver and peritoneal metastases of gastric cancer. The value of laparoscopy, PET/CT, DW-MRI, and new PET tracers such as 18F-FLT needs to be studied in future. PMID:21385469

  19. Peritoneal bladder fistula following radiotherapy for cervical cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jiquan; Hui, Beina; Chai, Yanlan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Zi

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a peritoneal bladder fistula as a result of radiation cystitis following radiotherapy for cervical cancer is extremely rare and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported previously. The present study reports the case of a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with cervical cancer 20 years previously and was treated with radiotherapy. The patient was diagnosed with radiation cystitis 10 years ago, which was treated with Chinese medicine, and began experiencing sudden abdominal pain and bowel difficulties following urination 3 years ago. B-ultrasound examination at The People's Hospital of Tongchuan (Tongchuan, China) detected the presence of abdominal pelvic fluid. Following antibiotic (levofloxacin for 5 days) and ascites extraction treatment, symptoms were relieved without recurrence. However, 5 days prior to admission to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiatong University (Xi'an, China) on June 25, 2014, the patient experienced difficulty when urinating, abdominal pain and bloating, but did not experience frequent urination, hematuria or fever. Cystoscopic examination revealed a visible fistula on the bladder wall measuring 1×1 cm in diameter. Cytoscopic examination 1 month after catheterization and ascites extraction revealed no evidence of the fistula. The patient was followed up every 3 months for a year and a half, and is currently alive and well. In conclusion, the occurrence of peritoneal bladder fistula following radiation therapy is rare and cystoscopy is the preferred method of examination and diagnosis. Early detection and treatment may significantly improve the prognosis of patients.

  20. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  1. A phase II evaluation of lapatinib in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A gynecologic oncology group study☆

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Agustin A.; Sill, Michael W.; Lankes, Heather A.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Mannel, Robert S.; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Carolla, Robert L.; Liepman, Marcia K.; Spirtos, Nick M.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Activation and dimerization of the ERBB family play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of ovarian cancer. We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the activity and tolerability of lapatinib in patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to explore the clinical value of expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), phosphorylated EGFR, HER-2/neu, and Ki-67, and the presence of EGFR mutations. Methods Eligible patients had recurrent or persistent EOC or primary peritoneal carcinoma, measurable disease, and up to 2 prior chemotherapy regimens for recurrent disease. Patients were treated with lapatinib 1500 mg/day. The primary endpoint of efficacy was 6-month progression free survival (PFS). Results Twenty-five of 28 patients were eligible and evaluable for analysis of efficacy and toxicity. Two (8.0%) were alive and progression-free at 6 months. No objective responses were observed. There were 1 grade 4 toxicity (fatigue) and few grade 3 toxicities. Associations between Ki-67 with prior platinum-free interval, PFS, and a polymorphism in EGFR were suggested. Conclusions Lapatinib has minimal activity in recurrent ovarian cancer. Ki-67 expression may be associated with prior PFS and a polymorphism in EGFR exon 20 (2361G>A, Q787Q). PMID:22037316

  2. Long-term mortality from pleural and peritoneal cancer after exposure to asbestos: Possible role of asbestos clearance.

    PubMed

    Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Ferrante, Daniela; Bertolotti, Marinella; Todesco, Annalisa; Mirabelli, Dario; Terracini, Benedetto; Magnani, Corrado

    2008-08-15

    Models based on the multistage theory of carcinogenesis predict that the rate of mesothelioma increases monotonically as a function of time since first exposure (TSFE) to asbestos. Predictions of long-term mortality (TSFE >or= 40 years) are, however, still untested, because of the limited follow-up of most epidemiological studies. Some authors have suggested that the increase in mesothelioma rate with TSFE might be attenuated by clearance of asbestos from the lungs. We estimated mortality time trends from pleural and peritoneal cancer in a cohort of 3,443 asbestos-cement workers, followed for more than 50 years. The functional relation between mesothelioma rate and TSFE was evaluated with various regression models. The role of asbestos clearance was explored using the traditional mesothelioma multistage model, generalized to include a term representing elimination over time. We observed 139 deaths from pleural and 56 from peritoneal cancer during the period 1950-2003. The rate of pleural cancer increased during the first 40 years of TSFE and reached a plateau thereafter. In contrast, the rate of peritoneal cancer increased monotonically with TSFE. The model allowing for asbestos elimination fitted the data better than the traditional model for pleural (p = 0.02) but not for peritoneal cancer (p = 0.22). The risk for pleural cancer, rather than showing an indefinite increase, might reach a plateau when a sufficiently long time has elapsed since exposure. The different trends for pleural and peritoneal cancer might be related to clearance of the asbestos from the workers' lungs. PMID:18528868

  3. Targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling suppresses tumor progression and metastasis in a peritoneal model of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Liang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Kowolik, Claudia M.; Buettner, Ralf; Scuto, Anna; Hsieh, Meng-Yin; Hong, Hao; Brown, Christine E.; Forman, Stephen J.; Horne, David; Morgan, Robert; Wakabayashi, Mark; Dellinger, Thanh H.; Han, Ernest S.; Yim, John H.; Jove, Richard

    2015-01-01

    JAK/STAT3 is one of the major signaling pathways that is aberrantly activated in ovarian cancer and associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling in ovarian cancer using a peritoneal dissemination mouse model. We developed this mouse model by injecting a metastatic human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3-M-Luc, into the peritoneal cavity of immunodeficient mice. This model displayed a phenotype similar to late stage ovarian cancer, including extensive peritoneal metastasis and ascites production. The constitutive activation of STAT3 in human ovarian cancer cells appeared to be mediated by an autocrine-cytokine loop involving the IL-6 family of cytokines and JAK1 kinase. shRNA-mediated knockdown of JAK1 or STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells led to reduced tumor growth, decreased peritoneal dissemination and diminished ascites production, suggesting a critical role of STAT3 in ovarian cancer progression. Similar results were obtained when a small-molecule inhibitor (JAKi) of the JAK1 kinase was used to treat ovarian cancer in this model. In addition, we found that the expression level of IL-6 was correlated with activation of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential application of IL-6 as a biomarker. Altogether, our results demonstrate that targeting JAK1/STAT3, using shRNA knockdown or a small molecule inhibitor, effectively suppressed ovarian tumor progression and, therefore, could be a potential novel therapeutic approach for treating advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:25319391

  4. Stress Reduction in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Recurrent Gynecologic or Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-08

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Fatigue; Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Pain; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

  5. Robotically assisted peritoneal mesometrial resection (PMMR) in endometrial cancer supported by ICG labeling of the compartmental lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Kimmig, Rainer; Aktas, Bahriye; Buderath, Paul; Heubner, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal mesometrial resection is a compartment based radical hysterectomy in endometrial cancer•ICG staining of the lymph-vessel system facilitates identification of compartment borders•Fluorescence based HD-video documentation supports education in surgery of endometrial cancer. PMID:27331131

  6. Psychosexual Intervention in Patients With Stage I-III Gynecologic or Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage III Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell

  7. Peritoneal expression of matrilysin helps identify early post-operative recurrence of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Giuseppe S.; Fiorani, Cristina; Stolfi, Carmine; Monteleone, Giovanni; Candi, Eleonora; Amelio, Ivano; Catani, Valeria; Sibio, Simone; Divizia, Andrea; Tema, Giorgia; Iaculli, Edoardo; Gaspari, Achille L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) following a potentially curative resection is a challenging clinical problem. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is over-expressed by CRC cells and supposed to play a major role in CRC cell diffusion and metastasis. MMP-7 RNA expression was assessed by real-time PCR using specific primers in peritoneal washing fluid obtained during surgical procedure. After surgery, patients underwent a regular follow up for assessing recurrence. transcripts for MMP-7 were detected in 31/57 samples (54%). Patients were followed-up (range 20–48 months) for recurrence prevention. Recurrence was diagnosed in 6 out of 55 patients (11%) and two patients eventually died because of this. Notably, all the six patients who had relapsed were positive for MMP-7. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100% and 49% respectively. Data from patients have also been corroborated by computational approaches. Public available coloncarcinoma datasets have been employed to confirm MMP7 clinical impact on the disease. Interestingly, MMP-7 expression appeared correlated to Tgfb-1, and correlation of the two factors represented a poor prognostic factor. This study proposes positivity of MMP-7 in peritoneal cavity as a novel biomarker for predicting disease recurrence in patients with CRC. PMID:25596746

  8. [A case of small bowel cancer with positive peritoneal cytology and five-year recurrence-free survival].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Atsushi; Shimizu, Keiji; Nishibeppu, Keiji; Matsuyama, Takehisa; Ogino, Shiro; Takemura, Manabu; Mugitani, Tatsuro; Ishida, Hidekazu; Akami, Toshikazu; Okano, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    Small bowel cancer is frequently detected at an advanced stage and its prognosis is poor. We report on a patient with small bowel cancer with positive peritoneal cytology who survived for 5 years without recurrence after surgery.The case involved a 73-year-old woman who had undergone partial resection of the small intestine and lymphadenectomy for a small bowel tumor with obstruction. Pathological examination confirmed papillary adenocarcinoma with partial serosal invasion. Ascites cytology indicated a class V tumor. Adjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1 was administered for 20 months, and the patient has survived without evidence of disease for over 5 years.In this case, it is possible that TS-1 chemotherapy was effective for prevention against small bowel cancer recurrence.Furthermore , peritoneal cytology in patients with small bowel cancer should be evaluated as a predictor of prognosis. PMID:25731552

  9. Differential gene expression profiles of gastric cancer cells established from primary tumour and malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sakakura, C; Hagiwara, A; Nakanishi, M; Shimomura, K; Takagi, T; Yasuoka, R; Fujita, Y; Abe, T; Ichikawa, Y; Takahashi, S; Ishikawa, T; Nishizuka, I; Morita, T; Shimada, H; Okazaki, Y; Hayashizaki, Y; Yamagishi, H

    2002-01-01

    Advanced gastric cancer is often accompanied by metastasis to the peritoneum, resulting in a high mortality rate. Mechanisms involved in gastric cancer metastasis have not been fully clarified because metastasis involves multiple steps and requires a combination of altered expressions of many different genes. Thus, independent analysis of any single gene would be insufficient to understand all of the aspects of gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination. In this study, we performed a global analysis of the differential gene expression of a gastric cancer cell line established from a primary main tumour (SNU-1) and of other cell lines established from the metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (SNU-5, SNU-16, SNU-620, KATO-III and GT3TKB). The application of a high-density cDNA microarray method made it possible to analyse the expression of approximately 21 168 genes. Our examinations of SNU-5, SNU-16, SNU-620, KATO-III and GT3TKB showed that 24 genes were up-regulated and 17 genes down-regulated besides expression sequence tags. The analysis revealed the following altered expression such as: (a) up-regulation of CD44 (cell adhesion), keratins 7, 8, and 14 (epitherial marker), aldehyde dehydrogenase (drug metabolism), CD9 and IP3 receptor type3 (signal transduction); (b) down-regulation of IL2 receptor γ, IL4-Stat (immune response), p27 (cell cycle) and integrin β4 (adhesion) in gastric cancer cells from malignant ascites. We then analysed eight gastric cancer cell lines with Northern blot and observed preferential up-regulation and down-regulation of these selected genes in cells prone to peritoneal dissemination. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction confirmed that several genes selected by DNA microarray were also overexpressed in clinical samples of malignant ascites. It is therefore considered that these genes may be related to the peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. The results of this global gene expression analysis of gastric cancer cells

  10. Risk of second primary cancers after malignant mesothelioma and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianhui; Kharazmi, Elham; Lou, Jianlin; Zhang, Xing; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-08-28

    We aimed at investigating risk of specific second primary cancers (SPCs) after malignant mesothelioma (MM) and vice versa, which has not been reported. Among survivors of 3672 pleural MM and 895 peritoneal MM, overall 113 and 28 SPCs were recorded, respectively, while reverse analyses included overall 431 pleural and 88 peritoneal MMs after any first cancers. We found a bidirectional association of pleural MM with kidney cancer for overall [for second kidney cancer after pleural MM: standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) = 4.4, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 2.0-8.3; for second pleural MM after kidney cancer: 2.3 (1.3-3.9)] and for <1 year follow-up [5.4 (2.0-12) and 4.9 (2.0-10), respectively, according to the 2-way analyses]. In contrast, a bidirectional association of pleural MM with unknown primary cancer was found only for follow-up ≥1 year [3.9 (1.1-10) and 2.8 (1.3-5.1), respectively]. We found a bidirectional association of pleural MM with kidney cancer for overall and for <1 year follow-up, suggesting the involvement of germline BAP1 mutations and increased medical surveillance, while the bidirectional association of pleural MM with unknown primary cancer suggests shared genetic or environmental risk factors. PMID:27260871

  11. A Phase II Evaluation of Motesanib (AMG 706) in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube and Primary Peritoneal Carcinomas: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, RJ; Sill, MW; Lankes, HA; Gold, MA; Mannel, RS; Modesitt, SC; Hanjani, P; Bonebrake, AJ; Sood, AK; Godwin, AK; Hu, W; Alpaugh, RK

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors have a critical role in stimulating the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Motesanib is a small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGF receptors 1-3, as well as c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor which are related to the VEGF family. Patients and Methods Twenty-two eligible patients with recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma were treated with an oral daily dose of 125 mg of motesanib. Peripheral blood was analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating endothelial cells/circulating endothelial progenitors (CEC/CEP), VEGF levels and cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA). Results The study was abruptly halted after four patients developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. One patient had a partial response and seven patients had stable disease at the time they were removed from study treatment. Twelve of the 22 patients (50%) had indeterminate responses at trial closure. Early closure without clinical efficacy data precludes meaningful correlative studies. Conclusions The serious central nervous system toxicity observed in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer precluded full examination of this agent in this population. There were no clear cut explanations for the high incidence of this known class effect in the study population compared with patients with other cancers. PMID:23321064

  12. Breakthrough therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kitayama, Joji; Ishigami, Hironori; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-11-15

    The effect of chemotherapy on peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of gastric cancer remains unclear. Recently, the intraperitoneal (IP) administration of taxanes [e.g., paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DOC)] during the perioperative period has shown promising results. Herein, we summarized the rationale and methodology for using IP chemotherapy with taxanes and reviewed the clinical results. IP administered taxanes remain in the IP space at an extremely high concentration for 48-72 h. The drug directly infiltrates peritoneal metastatic nodules from the surface and then produces antitumor effects, making it ideal for IP chemotherapy. There are two types of perioperative IP chemotherapy with taxanes: neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy and sequential perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (SPIC). In SPIC, patients receive neoadjuvant IP chemotherapy and the same regimen of IP chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) until disease progression. Usually, a taxane dissolved in 500-1000 mL of saline at ordinary temperature is administered through an IP access port on an outpatient basis. According to phase I studies, the recommended doses (RD) are as follows: IP DOC, 45-60 mg/m(2); IP PTX [without intravenous (IV) PTX], 80 mg/m(2); and IP PTX (with IV PTX), 20 mg/m(2). Phase II studies have reported a median survival time of 14.4-24.6 mo with a 1-year overall survival of 67%-78%. A phase III study comparing S-1 in combination with IP and IV PTX to S-1 with IV cisplatin started in 2011. The prognosis of patients who underwent CRS was better than that of those who did not; however, this was partly due to selection bias. Although several phase II studies have shown promising results, a randomized controlled study is needed to validate the effectiveness of IP chemotherapy with taxanes for PC of gastric cancer. PMID:26600928

  13. Breakthrough therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kitayama, Joji; Ishigami, Hironori; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemotherapy on peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of gastric cancer remains unclear. Recently, the intraperitoneal (IP) administration of taxanes [e.g., paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DOC)] during the perioperative period has shown promising results. Herein, we summarized the rationale and methodology for using IP chemotherapy with taxanes and reviewed the clinical results. IP administered taxanes remain in the IP space at an extremely high concentration for 48-72 h. The drug directly infiltrates peritoneal metastatic nodules from the surface and then produces antitumor effects, making it ideal for IP chemotherapy. There are two types of perioperative IP chemotherapy with taxanes: neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy and sequential perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (SPIC). In SPIC, patients receive neoadjuvant IP chemotherapy and the same regimen of IP chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) until disease progression. Usually, a taxane dissolved in 500-1000 mL of saline at ordinary temperature is administered through an IP access port on an outpatient basis. According to phase I studies, the recommended doses (RD) are as follows: IP DOC, 45-60 mg/m2; IP PTX [without intravenous (IV) PTX], 80 mg/m2; and IP PTX (with IV PTX), 20 mg/m2. Phase II studies have reported a median survival time of 14.4-24.6 mo with a 1-year overall survival of 67%-78%. A phase III study comparing S-1 in combination with IP and IV PTX to S-1 with IV cisplatin started in 2011. The prognosis of patients who underwent CRS was better than that of those who did not; however, this was partly due to selection bias. Although several phase II studies have shown promising results, a randomized controlled study is needed to validate the effectiveness of IP chemotherapy with taxanes for PC of gastric cancer. PMID:26600928

  14. Near-infrared raman spectroscopy for detection of gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Mao, Wei-zheng; Xu, Ming; Gong, Long-jing; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Han-jing; Zheng, Rong-er

    2011-07-01

    The nude mice injected with human gastric cancer cells (SGC-7901) in their peritoneums were chosen as the animal models of gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination in this research. The Raman spectra at 785nm excitation of both these nude mice which were in different tumor planting periods and the normal counterpart were taken in vivo in the imitate laparotomy. 205 spectra were collected. The spectra of different tissue types were compared and classified by Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Significant differences were showed between normal and malignant tissues. The gastric cancer nodules had lower Raman intensities at 870, 1330, 1450, and 1660cm-1, but higher at 1007, 1050, 1093 and 1209cm-1, compared with normal tissues. Additionally, the spectra of malignant tissues had two peaks around 1330 cm-1 (1297cm-1 and 1331cm-1), while the spectra of normal tissues had only one peak (1297cm-1). The differences were attributed to the intensities of the stretching bands of the nucleic acid, protein and water. These features could be used to diagnose gastric cancer. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm was used to classify these spectra. For normal and malignant tissues, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 95.73%, 70.73% and 90.73%, respectively, while for different tumor planting periods, they were 98.82%, 98.73% and 98.78%. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differ significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissues, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

  15. [Intraoperative chemotherapy with intraperitoneal activated carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C against peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, A; Takahashi, T; Sasabe, T; Itoh, M; Kondoh, S; Seiki, K; Yoneyama, C; Shimotsuma, M; Hagiwara, A; Yamaguchi, T

    1989-08-01

    A new form of dosage (MMC-CH) was composed of activated carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C. Intraperitoneal administration of MMC-CH was tested clinically for prophylactic and therapeutic effects on peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. The criteria of MMC-CH's administration were equal or less than 70 years old, more than 40 kg in body weight, no disfunction of liver and kidney, no particular findings in electrocardiography, S2 or S3 in the grade of serosal invasion, P0, P1, P2 or P3 in the grade of peritoneal dissemination, according to the General Rules for the Gastric Cancer Study in Surgery and Pathology by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. MMC-CH was given to 44 patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer in our department from 1985 to 1988. The 44 patients were composed of 12 patients with P0 findings (P0 patients), 8 patients with P1 findings (P1 patients), 12 patients with P2 findings (P2 patients), and 12 patients with P3 findings (P3 patients). MMC-CH at 50 mg/person in terms of mitomycin C was administered intraperitoneally before the operation wound was closed. Fifty-seven patients in our department from 1983 to 1987 for whom the same criteria were applicable and did not receive MMC-CH therapy, served as the control group. The 57 patients were composed of 23 P0 patients, 21 P1 patients, 10 P2 patients, and 3 P3 patients. There was statistically with chi 2 test no significant difference of age, sex, depth of infiltration macroscopically and microscopically defined progression of lymph-nodal metastases between the MMC-CH group and the control group. Survival rate was calculated with Kaplan-Meier's method in the overall patients in each of the MMC-CH group or the control group. The overall survival rate in the MMC-CH group was statistically significantly (p less than 0.01-0.05) higher from day 460 to day 552 and from day 736 to day 800 than that in the control group. Next, the patients were classified into two subgroups

  16. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Su-Min; OH, Yeonsu; OH, Suk-Hun; HAN, Jeong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was admitted with severe abdominal distension and lethargy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed activated mesothelial cells. At necropsy, numerous growing together, projecting, 2 to 20 mm in diameter tawny to white masses were scattered throughout the peritoneum including the mesentery, omentum and intestinal serosa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of prominent papillo-tubular structures, and immunohistochemically, the spindle to polygonal-shaped tumor cells with nuclear polymorphism were strongly reactive for calretinin. Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma. This is the first case report of mesothelioma in the skunk. PMID:26568187

  17. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Min; Oh, Yeonsu; Oh, Suk-Hun; Han, Jeong-Hee

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year-old female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was admitted with severe abdominal distension and lethargy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed activated mesothelial cells. At necropsy, numerous growing together, projecting, 2 to 20 mm in diameter tawny to white masses were scattered throughout the peritoneum including the mesentery, omentum and intestinal serosa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of prominent papillo-tubular structures, and immunohistochemically, the spindle to polygonal-shaped tumor cells with nuclear polymorphism were strongly reactive for calretinin. Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma. This is the first case report of mesothelioma in the skunk. PMID:26568187

  18. Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Creasman, W.T.; Disaia, P.J.; Blessing, J.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Johnston, W.; Weed, J.C. Jr.

    1981-12-15

    One hundred sixty-seven patients with clinical State I carcinoma of the endometrium were treated primarily by operation consisting of total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, and cytologic testing of peritoneal washings. Twenty-six (15.5%) of the 167 patients had malignant cells identified on cytologic examinations of peritoneal washings. Recurrence developed in 10 of these 26 (34.0%) compared to 14/141 (9.9%) patients with negative cytologic testing. Of the 26 patients, 13 (50%) had disease outside of the uterus at operation and seven have died of disease (54%). Thirteen patients had malignant cells in the peritoneal washings but no disease outside of the uterus and six (46%) of these have died of disseminated intra-abdominal carcinomatosis. On the basis of the poor outcome of those patients who had malignant cells in the peritoneal washings in the 167 patients studied, a plan of treating such patients with intraperitoneal radioactive chromic phosphate suspension (P-32) was instituted. Twenty-three subsequent patients with clinical Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium were found to have malignant cells in the peritoneal fluid. All 23 received intra-abdominal P-32 suspension instillation after operation. There have been three recurrences with two patients dying of disease. All of the three recurrences appeared at sites distant from the abdominal cavity. Peritoneal cytologic examination appears to be an important factor in the prognosis of endometrial cancer and, when the washings are positive for malignant cells, intraperitoneal chronic phosphate therapy appears to be efficacious.

  19. Comprehensive Patient Questionnaires in Predicting Complications in Older Patients With Gynecologic Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-07

    Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  20. A retrospective analysis of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meiqin; Wang, Zeng; Hu, Guinv; Yang, Yunshan; Lv, Wangxia; Lu, Fangxiao; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is a poor prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with advanced gastric cancer with PM by retrospective analysis. A total of 54 gastric cancer patients with positive ascitic fluid cytology were included in this study: 23 patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy combined with HIPEC (HIPEC+ group) and 31 received systemic chemotherapy alone (HIPEC- group). The patients were divided into 4 categories according to the changes of ascites, namely disappear, decrease, stable and increase. The disappear + decrease rate in the HIPEC+ group was 82.60%, which was statistically significantly superior to that of the HIPEC- group (54.80%). The disappear + decrease + stable rate was 95.70% in the HIPEC+ group and 74.20% in the HIPEC- group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In 33 patients with complete survival data, including 12 from the HIPEC+ and 21 from the HIPEC- group, the median progression-free survival was 164 and 129 days, respectively, and the median overall survival (OS) was 494 and 223 days, respectively. In patients with ascites disappear/decrease/stable, the OS appeared to be better compared with that in patients with ascites increase, but the difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis revealed that patients with controlled disease (complete response + partial response + stable disease) may have a better OS compared with patients with progressive disease, with a statistically significant difference. The toxicities were well tolerated in both groups. Therefore, HIPEC was found to improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with PM, but the difference was not statistically significant, which may be attributed to the small number of cases. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm our data. PMID:27446587

  1. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. [Intraoperative chemotherapy against peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer with intraperitoneal activated carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C].

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Takahashi, T; Sawai, K; Yamaguchi, T; Iwamoto, A; Yoneyama, C

    1989-02-01

    For prevention and therapy of peritoneal dissemination, a new dosage from (MMC-CH) comprising carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C was given to 44 patients (the MMC-CH group) undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer, of which advancing stage was classified into the category of H0, and S2 or S3, and P0, P1, P2 or P3 according to the General Rules for the Gastric Cancer Study. MMC-CH, principally at 50 mg person in terms of mitomycin C was administered intraperitoneally before the surgical wound was closed. Historical control group was composed of 53 patients not given MMC-CH, who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the same advancing stage as those of the 44 patients. There was statistically no significant difference of age, sex, depth of infiltration, macroscopically and microscopically defined progression of lymph-nodal metastases, between the MMC-CH group and the historical control group. The survival rate of the overall patients, and each group of the patients with the lesion defined as P0, P1, P2, or P3 was compared with Kaplan-Meier's method between the MMC-CH group and the historical control group. In the MMC-CH group, the survival rates of the overall patients and the patients with P0, P1, or P2 lesion were statistically significantly higher than those in the historical control group. However, the rate of the P3 patients in the MMC-CH group was statistically significantly lower than in the historical control group. PMID:2493221

  3. Cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of primary peritoneal serous carcinoma: Results of a Chinese retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Hua; Ji, Zhong-He; Peng, Kai-Wen; Wu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Qian; Yonemura, Yukata; Li, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Purpose Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC) is a rare condition with a poor survival rate, even after treatment with debulking surgery followed by systemic chemotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for the treatment of PPSC. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 22 female patients with primary advanced PPSC (group A, n = 12) or recurrent PPSC (group B, n = 10) treated with 25 CRS + HIPEC procedures. The primary end point was overall survival (OS), and the secondary end points were safety profiles. Results A total of 25 CRS + HIPEC procedures were performed in these 22 patients. The median OS was 31.0 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 22.3-39.7), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 45.5%, and 27.3%, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the median OS was 31.0 months (95% CI 19.8-42.2) for group A vs. 38.5 months (95% CI 9.6-67.4) for group B (P = 0.832, log rank test); 51.5 months (95% CI 34.9-68.1) for peritoneal cancer index (PCI) ≤ 15 vs. 20.3 months (95% CI 12.6-28.0) for PCI > 15 (P = 0.000, log rank test); and 38.5 months (95% CI 22.5-54.5) for completeness of cytoreduction (CC) of 0-1 vs. 23.5 months (95% CI 15.3-31.7) for CC of 2-3 (P = 0.178, log rank test). There were no perioperative deaths. Serious adverse events (SAEs) occurred in two patients (9.1%). A univariate analysis identified PCI ≤ 15 as the only prognostic predicator (hazard ratio (HR) 13.1, 95% CI 2.7-63.4, P = 0.001). Conclusions CRS + HIPEC could contribute to favourable outcomes for select PPSC patients with acceptable safety profiles. PMID:26982735

  4. Immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Ose, Saya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We herein report the immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract (SAE) on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. SAE significantly enhanced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by both J774.1 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. In addition, the phagocytosis activity of J774.1 cells was facilitated by SAE. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SAE activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB cascades. It was found that SAE activates macrophages through not only TLR4, but also other receptors. The production of IL-6 was significantly enhanced by peritoneal macrophages from SAE-administered BALB/c mice, suggesting that SAE has a potential to stimulate macrophage activity in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that SAE would be a beneficial functional food with immunostimulatory effects on macrophages. PMID:27095137

  5. [Mortality from pleural and peritoneal cancer in a cohort of asbestos workers, many years after start of the exposure: possible role of fibers clearance].

    PubMed

    Adesi, F Barone; Ferrante, D; Bertolotti, M; Todesco, A; Mirabelli, D; Terracini, B; Magnani, C

    2007-01-01

    The multistage theory of carcinogenesis assumes rates of mesothelioma increasing monotonically as a function of time since first exposure (TSFE) to asbestos. However, some authors have suggested that the increase in mesothelioma rate with TSFE might be attenuated by clearance of asbestos from the lungs. We estimated mortality time trends from pleural and peritoneal cancer in a cohort of 3443 asbestos-cement workers. The role of asbestos clearance was explored using the traditional mesothelioma multistage model, generalized to include a term representing elimination over time. We observed 139 deaths from pleural and 56 from peritoneal cancer during the period 1950-2003. The rate of pleural cancer increased during the first 40 years of TSFE and reached a plateau thereafter. In contrast, the rate of peritoneal cancer increased monotonically with TSFE. The model allowing for asbestos elimination fitted the data better than the traditional model for pleural (p = 0.02) but not for peritoneal cancer (p = 0.22). The risk for pleural cancer, rather than showing an indefinite increase, might reach a plateau when a sufficiently long time has elapsed since exposure. The different trends for pleural and peritoneal cancer might be related to clearance of the asbestos from the workers' lungs. PMID:18409718

  6. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is associated with malignant phenotype and peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Dai; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Iwata, Naoki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Identification of novel gastric cancer (GC)-related molecules is necessary to improve management of patients with GC in both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) acts as an oncogene in the progression of GC and whether it serves as a novel diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. We conducted global expression profiling of GC cell lines and RNA interference experiments to evaluate the effect of PRMT5 expression on the phenotype of GC cells. We analysed tissues of 179 patients with GC to assess the association of PRMT5 mRNA levels with clinicopathological factors. Differential expression of PRMT5 mRNA by GC cell lines correlated positively with the levels of GEMIN2, STAT3 and TGFB3. PRMT5 knockdown reduced the proliferation, invasion and migration of a GC cell line. PRMT5 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GC tissues than the corresponding adjacent normal tissues and were independent of tumour depth, differentiation and lymph node metastasis. High PRMT5 expression was an independent risk factor of positive peritoneal lavage cytology (odds ratio 3.90, P=0.003) and decreased survival. PRMT5 enhances the malignant phenotype of GC cell lines and its expression in gastric tissues may serve as a biomarker for patient stratification and a potential target of therapy. PMID:27315569

  7. Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  8. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  10. Anal Cancer debuting as Cancer of Unknown Primary

    PubMed Central

    Sveistrup, Joen; Loft, Annika; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2011-01-01

    Anal cancer usually presents with a visible or palpable tumour. In this case we describe a 54-year old man diagnosed with Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) with a single inguinal node as the only finding. Thorough examination failed to identify any primary tumour. The patient was treated with lymph node dissection and not until nearly two years after initial diagnosis, was the primary tumour found, and the patient was diagnosed with anal cancer. The patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy and 45 months after initial diagnosis there is still no sign of relapse. This case illustrates, that anal cancer can metastasise before the primary tumour is detectable. Furthermore, it demonstrates the necessity of thorough clinical follow-up after treatment of CUP since the primary tumour was found later. Finally this is a case of a long-term survivor following treatment for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes from an initially unknown primary cancer. PMID:21769317

  11. Occurrence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after surgery and irradiation for cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, K.M.; Gallup, D.G.; Burgess, R.; Stock, R.J.

    1984-03-01

    Mesothelioma of the peritoneal cavity after irradiation is rare, and the diagnosis is sometimes difficult to establish. The following case is a report of a mesothelioma occurring 9 years after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix. In this patient, who had a hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy 7 years prior to the mesothelioma diagnosis, the histologic, histochemical, and ultrastructural findings were all consistent with a diagnosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. It is believed that this case is one of the first well-documented cases of peritoneal mesothelioma in a female who was treated by pelvic irradiation for another neoplasm.

  12. Evolution of management in peritoneal surface malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Canbay, Emel; Torun, Bahar Canbay; Torun, Ege Sinan; Yonemura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Management of peritoneal surface malignancies has gradually evolved by the introduction of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy applications. Recently, peritoneal metastases of intraabdominal solid organ tumors and primary peritoneal malignancies such as peritoneal mesothelioma are being treated with this new approach. Selection criteria are important to reduce morbidity and mortality rates of patients who will experience minimal or no benefit from these combined treatment modalities. Management of peritoneal surface malignancies with this current trend is presented in this review. PMID:27528813

  13. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Whole Abdominal-Pelvic Radiotherapy in the Management of Primary Ewing Sarcoma of the Peritoneal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Garant, Aurelie; Shakir, Shakir; Brossard, Josee; Garde-Granger, Perrine; Freeman, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma of the abdomen is a rare entity in pediatric oncology and represents a technical challenge both for surgeons and radiation oncologists. We document the case of a young female patient with primary disseminated, intraperitoneal Ewing sarcoma who after an excellent response to chemotherapy received preoperative whole abdominal-pelvic radiotherapy with good tolerance. PMID:26918223

  16. Expression of the Homeobox Gene HOXA9 in Ovarian Cancer Induces Peritoneal Macrophages to Acquire an M2 Tumor-Promoting Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Song Yi; Ladanyi, Andras; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an M2 macrophage phenotype that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and often correlates with poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer frequently present with peritoneal carcinomatosis, but the mechanisms that induce naïve peritoneal macrophages into TAMs are poorly understood. In this study, we found an increased abundance of TAMs in mouse i.p. xenograft models of ovarian cancer that expressed HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. HOXA9 expression in ovarian cancer cells stimulated chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and induced macrophages to acquire TAM-like features. These features included induction of the M2 markers, CD163 and CD206, and the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and chemokine ligand 17, and down-regulation of the immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12. HOXA9-mediated induction of TAMs was primarily due to the combinatorial effects of HOXA9-induced, tumor-derived transforming growth factor-β2 and chemokine ligand 2 levels. High HOXA9 expression in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer was strongly associated with increased abundance of TAMs and intratumoral T-regulatory cells and decreased abundance of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines were also elevated in ascites fluid of patients with tumors that highly expressed HOXA9. HOXA9 may, therefore, stimulate ovarian cancer progression by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment via paracrine effects on peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24332016

  17. Cytoreductive Surgery plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Improves Survival for Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Colorectal Cancer: A Phase II Study from a Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Yang; Yonemura, Yutaka; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a difficult clinical challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) because conventional treatment modalities could not produce significant survival benefit, which highlights the acute need for new treatment strategies. Our previous case-control study demonstrated the potential survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) over CRS alone. This phase II study was to further investigate the efficacy and adverse events of CRS+HIPEC for Chinese patients with CRC PC. Methods A total of 60 consecutive CRC PC patients underwent 63 procedures consisting of CRS+HIPEC and postoperative chemotherapy, all by a designated team focusing on this combined treatment modality. All the clinico-pathological information was systematically integrated into a prospective database. The primary end point was disease-specific overall survival (OS), and the secondary end points were perioperative safety profiles. Results By the most recent database update, the median follow-up was 29.9 (range 3.5–108.9) months. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI) ≤20 was in 47.0% of patients, complete cytoreductive surgery (CC0-1) was performed in 53.0% of patients. The median OS was 16.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.2–19.8) months, and the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 70.5%, 34.2%, 22.0% and 22.0%, respectively. Mortality and grades 3 to 5 morbidity rates in postoperative 30 days were 0.0% and 30.2%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified 3 parameters with significant effects on OS: PCI ≤20, CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy over 6 cycles. On multivariate analysis, however, only CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy ≥6 cycles were found to be independent factors for OS benefit. Discussion CRS+HIPEC at a specialized treatment center could improve OS for selected CRC PC patients from China, with acceptable perioperative safety. PMID:25259574

  18. Primary prevention and vaccination for penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barod, Ravi; Hegarty, Paul K.; Minhas, Suks

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of penile cancer is proportional to the stage at presentation. Strategies aimed at primary prevention would have a clear advantage, both for the individual and in terms of health economics. A number of preventative measures could be employed, including circumcision, smoking cessation, education on hygiene and human papillomavirus (HPV) prevention. There is a high prevalence of HPV infection associated with penile cancer worldwide. The recent development of HPV vaccines has facilitated interest in their use for the prevention of penile cancer. In this article we review the literature surrounding penile cancer prevention and HPV vaccination in men. PMID:23730331

  19. [A Patient with Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination Who Survived for Five Years after Sequential Chemotherapy with S-1 Followed by Paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shinichi; Kakiuchi, Yoshihiko; Takashima, Hirotoshi

    2016-02-01

    A 76-year-old man complained of hematemesis and melena, and consulted the doctor. An endoscopic examination revealed type 3 advanced gastric cancer and a gastric ulcer with a visible vessel. We performed total gastrectomy with peritoneal metastasis dissection. After surgery, he received sequential chemotherapy with S-1 followed by paclitaxel. He continued the adjuvant chemotherapy without severe adverse events. He was treated successfully in spite of risk factors such as old age and postoperative body weight loss. We report herein a rare case of gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination who achieved 5- year survival after surgery along with the literature review. PMID:27067693

  20. Metastatic male ductal breast cancer mimicking obstructing primary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-03-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  1. Metastatic Male Ductal Breast Cancer Mimicking Obstructing Primary Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  2. Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Erika M; Farrell, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated. Prostate cancer survivors should be screened regularly for urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Patients with predominant urge incontinence symptoms, which can occur after surgical and radiation treatments, may benefit from an anticholinergic agent. If there is difficulty with bladder emptying, a trial of an alpha blocker may be considered. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can effectively treat sexual dysfunction following treatment for prostate cancer. Osteoporosis screening should occur before initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy should be monitored for anemia, metabolic syndrome, and vasomotor symptoms. Healthy lifestyle choices should be encouraged, including weight management, regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and smoking cessation. Primary care physicians should be vigilant for psychosocial distress, including depression, among prostate cancer survivors, as well as the potential impact of this distress on patients' family members and partners. PMID:27175954

  3. Peritonitis - spontaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... a catheter used in peritoneal dialysis. Antibiotics may control infection in cases of spontaneous peritonitis with liver or kidney disease. Intravenous therapy can treat dehydration . You may need to stay in the hospital so health care providers can rule out conditions ...

  4. Weekly Paclitaxel Versus Three-Weekly Paclitaxel in Recurrent Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian and Peritoneal Cancers: A Phase III Study

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Mohammed A.; Elkady, Mohammad S.; Nasr, Khalid E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancers represents a therapeutic challenge. The aim of this Phase III prospective study was to compare the survival benefits, objective response rate, and toxicities among patients treated by weekly paclitaxel with those who underwent three-weekly paclitaxel in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancers. METHOD Patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancer were allocated to receive either weekly paclitaxel (arm 1) at 80 m/m2 or three-weekly paclitaxel (arm 2) at 175 mg/m2. RESULTS Fifty-five patients were enrolled (30 arm 1, 25 arm 2). The mean age was 56.7 years, and the median performance status was 0 (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG]). For arms 1 and 2, the objective response rates were 27% and 16%, the median progression-free survival were 7 and 4.5 months, and the median overall survival were 15.5 and 12.5 months, respectively. Treatments also significantly improved the quality of life. Treatment was associated with mild toxicities, and while neuropathy was slightly higher for weekly paclitaxel over three-weekly paclitaxel, hematological toxicities were significantly lower for the former than the latter. CONCLUSION Paclitaxel rechallenge showed antitumor activity in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancers. Weekly paclitaxel achieved better results than three-weekly paclitaxel in terms of survival benefits, quality of life, and toxicities. PMID:27147900

  5. 28 CFR 79.66 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.66... renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by...

  6. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  7. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  8. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  9. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  10. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  11. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  12. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  13. 28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by medical documentation. In...

  14. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  15. 28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by medical documentation. In...

  16. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  17. 28 CFR 79.66 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.66... renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by...

  18. 28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by medical documentation. In...

  19. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  20. 28 CFR 79.66 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.66... renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by...

  1. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  2. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  3. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  4. 28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by medical documentation. In...

  5. 28 CFR 79.66 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.66... renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by...

  6. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  7. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  8. 28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by medical documentation. In...

  9. 28 CFR 79.66 - Proof of primary renal cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.66... renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by...

  10. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Activity ex vivo of cytotoxic drugs in patient samples of peritoneal carcinomatosis with special focus on colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal choice of cytotoxic drugs for intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) in conjunction with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is poorly defined. We investigated drug sensitivity ex vivo in patient samples of various PC tumor types and correlated clinical outcome to drug sensitivity within the subset of PC from colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods PC tissue samples (n = 174) from mesothelioma, pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), ovarian cancer, CRC or appendix cancer were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to oxaliplatin, cisplatin, mitomycin C, melphalan, irinotecan, docetaxel, doxorubicin and 5-FU. Clinicopathological variables and outcome data were collected for the CRC subset. Results Mesothelioma and ovarian cancer were generally more drug sensitive than CRC, appendix cancer and PMP. Oxaliplatin showed the most favorable ratio between achievable IPC concentration and ex vivo drug sensitivity. Drug sensitivity in CRC varied considerably between individual samples. Ex vivo drug sensitivity did not obviously correlate to time-to-progression (TTP) in individual patients. Conclusions Drug-sensitivity varies considerably between PC diagnoses and individual patients arguing for individualized therapy in IPC rather than standard diagnosis-specific therapy. However, in the current paradigm of treatment according to diagnosis, oxaliplatin is seemingly the preferred drug for IPC from a drug sensitivity and concentration perspective. In the CRC subset, analysis of correlation between ex vivo drug sensitivity and TTP was inconclusive due to the heterogeneous nature of the data. PMID:24063788

  12. Cancer Survivorship for Primary Care Annotated Bibliography

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Matthew Y.; Overholser, Linda; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term cancer survivorship care is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of research. Increasing cancer survivorship rates have created a huge population of long-term cancer survivors whose cancer-specific needs challenge healthcare infrastructure and highlight a significant deficit of knowledge and guidelines in transitional care from treatment to normalcy/prolonged survivorship. As the paradigm of cancer care has changed from a fixation on the curative to the maintenance on long-term overall quality of life, so to, has the delineation of responsibility between oncologists and primary care physicians (PCPs). As more patients enjoy long-term survival, PCPs play a more comprehensive role in cancer care following acute treatment. To this end, this annotated bibliography was written to provide PCPs and other readers with an up-to-date and robust base of knowledge on long-term cancer survivorship, including definitions and epidemiological information as well as specific considerations and recommendations on physical, psychosocial, sexual, and comorbidity needs of survivors. Additionally, significant information is included on survivorship care, specifically Survivorship Care Plans (SPCs) and their evolution, utilization by oncologists and PCPs, and current gaps, as well as an introduction to patient navigation programs. Given rapid advancements in cancer research, this bibliography is meant to serve as current baseline reference outlining the state of the science. PMID:26114091

  13. Second primary cancers in patients with urothelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Akdeniz, Fırat; Yıldız, Güner; Divrik, Rauf Taner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the second primary cancers (SPCs) in patients with urothelial cancer (UC). Materials and Methods The records of 2,339 patients whose UC was diagnosed between January 1974 and December 2012 were reviewed. All data about characteristics of patients, of UC and, of SPC was, recorded digitally. We investigated the prevalence and the type of second or higher order cancers, and the factors associated with SPC. Results Total 260 patients (11.1%) had SPC, 14 had a third primary cancer and one had a fourth primary cancer. The most common SPC with UC was lung cancer (29.6%). Of all 260 with SPC, 64 (24.6%) had synchronous (within the 6 months) SPC, 120 (46.2%) had subsequent SPC and, 76 (29.2%) had antecedent SPC. The mean duration of SPC was 56 months in patients with subsequent SPC and 75.8 months in patients with antecedent SPC. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of UC was higher in patients with SPC. The ratio of male gender, body mass index, blood type, status of smoking and, occupational risk was similar in both groups. Total amount of smoking and the mean follow-up were higher in patients with SPC. Conclusions The majority of the patients with UC have long life expectancy. In patients with UC, the risk of having another cancer is quite higher than normal population. The physicians managing patients with UC should look for SPC.

  14. Modification of the Tumor Microenvironment in KRAS or c-MYC-Induced Ovarian Cancer-Associated Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Kawata, Akira; Ogishima, Juri; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Sato, Masakazu; Inoue, Tomoko; Nishida, Haruka; Furuya, Hitomi; Tomio, Kensuke; Arimoto, Takahide; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The most common properties of oncogenes are cell proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in malignant cells, which, as a consequence, induce tumor formation and dissemination. However, the effects of oncogenes on the tumor microenvironment (TME) have not yet been examined in detail. The accumulation of ascites accompanied by chronic inflammation and elevated concentrations of VEGF is a hallmark of the progression of ovarian cancer. We herein demonstrated the mechanisms by which oncogenes contribute to modulating the ovarian cancer microenvironment. c-MYC and KRAS were transduced into the mouse ovarian cancer cell line ID8. ID8, ID8-c-MYC, or ID8-KRAS cells were then injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57/BL6 mice and the production of ascites was assessed. ID8-c-MYC and ID8-KRAS both markedly accelerated ovarian cancer progression in vivo, whereas no significant differences were observed in proliferative activity in vitro. ID8-KRAS in particular induced the production of ascites, which accumulated between approximately two to three weeks after the injection, more rapidly than ID8 and ID8-c-MYC (between nine and ten weeks and between six and seven weeks, respectively). VEGF concentrations in ascites significantly increased in c-MYC-induced ovarian cancer, whereas the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in ascites were significantly high in KRAS-induced ovarian cancer and were accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in ascites. A cytokine array revealed that KRAS markedly induced the expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in ID8 cells. These results suggest that oncogenes promote cancer progression by modulating the TME in favor of cancer progression. PMID:27483433

  15. Modification of the Tumor Microenvironment in KRAS or c-MYC-Induced Ovarian Cancer-Associated Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Taguchi, Ayumi; Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Kawata, Akira; Ogishima, Juri; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Sato, Masakazu; Inoue, Tomoko; Nishida, Haruka; Furuya, Hitomi; Tomio, Kensuke; Arimoto, Takahide; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The most common properties of oncogenes are cell proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in malignant cells, which, as a consequence, induce tumor formation and dissemination. However, the effects of oncogenes on the tumor microenvironment (TME) have not yet been examined in detail. The accumulation of ascites accompanied by chronic inflammation and elevated concentrations of VEGF is a hallmark of the progression of ovarian cancer. We herein demonstrated the mechanisms by which oncogenes contribute to modulating the ovarian cancer microenvironment. c-MYC and KRAS were transduced into the mouse ovarian cancer cell line ID8. ID8, ID8-c-MYC, or ID8-KRAS cells were then injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57/BL6 mice and the production of ascites was assessed. ID8-c-MYC and ID8-KRAS both markedly accelerated ovarian cancer progression in vivo, whereas no significant differences were observed in proliferative activity in vitro. ID8-KRAS in particular induced the production of ascites, which accumulated between approximately two to three weeks after the injection, more rapidly than ID8 and ID8-c-MYC (between nine and ten weeks and between six and seven weeks, respectively). VEGF concentrations in ascites significantly increased in c-MYC-induced ovarian cancer, whereas the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in ascites were significantly high in KRAS-induced ovarian cancer and were accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in ascites. A cytokine array revealed that KRAS markedly induced the expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in ID8 cells. These results suggest that oncogenes promote cancer progression by modulating the TME in favor of cancer progression. PMID:27483433

  16. Proactive Management for Gastric, Colorectal and Appendiceal Malignancies: Preventing Peritoneal Metastases with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Sammartino, Paolo; Biacchi, Daniele; Cornali, Tommaso; Cardi, Maurizio; Accarpio, Fabio; Impagnatiello, Alessio; Sollazzo, Bianca Maria; Di Giorgio, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    An integrated treatment strategy using peritonectomy procedures plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is now a clinical standard of care in selected patients with peritoneal metastases and primary peritoneal tumors. This comprehensive approach can offer many patients, who hitherto had no hope of cure, a good quality of life and survival despite limited morbidity. The increasingly successful results and chance of interfering in the natural history of disease has prompted research to develop for some clinical conditions a therapeutic strategy designed to prevent malignant peritoneal dissemination before it becomes clinically evident and treat it microscopically (tertiary prevention). The main factor governing successful cytoreductive surgery and predicting outcome is the extent of peritoneal spread assessed with the peritoneal cancer index (PCI). In peritoneal metastases from colorectal and gastric cancer the PCI score acquires a specific role acting as the cut-off between patients who can undergo curative surgery or palliation. Long-term results show that the only group enjoying favorable results are patients with limited disease (a statistical minority). By applying to appropriately selected patients with primary malignancies a proactive management strategy including HIPEC we can treat patients with microscopic peritoneal dissemination and therefore at PCI 0. Among treated conditions pseudomyxoma peritonei enjoys the best results. But a major future advance comes from identifying among lesions at major risk of pseudomyxoma. PMID:27065712

  17. The Molecular Taxonomy of Primary Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects. PMID:26544944

  18. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your peritoneum is the tissue that lines your abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in your abdomen. ... the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include Peritonitis - an inflammation ...

  19. Peritonitis - secondary

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure. Tests may include: Blood culture Blood chemistry, including pancreatic enzymes Complete blood count Liver and kidney function tests X-rays or CT scan Peritoneal fluid culture Urinalysis

  20. Primary cardiac sarcoma after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Sandra; Marques, Irene; Marques, Franklim

    2013-01-01

    Primary cardiac sarcomas are rare tumours carrying poor prognosis. Postradiation sarcoma has been reported in patients with breast, cervical and head and neck cancers. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with stage IIA breast cancer diagnosed in 1997, submitted to mastectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy. Pulmonary metastasis were detected in 2008 and treated with chemotherapy and hormonotherapy, being in complete remission since August 2009. She was admitted in December 2009 with a 3-week history of fever, dyspnoea, polyarthralgias and leg oedema. An echocardiography showed a mass in the left atrium. She was submitted to a surgical tumour resection and the histology revealed a sarcoma of intermediate degree of differentiation. Chemoradiation therapy was started and she remains alive after 3 years, without tumour regrowth or metastasis. This case is a therapeutic challenge, because the previous therapies for breast cancer hampered the options for extra chemoradiation therapy. PMID:23608855

  1. Evaluating primary prevention programmes against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Based on current knowledge, roughly one third of all cancers worldwide are preventable, and primary prevention is increasingly seen as an important cancer control strategy. Interventions to reduce the exposure to known causes can be effected through legislation or education, or by means of vaccination or chemoprevention. Since primary prevention actions can be costly and will compete for resources needed for other disease control activities, and since there is no guarantee that they will be successful, they should not be introduced haphazardly but on the basis of scientific evaluations. This paper presents the main principles to be followed in designing such evaluations; the illustrations often, of necessity, come from other diseases (particularly cardiovascular disease), where there is considerably more experience. Because the interventions involve changes in lifestyle and behaviour, and because a long time is necessary to observe the ultimate endpoints, controlled intervention studies against cancer present many scientific and logistical difficulties. Some interventions, such as vaccination and chemoprevention (to test suspected protective agents) may be evaluated by traditional clinical trial methodology, using intermediate as well as final (cancer incidence and/or mortality) endpoints. Active, target-directed and preferably controlled health service research studies will definitely be needed to assess community or population interventions based on legislation or education. PMID:3488847

  2. Production of IL1-beta by ovarian cancer cells induces mesothelial cell beta1-integrin expression facilitating peritoneal dissemination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A crucial step in the metastatic spread of ovarian cancer (OC) is the adhesion and implantation of tumor cells to the peritoneal mesothelium. In order to study this step in the cascade, we derived a pro-metastatic human ovarian carcinoma cell line (MFOC3) from the non-metastatic FOC3 line. Methods Molecular profiling of the isogeneic lines identified differentially expressed genes, and investigation for a role in dissemination for specific factors was achieved by development of a co-culture adhesion assay utilizing monolayers of human mesothelial cells. Results After murine intraperitoneal inoculation, the FOC3 cell line formed no metastases, but the MFOC3 subline formed metastases in > 80% of SCID mice. MFOC3 cells also adhered 2-3 times more avidly to mesothelial monolayers. This adhesion was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to IL-1β and enhanced by recombinant IL-1β (p < 0.01). IL-1β induced mesothelial cell β1-integrin, and an antibody to this subunit also inhibited the adhesion of MFOC3 to mesothelial cells in vitro and significantly reduced metastases in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of a cohort of 96 ovarian cancer cases showed that negative IL-1β expression was significantly associated with an improved overall survival rate. Conclusions These results suggest that a IL-1β/β1-integrin axis plays a role in ovarian tumor cell adhesion to mesothelia, a crucial step in ovarian cancer dissemination. PMID:22296757

  3. Impact of peritoneal carcinomatosis in the disease history of colorectal cancer management: a longitudinal experience of 2406 patients over two decades

    PubMed Central

    Kerscher, A G; Chua, T C; Gasser, M; Maeder, U; Kunzmann, V; Isbert, C; Germer, C T; Pelz, J O W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent therapeutic developments demand for an update of information on natural history, risk factors and prognosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin. Therefore, prospective registry data should provide information about incidence, predictors and outcome. Methods: From a prospectively expanded single-institutional database with 2406 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), clinical, histological and survival data were analysed for independent risk factors and prognosis. Findings were then stratified to the era of treatment without chemotherapy, 5-Fluorouracil-only and contemporary systemic chemotherapy, respectively. Results: Overall, 256 (10.6%) patients were diagnosed with PC thereof 141 (5.85%) with metachronous PC. Independent risk factors for the development of metachronous PC were age <62 years, N2-status, T4-status, location of the primary in the left colon or appendix. In the era of contemporary systemic chemotherapy, prognosis for PC improved only not-significantly (median survival of 17.9 months vs 7.03 months, P=0.054). Conclusion: Despite improvement in the overall outcome with prolonged median survival for the complete patient cohort with CRC, those patients with PC have not experienced the same benefit. In the era of contemporary systemic chemotherapy, progress in treatment resulted in only limited survival benefit. Thus, continuous efforts for further therapeutic advancements should be undertaken in these patients diagnosed with PC. PMID:23511564

  4. BRAF mutation in multiple primary cancer with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn; Chang, Hee-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Recently, BRAF mutation testing has been introduced as a marker in differentiating Lynch syndrome from sporadic colorectal cancers or in predicting colorectal cancers with worse prognosis. Individuals with hereditary predisposition to cancer development are at an increased risk of developing multiple primary cancers. The purpose of this study is to identify mutation in the BRAF gene in multiple primary cancers with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. Methods: BRAF mutation was analysed in 45 patients with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer, synchronously or metachronously. Results: Mean age was 64.07 years (range: 47–83 years). For the colorectal cancer, tumors were located at the sigmoid colon in eight patients (17.8%) and at the rectum in 22 patients (48.9%). Twenty-three patients (51.1%) had synchronous cancer. Four patients (8.9%) had family members with cancer. BRAF mutation was identified in three patients (6.7%). All three of these patients had metachronous cancers. The colorectal cancers were located in the sigmoid colon (1 patient) and the rectum (2 patients). Conclusions: BRAF mutation rate was low in the multiple primary cancer with colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. With only BRAF gene study, it was not possible to identify any correlation with family history of colorectal cancer. Further study means considering other genes – MSI, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6. PMID:24759670

  5. Intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel solubilized with poly(2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co n-butyl methacrylate) for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Soma, Daisuke; Kitayama, Joji; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Jun; Kamei, Takao; Ishigami, Hironori; Kaisaki, Shoichi; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2009-10-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of paclitaxel (PTX) is a hopeful therapeutic strategy for peritoneal malignancy. Intravenously (i.v.) injected nanoparticle anticancer drugs are known to be retained in the blood stream for a long time and favorably extravasated from vessels into the interstitium of tumor tissue. In this study, we evaluated the effect of i.p. injection of PTX (PTX-30W), which was prepared by solubulization with water-soluble amphiphilic polymer composed of PMB-30W, a co-polymer of 2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate, for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. In a peritoneal metastasis model with transfer of MKN45P in nude mice, the effect of i.p. administration of PTX-30W was compared with conventional PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL (PTX-Cre). The drug accumulation in peritoneal nodules was evaluated with intratumor PTX concentration and fluorescence microscopic observation. PTX-30W reduced the number of metastatic nodules and tumor volume significantly more than did conventional PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL (PTX-Cre), and prolonged the survival time (P < 0.05). PTX concentration in disseminated tumors measured by HPLC was higher in the PTX-30W than in the PTX-Cre group up to 24 h after i.p. injection. Oregon green-conjugated PTX-30W, i.p. administered, preferentially accumulated in relatively hypovascular areas in the peripheral part of disseminated nodules, which was significantly greater than the accumulation of PTX-Cre. I.p. administration of PTX-30W may be a promising strategy for peritoneal dissemination, due to its superior characteristics to accumulate in peritoneal lesions. PMID:19604244

  6. [A long-term survivor of colorectal cancer associated with multiple liver metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis treated through a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2012-11-01

    Even in the era of new anticancer drugs, an optimal treatment strategy for colorectal cancer associated with liver metastasis and peritoneal carcinomatosis has yet to be established. Here we report the case of a long-term survivor with very advanced colon cancer who underwent repeated resective surgery and chemotherapy. This 69-year-old man underwent a Hartmann's procedure and the resection of peritoneal metastases of cancer of the rectosigmoid, which had infiltrated the retroperitoneum giving rise to multiple liver metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The resection margin was positive for cancer. After 14 courses of a modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) regimen, a partial response with no development of new lesions was obtained. Multiple partial hepatectomies were subsequently performed. After the completion of an additional 6 courses of mFOLFOX6, a positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) examination demonstrated a hot spot in segment 4. This hot deposit disappeared after a further 8 courses of mFOLFOX6. The patient then underwent a left lateral segmentectomy for a newly developed lesion in segment 3, which was detected 2 years and 7 months after the first operation. The patient has remained free from recurrence for 2 years since his last operation. PMID:23268036

  7. Prognostic factors of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer: A retrospective study from a single center

    PubMed Central

    MEN, HAI-TAO; GOU, HONG-FENG; LIU, JI-YAN; LI, QIU; LUO, DE-YUN; BI, FENG; QIU, MENG

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of gastric origin is currently recognized as a terminal disease with a poor prognosis. Advancements in novel therapeutic approaches, including intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC), have recently been made and it is believed that this may have contributed to the improved survival observed in patients with PC. The present study aimed to investigate overall survival (OS) and the associated prognostic factors in patients with PC of gastric origin who underwent IPC. A total of 57 patients were studied, with a median age of 51 years. The median follow-up time was 12.4 months. PC was diagnosed in all patients with gastric cancer. The median survival time of all patients was 10.1 months, whilst the OS rate at 1, 2 and 3 years was observed to be 46, 19 and 12%, respectively. Symptomatic ascites and a signet ring cell (SRC) histopathological type were demonstrated to signify a poor prognosis. Complete resection of all gross disease (CCR-0) and an increased number of cycles of systemic chemotherapy were independent factors that were observed to correlate with increased OS. The most common morbidities of grade 3/4 adverse effects were bone marrow suppression, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea. In conclusion, IPC is an important treatment option for patients with PC that has originated from gastric cancer. Symptomatic ascites and SRC adenocarcinoma serve as negative clinicopathological prognostic factors, whilst CCR-0 and increased systemic chemotherapy cycles (≥4 cycles) may prove to be an important therapeutic option for PC patients. PMID:27123142

  8. Lifestyle components and primary breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer primary prevention is a high research priority due to the high psychological and economic costs. The disease is a multistep process and several risk factors have been recognized. Over the past three decades numerous studies have investigated the association of lifestyle with breast cancer, showing independent effects of various factors. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of lifestyle patterns, such as physical activity, diet, smoking, hormone therapy, and experience of psychological stress in the modulation of breast cancer in women, and discuss commonly accepted biological mechanisms hypothesized as responsible for the associations. The findings indicate that regular physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity is probably linked with the decreased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females and suggestive for a decrease of the risk in premenopausal women. In contrast, the consumption of high-fat diet, alcohol intake, and use of combined estrogen and synthetic progestagen hormonal therapy may increase the risk. Epidemiological findings dealing with a role of smoking and experience of psychological stress are conflicting. PMID:25605138

  9. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  10. Peritoneal "melanosis".

    PubMed

    Chang, Ea-sle; Bachul, Piotr; Szura, Mirosław; Szpor, Joanna; Okoń, Krzysztof; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2015-09-01

    A case of a23 year old female with peritoneal melanosis associated with adenocarcinoma of the rectum is reported. During laparoscopic anterior resection of the rectum, diffuse black pigmentations on the parietal peritoneum, greater omentum, mesenteric lymph nodes and ovaries were discovered. The histopathological findings revealed the presence of macrophages packed with black pigment. These results together with clinical data excluded metastatic melanoma and confirmed the diagnosis of the race condition called peritoneal melanosis. Due to the begin character of the lesions the laparoscopic treatment was continued. There were no remissions or progression of the reported in English literature and this is the second case of peritoneal melanosis that has been associated with adenocarcinoma of the large intestine. PMID:26619112

  11. Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin

    2016-03-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the "Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative," dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420

  12. Microbiological aspects of peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    von Graevenitz, A; Amsterdam, D

    1992-01-01

    The process of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has provided a useful, relatively inexpensive, and safe alternative for patients with end-stage renal disease. Infectious peritonitis, however, has limited a more widespread acceptance of this technique. The definition of peritonitis in this patient population is not universally accepted and does not always include the laboratory support of a positive culture (or Gram stain). In part, the omission of clinical microbiological findings stems from the lack of sensitivity of earlier microbiological efforts. Peritonitis results from decreased host phagocytic efficiency with depressed phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages. During episodes of peritonitis, fluid movement is reversed, away from the lymphatics and peritoneal membrane and toward the cavity. As a result, bloodstream infections are rare. Most peritonitis episodes are caused by bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most frequently isolated organisms, usually originating from the skin flora, but a wide array of microbial species have been documented as agents of peritonitis. Clinical microbiology laboratories need to be cognizant of the diverse agents so that appropriate primary media can be used. The quantity of dialysate fluid that is prepared for culture is critical and should constitute at least 10 ml. The sensitivity of the cultural approach depends on the volume of dialysate, its pretreatment (lysis or centrifugation), the media used, and the mode of incubation. The low concentration of microorganisms in dialysate fluids accounts for negative Gram stain results. Prevention of infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with the socioeconomic status of the patient, advances in equipment (catheter) technology, and, probably least important, the application of prophylactic antimicrobial agents. PMID:1735094

  13. Molecular Profiling in Unknown Primary Cancer: Accuracy of Tissue of Origin Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Spigel, David R.; Yardley, Denise A.; Erlander, Mark G.; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Hainsworth, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This retrospective, multi-institutional study evaluated the accuracy of tissue-of-origin prediction by molecular profiling in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP). Methods. Thirty-eight of 501 patients (7.6%) with CUP, seen in 2000–2008, had their latent primary site tumor subsequently identified during life. Twenty-eight of these patients (73.7%) had adequate initial tissue biopsies available for molecular profiling with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay (Cancer Type ID; bioTheranostics, Inc., San Diego, CA). The assay was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens in a blinded fashion, and the assay results were compared with clinicopathologic data and the actual latent primary sites. Results. Twenty of the 28 (71.4%) RT-PCR assays were successfully completed (eight biopsies had either insufficient tumor or poorly preserved RNA). Fifteen of the 20 assay predictions (75%) were correct (95% confidence interval, 60%–85%), corresponding to the actual latent primary sites identified after the initial diagnosis of CUP. Primary sites correctly identified included breast (four patients), ovary/primary peritoneal (four patients), non-small cell lung (three patients), colorectal (two patients), gastric (one patient), and melanoma (one patient). Three predictions were incorrect (intestinal, testicular, sarcoma) in patients with gastroesophageal, pancreatic, and non-small cell lung cancer, respectively, and two were unclassifiable in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Clinicopathologic findings were helpful in suggesting the correct primary site in some patients and appear to complement the molecular assay findings. Conclusions. These data validate the reliability of this assay in predicting the primary site in CUP patients and may form the basis for more successful site-directed therapy, when used in concert with clinicopathologic data. PMID:20427384

  14. Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L.; Ahn, Edward H.; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshein, Neil B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate risk factors that predict brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Methods All patients with FIGO stage I to IV who underwent initial cytoreductive surgery between January 1995 and January 2009 were evaluated. The tumor samples were evaluated for 7 markers including multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1), DNA aneuploidity and S-phase fraction, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 mutation, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD31. Biomarker expression was evaluated as a predictor of hematogenous metastasis to the following locations: (i) liver and spleen, (ii) lung, and (iii) brain. Results There were 309 cases identified during the period. Of those, five (1.6%, 95%CI 0.2-3.0%) women developed brain metastasis. Time to onset of brain metastasis was significantly longer than for other recurrent sites (median time to recurrence after initial cytoreduction, brain vs lung vs liver, 21.4 vs 12.6 vs 11.0 months, p<0.05). Significantly increased expression of MDR-1 was seen in tumors from women who developed brain metastasis (brain vs non-brain sites, 80% vs 4.2-24.3%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, MDR-1 was the only significant variable associated with the risk of brain metastasis. MDR-1 expression predicted brain metastasis (Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis, AUC 0.808, p=0.018), and with a 10% positive expression of MDR-1 as the cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of prediction of brain metastasis were 80%, 86.1%, 15.4%, 99.3%, and 85.9%, respectively (odds ratio 24.7, 95%CI 2.64-232, p=0.002). Conclusions Increased expression of MDR-1 in the tumor tissue obtained at initial cytoreduction is associated with increased risk of developing brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. PMID:20921883

  15. [Peritoneal echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, C; Vara-Thorbeck, R

    1986-01-01

    Secondary peritoneal echinococcosis was recorded from 50 in 312 patients (16 per cent) who had been hospitalised for liver echinococcosis. Hydatido and peritoneal hydatidiosis were recorded from 34 of these patients and thus accounted for the two most common pathological forms of secondary peritoneal echinococcosis, according to Dévè. Peritoneal echinococcosis usually is not diagnosed until conspicuous symptoms grow manifest due to cyst growth or other complications. Positive responses were recorded from all the above cases to laboratory tests (eosinophilia in over five to nine per cent) and were also established on the basis of immune reactions, including the complement fixation reaction according to Weinberg, the intracutaneous test by Casoni, and latex echinococcus reaction. Surgery, at present, is the only promising therapeutic approach to the problem. Surgical intervention could not even be avoided by application of mebendazol. Postoperative lethality amounted to four per cent and morbidity to ten per cent. They were comparatively low, measured by the generally poor prognosis of the disease. PMID:3776378

  16. Dialysis - peritoneal

    MedlinePlus

    ... The number of exchanges and amount of dwell time depends on the method of PD you use and other factors. Your ... PD: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) . For this ... routine until it is time to drain the fluid. You are not hooked ...

  17. Radio Frequency Ablation for Primary Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    organizations for health technology assessments, including the Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment (CCOHTA) and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA), were scanned for previous systematic reviews on RFA. The Cochrane Library Database was also scanned. The most recent systematic review examined the literature up to October 2003. Five previous health technology assessments were found. To update the international systematic reviews, the Medical Advisory Secretariat systematically reviewed the literature from January 1, 2003 to the third week of April 2004. Peer-reviewed literature from EMBASE, MEDLINE (including in-process and other nonindexed citations) and the Cochrane Library Database were searched for the following search terms: Catheter ablation Radiofrequency or radio-frequency or radio frequency or RFA or RFTA Liver neoplasms or liver cancer or hepatocellular or hepatocellular or hepatic Cancer The inclusion criteria were as follows: Population: patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma Procedure: RFA used as the only treatment (not as an adjunct) Language: publication in English Published health technology assessments, guidelines, and peer-reviewed literature (abstracts and in-progress manuscripts) Outcomes: therapeutic response (% complete ablation), mortality, survival, and tumour recurrence Grey literature, where relevant, was also reviewed. Summary of Findings The Medical Advisory Secretariat included 5 previous health technology assessments from 2002 to 2004 and 9 peer-reviewed studies from January 2003 to April 2004 in its review. The health technology assessments suggested that RFA is as safe and effective for treating up to 3 or 4 small (< 4 to 5 cm), unresectable liver tumours in the short term (2 years). One small randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared RFA with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), another ablative technique, suggested that RFA is at least as safe and effective for

  18. Peritoneal and hematogenous metastases of ovarian cancer cells are both controlled by the p90RSK through a self-reinforcing cell autonomous mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Torchiaro, Erica; Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Valdembri, Donatella; Gagliardi, Paolo Armando; Gai, Marta; Erriquez, Jessica; Serini, Guido; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms orchestrating peritoneal and hematogenous metastases of ovarian cancer cells are assumed to be distinct. We studied the p90RSK family of serine/threonine kinases that lie downstream the RAS-ERK/MAPK pathway and modulate a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, motility and invasiveness. We found the RSK1 and RSK2 isoforms expressed in a number of human ovarian cancer cell lines, where they played redundant roles in sustaining in vitro motility and invasiveness. In vivo, silencing of both RSK1 and RSK2 almost abrogated short-term and long-term metastatic engraftment of ovarian cancer cells in the peritoneum. In addition, RSK1/RSK2 silenced cells failed to colonize the lungs after intravenous injection and to form hematogenous metastasis from subcutaneous xenografts. RSK1/RSK2 suppression resulted in lessened ovarian cancer cell spreading on endogenous fibronectin (FN). Mechanistically, RSK1/RSK2 knockdown diminished FN transcription, α5β1 integrin activation and TGF-β1 translation. Reduced endogenous FN deposition and TGF-β1 secretion depended on the lack of activating phosphorylation of the transcription/translation factor YB-1 by p90RSK. Altogether data show how p90RSK activates a self-reinforcing cell autonomous pro-adhesive circuit necessary for metastatic seeding of ovarian cancer cells. Thus, p90RSK inhibitors might hinder both the hematogenous and the peritoneal metastatic spread of human ovarian cancer. PMID:26625210

  19. Versatility of Particulate Carriers: Development of Pharmacodynamically Optimized Drug-Loaded Microparticles for Treatment of Peritoneal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Au, Jessie L-S; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard-of-care. We have developed drug-loaded, tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. TPM comprises two components and uses the versatile PLGA or poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) copolymer to provide tumor-selective adherence and pharmacodynamically optimized fractionated dosing to achieve the desired tumor priming (which promotes particle penetration into tumors) plus immediate and sustained antitumor activity. Preclinical studies show that TPM is less toxic and more effective against several IP metastatic tumors with different characteristics (fast vs. slow growing, porous vs. densely packed structures, wide-spread vs. solitary tumors, early vs. late stage, with or without peritoneal carcinomatosis or ascites), compared to the intravenous paclitaxel/Cremophor micellar solution that has been used off-label in previous IP studies. TPM further requires less frequent dosing. These encouraging preclinical results have motivated the follow-up clinical development of TPM. We are working with National Institutes of Health on the IND-enabling studies. PMID:26089090

  20. Progress in treatments for colorectal cancer peritoneal metastases during the years 2010-2015. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baratti, Dario; Kusamura, Shigeki; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Guaglio, Marcello; Niger, Monica; Deraco, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal metastases (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) were traditionally associated with bad prognosis. Only recently, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has resulted in survival improvements. A systematic literature search between January 2010 and June 2015 was performed. Studies were selected and appraised according to predetermined criteria. Nineteen cohort studies, and thirteen comparative studies of CRS/HIPEC were included. The weighted median overall survival was 31.6 months (range 16-51). Major morbidity was 17.6-52.4% (weighted average 32.6%). Mortality was 0-8.1% (weighted average 2.9%). Additional relevant topics, such as CRC-PM prevalence, results by systemic therapies, preoperative work-up, and technical aspects were summarized through a narrative review. The recent literature suggests that CRS/HIPEC is gaining acceptance as standard of care for selected CRC-PM patients. Refinement of selection criteria, and rationalization of comprehensive systemic and local-regional management is ongoing. Prevention and early treatment of PM are new and promising options. PMID:26867984

  1. Barriers to Cancer Screening by Rural Appalachian Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Renee; Tudiver, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Rural Appalachia has significantly higher overall cancer mortality compared with national rates, and lack of cancer screening is believed to be one of the contributing factors. Reducing the cancer disparity in this region must include strategies to address suboptimal cancer screening practices by rural Appalachian primary care providers (PCPs). To…

  2. The Mesothelial Origin of Carcinoma Associated-Fibroblasts in Peritoneal Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rynne-Vidal, Angela; Jiménez-Heffernan, José Antonio; Fernández-Chacón, Concepción; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Sandoval, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors are complex and unstructured organs that, in addition to cancer cells, also contain other cell types. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent an important population in the tumor microenviroment and participate in several stages of tumor progression, including cancer cell migration/invasion and metastasis. During peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, such as ovarian or gastrointestinal, disseminate through the peritoneal fluid and colonize the peritoneum. Tumor cells metastasize by attaching to and invading through the mesothelial cell (MC) monolayer that lines the peritoneal cavity, then colonizing the submesothelial compact zone where CAFs accumulate. CAFs may derive from different sources depending on the surrounding metastatic niche. In peritoneal metastasis, a sizeable subpopulation of CAFs originates from MCs through a mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT), which promotes adhesion, invasion, vascularization and subsequent tumor growth. The bidirectional communication between cancer cells and MC-derived CAFs via secretion of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix components seems to be crucial for the establishment and progression of the metastasis in the peritoneum. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of novel advances in understanding how peritoneal CAFs provide cancer cells with a supportive microenvironment, as well as the development of future therapeutic approaches by interfering with the MMT in the peritoneum. PMID:26426054

  3. Increased Risks of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Interstitial Lung Disease in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Patients With Concomitant Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Chen; Yang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Hsuan-Hwai; Chen, Peng-Jen; Huang, Tien-Yu; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Chu, Heng-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Sjögren syndrome (SS) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients is high. The influence of SS on the clinical outcomes of PBC patients, however, remains unclear. Our study retrospectively collected data on PBC-only patients and PBC patients with concomitant SS (PBC-SS) to compare the clinical differences of long-term outcomes between them.A total of 183 patients were diagnosed with PBC from January 1999 to December 2014 at our hospital. Of these, the authors excluded patients with diabetes, hypertension, advanced liver cirrhosis at initial diagnosis of PBC (Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification score of ≥7) and other liver diseases (ie, alcoholic liver disease, alpha-antitrypsin deficiency, viral hepatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis), and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Of the remaining 125 patients, 77 (61.6%) were PBC-only and 48 (38.4%) were PBC-SS patients.The mean follow-up duration was 8.76 years. During the observation period, the incidence of interstitial lung disease was higher in the PBC-SS group than in the PBC-only group (P = 0.005). The occurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was significantly different in PBC-SS patients than in PBC-only patients (P = 0.002). The overall survival was lower in PBC-SS patients than in PBC-only patients (P = 0.033). Although the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, end-stage renal disease, variceal bleeding, and hypothyroidism were all higher in the PBC-SS group than in the PBC-only group, the differences were not significant.Our study suggests that PBC-SS patients have a higher risk of developing interstitial lung disease and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and have a poor prognosis. Aggressive surveillance of thyroid and pulmonary functions should therefore be performed in these patients. PMID:26765478

  4. Phase I feasibility study of intraperitoneal cisplatin and intravenous paclitaxel followed by intraperitoneal paclitaxel in untreated ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dizon, Don S.; Sill, Michael W.; Gould, Natalie; Rubin, Stephen C.; Yamada, S. Diane; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Mannel, Robert S.; Eisenhauer, Eric L.; Duska, Linda R.; Fracasso, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle. Methods Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV over 3 hours followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment. Results Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain. Conclusions This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172. PMID:21820161

  5. Inhibition of PRL-3 gene expression in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 via microRNA suppressed reduces peritoneal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengrong; Zhan Wenhua . E-mail: wcywk@hotmail.com; Wang Zhao; Zhu Baohe; He Yulong; Peng Junsheng; Cai Shirong; Ma Jinping

    2006-09-15

    High expression of PRL-3, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is proved to be associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinoma from previous studies. In this paper, we examined the relationship between PRL-3 expression and peritoneal metastasis in gastric carcinoma. We applied the artificial miRNA (pCMV-PRL3miRNA), which is based on the murine miR-155 sequence, to efficiently silence the target gene expression of PRL-3 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Then we observed that, in vitro, pCMV-PRL3miRNA significantly depressed the SGC7901 cell invasion and migration independent of cellular proliferation. In vivo, PRL-3 knockdown effectively suppressed the growth of peritoneal metastases and improved the prognosis in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that artificial miRNA can depress the expression of PRL-3, and that PRL-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis.

  6. A phase II evaluation of the potent, highly selective PARP inhibitor veliparib in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer in patients who carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation – an NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robert L.; Sill, Michael W.; Bell-McGuinn, Katherine; Aghajanian, Carol; Gray, Heidi J.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Rubin, Steven C.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Chan, John K; Chen, Alice; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Veliparib is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PARP-1/2, which is cytotoxic in tumor cells with deficiencies in BRCA1 or BRCA2. We studied the clinical activity and toxicity of veliparib in ovarian cancer patients carrying a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (gBRCA). Methods Eligibility included three or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens, measurable disease and no prior use of a PARP inhibitor. Veliparib was administered at 400 mg orally BID with one cycle being 28 days. The two-stage Simon design was capable of detecting a 25% response probability with 90% power while controlling alpha=10% (at a 10% assumed null response probability). Results The median age of the 50 eligible patients was 57 years (range 37–94) and 14, 18, and 18 patients had 1, 2, and 3 prior therapies respectively. Thirty patients (60%) were platinum-resistant. The median number of cycles administered was 6 (1–27). There was one grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Grade 3 adverse events were: fatigue (n=3), nausea (2), leukopenia (1), neutropenia (1), dehydration (1), and ALT (1). Grade 2 events >10% were: nausea (46%), fatigue (26%), vomiting (18%), and anemia (14%). The proportion responding was 26% (90% CI: 16%–38%, CR:2, PR:11); for platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients the proportion responding was 20% and 35%, respectively. The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was progression (62%). Twenty-nine patients are alive; two with SD remain on veliparib. The median PFS is 8.18 months. Conclusions The single agent efficacy and tolerability of veliparib for BRCA mutation-associated recurrent ovarian cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:25818403

  7. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Gynecological Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-03

    Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

  9. Primary lung cancer associated with Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Shunichiro; Fujimoto, Masaki; Oide, Takashi; Nakatani, Yukio; Tsurutani, Yuya; Koshizaka, Masaya; Mezawa, Morito; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Takemoto, Minoru; Yokote, Koutaro

    2010-10-01

    A 52-year-old man with Werner Syndrome (WS) was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of skin ulcers on his thighs. Routine chest radiography revealed an abnormal shadow in the left upper lung field. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a poorly demarcated homogeneous mass (diameter, 4 cm) in the S1 + 2 lung area; no pleural effusion was observed. CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy revealed the presence of an adenocarcinoma. Other imaging studies did not reveal any lymph-node involvement or presence of metastatic lesions. The patient was diagnosed with stage IB adenocarcinoma (T2N0M0), and a left upper lobectomy was successfully carried out; postoperative wound healing was steady and uneventful, with no obvious ulcer formation. Primary lung cancers very rarely develop in patients with WS; non-epithelial tumors are usually observed in such patients. Patients with WS usually develop severe skin problems, such as refractory skin ulcers in the extremities; however, our patient did not develop any skin-related complications after surgery. As the expected lifespan of patients with WS is increasing, we need to pay attention not only to the rare non-epithelial malignancy, but also cancer. Further, the expected short lifespan of patients with WS, as well as the possibility of skin-related problems after surgery, should not be considered while deciding whether to take the option of surgery in the case of malignancy. PMID:20887625

  10. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the initial management of primary epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaaback, Kenneth; Johnson, Nick; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer tends to be chemosensitive and confine itself to the surface of the peritoneal cavity for much of its natural history. These features have made it an obvious target for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is usually given as an intravenous (IV) infusion repeatedly over five to eight cycles. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given by infusion of the chemotherapeutic agent directly into the peritoneal cavity. There are biological reasons why this might increase the anticancer effect and reduce some systemic adverse effects in comparison to IV therapy. Objectives To determine if adding a component of the chemotherapy regime into the peritoneal cavity affects overall survival, progression-free survival, quality of life (QOL) and toxicity in the primary treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. Search methods We searched the Gynaecological Cancer Review Group’s Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2011, MEDLINE (1951 to May 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to May 2011). We updated these searches in February 2007, August 2010 and May 2011. In addition, we handsearched and cascade searched the major gynaecological oncology journals. Selection criteria The analysis was restricted to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing women with a new diagnosis of primary epithelial ovarian cancer, of any FIGO stage, following primary cytoreductive surgery. Standard IV chemotherapy was compared with chemotherapy that included a component of IP administration. Data collection and analysis We extracted data on overall survival, disease-free survival, adverse events and QOL and performed meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HR) for time-to-event variables and relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes using RevMan software. Main results Nine randomised trials studied 2119 women receiving primary treatment for ovarian cancer. We considered six trials to be of high quality. Women were less

  11. Detection of disseminated peritoneal tumors by fluorescein diacrylate in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yoshinori; Furuta, Hirokazu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Dai, Ping; Fujikawa, Yuta; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Morishita, Koki; Hasegawa, Akira; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    Tumor invasion to the peritoneum is a poor prognostic factor in cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal tumors is essential to accurate cancer staging. To date, peritoneal washing cytology during laparotomy has been used for diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer, but its sensitivity has not been satisfactory. Thus, a more direct approach is indispensable to detect peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Fluorescein diacrylate (FDAcr) is an esterase-sensitive fluorescent probe derived from fluorescein. In cancer cells, fluorescent fluorescein generated by exogenous application of FDAcr selectively deposits owing to its stronger hydrolytic enzyme activity and its lower leakage rate. We examined whether FDAcr can specifically detect disseminated peritoneal tumors in athymic nude mouse models. Intraperitoneally administered FDAcr revealed disseminated peritoneal microscopic tumors not readily recognized on white-light imaging. These results suggest that FDAcr is a useful probe for detecting disseminated peritoneal tumors.

  12. Prognostic Significance of Molecular Analysis of Peritoneal Fluid for Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mo; Wu, Junchao; Hu, Renwei; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately distinguishing serosal invasion in patients with gastric cancer (GC) prior to surgery can be difficult. Molecular analysis of peritoneal fluid (MAPF) for free cancer cells with higher sensitivity than other methods; however, its prognostic value for GC remains controversial, precluding its application in clinical practice. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were systematically searched. Thirty-one studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and peritoneal recurrence-free survival (PRF). Results The current meta-analysis focused on patients with GC and negative cytological diagnoses. The results showed that positive MAPF status (MAPF+) led to poorer prognoses for OS (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.99–3.37), DFS (HR 4.92, 95% CI 3.28–7.37) and PRF (HR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12–3.72) compared with negative MAPF status (MAPF-). Moreover, among the patients with GC who received curative treatment, the MAPF+ patients had poorer prognoses for OS (HR 3.27, 95% CI 2.49–4.29), DFS (HR 3.90, 95% CI 2.74–5.57) and PRF (HR 5.45, 95% CI 3.70–8.03). A meta-analysis of multivariate-adjusted HRs demonstrated that MAPF+ status was an independent prognostic factor for patients with GC who underwent curative treatment (OS: HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.47–3.28; PRF: HR 3.44, 95% CI 2.01–5.87). Using the identical target genes (CEA, CEA/CK20) as molecular markers, the patients with GC who were MAPF+ had significantly worse prognoses for OS (CEA: HR 3.03, 95% CI 2.29–4.01; CEA/CK20: HR 4.24, 95% CI 2.42–7.40), DFS (CEA: HR 3.99, 95% CI 2.24–7.12; CEA/CK20: HR 4.31, 95% CI 1.49–2.48) and PRF (CEA: HR 4.45, 95% CI 2.72–7.31; CEA/CK20: HR 6.46, 95% CI 3.62–11.55) than the patients who were MAPF-. Conclusion/Significance The above results demonstrate that MAPF could be a prognostic indicator for patients with GC who have a negative cytological

  13. Interleukin-12 Immunomodulation Delays the Onset of Lethal Peritoneal Disease of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Courtney A; Shea, Amanda A; Heffron, C Lynn; Schmelz, Eva M; Roberts, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    The omental fat band (OFB) is the predominant site for metastatic seeding of ovarian cancer. Previously, we highlighted the influx and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the OFB following syngeneic ovarian cancer cell seeding as an important factor in the development of a protumorigenic cascade. Here we investigated localized immunomodulation as a means of promoting a successful protective response. As an important TH1-type immunomodulator, interleukin (IL)-12 has previously been investigated clinically as an anticancer therapeutic. However, systemic IL-12 administration was associated with serious side effects, galvanizing the development of immune or accessory cells engineered to express secreted or membrane-bound IL-12 (mbIL-12). Using an mbIL-12-expressing cell variant, we demonstrate that localized IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment significantly delays disease development. The mbIL-12-mediated decrease in tumor burden was associated with a significant reduction in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the OFB, and correlated with a reduced expression of neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractants (CXCL1, -2, -3 and CCL2, -7). Vaccination with mitotically impaired tumor cells did not confer protection against subsequent tumor challenge, indicating that IL-12 did not impact the immunogenicity of the cancer cells. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports suggesting that IL-12 may hold promise when delivered in a targeted and sustained manner to the omental microenvironment. Furthermore, resident cells within the omental microenvironment may provide a reservoir that can be activated and mobilized to prevent metastatic seeding within the peritoneum and, therefore, may be targets for chemotherapeutics. PMID:26430781

  14. Detecting cancer: Pearls for the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Simon B; Montero, Alberto J

    2016-07-01

    Five-year survival rates have improved over the past 40 years for nearly all types of cancer, partially thanks to early detection and prevention. Since patients typically present to their primary care physician with initial symptoms, it is vital for primary care physicians to accurately diagnose common cancers and to recognize unusual presentations of highly curable cancers such as Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancers, for which the 5-year overall survival rates are greater than 85%. This paper reviews these cancers and provides clinically relevant pearls from an oncologic perspective for physicians who are the first point of contact. PMID:27399864

  15. Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Malignant Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Malignant Pancreatic Insulinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Somatostatinoma; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  16. Impact of radiotherapy in the risk of esophageal cancer as subsequent primary cancer after breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Eeva K. . E-mail: eevsal@utu.fi; Pukkala, Eero; Kiel, Krys D.; Hakulinen, Timo T.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among breast-cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of the Finnish Cancer Registry from 1953 to 2000 were used to assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among 75,849 breast-cancer patients. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 33,672), radiotherapy (n = 35,057), chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 4673), or chemotherapy (n = 2,447). The risk of a new primary cancer was expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the ratio of observed to expected cases. Results: By the end of 2000, the number of observed cases esophageal cancers was 80 vs. 72 expected cases (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.1, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.9 to 1.5). Among patients followed for 15 years and treated with radiotherapy, the SIR for esophageal cancer was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.4 to 5.4). No increase in risk was seen for patients treated without radiotherapy. The risk of esophageal cancer was increased among patients diagnosed during 1953 to 1974, although age at the treatment did not have marked effect on the risk estimate. Conclusion: Increased risk of second cancer in the esophagus was observed for breast-cancer patients in Finland, especially among patients with over 15 years of follow-up and treated in the earliest period, which may relate to the type of radiotherapy.

  17. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  18. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  19. Multiple primary cancers in Connecticut, 1935-82.

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Curtis, R. E.; Kleinerman, R. A.; Flannery, J. T.; Fraumeni, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the National Cancer Institute published a comprehensive monograph on multiple primary cancers in Connecticut and Denmark. This paper summarizes some of the observations made on the Connecticut population. Data compiled by the Connecticut Tumor Registry have extended our knowledge about the patterns of multiple primary cancers, especially among long-term survivors of cancer and among patients with relatively rare tumors about which little information currently exists. When compared with the general Connecticut population, cancer patients had a 31 percent (RR = 1.31) increased risk of developing a second cancer and a 23 percent (RR = 1.23) elevated risk of second cancer at a different site from the first. Common environmental exposures seemed responsible for the excess occurrence of many second cancers, particularly those related to cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, or both. For example, persons with epithelial cancers of the lung, larynx, esophagus, buccal cavity, and pharynx were particularly prone to develop new cancers in the same or contiguous tissue throughout their lifetimes. Cancers of the colon, uterine corpus, breast, and ovary frequently occurred together, suggesting underlying hormonal or dietary influences. Only patients with prostate cancer were at significantly low risk for second cancer development; this might be an artifact of case finding, since advanced age at initial diagnosis was generally associated with an underascertainment of second cancers. Radiotherapy may have caused rectal and other cancer among patients with cancers of the female genital tract, and leukemia among patients with uterine corpus cancer. Chemotherapy with alkylating agents probably contributed to the excess of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia following multiple myeloma or cancers of the breast and ovary. Genetic susceptibility seemed to explain some tumor complexes, such as the multiple occurrences of cutaneous melanoma and the excess of bone cancer following

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  2. Complete biologic response to taxane based chemotherapy confirmed by [18F]FDG PET/CT and surgery in a cancer of unknown primary site

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun-Eul; Yoon, Ju-Young; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Shim, Hyun-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Cancers of an unknown primary site are heterogenous with respect to their clinical and pathologic features. They are generally very aggressive, but specific favorable subsets have a better prognosis. For these favorable subsets, taxane based chemotherapy is very effective for a subset of woman with papillary serous peritoneal adenocarcinoma. A 52 year-old woman underwent [18F]-FDG PET/CT for routine health screening. On PET/CT, multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes were detected in the paraaortic spaces, and there were no other hypermetabolic abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with an unknown primary cancer that probably originated from the ovary or peritoneum, according to clinical studies and biopsy results. This was not a typical case of a favorable subset of cancer of an unknown primary site, but the tumor showed complete biologic response to taxane based chemotherapy as revealed by PET/CT, and necrotic tumor cells were confirmed by surgery. PMID:22355469

  3. Causes of death in patients with extranodal cancer of unknown primary: searching for the primary site

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a fatal cancer, accounting for 3–5% of all diagnosed cancers. Finding the primary site is important for therapeutic choices and we believe that the organ which is designated as the cause of death may give clues about the primary site. Methods A total of 20,570 patients with CUP were identified from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Causes of death – as reported in the death certificate - were investigated, analyzing reported metastatic sites and histological subtypes separately. Survival was compared with metastatic cancer with a known primary tumor. Results An organ-specific cancer could be identified as a cause of death in approximately 60% of all CUP patients with adenocarcinoma or undifferentiated histology. In adenocarcinoma, lung cancer was the most frequent cause of death (20%), followed by pancreatic cancer (14%), and ovarian cancer (11%). Lung cancer was the most common cause of death in patients with CUP metastases diagnosed in the nervous system (69%), respiratory system (53%), and bone (47%), whereas ovarian cancer was the most common cause of death when CUP was diagnosed in the pelvis (47%) or the peritoneum (32%). In CUP diagnosed in the liver, liver and pancreatic cancers accounted for 26% and 22% of deaths, respectively. Also in squamous cell CUP, lung cancer was the most common cause of death (45%). Conclusions According to the causes of death, the primary site appeared frequently to be either the organ where CUP metastases were diagnosed or an organ which may be traced through the known metastatic patterns of different cancer types. PMID:24929562

  4. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  5. Defining Therapy for Recurrent Platinum-sensitive Ovarian Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, women with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian epithelial, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer will be randomly assigned to undergo secondary cytoreductive surgery, if they are candidates for such surgery, and

  6. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Korde, Larissa A.; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer risk factors in the course of advising primary care patients regarding a healthy lifestyle. Clinical guidelines targeting both genetic and modifiable cancer risk factors are available, and can facilitate applying these health care principles in the primary care setting. PMID:19616151

  7. Complications of Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC in the Treatment of Peritoneal Metastases.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanket S; Gelli, Maxilliano; Agarwal, Deepesh; Goéré, Diane

    2016-06-01

    The combined treatment concept of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has shown to be an efficient therapeutic option for selected patients with primary and secondary peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). This strategy represents the standard of care for diseases like pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal mesothelioma, and offers the best long-term results for PC from colorectal cancer. Despite these results, skepticism exists regarding this therapeutic approach partly because of its perceived high toxicity. In this article, we review the current evidence on complications that can occur after CRS and HIPEC and the risk factors associated with increased incidence of morbidity and mortality. PMID:27065713

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-06-01

    This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719μg/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5μg/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219μg/g dry weight), morin (101±68μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42μg/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-γ+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

  9. Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a study of 25 cases and comparison with stage III-IV ovarian papillary serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben-Baruch, G; Sivan, E; Moran, O; Rizel, S; Menczer, J; Seidman, D S

    1996-03-01

    The clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of patients with primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PPSC) (n = 22) was compared with stage III-IV papillary serous ovarian carcinoma (PSOC) patients (n = 63). There were no statistically significant differences between the PPSC and PSOC patients with regard to the mean age, menopausal status, parity, ascites fluid volume, proportion of stage IV disease, and the rate of optimal debulking achieved. The median disease-free interval was 15 and 18 months; the median survival was 21 and 26 months; and the 5-year survival was 18 and 24% for the PPSC and PSOC groups, respectively. The median survival time for patients with a residual tumor > or = 2 cm was 20.5 and 24 months, and for residual tumor > or = 2 cm was 46 and 41 months, in PPSC and PSOC patients, respectively. Survival was thus better, in both groups, when residual disease at the end of the operation was < 2 cm, though this was statistically significant only for PSOC (P < 0.02). We conclude that patients with PPSC should be treated as other stage II-IV PSOC patients. Combining optimal debulking with a platinum-based chemotherapy may offer the patient the most effective treatment. PMID:8774644

  10. [Adjuvant therapy with WT1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cell therapy in combination with TS-1 for pancreatic cancer with positive peritoneal cytology after curative operation].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Tono, Takeshi; Abe, Hirofumi; Nishida, Kentaro; Yanagawa, Takehiro; Fujie, Yujiro; Fujita, Shoichiro; Fujita, Junya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Tadashi; Imaoka, Shingi; Monden, Takushi

    2014-10-01

    A 66-year-old woman was diagnosed with pancreatic tail cancer, and she was referred to our hospital. Abdominal computed tomography(CT)revealed a tumor(2.5 cm in diameter)in the pancreatic tail, with invasion to the spleen and splenic vein. In February 2013, we performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, left adrenal gland resection, and D2 lymph node dissection. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage cytology during surgery was positive; however, we performed curative resection because there were no signs of peritoneal dissemination and distant metastasis. The patient was discharged from the hospital 23 days after the operation, with good postoperative course. Histological diagnosis was pancreatic tail cancer, pT4N0H0P0M(-) fStage IVa. Subsequently, the patient received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy(TS-1: 100mg/day, 4 courses)combined with Wilms'tumor 1(WT1)peptide-pulsed dendritic cell therapy. No serious adverse events occurred during the postoperative adjuvant therapy. The patient remains alive without recurrence 16 months after the operation. PMID:25335723

  11. [A Successful Case of Treatment of Colonic Metastasis and Peritoneal Recurrence of Type 4 Gastric Cancer by Using Colectomy and Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yasuto; Fujii, Yoritaka; Miura, Seiko; Fujita, Jun; Morioka, Emi; Kaida, Daisuke; Ohonishi, Toshio; Ohono, Yukako; Noguchi, Miki; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Kinami, Shinichi; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo; Sakata, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    We present a successful case of treatment of colonic metastasis and peritoneal recurrence of type 4 gastric cancer by using colectomy and chemotherapy. A 70-year-old woman with a diagnosis of type 4 advanced gastric cancer underwent distal gastrectomy. The final pathological diagnosis was LM, circ, type 4, sig, pT4a (SE), ly1, v1, pN1, M0, P0, CY0, pStage Ⅲa. Adjuvant chemotherapy was conducted with oral administration of S-1, though regrettably the chemotherapy was interrupted because of diarrhea, an adverse effect of S-1. Metastatic recurrence occurred on the transverse colon, for which she underwent transverse colectomy 2.9 years after the initial surgery. Another colonic metastasis in the ascending colon along with peritoneal recurrence was diagnosed 3.11 years after the initial surgery, and the patient underwent a palliative colostomy and received chemotherapy with S-1 plus docetaxel. She was successfully treated up to a clinical CR with chemotherapy, and she died 5.10 years after the initial surgery. In this case, a good prognosis was obtained through the combination of resection of the recurrence sites, palliative surgery for avoiding obstruction, and chemotherapy using S-1 plus docetaxel for metachronous multiple metastases. PMID:26805106

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 as a superior biomarker for peritoneal deterioration in peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Ichiro; Kusano, Eiji; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Akimoto, Tetsu; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of effluent biomarkers for peritoneal deterioration with functional decline in peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: From January 2005 to March 2013, the subjects included 218 PD patients with end-stage renal disease at 18 centers. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), hyaluronan, and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in peritoneal effluent were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peritoneal solute transport rate was assessed by peritoneal equilibration test (PET) to estimate peritoneal deterioration. RESULTS: The ratio of the effluent level of creatinine (Cr) obtained 4 h after injection (D) to that of plasma was correlated with the effluent levels of MMP-2 (ρ = 0.74, P < 0.001), IL-6 (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001), and hyaluronan (ρ = 0.27, P < 0.001), but not CA125 (ρ = 0.13, P = 0.051). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for the effluent levels of MMP-2, IL-6, and hyaluronan against high PET category were 0.90, 0.78, 0.62, and 0.51, respectively. No patient developed new-onset encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis for at least 1.5 years after peritoneal effluent sampling. CONCLUSION: The effluent MMP-2 level most closely reflected peritoneal solute transport rate. MMP-2 can be a reliable indicator of peritoneal deterioration with functional decline. PMID:26981446

  13. Second primary cancers -  causes, incidence and the future.

    PubMed

    Koubková, L; Hrstka, R; Dobes, P; Vojtesek, B; Vyzula, R

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to continually improving screening programs, diagnostic, and treatment methods, the survival rate in newly diagnosed cancer patients is increasing. With this improvement in survival, attention is now being focused on potential longterm complications such as multiple primary tumors, which represent a leading cause of late nonrelapse mortality. The number of patients who survive cancer dia-gnosis is growing by 2% each year. Multiple primary neoplasms have become the third most common finding in oncology since 1890s, when they were first described. This review aims to summarize recent information regarding the multiple primary neoplasms, elucidate the definition, etiology, association with the primary cancer treatment, genetic and environmental dispositions and finally, it recapitulates new approaches to identification of the risk factors for multiple cancers. PMID:24635432

  14. Surgical treatment of double primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aijun; Ma, Senlin; Pawlik, Timothy; Wu, Bin; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Longjiu; Wu, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Double primary liver cancer (DPLC) is a special type of clinical situation. As such, a detailed analysis of the surgical management and prognosis of patients with DPLC is lacking. The objective of the current study was to define the management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for DPLC at a major hepatobiliary center. A total of 87 patients treated by surgical resection at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2013 who had DPLC demonstrated by final pathological diagnosis were identified. Among these, 50 patients had complete clinical and prognostic data. Demographic and tumor characteristics as well as the prognosis were analyzed. The proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) (+), HBsAg (+), and HBeAg (−) hepatocirrhosis in all patients was 21.84%, 67.82%, and 63.22%, respectively. Incidental findings accounted for 58.62% of patients; among those who had symptoms, the main symptom was abdominal pain (31.03%). Nonanatomic wedge resection was the main operative approach (62.07%). Postoperatively, the main complications included seroperitoneum (11.49%), hypoproteinemia (10.34%), and pleural effusion (8.05%). Factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) tumor size (P = 0.002) and use of postoperative prophylactic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment (P = 0.015). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) size (P = 0.045), ICC size (P < 0.001), and liver function (including aspartate aminotransferase [P = 0.001] and r-glutamyl transferase [P < 0.001]) were associated with overall survival (OS). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis or cirrhosis is also an important factor in the pathogenesis of DPLC and surgical treatment is safe for it with low complication rates. In addition, it is effective to prolong DFS that DPLC patients undergo postoperative

  15. Histologic evaluation of preventive measures for scald injury on the peritoneo-serosal surface due to intraoperative hyperthermic chemoperfusion for patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, S; Takahashi, M; Kobayashi, K; Mutou, T; Toyosawa, T; Izawa, E; Numai, T; Kondoh, F; Ohkubo, H

    1998-01-01

    To histologically assess the preventive efficacy of cimetidine against scald injury on the peritoneo-serosal surface during intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion (IHCP) for advanced gastric cancer, a randomized histologic study using cimetidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, was performed for 20 patients with advanced or recurrent gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis. Cimetidine 50 mg/kg was administered intravenously to 10 patients just prior to the IHCP (cimetidine group), and the remaining 10 patients underwent the IHCP without cimetidine (control group). The background factors and IHCP treatments of these two groups were nearly the same. Although the antitumour efficacy of the IHCP was not histologically different between the two groups, the histological analysis revealed that the peritoneo-serosal surface in the cimetidine group was protected against scald injury, compared with the control group. This finding suggests that pre-IHCP cimetidine is of great benefit for protecting the peritoneo-serosal surface from scald injury due to IHCP. PMID:9483448

  16. [Thoughts on Cancer Education in Primary Schools].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    Cancer prevention is increasingly important in an aging society such as Japan, both in terms of the achievement of national healthy-life elongation and the reduction of the social and economic burden of medical care. Prevention is of principal importance for achieving these purposes. Cancer is considerably preventable by following a healthy lifestyle, including refraining from smoking, having regular health examinations, and receiving vaccines. With respect to lifestyle education, elementary school children are expected to be the most effective target population. However, a governmental committee comprised largely of educational specialists recently recommended that comprehensive cancer education begin in middle high school, because cancer prevention is a topic too difficult for young children to understand and implement. According to the committee 's report, the specialists set lofty aims for cancer education, including empowerment of a living will, promotion of thinking about life and death, and demonstrations of sympathy toward individuals who are weak or have disease. These aims are admirable. However, if these lofty aims prevent the practice of cancer education in elementary schools, then we should rethink the purpose in relation to the setting. This author suggests that the principal purpose of cancer education in elementary schools should be to imprint a healthy lifestyle in children to prevent the development of cancer in the future. In addition, to give a clear understanding that cancer is a"dan-dan"(step by step)disease is important. Although the present author supports efforts in elementary schools to achieve ambitious aims, they should not be so lofty to interfere with the practice of cancer prevention education in these settings. PMID:26321702

  17. [Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Scripcariu, V; Dajbog, Elena; Lefter, L; Ferariu, D; Pricop, Adriana; Grigoraş, M; Dragomir, Cr

    2006-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a neoplasm originating from the mesothelial surface lining cells of the serous human cavities. It may involve the pleura, less frequently the peritoneum rarely, the pericardium, the tunica vaginalis testis and ovarian epithelium. Asbestos has been widely used in industry. A causal relationship between asbestos exposure and pleural, peritoneal and pericardial malign mesothelioma was suggested, the risk of cancer being correlated to cumulate exposure. Studies from National Cancer Institute, USA, show that the malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos related malignancy. The symptomatology is insidious and poses difficult problems in diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents the case of a 59 year old patient with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma who worked almost 40 years as an electrician, exposed to asbestos fibers. He was hospitalized for important weight loss, abdominal pain and tiredness being diagnosed after imaging tests with a giant tumor, localized at the abdominal upper level, which seems to originate from the spleen's superior pole. During surgery we discovered a tumor with cystic parts, intense vascularized, which turn to be adherent in the upper side to the lower face of the left midriff cupola, to the spleen superior pole and 1/3 middle level of the great gastric curve. It was performed surgical ablation of the tumor, splenectomy with favorable postoperative evolution, the patient being now under chemotherapy treatment. PMID:17283842

  18. Dermatomyositis Associated with Cancer of Unknown Primary Site

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Il; Chung, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jun Eul; Kim, Sang Ho; Ahn, Jae Sook; Yang, Duk Hwan; Kim, Yoe Kyeoung; Yun, Sook Jung; Cho, Sang Hee; Lee, JeJung; Kim, Hyeoung Joon

    2007-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an uncommon inflammatory myopathy with characteristic rash accompanying, or more often preceding, muscle weakness. There is a well-recognized association between DM and several cancers, such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the first case of cancer of unknown primary site associated with DM. A 62-yr-old woman presented to us with both shoulder painful swelling and facial edema. She was diagnosed previously as cancer of unknown primary site, histologically confirmed with squamous cell carcinoma in a pelvic mass. For the following days, she complained of erythematous face followed by progressive weakness of the proximal muscles of upper and lower limbs. The laboratory tests showed an increased muscle enzyme and acute phase reactants. The electromyogram showed the typical findings of DM. After the treatment with high dose steroid and methotrexate, the proximal motor weakness improved, and she received palliative radiation therapy. PMID:17923750

  19. Whole Abdominopelvic Radiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy in the Palliative Treatment of Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer With Bulky Peritoneal Disease: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    De Meerleer, Gert; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Ost, Piet; Delrue, Louke; Denys, Hannelore; Makar, Amin; Speleers, Bruno; Van Belle, Simon; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Fonteyne, Valerie; De Neve, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our experience with whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy (WAPRT) using intensity-modulated arc therapy in the palliative treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer with bulky peritoneal disease. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and April 2008, 13 patients were treated with WAPRT using intensity-modulated arc therapy. We prescribed a dose of 33 Gy to be delivered in 22 fractions of 1.5 Gy to the abdomen and pelvis. All patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III or IV ovarian cancer at the initial diagnosis. At referral, the median age was 61 years, and the patients had been heavily pretreated with surgery and chemotherapy. All patients had symptoms from their disease, including gastrointestinal obstruction or subobstruction in 6, minor gastrointestinal symptoms in 2, pain in 4, ascites in 1, and vaginal bleeding in 2. A complete symptom or biochemical response required complete resolution of the patient's symptoms or cancer antigen-125 level. A partial response required {>=}50% resolution of these parameters. The actuarial survival was calculated from the start of radiotherapy. Results: The median overall survival was 21 weeks, with a 6-month overall survival rate of 45%. The 9 patients who completed treatment obtained a complete symptom response, except for ascites (partial response). The median and mean response duration (all symptoms grouped) was 24 and 37 weeks, respectively. Of the 6 patients presenting with obstruction or subobstruction, 4 obtained a complete symptom response (median duration, 16 weeks). Conclusion: WAPRT delivered using intensity-modulated arc therapy offers important palliation in the case of peritoneal metastatic ovarian cancer. WAPRT resolved intestinal obstruction for a substantial period.

  20. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  1. Radical Hysterectomy and Total Abdominal Vaginectomy for Primary Vaginal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Nejat; Basaran, Derman; Boyraz, Gokhan; Salman, Coskun; Yuce, Kunter

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this surgical video is to demonstrate en bloc radical removal of uterus and vagina in a patient with clinical early-stage vaginal cancer. Surgical treatment was offered to our patient for clinical early-stage primary vaginal cancer. An en bloc radical hysterectomy, systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy, and total abdominal vaginectomy were performed. Postoperative adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy was not recommended for completely resected pathologic stage I disease with no lymph node involvement and negative surgical margins. Radical surgery can be a treatment option for selected patients with primary vaginal cancer. PMID:26825828

  2. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess feasibility of intravenous docetaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, Premal H.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Waggoner, Steven E.; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) docetaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin and IP paclitaxel in women with Stage II-IV untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received docetaxel (55-75 mg/m2) IV and carboplatin (AUC 5-7) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase. A 2-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Results The MTD determined during the dose escalation phase was day 1 docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP and day 8 IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2. Forty-six patients were enrolled in the feasibility portion at this dose level. Six were unevaluable. Fifteen evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within the first four cycles. These DLTs were prolonged neutropenia (2), neutropenic fever (7), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 4 dehydration (1), grade 3 infection (2), grade 3 oral mucositis (1) and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusions Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP administered on day 1, and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP administered on day 8, is the MTD when considering one cycle of treatment but was not feasible over four cycles due to bone marrow toxicity. We recommend reduction of carboplatin to AUC 5 should this regimen be considered for treatment in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:22943879

  3. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  4. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Robyn; Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity.

  5. [Clinical study of double primary cancer involving the lung in resected cases].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Hai, E; Ito, Y; Matsunaga, Y; Kawahara, K; Sato, M

    2002-03-01

    Among all cases of surgically resected lung cancer, there were 56 cases (16.1%) of double primary cancer. The common sites of the other primary cancer was the stomach (19 cases), followed by large intestine (9 cases), urinary bladder (7 cases) and pharinx-larynx (7 cases). One patient had triple cancers. In all cases of double primary cancer, 46 cases were metachronous, 10 of which were cases of initial lung cancer. The 5-year survival rate of double primary cancer was 39.7%. Good result was obtained in metachronous cases with initial lung cancer. Most of prognosis of double primary cancer was determined by that of lung cancer. In more than half of initial cancer, the second primary cancer was detected by symptoms. So, special attention to the possibility of double primary cancer in patients with resected lung cancer is necessary for improvement of prognosis. PMID:11889804

  6. Hematogenous Splenic Metastases as an Independent Negative Prognosis Factor at the Moment of Primary Cytoreduction in Advanced Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer--A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Brasoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer represents an aggressive gynecological malignancy with a high capacity for dissemination. Once the tumor cells go beyond the pelvic area, upper abdominal involvement, including hepatic, diaphragmatic or even splenic, is frequently seen. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact on survival of parenchymatous versus peritoneal splenic metastases versus splenic hilum lymph node involvement at the time of primary cytoreduction for advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Sixty-six patients with a mean age of 54.12 years (range=25-80 years) were submitted to splenectomy in the context of primary cytoreduction at the Dan Setlacec Center of Gastrointestinal Disease and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, between January 2002 and May 2014. Although complete macroscopic resection was attempted in all cases, an R0 resection was achieved only in 57 out of the 66 cases. Histopathological studies confirmed the presence of serous subtype in 61 cases, while in the other five cases, the mucinous subtype was found. When studying the specimens of splenectomy, capsular invasion was found in 35 cases (53%), parenchymatous involvement was present in 19 (28.7%), and hilar involvement was present in 12 (18.1%). The overall morbidity rate was 30%, while the 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 7%. The median overall survival for cases with peritoneal seeding was 58.4 months, while that for patients with parenchymatous involvement was 24.5 months (p=0.0126); patients diagnosed with hilar involvement had a median overall survival of 40.6 months (p=0.362). In conclusion, the presence of parenchymatous splenic metastases at primary cytoreduction for advanced-stage ovarian cancer is associated with significantly poorer survival when compared to hilar or peritoneal seeding. PMID:26408738

  7. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  8. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at fluid that has built up in the space in the abdomen around the internal organs. This area is called the peritoneal space. ... sample of fluid is removed from the peritoneal space using a needle and syringe. Your health care ...

  9. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  10. Mesenchymal stroma: primary determinant and therapeutic target for epithelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goruppi, Sandro; Dotto, G. Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Multifocal and recurrent epithelial tumors, originating from either dormant or de novo cancer cells, are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The age-dependent increase of cancer incidence has long been assumed to result from the sequential accumulation of cancer driving or facilitating mutations with induction of cellular senescence as a protective mechanism. However, recent evidence suggests that the initiation and development of epithelial cancer results from a close interplay with its altered tissue microenvironment, with chronic inflammation, stromal senescence, autophagy, and activation of cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) playing possible primary roles. We will discuss recent progress in these areas, and highlight how this understanding may be used for devising novel preventive and therapeutic approaches to the epithelial cancer problem. PMID:24074947

  11. Output of peritoneal cells during peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, O; Al-Mondhiry, H; Rifaat, U N; Khalil, M A; Al-Rawi, A M

    1978-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis provides a good source for the collection of macrophages. Six patients with chronic renal failure undergoing peritoneal dialysis for the first time were studied, and maximum cell egress, mostly macrophages, occurred at 24-48 hours and diminished after 48 hours. PMID:670419

  12. Risk and Surveillance of Cancers in Primary Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hrad, Valery; Abebe, Yoftahe; Ali, Syed Haris; Velgersdyk, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review we will discuss in detail the risks and optimal surveillance strategies for patients with primary biliary diseases. PMID:27413366

  13. Summary: multiple primary cancers in Connecticut, 1935-82.

    PubMed

    Curtis, R E; Boice, J D; Kleinerman, R A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1985-12-01

    The risk of developing a second primary cancer was evaluated in over 250,000 persons reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) during 1935-82. The CTR has collected data on cancer incidence longer than any other population-based tumor registry and thus provided researchers with a unique opportunity to investigate the occurrence of second cancers among persons followed for long periods, in some cases for more than 40 years. When compared with the general Connecticut population, cancer patients had a 31% increased risk of developing a subsequent cancer overall and a 23% elevated risk of second cancer at a different site from the first. Little variation in risk was seen for the first 20 years of follow-up, although the risk for females averaged twice that for males (41% vs. 18%). Persons who survived more than 20 years after the diagnosis of their first cancer were at highest risk: 51% for females and 45% for males. Over 1 million person-years of observation were recorded, and the excess risk of developing a new cancer was 3.5 per 1,000 persons per year. Common environmental exposures seemed responsible for the excess occurrence of many second cancers, particularly those related to cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, or both. For example, persons with epithelial cancers of the lung, larynx, esophagus, buccal cavity, and pharynx were particularly prone to developing new cancers in the same or contiguous tissue throughout their lifetimes. A notable finding was the high risk of cancers of the lung, larynx, buccal cavity, and pharynx observed among cervical cancer patients, which suggested a common etiology involving cigarette smoking. The intriguing association previously reported among cancers of the colon, uterine corpus, breast, and ovary was confirmed in our data, which indicated the possible influence of hormonal or dietary factors. Incidental autopsy findings were largely responsible for the observed excesses of second cancers of the prostate and kidney

  14. Versican and vascular endothelial growth factor expression levels in peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer are associated with survival after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, N R; de Cuba, E M V; Kwakman, R; Meijerink, W J H J; Delis-van Diemen, P M; Coupé, V M H; Beliën, J A M; Meijer, G A; de Hingh, I H J T; Te Velde, E A

    2016-04-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) can increase survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with peritoneal metastases (PM). This treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, improvement of patient selection is necessary. Assuming that the clinical phenotype is dictated by biological mechanisms, biomarkers could play a crucial role in this process. Since it is unknown whether and to what extent angiogenesis influences the course of disease in patients with PM, we investigated the expression of two angiogenesis-related markers and their relation to overall survival (OS) in CRC patients after CRS and HIPEC. Clinicopathological data and tissue samples were collected from 65 CRC patients with isolated metastases to the peritoneum that underwent CRS and HIPEC. Whole tissue specimens from PM were evaluated for versican (VCAN) expression, VEGF expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry. The relation between these markers and OS was assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Associations between VEGF expression, VCAN expression, MVD and clinicopathological data were tested. High stromal VCAN expression was associated with high MVD (p = 0.001), better resection outcome (p = 0.003) and high T-stage (p = 0.027). High epithelial VCAN expression was associated with MVD (p = 0.007) and a more complete resection (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, simplified peritoneal cancer index (p = 0.001), VEGF expression levels (p = 0.012), age (p = 0.030), epithelial VCAN expression levels (p = 0.042) and lymph node status (p = 0.053) were associated with OS. Concluding, VCAN and VEGF were associated with survival in CRC patients with PM after CRS and HIPEC. Independent validation in a well-defined patient cohort is required to confirm the putative prognostic role of these candidate biomarkers. PMID:26873137

  15. Peritoneal Metastases: Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a surgicaly curable disease. It requires multimodality of treatment in Localy advanced and metastatic disease. Molecular markers like RAS mutation has brought in change in the mangement of metastatic disease. Nearly 15 to 20 % presents with peritonieal surface metastasis. The debate continues with systomic vs Cyutoreductive surgery with are without HIPEC. This article highlights management of peritoneal metastasis with special reference to prevention and treatment. PMID:27065703

  16. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed

    Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Tremblay, Dominique; Breton, Mylaine; Benhadj, Lynda; Diop, Mamadou; Fournier, Michel; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the impact of patients' experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal) between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada). Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models) were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n = 307), 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06-1.46), as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p = 0.05), while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p < 0.01).  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients' perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care. PMID:26504599

  17. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Tremblay, Dominique; Breton, Mylaine; Benhadj, Lynda; Diop, Mamadou; Fournier, Michel; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the impact of patients' experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal) between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada). Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models) were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n = 307), 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06–1.46), as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p = 0.05), while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p < 0.01).  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients' perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care. PMID:26504599

  18. The expanding role of primary care in cancer control.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Greg; Berendsen, Annette; Crawford, S Michael; Dommett, Rachel; Earle, Craig; Emery, Jon; Fahey, Tom; Grassi, Luigi; Grunfeld, Eva; Gupta, Sumit; Hamilton, Willie; Hiom, Sara; Hunter, David; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Macleod, Una; Mason, Robert; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Neal, Richard D; Peake, Michael; Roland, Martin; Seifert, Bohumil; Sisler, Jeff; Sussman, Jonathan; Taplin, Stephen; Vedsted, Peter; Voruganti, Teja; Walter, Fiona; Wardle, Jane; Watson, Eila; Weller, David; Wender, Richard; Whelan, Jeremy; Whitlock, James; Wilkinson, Clare; de Wit, Niek; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2015-09-01

    The nature of cancer control is changing, with an increasing emphasis, fuelled by public and political demand, on prevention, early diagnosis, and patient experience during and after treatment. At the same time, primary care is increasingly promoted, by governments and health funders worldwide, as the preferred setting for most health care for reasons of increasing need, to stabilise health-care costs, and to accommodate patient preference for care close to home. It is timely, then, to consider how this expanding role for primary care can work for cancer control, which has long been dominated by highly technical interventions centred on treatment, and in which the contribution of primary care has been largely perceived as marginal. In this Commission, expert opinion from primary care and public health professionals with academic and clinical cancer expertise—from epidemiologists, psychologists, policy makers, and cancer specialists—has contributed to a detailed consideration of the evidence for cancer control provided in primary care and community care settings. Ranging from primary prevention to end-of-life care, the scope for new models of care is explored, and the actions needed to effect change are outlined. The strengths of primary care—its continuous, coordinated, and comprehensive care for individuals and families—are particularly evident in prevention and diagnosis, in shared follow-up and survivorship care, and in end-of-life care. A strong theme of integration of care runs throughout, and its elements (clinical, vertical, and functional) and the tools needed for integrated working are described in detail. All of this change, as it evolves, will need to be underpinned by new research and by continuing and shared multiprofessional development. PMID:26431866

  19. Molecular Concordance Between Primary Breast Cancer and Matched Metastases.

    PubMed

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer is increasingly personalized and based on molecular profiling. Often, primary tumors are used as proxies for systemic disease at the time of recurrence. However, recent studies have revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, both with respect to traditional clinical treatment targets and on the genomic and transcriptomic level. With the increasing use of molecularly targeted therapy, discordance of actionable molecular targets between primary tumors and recurrences can result in nonoptimal treatment or unnecessary side effects. The purpose of this review is to illuminate the extent of cancer genome evolution through disease progression and the degree of molecular concordance between primary breast cancers and matched metastases. We present an overview of the most prominent studies investigating the expression of endocrine receptors, transcriptomics, and genome aberrations in primary tumors and metastases. In conclusion, biopsy of metastatic lesions at recurrence of breast cancer is encouraged to provide optimal treatment of the disease. Furthermore, molecular profiling of metastatic tissue provides invaluable mechanistic insight into the biology underlying metastatic progression and has the potential to identify novel, potentially druggable, drivers of progression. PMID:27089067

  20. Cancer of unknown primary ultimately diagnosed as male breast cancer: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Rigakos, Georgios; Vakos, Amanda; Papadopoulos, Sotirios; Vernadou, Anastasia; Tsimpidakis, Antonios; Papachristou, Dionysios; Razis, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of unknown primary (CUP) constitute a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians and a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in Western countries. Immunohistochemistry assays are commonly used to identify the primary cancer, but fail in approximately one-third of cases. The identification of the possible origin of CUP is crucial, as it may help select the appropriate treatment options. We herein present the case of a 54-year-old male patient, who presented with lower back pain in June, 2013. Following a thorough investigation, the clinical and pathological findings could not identify the primary cancer, leading towards a misdiagnosis. Ultimately, microRNA testing of the resected spine lesion was able to identify the primary tumor as male breast cancer and allow for optimal treatment of the patient. PMID:27446561

  1. Enhanced antitumor effects by docetaxel/LL37-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel nanoparticles in peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rangrang; Tong, Aiping; Li, Xiaoling; Gao, Xiang; Mei, Lan; Zhou, Liangxue; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was explored in clinical trials as a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. In this work, we developed a biodegradable and injectable drug-delivery system by coencapsulation of docetaxel (Doc) and LL37 peptide polymeric nanoparticles (Doc+LL37 NPs) in a thermosensitive hydrogel system for colorectal peritoneal carcinoma therapy. Firstly, polylactic acid (PLA)-Pluronic L35-PLA (PLA-L35-PLA) was explored to prepare the biodegradable Doc+LL37 NPs using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Then, biodegradable and injectable thermosensitive PLA-L64-PLA hydrogel with lower sol–gel transition temperature at around body temperature was also prepared. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Doc+LL37 NPs formed with the PLA-L35-PLA copolymer were spherical. Fourier-transform infrared spectra certified that Doc and LL37 were encapsulated successfully. X-ray diffraction diagrams indicated that Doc was encapsulated amorphously. Intraperitoneal administration of Doc+LL37 NPs–hydrogel significantly suppressed the growth of HCT116 peritoneal carcinomatosis in vivo and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested that Doc+LL37 NPs–hydrogel may have potential clinical applications. PMID:26664119

  2. Sensitive β-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on β-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-βGal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-βGal sensitively detects intracellular β-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1 mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. PMID:25765713

  3. Sensitive β-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L.; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on β-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-βGal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-βGal sensitively detects intracellular β-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1 mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. PMID:25765713

  4. A new internet tool to report peritoneal malignancy extent. PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) application.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Thivolet, A; Bakrin, N; Mohamed, F; Isaac, S; Valette, P-J; Glehen, O; Rousset, P

    2016-06-01

    Based on the importance of assessing the true extent of peritoneal disease, PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) internet application (www.e-promise.org) has been developed to facilitate tabulation and automatically calculate surgically validated peritoneal cancer index (PCI), and other surgically validated scores as Gilly score, simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI), Fagotti and Fagotti-modified scores. This application offers computer-assistance to produce simple, quick but precise and standardized pre, intra and postoperative reports of the extent of peritoneal metastases and may help specialized and non-specialized institutions in their current practice but also facilitate research and multicentre studies on peritoneal surface malignancies. PMID:27067193

  5. Incidence of primary breast cancer in Iran: Ten-year national cancer registry data report.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Saadat, Soheil; Ramezani, Rashid; Kaviani, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the leading type of malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The screening programs and advances in the treatment of patients with breast cancer have led to an increase in overall survival. Cancer registry systems play an important role in providing basic data for research and the monitoring of the cancer status. In this study, the results of the 10-year national cancer registry (NCR) of Iran in breast cancer are reviewed. NCR database records were searched for primary breast cancer records according to ICD-O-3 coding and the cases were reviewed. A total of 52,068 cases were found with the coding of primary breast cancer. Females constituted 97.1% of the cases. Breast cancer was the leading type of cancer in Iranian females, accounting for 24.6% of all cancers. The mean age of the women with breast cancer was 49.6 years (95%CI 49.5-49.6). Most of the cases (95.7%) were registered as having invasive pathologies (behavior code 3). The most common morphology of primary breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma (ICD-O 8500/3) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ICD-O 8520/3) with relative frequencies of 77.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The average annual crude incidence of primary breast cancer in females was 22.6 (95%CI 22.1-23.1) per 100,000 females, with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 27.4 (95%CI 22.5-35.9). There were no data on survival, staging or immunohistochemical marker(s) of the breast-cancer-registered cases. The incidence of breast cancer in Iran is lower than in low-middle-income neighboring countries. The NCR data registry of breast cancer is not accurate in monitoring the effect of screening programs or determining the current status of breast cancer in Iran. Screening programs of breast cancer in Iran have failed to enhance the detection of the patients with in situ lesion detection. A quality breast cancer registry and a screening program for breast cancer are both needed. PMID:26070507

  6. Radioembolization for primary and metastatic liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Riaz, Ahsun; Mulcahy, Mary F; Salem, Riad

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing. Most patients present beyond potentially curative options and are usually affected by underlying cirrhosis. In this scenario, trans-arterial therapies, such as radioembolization, are rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Radioembolization is a catheter-based liver-directed therapy that involves injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous transarterial techniques. Cancer cells are preferentially supplied by arterial blood and normal hepatocytes by portal venous blood; radioembolization therefore specifically targets tumor cells with a high dose of lethal radiation and spares healthy hepatocytes. The antitumor effect mostly comes from radiation rather than embolization. The most commonly used radioisotope is Yttrium-90. The commercially available devices are TheraSphere® (glass-based) and SIR-Sphere® (resin-based). The procedure is performed on outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is generally less than other locoregional therapies and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, gastrointestinal ulcers and vascular injury. However, these can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection and adequate dosimetry. This article focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of radioembolization with emphasis on patient selection, uses and complications. PMID:21939859

  7. Evaluation of the improved tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy technique following radical cystectomy in cases of invasive bladder cancer complicated by peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZAN; TIAN, QIUYE; XIA, SHUNYAO; YIN, HUAIFU; YAO, DAYONG; XIU, YOUCHENG

    2016-01-01

    Radical cystectomy, as the most common surgical treatment for patients with invasive bladder cancer (IBC) complicated by peritoneal metastasis, is usually accompanied by a urinary diversion procedure. In this study, we evaluated the improved tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy technique by comparing the resulting clinical effects with either a traditional ureterostomy and an ileal conduit urinary diversion. Clinical data from 85 patients who underwent 1 of the 3 procedures between April 2012 and April 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. In total, 30 patients underwent improved tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy, 28 patients underwent a traditional cutaneous ureterostomy and 27 underwent an ileal conduit urinary diversion following radical cystectomy. The incidence of complications, including stoma infection, nipple atrophy, terminal necrosis, urine leakage, external orifice stenosis, uronephrosis and ureterectasia in the group of patients treated with the improved tubeless ureterostomy technique was significantly lower than that of the patients in the other 2 groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, the duration of the surgery, intra-operative bleeding, the duration of the hospitalization period and the time to extubation in the patients treated with the improved tubeless ureterostomy technique were significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with the patients in the other 2 groups. Finally, the health-related quality of life of the patients treated with the improved tubeless ureterostomy technique was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the patients in the other 2 groups. The findings of our study demonstrated that the use of the improved tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy technique following radical cystectomy in patients with IBC complicated by peritoneal metastasis resulted in improved clinical effects. Thus, improved tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy may be a promising alternative for enhancing the quality of life of patients

  8. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

  9. Role of primary surgery in advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Münstedt, Karsten; Franke, Folker E

    2004-01-01

    Background Major issues in surgery for advanced ovarian cancer remain unresolved. Existing treatment guidelines are supported by a few published reports and fewer prospective randomized clinical trials. Methods We reviewed published reports on primary surgical treatment, surgical expertise, inadequate primary surgery/quality assurance, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, interval debulking, and surgical prognostic factors in advanced ovarian cancer to help resolve outstanding issues. Results The aim of primary surgery is a well-planned and complete intervention with optimal staging and surgery. Surgical debulking is worthwhile as there are further effective treatments available to control unresectable residual disease. Patients of gynecologic oncology specialist surgeons have better survival rates. This may reflect a working 'culture' rather than better technical skills. One major problem though, is that despite pleas to restrict surgery to experienced surgeons, specialist centers are often left to cope with the results of inadequate primary surgical resections. Patients with primary chemotherapy or those who have had suboptimal debulking may benefit from interval debulking. A proposal for a better classification of residual tumor is given. Conclusions Optimal surgical interventions have definite role to play in advanced ovarian cancers. Improvements in surgical treatment in the general population will probably improve patients' survival when coupled with improvements in current chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:15461788

  10. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen; Weissleder, Ralph; Jacks, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer with micro-CT to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials The Cre-loxP system was utilized to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers five-fold. Conclusions Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer. PMID:20206017

  11. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  12. COPD in primary lung cancer patients: prevalence and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ytterstad, Elinor; Moe, Per C; Hjalmarsen, Audhild

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have relied on international spirometry criteria to diagnose COPD in patients with lung cancer without considering the effect lung cancer might have on spirometric results. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of COPD and emphysema at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis and to examine factors associated with survival. Materials and methods Medical records, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of COPD and emphysema in patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer at the University Hospital of North Norway in 2008–2010. Results Among the 174 lung cancer patients, 69% had COPD or emphysema (39% with COPD, 59% with emphysema; male:female ratio 101:73). Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality, whereas patients with non-small-cell lung cancer other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma had a risk of lung cancer mortality that was more than four times higher than that of patients with small-cell lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–11.25). Females had a lower risk of lung cancer mortality than males (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.94), and patients aged ≥75 years had a risk that was twice that of patients aged <75 years (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.59–3.87). Low partial arterial oxygen pressure (4.0–8.4 kPa) increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29–3.96). So did low partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (3.0–4.9 kPa) among stage IV lung cancer patients (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29–3.85). Several patients with respiratory failure had previously been diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion The observed prevalence of COPD was lower than that in previous studies. Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. PMID:27042050

  13. Oncogenic role of the Notch pathway in primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, JIE; XIA, YUJING; CHEN, KAN; ZHENG, YUANYUAN; WANG, JIANRONG; LU, WENXIA; YIN, QIN; WANG, FAN; ZHOU, YINGQUN; GUO, CHUANYONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer, which includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and fibrolamellar HCC, is one of the most common malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, worldwide. Despite the development of novel therapies, the prognosis of liver cancer patients remains extremely poor. Thus, investigation of the genetic background and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this disease has gained significant attention. The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial determinant of cell fate during development and disease in several organs. In the liver, Notch signaling is involved in biliary tree development and tubulogenesis, and is also significant in the development of HCC and ICC. These findings suggest that the modulation of Notch pathway activity may have therapeutic relevance. The present review summarizes Notch signaling during HCC and ICC development and discusses the findings of recent studies regarding Notch expression, which reveal novel insights into its function in liver cancer progression. PMID:27347091

  14. A case report of peritoneal tuberculosis with multiple miliary peritoneal deposits mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Shahla; Sadeghi, Mahmod; Alijanpour, Abolhasan; Naeimi-rad, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis accounts 1-2% of all forms of tuberculosis. Peritoneal tuberculosis is an important differential diagnosis for ovarian cancer in women with ascites, adnexal mass and elevated cancer antigen 125 (CA125) levels. We report a case of a 32- year -old woman with multiple miliary peritoneal deposits mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma. Case Presentation: A 32-year-old drug addicted woman presented with menometrorrhagia, fever and shivering, ascites and pelvis mass. Ultrasonography revealed a 53×65 mm cyst in left ovary and ascites. Multiple miliary peritoneal deposits were observed during laparatomy without any mass, histologic examination confirmed tuberculosis of uterus, tubes, omentum, liver and external surfaces of small intestine. Finally, the patient recovered with anti-tuberculosis treatment. Conclusion: These findings highlight considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of any patients with adnexal mass, ascitis and elevated serum CA125 even with negative cytology and bacteriology test results. PMID:26958336

  15. Peritonitis caused by Rothia mucilaginosa in a peritoneal dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Gosmanova, Elvira O; Garrett, Tiffani R; Wall, Barry M

    2013-12-01

    Peritonitis is an important cause of morbidity in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Rothia mucilaginosa has been reported as an unusual cause of peritoneal dialysis associated peritonitis. Difficulty in the management of this microorganism lies in the absence of uniform recommendations for anti-microbial therapy directed against this pathogen. The current report describes the clinical course of an episode of peritoneal dialysis associated peritonitis caused by Rothia mucilaginosa. Treatment options for this organism are summarized. PMID:24263080

  16. Incidence of new primary cancers after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, M.; Storm, H.H.; Mouridsen, H.T. )

    1991-07-17

    The incidence of new primary cancers was evaluated in 3538 postmenopausal patients who had received surgical treatment for primary breast cancer. Of these patients, 1828 with a low risk of recurrence received no further treatment. High-risk patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group (n = 846) received postoperative radiotherapy, while the second group (n = 864) received radiotherapy plus tamoxifen at a dose of 30 mg given daily for 48 weeks. The median observation time was 7.9 years. In comparison with the number of new cancers in the general population, the number of new cancers in the three groups was elevated mostly due to a high number of cancers of the contralateral breast and of colorectal cancers in the high-risk groups. The cumulative risk of nonlymphatic leukemia was increased among patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (P = .04). Cancer incidence in the high-risk tamoxifen-treated group relative to that in the high-risk group not treated with tamoxifen was not significant (1.3). No protective effect of tamoxifen on the opposite breast was seen (rate ratio for breast cancer = 1.1), but a tendency to an elevated risk of endometrial cancer was observed (rate ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 0.6-32.4). Continued and careful follow-up of women treated with tamoxifen is necessary to clarify the potential cancer-suppressive or cancer-promoting effects of this drug.

  17. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  18. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; et al

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and latemore » in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.« less

  19. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; Li, Yilong; Ju, Young Seok; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Lilleng, Peer Kaare; Nik-Zainal, Serena; McLaren, Stuart; Butler, Adam; Martin, Sancha; Glodzik, Dominic; Menzies, Andrew; Raine, Keiran; Hinton, Jonathan; Jones, David; Mudie, Laura J.; Jiang, Bing; Vincent, Delphine; Greene-Colozzi, April; Adnet, Pierre -Yves; Fatima, Aquila; Maetens, Marion; Ignatiadis, Michail; Stratton, Michael R.; Sotiriou, Christos; Richardson, Andrea L.; Lønning, Per Eystein; Wedge, David C.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and late in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.

  20. Secondary Cancers After Radiation Therapy for Primary Prostate or Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Chien; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Li, Chung-Yi; Chuang, Jen-Pin; Lee, Jenq-Chang

    2016-04-01

    Literature about the risk of secondary cancer after radiation therapy (RT) of prostate and rectal cancer reveals contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether the RT induces secondary rectal or prostate cancer in patients, respectively, with prostate or rectal cancer. All studies published in Medline or Pubmed up to March 3, 2015, containing RT of primary rectal or prostate cancer, and providing risk estimates of secondary prostate or rectal cancer were considered as eligible. Relative risk (RR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated using the random-effects model. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. 12 of them were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. For prostate cancer patients, pooled adjusted RRs or SIRs did not show an effect on the risk of secondary rectal cancer. However, notwithstanding the limitations of SEER-based studies, the subgroup of prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) showed an increased risk of rectal cancer. For rectal cancer patients, pooled adjusted RR of prostate cancer was 1.12 (95 % CI, 0.44-2.8) and SIR was 0.40 (95 % CI, 0.29-0.55). All studies included in the SIR analysis of rectal cancer were derived from the SEER data source. Based on current evidence, RT for prostate cancer patients had no effect on rectal cancer incidence, except for patients who received EBRT therapy. However, compared with the general population, RT for rectal cancer is associated with a decreased prostate cancer risk as found in SEER-based studies. PMID:26711638

  1. Cancer Surveillance in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Razumilava, Nataliya; Gores, Gregory J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2011-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic fibroinflammatory syndrome involving the biliary tract, often accompanied by inflammatory bowel disease. This syndrome is a prototype disease linking chronic inflammation to carcinogenesis. Indeed, PSC is associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Herein, we review the risk for these malignancies in PSC and discuss rational cancer surveillance strategies for these patients. Where evidence is limited, we suggest a pragmatic approach. In this regard we recommend interval screening for cholangiocarcinoma with non-invasive imaging modalities and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 determinations annually. These imaging studies also serve to screen for gallbladder cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Screening for colorectal cancer is more firmly established in PSC patients with inflammatory bowel disease and includes colonoscopy at the time of PSC diagnosis and, thereafter, at 1-2 year intervals. We also highlight areas where more information is required such as management of biliary tract dysplasia and cancer chemoprevention in PSC. PMID:21793028

  2. Yield of esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy in cancer of unknown primary

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Khalid, Abdullah; Ali Shah, Syed Hasnain; Ahmad, Tauseef; S. Hamid, Saeed; Wasim Jafri, Syed M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) is heterogeneous group of cancers. Role of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in this entity is under investigated. Aim of this study was to evaluate yield of Colonoscopy and Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in localizing primary tumor in patients with CUP. Methodology: Patients with histopathologically proven CUP who underwent colonoscopy / EGD to find the primary tumor from December 2009 to December 2011 were included in the study. Abdominal symptoms and cytokeratin (CK) 7 and 20 markers were correlated with presence of primary in GI tract. Results: After giving informed consent 86 patients were included in final analysis. All patients underwent colonoscopy while 60(70%) got EGD along with colonoscopy. Mean age was 55.10 +/-11.94 years with 52(60%) male. Abdominal symptoms were present in 50%. CK7+/CK20- in 34(40%); CK7-/CK20+ in 2(2%) while CK7+/20+ in 7(8%) of metastatic tumor samples. Liver was metastatic site in 47(55%), Lymph node 12(14%) and Ascites in 8(9%). Endoscopy detected primary in 6 (7%) patients with 3 each in stomach and colon. No association of abdominal symptoms and cytokeratin markers was found with presence of GI primary site. Conclusion: Yield of localizing primary lesion in the GI tract by pan-endoscopy was limited. Abdominal symptoms and cytokeratin markers do not predict presence of gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:24353569

  3. Metastatic Meningioma Presenting as Cancer of Unknown Primary

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinay; Gonsalves, Wilson I.; Robinson, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of anaplastic meningioma presenting in an extracranial osseous location, initially diagnosed as cancer of unknown primary. Although anaplastic meningioma comprise 3% of all meningiomas, this subtype is more likely to be associated with metastases. The increased degree of dedifferentiation in anaplastic meningioma makes diagnosis difficult, especially if characteristic imaging findings of meningioma are not identified. Adequate tissue for diagnostic purposes and appropriate imaging studies may help in establishing a definitive diagnosis. PMID:24416493

  4. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known,...

  5. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known,...

  6. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known,...

  7. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known,...

  8. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known,...

  9. The equivalent efficacy of multiple operations for multiple primary lung cancer and a single operation for single primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Liang; Yang, He-Li; Yan, Wan-Pu; Liang, Zhen; Xiong, Hong-Chao; Kang, Xiao-Zheng; Yang, Yong-Bo; Fu, Hao; Fan, Meng-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of synchronous and metachronous multiple primary lung cancers (MPLCs) has been increasing recently. The new multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma and TNM Classification of Lung Cancer (7th edition, 2009), have improved the understanding of MPLC. Most researchers recommend that surgical therapy should be actively pursued if the patient’s physical condition and lung function permit it and if a complete cure can be achieved. However, few studies have reported the long-term efficacy of surgical treatment for MPLC, which we explored in this study. Methods A total of 1,290 Lung cancer patients from a prospectively maintained database, treated by a single surgeon group between January 2000 and July 2013, at Beijing Cancer Hospital, Peking University, were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 31 patients diagnosed with MPLC out of 1290 lung cancer patients, focusing on long-term survival. Results MPLC patients accounted for 2.4% (31/1,290) of the patient cohort: 27 had synchronous MPLC (87.1%) and 4 had metachronous MPLC (12.9%). The 1-, 3- and 5-year postoperative survival rates were 100%, 75.8% and 75.8%. On stratification according to TNM stage, the 1-, 3- and 5-year of patients with stage I cancer (20 patients) were 100%, 77.2% and 77.2%, not statistically significant with those for the entire cohort (1,290 patients; 95.4%, 80.5% and 66.2%, P=0.455). Conclusions When the patient’s physical condition and tumor-related factors permit it, surgery should be the first choice of treatment for MPLC; it is associated with an equivalent efficacy to that of surgery for single primary lung cancer. PMID:27162659

  10. Primary cancer cell culture: mammary-optimized vs conditional reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Ahmad M; Kang, Keunsoo; Groeneveld, Svenja; Wang, Weisheng; Zhong, Xiaogang; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hennighausen, Lothar; Liu, Xuefeng; Furth, Priscilla A

    2016-07-01

    The impact of different culture conditions on biology of primary cancer cells is not always addressed. Here, conditional reprogramming (CRC) was compared with mammary-optimized EpiCult-B (EpiC) for primary mammary epithelial cell isolation and propagation, allograft generation, and genome-wide transcriptional consequences using cancer and non-cancer mammary tissue from mice with different dosages of Brca1 and p53 Selective comparison to DMEM was included. Primary cultures were established with all three media, but CRC was most efficient for initial isolation (P<0.05). Allograft development was faster using cells grown in EpiC compared with CRC (P<0.05). Transcriptome comparison of paired CRC and EpiC cultures revealed 1700 differentially expressed genes by passage 20. CRC promoted Trp53 gene family upregulation and increased expression of epithelial differentiation genes, whereas EpiC elevated expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. Differences did not persist in allografts where both methods yielded allografts with relatively similar transcriptomes. Restricting passage (<7) reduced numbers of differentially expressed genes below 50. In conclusion, CRC was most efficient for initial cell isolation but EpiC was quicker for allograft generation. The extensive culture-specific gene expression patterns that emerged with longer passage could be limited by reducing passage number when both culture transcriptomes were equally similar to that of the primary tissue. Defining impact of culture condition and passage on the transcriptome of primary cells could assist experimental design and interpretation. For example, differences that appear with passage and culture condition are potentially exploitable for comparative studies targeting specific biological networks in different transcriptional environments. PMID:27267121

  11. The Primary Cilium in Cell Signaling and Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud III, Edward J; Yoder, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based antenna-like structure that emanates from the surface of virtually all cells in the mammalian body. It is anchored to the cell by the basal body, which develops from the mother centriole of the centrosome in a manner that is coordinately regulated with the cell cycle. The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that receives both mechanical and chemical signals from other cells and the environment, and transmits these signals to the nucleus to elicit a cellular response. Recent studies revealed that multiple components of the Sonic hedgehog and plateletderived growth factor receptor-A signal transduction pathways localize to the primary cilium, and that loss of the cilium blocks ligand-induced signaling by both pathways. In light of the major role that these pathways play in numerous types of cancer, we anticipate that the emerging discoveries being made about the function of the primary cilium in signaling pathways that are critical for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults will also provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. (Cancer Res 2006; 66 13): 6463-7)

  12. Inhibition of peritoneal metastasis of human gastric cancer cells by dextran sulphate through the reduction in HIF-1α and ITGβ1 expression

    PubMed Central

    XU, YUANYI; JIN, XIU; HUANG, YUNNING; DONG, JIANDA; WANG, HONGHONG; WANG, XIAOFEI; CAO, XIANGMEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dextran sulphate (DS) on HIF-1α and integrin β1 (ITGβ1) expression in human gastric cancer cells, the correlation between HIF-1α and ITGβ1 expression and the influence of DS on the peritoneal metastasis of human gastric cancer cells. In in vitro experiments, BGC-823 cells in the experimental and control groups were administered DS and PBS, respectively, and exposed to hypoxic conditions for different periods. Immunocytochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR analyses were used to evaluate HIF-1α and ITGβ1 expression levels. In in vivo experiments, an animal model was established by injecting BGC-823 cells into nude mice. The experimental and control groups received DS and PBS injections, respectively. The mice were euthanized at different times, and the number of tumor nodules in the celiac implantation was recorded. Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses were used to detect HIF-1α and ITGβ1 expression in the tumor nodules of the greater omentum. The in vitro and in vivo results revealed that HIF-1α and ITGβ1 expression levels in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the expression levels of these factors were positively correlated with each other. The number of tumor nodules in the in vivo experiments was notably less in the experimental group than that noted in the control group (P<0.01). In conclusion, DS may act through inhibition of HIF-1α expression, which decreased ITGβ1 expression, consequently reducing tumor metastasis. PMID:27004522

  13. Cancer of unknown primary is associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Li, Xinjun

    2016-05-01

    The incidences of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are increasing worldwide. T2D is associated with many cancers. However, no data are available on cancer of unknown primary (CUP), a relatively common, fatal cancer for which tobacco smoking is the only known risk factor. At diagnosis, CUP metastases are found in various organs, which has implications for prognosis. We carried out a nationwide study on the association of CUP with T1D and T2D. 32 600 T1D patients and 178 000 T2D patients were identified from the national healthcare registers and these were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CUP from 1997 through 2010 using anyone without diabetes as a reference. The SIR of CUP in 421 diabetic patients was 1.71, highest for CUP with liver (2.17) and respiratory system (1.95) metastases. The SIR was 2.91 for T1D, but with a small number of patients, 1.38 for T2D with insulin treatment, and 1.78 for the main group of T2D. CUP with liver and respiratory system metastases increased for each diabetic type; however, for T2D, CUP with gastrointestinal and bone metastases also increased. The results provide the first demonstration that CUP is one of the cancers associated with diabetes, with definite evidence on T2D. CUP has a poor prognosis, which may be even worse when diabetes is the underlying comorbidity. A mechanistic question for future work is to determine whether diabetes promotes primaries that escape detection or their metastatic spread. PMID:26011105

  14. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy hyperthermia (HIPEC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer origin by fluid and CO2 recirculation using the closed abdomen technique (PRS-1.0 Combat): A clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Susana; Villarejo-Campos, Pedro; Padilla-Valverde, David; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martín-Fernández, Jesús

    2016-08-01

    Background This paper reports a study of 21 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC by means of PRS-1.0 Combat®, a new model for closed abdomen HIPEC aimed at improving fluid distribution with assistance from a CO2 recirculation system. This new technology has been previously shown to be successful in an experimental study (pig model) performed by our group, and has been approved for use in our hospital. Methods Twenty-one patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer origin were included in the study. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were performed by a closed abdomen fluid and CO2 recirculation technique using the PRS-1.0 Combat(®) model. We analysed the intraoperative safety tolerance and post-operative morbidity and mortality during the first 30 days. Results Between November 2011 and March 2014 21 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage II-IV, were included in the study. During the procedure there were no significant haemodynamic or analytical disturbances. Complication rates were 38.1% and 57.14% for grade III/IV and minor (grade I/II) complications, respectively. Post-operative mortality was 4.76% (one patient). Complete cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy improved overall survival and disease-free survival in women with advanced ovarian cancer. The association of intra-abdominal hyperthermia with chemotherapy (HIPEC) increased the therapeutic benefit. Conclusions This study has shown that closed abdomen intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia by a fluid and CO2 recirculation system (PRS-1.0 Combat(®)) can be a safe and feasible model for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer origin. PMID:27056558

  15. Characterization of cancer stem cells and primary cilia in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gate, David; Danielpour, Moise; Bannykh, Serguei; Town, Terrence

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, a tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy. These tumors are etiologically linked to mutations in the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, which signals through the primary, non-motile cilium. The growth of these aggressive tumors relies on self-renewal of tumor-propagating cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Previous reports have implicated CD133-expressing cells as CSCs in brain tumors, while those expressing CD15 have been shown to propagate medulloblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that CD133+ and CD15+ cells are distinct medulloblastoma populations. CD15+ cells comprise approximately 0.5-1% of total human medulloblastoma cells, display CSC properties in culture and are detected in the Smoothened A1 transgenic mouse model of medulloblastoma. Additionally, we report on a medulloblastoma patient with enriched CD15+ cells in recurrent vs primary medulloblastoma. We also demonstrate that human medulloblastoma cells critically rely on establishment of primary cilia to drive Shh-mediated cell division. Primary cilia are found in external granule cells of human fetal cerebellum and in 12/14 medulloblastoma samples. Yet, CD15+ medulloblastoma cells lack primary cilia, suggesting that this CSC population signals independently of Shh. These results are important when considering the effects of current and prospective treatment modalities on medulloblastoma CSC populations. PMID:25921740

  16. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    PubMed

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  17. Signaling the Unfolded Protein Response in primary brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Avril, Tony; Quillien, Véronique; Morandi, Xavier; Chevet, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular program used by eukaryotic cells to cope with protein misfolding stress in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). During tumor development, cancer cells are facing intrinsic (oncogene activation) and extrinsic (limiting nutrient or oxygen supply; exposure to chemotherapies) challenges, with which they must cope to survive. Primary brain tumors are relatively rare but deadly and present a significant challenge in the determination of risk factors in the population. These tumors are inherently difficult to cure because of their protected location in the brain. As such surgery, radiation and chemotherapy options carry potentially lasting patient morbidity and incomplete tumor cure. Some of these tumors, such as glioblastoma, were reported to present features of ER stress and to depend on UPR activation to sustain growth, but to date there is no clear general representation of the ER stress status in primary brain tumors. In this review, we describe the key molecular mechanisms controlling the UPR and their implication in cancers. Then we extensively review the literature reporting the status of ER stress in various primary brain tumors and discuss the potential impact of such observation on patient stratification and on the possibility of developing appropriate targeted therapies using the UPR as therapeutic target. PMID:27016056

  18. Care of the open abdomen after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dell, Deena Damsky; Held-Warmkessel, Jeanne; Jakubek, Pamela; O'Mara, Tina

    2014-07-01

    A patient with a mucinous appendiceal cancer presents to the surgeon complaining of abdominal discomfort and nausea. Having undergone a prior right hemicolectomy, the patient has been disease free and on surveillance with clinical and carcinogenic antigen (CEA) monitoring. The CEA was noted to be elevated and a computed tomography scan revealed peritoneal nodules throughout the abdomen with a presumptive diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei (progressive peritoneal implants from a mucinous primary). Several therapeutic options were offered and the patient selected to undergo cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with the potential to receive hyperthermic interoperative chemotherapy (HIPEC). Extensive resection was performed, including removal of the entire greater omentum, partial gastrectomy, and total pelvic exenteration with end colostomy and ileal conduit. Reassessment of the peritoneal cavity after the resections revealed almost complete cytoreduction. HIPEC was performed with mitomycin C and, after drainage and abdominal washing, the intestinal segments were anastomosed and the abdominal wall closed. Seven days postoperatively, an acute abdomen with septic shock developed as a result of a leak from the ileocolonic anastomosis. The patient returned to the operating room and an exploratory laparotomy, a small bowel resection, a resection of the ileocolonic anastomosis, and an abdominal washout were performed. Edema of the bowel caused by peritonitis resulting from the anastomotic leak necessitated delayed closure of the abdominal wall. A temporary abdominal closure using the ABThera™ Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy system was applied and the abdomen was eventually closed. PMID:24969254

  19. Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tentes, Antonios-Apostolos; Zorbas, Georgios; Pallas, Nicolaos; Fiska, Aliki

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease. It is not certain if it is a benign or a borderline tumor. Although many therapeutic approaches have been used, complete cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy has gained acceptance. Case Report: A case of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a 16-year old patient is reported. The patient underwent complete cytoreduction and received intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The patient is disease-free one year after surgery. Conclusions: Complete cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy appears to be a rational therapeutic approach in multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:23569544

  20. [Update of breast cancer in primary care (IV/V)].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Hernández, C; Brusint, B; Vich, P; Díaz-García, N; Cuadrado-Rouco, C; Hernández-García, M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a prevalent disease affecting all areas of patients' lives. Therefore, family physicians must thoroughly understand this pathology in order to optimize the health care services and make the best use of available resources, for these patients. A series of 5 articles on breast cancer is presented below. It is based on a review of the scientific literature over the last 10 years. This fourth article deals with the treatment of the disease, the role of the primary care physician, and management of major complications. This summary report aims to provide a current and practical review about this problem, providing answers to family doctors and helping them to support their patients and care for them throughout their illness. PMID:24837185

  1. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy in an unknown primary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amonkar, Gayathri P.; Jashnani, Kusum D.; Pallewad, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a highly fatal complication of cancer leading to acute cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension. We present a case of 47-year-old male patient who developed acute breathlessness and died suddenly. The pulmonary vessels at autopsy on histopathologic examination showed the presence of fibrocellular intimal proliferation, fibrin thrombi and few tumor emboli consisting of malignant adenocarcinoma cells. There was associated lymphangiosis carcinomatosis. No primary visceral tumor was found despite extensive search. The patient had died following acute cor pulmonale with sudden pulmonary hypertension due to PTTM. This entity (PTTM) must be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with acute breathlessness especially in cases of cancers. PMID:25378856

  2. [Long-Term Disease-Free Survival through Postoperative Chemotherapy in a Case of Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination].

    PubMed

    Nakade, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sohei; Wakatsuki, Kohei; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Migita, Kazuhiro; Ito, Masahiro; Kunishige, Tomohiro; Kitano, Mutsuko; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    An 80-year-old man with type 4 gastric cancer in the mid-gastric region underwent total gastrectomy and D2-No.10 lymph-node dissection (cT4a, N0, M0, cStageⅡB). Several nodules were detected under the left diaphragm, some of which were biopsied. Pathological findings indicated a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pT4a (SE), pN3b, pM1 (P1, CY1), pStage Ⅳ. Systemic chemotherapy was initiated, using a regimen of S-1/docetaxel (DOC). After 6 courses of combination therapy, we switched to S-1 alone, which was continued for 1 year. Eighteen months after the surgery the patient discontinued S-1 treatment and has since survived for 5 years with no obvious cancer recurrence. PMID:26805262

  3. Nonbreast Second Malignancies After Treatment of Primary Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Budhi S. Sharma, Suresh C.; Patel, Firuza D.; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajinder

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence and risk factors for nonbreast second malignancies (NBSMs) in women after treatment for primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1985 and December 1995, a total of 1,084 breast cancer patients were analyzed for NBSMs. Detailed analysis was carried out for age, family history, disease stage, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, other clinical/pathologic characteristics, and site of NBSMs. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the relative risk of NBSMs. Results: Median follow-up was 12 years. In total, 33 cases of NBSMs were noted in 29 patients. The overall incidence of NBSM was 3%, and the median time for NBSMs was 7 years. The most common NBSMs were gynecologic (22 patients), gastrointestinal (4 patients), head and neck (3 patients), hematologic (2 patients), lung (1 patient), and thyroid (1 patient). The NBSMs rate at 12 years was 2.4% for both mastectomy and radiation therapy groups. In the subset of patients less than 45 years of age at the time of treatment, the NBSMs rate was 0.7% as compared with 4.6% in patients more than 45 years of age (p = 0.001). Statistically significant higher incidences of endometrial and ovarian cancer were seen in patients with hormonal therapy (5.2%) as compared with patients without hormonal therapy (1.8%, p = 0.002). Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher incidence (6%) of endometrial and ovarian malignancy compared with women without such a history (2.1%, p = 0.003). Chemotherapy did not affect the risk of second malignancy. Conclusion: The most common NBSMs in this study were gynecologic. Family history of breast cancer was a high risk factor for NBSMs. No risk of NBSMs with radiotherapy was observed.

  4. 42 CFR 81.25 - Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cancers. 81.25 Section 81.25 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.25 Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers. For claims including two or more primary cancers, DOL will use NIOSH-IREP to calculate the...

  5. 42 CFR 81.25 - Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cancers. 81.25 Section 81.25 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.25 Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers. For claims including two or more primary cancers, DOL will use NIOSH-IREP to calculate the...

  6. 42 CFR 81.25 - Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cancers. 81.25 Section 81.25 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.25 Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers. For claims including two or more primary cancers, DOL will use NIOSH-IREP to calculate the...

  7. 42 CFR 81.25 - Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cancers. 81.25 Section 81.25 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.25 Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers. For claims including two or more primary cancers, DOL will use NIOSH-IREP to calculate the...

  8. 42 CFR 81.25 - Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cancers. 81.25 Section 81.25 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.25 Guidelines for claims including two or more primary cancers. For claims including two or more primary cancers, DOL will use NIOSH-IREP to calculate the...

  9. Asymptomatic peritoneal carcinomatosis originating from benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Iacoponi, S; Calleja, J; Hernandez, G; de la Cuesta, R Sainz

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare tumour that originates from the abdominal peritoneum with a predisposition to the pelvic peritoneum. It typically affects women of reproductive age. There have been less than 200 cases of this rare neoplasia reported to date. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was referred to our centre because of the detection of a peritoneal carcinomatosis during a gynaecological exam. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. The findings included multiple cysts appearing as ‘a bunch of grapes’ occupying the omentum. Biopsies were taken during the surgery and the results showed benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Benign multicystic mesothelioma can simulate other conditions, such as malignant ovarian tumours or cystic lymphangioma. It is often diagnosed accidentally during surgery performed for another reason. The diagnosis is interoperative, observing multicystic structures grouped as a ‘bunch of grapes’ containing clear fluid with thin walls made of connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mesothelial origin. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice and is based on the removal of the cysts from the abdominal cavity. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be considered as a primary treatment in patients with recurrences or even as a part of primary treatment associated with surgery. Survival at 5 years is 100% and invasive or malignant progression is extraordinary. The treatment approach should be multidisciplinary, and the patient should be referred to a referral centre. PMID:26715942

  10. [A Case of Resection of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence and Peritoneal Recurrence Following Sigmoid Colon Cancer Surgery].

    PubMed

    Yabe, Nobushige; Murai, Shinji; Yokose, Takahiro; Oto, Ippei; Yoshikawa, Takahisa; Kitasato, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Hirotomo; Kojima, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    In June 2010, a 73-year old man diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. The histopathological diagnosis was tub2, pSS, n (-), stageⅡ.Vascular invasion was present; however, at the patient's request, no adjuvant chemotherapy was administered.Computed tomography (CT) performed at the outpatient follow-up 4 years and 6 months after the surgery revealed a para-aortic lymph node metastasis in the caudal aspect of the left renal artery branch point. No other definite mass shadows were detected. Positron emission (PET)-CT revealed high tracer accumulation (SUVmax) not only in the CT-identified lymph node, but also near the site of the anastomosis in the bowel. Considering that no tracer accumulation was detected at any other sites and the patient's compliance with medication and scheduled visits was poor, surgical resection rather than chemotherapy was adopted as the treatment strategy. No metastases other than at the sites identified by the diagnostic imaging were found during the surgery. Since the findings on palpation did not rule out the possibility that the nodule near the anastomotic site was present inside the intestinal tract, lymph node dissection, resection of the intestinal tract including the anastomotic site, and re-anastomosis were performed. The most likely diagnosis based on the histopathological findings was dissemination for both the adenocarcinoma and the nodule near the anastomotic site. At present, the patient is being treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. In the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) Guidelines for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer, the recommended therapeutic intervention is surgical resection of hematogenous metastases; however, no treatment is specified for lymph node metastases. In general, chemotherapy is administered for distant metastases. However, we have found no reports of cases in which a complete remission has been achieved. There are reports of improvement of

  11. Chromosome 16 in primary prostate cancer: a microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Osman, I; Scher, H; Dalbagni, G; Reuter, V; Zhang, Z F; Cordon-Cardo, C

    1997-05-16

    Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of prostate cancer specimens have revealed nonrandom chromosomal deletions, affecting chromosomes 7q, 8p, 10q and 16q. Based on these data, we designed this study to further characterize the altered region(s) on chromosome 16 by evaluating 16 microsatellite markers on a population composed of 32 paired normal and primary prostatic tumor samples. The 16 microsatellites selected mapped to 11 distinct loci on 16q and 5 loci on 16p. No alterations were identified affecting 16p. However, 16 of 31 (51%) informative cases showed molecular alterations in at least one of the loci analyzed on 16q, consisting of 18 deletions and 11 bandshifts. Moreover, most of the deletions clustered at 6 microsatellite loci, mapping to the 16q22.1-23.1 region. Our results suggest that microsatellite alterations on the long arm of chromosome 16 are frequent events in prostate cancer, and that the 16q22.1-23.1 region might harbor a tumor suppressor gene involved in prostate cancer. PMID:9178811

  12. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as primary manifestation of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Victoria T; Medina-Flores, Rafael; Chohan, Muhammad O

    2016-08-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is a rare complication of cancer that often presents at an advanced stage after obvious metastasis of a primary cancer or locally advanced disease. We present an uncommon case of LMC secondary to pancreatic carcinoma presenting with headache, unilateral VII nerve palsy, and lower extremity weakness. Initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies were concerning for chronic aseptic meningitis but negative for malignant cells; the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis was erroneously evoked. Three lumbar punctures were required to capture malignant cells. The diagnosis of LMC was based on CSF examination with cytology/immunohistochemistry and leptomeningeal enhancement on MRI. Post mortem autopsy revealed advanced and diffusely metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This patient demonstrates that solid tumors can present with leptomeningeal spread that often confuses the treating physician. Fungal or tuberculous meningitis can mimic LMC in the absence of neoplastic signs and negative CSF cytology. This event is exceedingly rare in pancreatic cancer. If the index of suspicion is high, repeat CSF sampling can increase the sensitivity of detection of malignant cells and thus result in the correct diagnosis. PMID:26972704

  13. Fostering Multiple Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors for Primary Prevention of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; King, Abby; Pagoto, Sherry; Van Horn, Linda; Fisher, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The odds of developing cancer are increased by specific lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, excess energy and alcohol intakes, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, risky sexual behaviors, and inadequate sun protection). These behaviors are largely absent in childhood, emerge and tend to cluster over the lifespan, and show an increased prevalence among those disadvantaged by low education or income or minority status. Even though risk behaviors are modifiable, few are diminishing in the population over time. We review the prevalence and population distribution of these behaviors and apply an ecological model to describe effective or promising healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to the individual, the sociocultural context, or environmental and policy influences. We suggest that implementing multiple health behavior change interventions across several ecological levels could substantially reduce the prevalence of cancer and the burden it places on the public and the health care system. We note important still unresolved questions about which behaviors can be intervened upon simultaneously in order to maximize positive behavioral synergies, minimize negative ones, and effectively engage underserved populations. We conclude that interprofessional collaboration is needed to appropriately evaluate and convey the value of primary prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:25730716

  14. Second primary tumors following radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, M.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Among a cohort of 9,279 survivors of childhood neoplasms other than retinoblastoma treated in Britain before 1980, the cumulative risk of a second primary tumor (SPT) by 25 years from 3-year survival was 3.7%. This corresponds to about five times the number expected from rates of cancer occurring in the general population. In the absence of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy, there was four times the expected number of subsequent cancers. The risk of an SPT associated with radiotherapy but not chemotherapy and both radiotherapy and chemotherapy were 6 and 9 times that expected, respectively. There is evidence that radiotherapy was involved in the development of many of the SPT's observed. However, case-control investigations are required to examine the relationship between relative risk of an SPT and therapy in detail. Secondary leukemia appears to occur more frequently among more recently diagnosed children with cancer. It is important to continue to monitor the occurrence of SPT's with a view to identifying the least carcinogenic therapies that are consistent with not compromising survival prospects.

  15. Primary Care Utilization and Colorectal Cancer Outcomes Among Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Jeanne M.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Gonzalez, Eduardo C.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Chen, Ren; Love-Jackson, Kymia; Roetzheim, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary medical care may improve colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes through increased use of CRC screening tests and earlier diagnosis. We examined the association between primary care utilization and CRC screening, stage at diagnosis, CRC mortality, and all-cause mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients, aged 67 to 85 years, diagnosed as having CRC between 1994 and 2005 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare–linked database. Association of the number of visits to primary care physicians (PCPs) in the 3- to 27-month period before the CRC diagnosis and CRC screening, early-stage diagnosis, CRC mortality, and all-cause mortality were examined using multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Results The odds of CRC screening and early-stage diagnosis increased with increasing number of PCP visits (P<.001 for trend). Compared with persons having 0 or 1 PCP visit, patients with 5 to 10 visits had increased odds of ever receiving CRC screening at least 3 months before diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.48-2.72) and early-stage diagnosis (1.35; 1.29-1.42). Persons with 5 to 10 visits had 16% lower CRC mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88) and 6% lower all-cause mortality (0.94; 0.91-0.97) compared with persons with 0 or 1 visit. Conclusions Medicare beneficiaries with CRC have better outcomes if they have greater utilization of primary care before diagnosis. Revitalization of primary care in the United States may help strengthen the national efforts to reduce the burden of CRC. PMID:22025432

  16. Group A Streptococci: A rare and often misdiagnosed cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in adults

    PubMed Central

    Malota, Mark; Felbinger, Thomas W.; Ruppert, Reinhard; Nüssler, Natascha C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute primary peritonitis due to group A Streptococci (GAS) is a rare but life-threatening infection. Unlike other forms of primary peritonitis it affects predominantly young previously healthy individuals and thus is often confused with the more frequent secondary peritonitis. A case series of three patients is presented as well as a review of the literature focusing on pitfalls in the diagnose and therapy of GAS peritonitis. Methods A retrospective analysis of three patients with primary GAS peritonitis was performed. Furthermore a systematic review of all cases of primary GAS peritonitis published from 1990 to 2013 was performed comparing demographics and clinical presentation, as well as radiological imaging, treatment and outcome. Results All three female patients presented initially with high fever, nausea and severe abdominal pain. Radiological imaging revealed intraperitoneal fluid collections of various degrees, but no underlying cause of peritonitis. Broad antibiotic treatment was started and surgical exploration was performed for acute abdomen in all three cases. Intraoperatively fibrinous peritonitis was observed, but the correct diagnosis was not made until microbiological analysis confirmed GAS peritonitis. One patient died within 24 h after admission. The other two patients recovered after multiple surgeries and several weeks on the intensive care unit due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The fulminant clinical course of the three patients resembled those of many of the published cases: flu-like symptoms, high fever, severe acute abdominal pain and fibrinous peritonitis without obvious infectious focus were the most common symptoms reported in the literature. Conclusion GAS primary peritonitis should be considered in particular in young, previously healthy women who present with peritonitis but lack radiological findings of an infectious focus. The treatment of choice is immediate antibiotic therapy. Surgical intervention is

  17. Molecular Alterations in Primary Prostate Cancer After Androgen Ablation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Best, Carolyn J. M.; Gillespie, John W.; Yi, Yajun; Chandramouli, G.V. R.; Perlmutter, Mark A.; Gathright, Yvonne; Erickson, Heidi S.; Georgevich, Lauren; Tangrea, Michael A.; Duray, Paul H.; González, Sergio; Velasco, Alfredo; Linehan, W. Marston; Matusik, Robert J.; Price, Douglas K.; Figg, William D.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Chuaqui, Rodrigo F.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE After an initial response to androgen ablation, most prostate tumors recur, ultimately progressing to highly aggressive androgen independent (AI) cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying progression are not well known, in part due to the rarity of AI samples from primary and metastatic sites. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We compared the gene expression profiles of ten AI primary prostate tumor biopsies with ten primary, untreated androgen-dependent (AD) tumors. Samples were laser capture microdissected, the RNA was amplified, and gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Gene Chips. Differential expression was examined with principle component analysis (PCA) and Student t testing. Analysis of gene ontology was performed with Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) and gene expression data were integrated with genomic alterations with DIfferential Gene locus MAPping (DIGMAP). RESULTS Unsupervised PCA showed that the AD and AI tumors segregated from one another. After filtering the data, 239 differentially expressed genes were identified. Two main gene ontologies were found discordant between AI and AD tumors: macromolecule biosynthesis was down-regulated and cell adhesion up-regulated in AI tumors. Other differentially expressed genes were related to IL-6 signaling, as well as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and hormone response. The DIGMAP analysis identified nine regions of potential chromosomal deletion in the AI tumors including 1p36, 3p21, 6p21, 8p21, 11p15, 11q12, 12q23, 16q12, and 16q21. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these data identify several unique characteristics of AI prostate cancer that may hold potential for the development of targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:16203770

  18. Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

  19. [A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination Effectively Treated with S-1 and Docetaxel Combination Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroyuki; Suematsu, Yuki; Hiratsuka, Miyuki; Suda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Miyuki; Omori, Keita; Ishibashi, Yuji; Morita, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    A 72-year-old man underwent surgery for advanced gastric cancer. Systemic chemotherapy was started, using a regimen of S-1/CDDP for 4 courses, followed by 8 courses of S-1. Three years and 8 months after the surgery, abdominal CT demonstrated ascites, and the serum CA19-9 level was abnormally high (1,165.1 U/mL). Adenocarcinoma cells were found in the ascites. Treatment with S-1/docetaxel (DOC) was started. After 10 courses, the ascites disappeared and the serum CA19-9 value returned to normal. Four years and 7 months after the operation, the patient has been in good health, with no signs of recurrence. PMID:26805261

  20. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3.70 MB) MedlinePlus Alternate Language URL Peritoneal Dialysis Page Content On this page: What is peritoneal ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is peritoneal dialysis and how does it work? Peritoneal dialysis is ...

  1. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  2. Cancer of Unknown Primary Finally Revealed to Be a Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Yeon; Shim, Eun Jin; Kim, In Seon; Nam, Eun Mi; Choi, Moon Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Mun, Yeung Chul; Seoung, Chu Myoung; Song, Dong Eun; Han, Woon Sup

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer present with bone metastases and high prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. Rarely, prostate cancer can develop in patients with normal PSA level. Here, we report a patient who presented with a periureteral tumor of unknown primary site that was confirmed as prostate adenocarcinoma after three years with using specific immunohistochemical examination. A 64-year old man was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain associated with masses on the left pelvic cavity with left hydronephrosis. All tumor markers including CEA, CA19-9, and PSA were within the normal range. After an exploratory mass excision and left nephrectomy, the pelvic mass was diagnosed as poorly differentiated carcinoma without specific positive immunohistochemical markers. At that time, we treated him as having a cancer of unknown primary site. After approximately three years later, he revisited the hospital with a complaint of right shoulder pain. A right scapular mass was newly detected with a high serum PSA level (101.7 ng/ml). Tissues from the scapular mass and prostate revealed prostate cancer with positive immunoreactivity for P504S, a new prostate cancer-specific gene. The histological findings were the same as the previous pelvic mass; however, positive staining for PSA was observed only in the prostate mass. This case demonstrates a patient with prostate cancer and negative serological test and tissue staining that turned out to be positive during progression. We suggest the usefulness of newly developed immunohistochemical markers such as P504S to determine the specific primary site of metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in men. PMID:19688071

  3. Location of metastases in cancer of unknown primary are not random and signal familial clustering

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Ji, Jianguang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a fatal disease diagnosed through metastases. It shows intriguing familial clustering with certain defined primary cancers. Here we examine whether metastatic location in CUP patients is related to primary non-CUP cancers in relatives based on the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CUP patients defined by metastatic location depending on cancer in their first degree relatives. SIRs for CUP were high in association with liver (3.94), ovarian (3.41), lung (2.43) and colorectal cancers (1.83) in relatives. The SIR was 1.63 for CUP with metastases in the abdomen when a relative was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. CUP with liver metastases associated with liver (1.44) cancer in relatives. CUP with head and neck region metastases associated with relatives’ esophageal (2.87) cancer. CUP metastases in the thorax associated with a relative’s cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract (2.14) and lung (1.74). The findings, matching metastatic location in CUP and primary cancer in relatives, could be reconciled if these cases of CUP constitute a phenotypically modified primary lacking tissue identification, resulting from epitope immunoediting. Alternatively, CUP metastases arise in a genetically favored tissue environment (soil) promoting growth of both primary cancers and metastases (seeds). PMID:26956545

  4. [Observations on cancer metastasis from an unknown primary location].

    PubMed

    Mandarano, R; Ciccone, A; Sereni, P; Ceccherini, E

    1991-09-15

    Following a short introduction in which the criteria used to classify patients suffering from cancer metastasis from an occult primary location are defined, the paper reports two cases of this type: an omental metastasis occluding the upper colon and an inguinal lymph node metastasis. Referring to the international literature, the Authors then analyse the reasons for the inability to recognise the neoplasm, its incidence, patients survival, the most appropriate diagnostic course and possible treatment of these cases. In conclusion, over and above the definition of a truly autonomous nosological status of metastasis of unknown origin, it is important to follow a correct diagnostic procedure in order to establish the most appropriate form of therapy. PMID:1758637

  5. Leveraging Primary Care in the Fight Against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Jason L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the decline in youth smoking rates has stopped as the tobacco industry strives to successfully reclaim market areas where it has lost favor. The plateau in lung cancer incidence and stagnation in progress toward smoking abstinence illustrates the necessity for renewed efforts to fight tobacco use. Barriers to fighting tobacco use exist in both the clinical arena and within the general population, but can be overcome. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are uniquely poised to successfully treat nicotine dependence with strategic targeting of these barriers, improved training in smoking cessation techniques, and focused political efforts in tobacco control. Herein, this article describes the landscape of tobacco use in America and provides background, methodology, and resources for PCPs to help achieve the goals of Healthy People 2010 in reducing the illness, disability, and death that occur as a result of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:18172737

  6. Hamster bite peritonitis: Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Taylor, J H; Campbell, M

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient. This rare infection was the result of contamination of the dialysis tubing by a pet hamster. We stress the importance of household pets as a source of infection in the peritoneal dialysis population. PMID:11095007

  7. Molecular response to aromatase inhibitor treatment in primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Alan; Urruticoechea, Ander; Dixon, J Michael; Dexter, Tim; Fenwick, Kerry; Ashworth, Alan; Drury, Suzanne; Larionov, Alexey; Young, Oliver; White, Sharon; Miller, William R; Evans, Dean B; Dowsett, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole and letrozole are highly effective suppressants of estrogen synthesis in postmenopausal women and are the most effective endocrine treatments for hormone receptor positive breast cancer in such women. Little is known of the molecular effects of these agents on human breast carcinomas in vivo. Methods We randomly assigned primary estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients to treatment with anastrozole or letrozole for 2 weeks before surgery. Expression profiling using cDNA arrays was conducted on pretreatment and post-treatment biopsies. Sample pairs from 34 patients provided sufficient RNA for analysis. Results Profound changes in gene expression were seen with both aromatase inhibitors, including many classical estrogen-dependent genes such as TFF1, CCND1, PDZK1 and AGR2, but also many other genes that are likely to represent secondary responses; decrease in the expression of proliferation-related genes were particularly prominent. Many upregulated genes are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, including collagens and members of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family (LUM, DCN, and ASPN). No significant differences were seen between letrozole and anastrozole in terms of molecular effects. The gene changes were integrated into a Global Index of Dependence on Estrogen (GIDE), which enumerates the genes changing by at least twofold with therapy. The GIDE varied markedly between tumours and related significantly to pretreatment levels of HER2 and changes in immunohistochemically detected Ki67. Conclusion Our findings identify the transcriptional signatures associated with aromatase inhibitor treatment of primary breast tumours. Larger datasets using this approach should enable identification of estrogen-dependent molecular changes, which are the determinants of benefit or resistance to endocrine therapy. PMID:17555561

  8. Icodextrin does not impact infectious and culture-negative peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year multicentre, comparative, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vychytil, Andreas; Remón, César; Michel, Catherine; Williams, Paul; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Marrón, Belén; Vonesh, Ed; van der Heyden, Synke; Filho, Jose C. Divino

    2008-01-01

    Background. Icodextrin is a glucose polymer derived by hydrolysis of cornstarch. The different biocompatibility profile of icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions may have a positive influence on peritoneal host defence. Furthermore, cases of sterile peritonitis potentially associated with icodextrin have been reported. Methods. The primary objective of this multicentre, longitudinal, observational, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, which included 722 PD patients, was to evaluate the incidence of overall peritonitis in patients treated with icodextrin-containing PD solutions (Extraneal™) used during one long-dwell exchange/day compared with those treated with non-icodextrin-containing PD solutions. The secondary objective was to determine if culture-negative peritonitis rates differed between patients treated with icodextrin from two independent manufacturers. All peritonitis episodes were assessed by a Steering Committee in a blind manner. Results. There was no significant difference between icodextrin-treated and control patients in the adjusted overall, culture-positive or culture-negative peritonitis rates. When stratified by the icodextrin supplier, there was no significant difference in the adjusted rate of culture-negative peritonitis episodes between groups. Conclusion. Subjects receiving icodextrin as part of their PD regimen experienced neither a higher rate of culture-negative peritonitis nor a lower rate of infectious peritonitis compared with non-icodextrin users. There was no significant influence of the icodextrin raw material supplier on peritonitis rates. PMID:18556747

  9. Risk factors for second primary tumours in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luis; Lana, Alberto; Hidalgo, Agustín; Rodríguez, Jose María; Del Valle, María Del Olivo; Cueto, Antonio; Folgueras, María Victoria; Belyakova, Elena; Comendador, Miguel Angel; López, María Luisa

    2008-10-01

    Breast cancer (BC) survivors have an increased risk of developing second primary cancer (SPC). The aim of this study was to detect and compare SPC predictors linked to the host, the first BC and its treatment. Two hundred and seventeen patients with a nonbreast SPC and 465 matched controls, nested in the cohort of BC patients diagnosed in a Spanish region between 1975 and 2003, were involved in a case-control study. The Tumour Registry database provided information about the host, BC and its treatment factors. Their contribution to the risk of developing SPC was measured by means of a conditional logistic regression. After controlling for differences between cases and controls at baseline, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 7.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-44.88], smoking (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.23-8.15), high blood pressure (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.71) and having first-degree relatives suffering from cancer (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.72) were the best SPC predictors. The risk of SPC increases by 1% per month of survival from BC (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.007-1.012), while having metastases (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.37) and being premenopausal at diagnosis of the BC (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.247-0.792) diminish the risk, probably decreasing survival. The treatments were the regression model's worst predictors. Controlling modifiable factors linked to lifestyle such as obesity and smoking is essential to prevent SPC in survivors of BC. Health education to remove persistent risk factors should be included in the treatment protocol of BC patients, because they are important predictors of SPC. PMID:18714181

  10. Multiple primary cancer: an increasing health problem. Strategies for prevention in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    López, M L; Lana, A; Díaz, S; Folgueras, M V; Sánchez, L; Comendador, M A; Belyakova, E; Rodríguez, J M; Cueto, A

    2009-11-01

    This study was set to look for associations between the sites of the first and subsequent tumours in patients with multiple primary cancer (MPC) diagnosed from 1975 to 2002 in the reference hospital of a Spanish northern region, and propose prevention strategies. Patient and tumour variables were measured. Crude and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants were obtained, and the association between MPC incidence and time was analysed by means of lineal regression. Relative risks were calculated to analyse associations between tumour sites. A total of 2737 MPC cases were registered (male/female ratio = 2). The percentage of MPC with respect to the total cancer increased from 1.78% in the 1975-1979 period to 7.08% in the 2000-2002 period (R(2) = 0.92; P = 0.003). Great increase of incidence by time was found (R(2) = 0.90; P = 0.004). Breast, prostate and bladder cancers increase risk of second tumour in female genital organs [RR 4.78 (3.84-5.93)], urinary system [RR 3.69 (2.89-4.69)] and male genital organs [RR 3.76 (2.84-4.69)] respectively. The MPC incidence is increasing. Interventions for MPC prevention, according to the European Code against Cancer, should be implemented early after the first cancer principally if patients suffer breast, bladder, prostate, larynx and colon cancers. PMID:19486126

  11. Peritoneal manifestations of parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe of peritoneal manifestations of parasitic infection at CT. A broad spectrum of CT findings can be seen in the peritoneal cavity, including a varying degree of omental or mesenteric infiltration, single or multiple peritoneal mass or nodule, and peritoneal thickening or stranding. Recognition of these findings are crucial for establish an early diagnosis and helps avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:17924162

  12. Definition of compartment-based radical surgery in uterine cancer: modified radical hysterectomy in intermediate/high-risk endometrial cancer using peritoneal mesometrial resection (PMMR) by M Höckel translated to robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The technique of compartment-based radical hysterectomy was originally described by M Höckel as total mesometrial resection (TMMR) for standard treatment of stage I and II cervical cancer. However, with regard to the ontogenetically-defined compartments of tumor development (Müllerian) and lymph drainage (Müllerian and mesonephric), compartments at risk may also be defined consistently in endometrial cancer. This is the first report in the literature on the compartment-based surgical approach to endometrial cancer. Peritoneal mesometrial resection (PMMR) with therapeutic lymphadenectomy (tLNE) as an ontogenetic, compartment-based oncologic surgery could be beneficial for patients in terms of surgical radicalness as well as complication rates; it can be standardized for compartment-confined tumors. Supported by M Höckel, PMMR was translated to robotic surgery (rPMMR) and described step-by-step in comparison to robotic TMMR (rTMMR). Methods Patients (n = 42) were treated by rPMMR (n = 39) or extrafascial simple hysterectomy (n = 3) with/without bilateral pelvic and/or periaortic robotic therapeutic lymphadenectomy (rtLNE) for stage I to III endometrial cancer, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification. Tumors were classified as intermediate/high-risk in 22 out of 40 patients (55%) and low-risk in 18 out of 40 patients (45%), and two patients showed other uterine malignancies. In 11 patients, no adjuvant external radiotherapy was performed, but chemotherapy was applied. Results No transition to open surgery was necessary. There were no intraoperative complications. The postoperative complication rate was 12% with venous thromboses, (n = 2), infected pelvic lymph cyst (n = 1), transient aphasia (n = 1) and transient dysfunction of micturition (n = 1). The mean difference in perioperative hemoglobin concentrations was 2.4 g/dL (± 1.2 g/dL) and one patient (2.4%) required

  13. Cancer Screening: Should Cancer Screening be Essential Component of Primary Health Care in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Balasubramanium, Ganesh; Kumar, Abhinendra; Jain, Aanchal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a fatal disease and is on the rise across the globe. In India, breast, cervix and the oral cavity are the leading cancer sites, but, unfortunately, in-spite of availability of screening tools, there is no organized cancer screening program in India. The main objective of this study was to review the performance of various cancer screening modalities in a resource poor setting. Methods: MEDLINE and web of science electronic database was searched from January 1990 to December 2013, using keywords such as “breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer and their corresponding mesh terms were also used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies published in English and conducted in India. A total of 16 studies was found relevant and eligible for the review. The data on sensitivity and specificity of various screening tool was extracted and analyzed. Results: Most of the reported screening trails in India are on cervical cancer and few on breast and oral cancer screening. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of cervical cancer screening test such as visual inspection with acetic acid, magnified visual inspection with acetic acid, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine, cytology (Papanicolaou smear) and human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid was found to be 68.76% and 84.02%, 63.27% and 85.43%, 81.86% and 87.03%, 63.25% and 93.17% and 75.04% and 91.66%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical breast examination was found to be 94.30% and 94.30%, respectively. Oral cancer screening through visual inspection by trained health care worker was found to have 87.90% sensitivity and 92.05% specificity. Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured

  14. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy Page Content On this page: ... from the abdominal cavity. [ Top ] Types of Peritoneal Dialysis The two types of peritoneal dialysis differ mainly ...

  15. Characteristics and Survival of Breast Cancer Patients with Multiple Synchronous or Metachronous Primary Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janghee; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jeeye; Ryu, Jegyu; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly developed extra-mammary multiple primary cancers (MPCs) are an issue of concern when considering the management of breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MPCs and to evaluate the implications of MPCs on the survival of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods A total of 8204 patients who underwent surgery at Severance Hospital between 1990 and 2012 were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathologic features and survival over follow-up periods of ≤5 and >5 years were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results During a mean follow-up of 67.3 months, 962 MPCs in 858 patients (10.5%) were detected. Synchronous and metachronous MPCs were identified in 23.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively. Thyroid cancer was the most prevalent, and the second most common was gynecologic cancer. At ≤5 years, patients with MPCs were older and demonstrated significantly worse survival despite a higher proportion of patients with lower-stage MPCs. Nevertheless, an increased risk of death in patients with MPCs did not reach statistical significance at >5 years. The causes of death in many of the patients with MPCs were not related to breast cancer. Stage-matched analysis revealed that the implications of MPCs on survival were more evident in the early stages of breast disease. Conclusion Breast cancer patients with MPCs showed worse survival, especially when early-stage disease was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to follow screening programs in breast cancer survivors and to establish guidelines for improving prognosis and quality of life. PMID:26256962

  16. Risk of second primary cancer after treatment for esophageal cancer: a pooled analysis of nine cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z; Lu, L; Bi, X; Deng, Q; Chen, X; Su, H; Liu, Y; Guo, H; Zheng, T; Yu, H; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    The introduction of new treatments for esophageal cancer including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of these modalities has not only improved patient survival, but may also increase the risk of the second primary cancers. The available evidence is conflicting with most risk estimates based on sparse numbers. Here we estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of second cancer among 24,557 esophageal cancer survivors (at least 2 months) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2007, who had been followed up for median 6.5 years (range 2 months-29.3 years). Second cancer risk was statistically significantly elevated (SIR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.25-1.42) among the survivors compared with the general population; the SIRs for cancers of oral and pharynx, stomach, small intestine, larynx, lung and bronchus, thyroid and prostate cancer were 8.64 (95% CI = 7.36-10.07), 2.87 (95% CI = 2.10-3.82), 3.80 (95% CI = 1.82-7.00), 3.19 (95% CI = 2.12-4.61), 1.68 (95% CI = 1.46-1.93), 2.50 (95% CI = 1.25-4.47), and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.65-0.90), respectively. Radiotherapy raised cancer risk of larynx (SIR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.43-6.14) and thyroid (SIR = 3.57, 95% CI = 1.54-7.03) among all esophageal cancer survivors. For patients who had 5-9 years of follow up after radiotherapy, the SIR for lung cancer was 3.46 (95% CI = 2.41-4.82). Patients with esophageal cancer are at increased risks of second cancers of oral and pharynx, larynx, lung, and thyroid, while at a decreased risk for prostate cancer. These findings indicate that radiotherapy for esophageal cancer patients may increase risk of developing second cancers of larynx, lung, and thyroid. Thus, randomized clinical trials to address the association of radiotherapy and the risk of secondary cancer are warranted. PMID:22067063

  17. Noninvasive and real-time monitoring of molecular targeting therapy for lymph node and peritoneal metastasis in nude mice bearing xenografts of human colorectal cancer cells tagged with GFP and DsRed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hayao; Hara, Masayasu; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Tatematsu, Masae

    2007-02-01

    We have developed an in vivo imaging system consisting of GFP- and DsRed-tagged human colonic cancer cell line, which has peritoneal and lymph node metastatic potential and show high sensitivity to EGFR targeting drugs, and convenient detection devices for GFP and DsRed. The latter includes a small handy fluorescence detection device for external monitoring of the therapeutic effect of the drug and a convenient stereo fluorescent microscope for internal visualization of micrometastases. We applied this imaging system to investigate anti-metastatic effects of EGFR targeting drugs such as gefitinib (Iressa). This system allowed sensitive detection of the development of peritoneal and lymph node metastases from the micrometastasis stage at the cellular level and also permited noninvasive, non-anesthetic monitoring of anti-metastatic effect of the drug in an animal facility without any pretreatment. Significant decreases in the intraabdominal metastatic tumor growth and prevention of inguinal lymph node metastasis by gefitinib treatment could be clearly monitored. These results suggest that convenient, low-cost, true real-time monitoring of therapeutic effect using such a fluorescence-mediated whole body imaging system seems to enhance the speed of preclinical study for novel anti-cancer agents and will allow us to understand the action mechanism of molecular targeting drugs.

  18. Synthetic Resveratrol Analogue, 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-Hexahydroxy-trans-Stilbene, Accelerates Senescence in Peritoneal Mesothelium and Promotes Senescence-Dependent Growth of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Piwocka, Katarzyna; Książek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-Hexahydroxy-trans-stilbene (M8) is a synthetic resveratrol derivative, advertised as a candidate drug highly effective against numerous malignancies. Because multiple tumors prone to M8 frequently metastasize into the peritoneal cavity, this study was aimed at establishing the effect of M8 on the growth and senescence of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), the largest cell population within the peritoneum, actively involved in the intraperitoneal spread of cancer. The study showed that M8, used at the highest non-toxic dose of 10 μM, impairs proliferation and accelerates senescence in cultured HPMCs via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. At the same time, soluble factors released to the environment by HPMCs that senesced prematurely in response to M8 promoted growth of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in vitro. These findings indicate that M8 may indirectly—through the modification of normal (mesothelial) cells phenotype—facilitate an expansion of cancer cells, which challenges the postulated value of this stilbene in chemotherapy. PMID:24240809

  19. Germline BAP1 mutation in a family with high incidence of multiple primary cancers and a potential gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mitchell; Kadariya, Yuwaraj; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Pei, Jianming; Ohar, Jill A; Kayaleh, Omar R; Testa, Joseph R

    2015-12-28

    We report a high-risk cancer family with multiple mesotheliomas, cutaneous melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, and meningiomas segregating with a germline nonsense mutation in BAP1 (c.1938T>A; p.Y646X). Notably, most (four of five) mesotheliomas were peritoneal rather than the usually more common pleural form of the disease, and all five mesothelioma patients also developed second or third primary cancers, including two with meningiomas. Another family member developed both cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. Two family members had basal cell carcinomas, and six others had melanocytic tumors, including four cutaneous melanomas, one uveal melanoma, and one benign melanocytic tumor. The family resides in a subtropical area, and several members had suspected exposure to asbestos either occupationally or in the home. We hypothesize that the concurrence of a genetic predisposing factor and environmental exposure to asbestos and UV irradiation contributed to the high incidence of multiple cancers seen in this family, specifically mesothelioma and various uveal/skin tumors, respectively. PMID:26409435

  20. Human Papillomavirus and Cystic Node Metastasis in Oropharyngeal Cancer and Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Toshimichi; Morii, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshii, Tadashi; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nakahara, Susumu; Todo, Takeshi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in neck node metastasis from cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not well established. We aimed to address the relationship of HPV status between node metastasis and the primary tumor, and also the relevance of HPV status regarding radiographically detected cystic node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and CUP. HPV DNA was examined in 68 matched pairs of node metastasis and primary tumor, and in node metastasis from 27 CUPs. In surgically treated CUPs, p16 was examined immunohistochemically. When tonsillectomy proved occult tonsillar cancer in CUP, HPV DNA and p16 were also examined in the occult primary. Cystic node metastasis on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans was correlated with the primary site and HPV status in another series of 255 HNSCCs and CUPs with known HPV status. Node metastasis was HPV-positive in 19/37 (51%) oropharyngeal SCCs (OPSCCs) and 10/27 (37%) CUPs, but not in non-OPSCCs. Fluid was collected from cystic node metastasis using fine needle aspiration in two OPSCCs and one CUP, and all fluid collections were HPV-positive. HPV status, including the presence of HPV DNA, genotype, and physical status, as well as the expression pattern of p16 were consistent between node metastasis and primary or occult primary tumor. Occult tonsillar cancer was found more frequently in p16-positive CUP than in p16-negative CUP (odds ratio (OR), 39.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4–377.8; P = 0.02). Radiographically, cystic node metastasis was specific to OPSCC and CUP, and was associated with HPV positivity relative to necrotic or solid node metastasis (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.2–45.7; P = 0.03). In conclusion, HPV status remains unchanged after metastasis. The occult primary of HPV-positive CUP is most probably localized in the oropharynx. HPV status determined from fine needle aspirates facilitates the diagnosis of cystic node metastasis. PMID:24752007

  1. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer. The WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shike, M.; Winawer, S. J.; Greenwald, P. H.; Bloch, A.; Hill, M. J.; Swaroop, S. V.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Epidemiological and laboratory animal studies have established a link between various nutritional factors and the etiology of this cancer. Recent studies in genetic epidemiology and molecular biology have shown that inherited genetic factors also play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, genetic-nutritional interactions may form the basis for the development of this cancer. Nutritional factors that appear to promote or attenuate the carcinogenic process in the colon include fat, excess calories, fibre, calcium, selenium, and various vitamins. Strategies for primary prevention of colorectal cancer should therefore be targeted to all populations who are at risk because of dietary and hereditary predisposition. Based on current knowledge, recommended nutrition guidelines for reducing the risk of colon cancer include decreased fat consumption, adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, and avoidance of overweight. Research to further elucidate the role of diet in colorectal carcinogenesis should include randomized studies in humans, testing of various nutritional regimens, and the use of colonic adenomas and markers of cell proliferation and differentiation as end-points. PMID:2203551

  2. ColonCancerCheck Primary Care Invitation Pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Tinmouth, Jill; Ritvo, Paul; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Patel, Jigisha; Guglietti, Crissa; Levitt, Cheryl A.; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Rabeneck, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the perceptions of those who received invitations to the ColonCancerCheck Primary Care Invitation Pilot (the Pilot) about the mailed invitation, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in general, and their specific screening experiences. Design Qualitative study with 6 focus group sessions, each 1.5 hours in length. Setting Hamilton, Ont; Ottawa, Ont; and Thunder Bay, Ont. Participants Screening-eligible adults, aged 50 years and older, who received a Pilot invitation for CRC screening. Methods The focus groups were conducted by a trained moderator and were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed using grounded-theory techniques facilitated by the use of electronic software. Main findings Key themes related to the invitation letter, the role of the family physician, direct mailing of the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kit, and alternate CRC screening promotion strategies were identified. Specifically, participants suggested the letter content should use stronger, more powerful language to capture the reader’s attention. The importance of the family physician was endorsed, although participants favoured clarification of the physician and program roles in the actual mailed invitation. Participants expressed support for directly mailing FOBT kits to individuals, particularly those with successful previous test completion, and for communication of both negative and positive screening results. Conclusion This study yielded a number of important findings including strategies to optimize letter content, support for directly mailed FOBT kits, and strategies to report results that might be highly relevant to other health programs where population-based CRC screening is being considered. PMID:24336559

  3. Risk of Second Primary Cancer among Prostate Cancer Patients in Korea: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Young; Lim, Jiwon; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Cho, Hyunsoon; Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Won, Young-Joo

    2015-01-01

    As patients with prostate cancer have a long life expectancy, there is increasing interest in predicting the risk of development of a second primary cancer (SPC), and we therefore designed this study to estimate the overall risk of developing SPCs among Korean prostate cancer patients. We used a population-based cohort from the Korean Central Cancer Registry composed of 55,378 men diagnosed with a first primary prostate cancer between 1993 and 2011. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPCs were analyzed by age at diagnosis, latency period, period of diagnosis, and type of initial treatment. Survival analysis was stratified by development of SPC. Men with primary prostate cancer had an overall lower risk of developing an SPC [SIR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72−0.78], which was significant for SPCs of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, larynx, lung, and bronchus. In contrast, there were significant increases in the risk of bladder and thyroid cancers, which tended to decrease after longer follow-up. Patients who received initial radiation therapy had an increased risk of subsequent rectal cancer, although this was still lower than that of the general male population. Other urinary tract cancers including those of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter tended to be associated with a higher risk of developing an SPC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The patients with prostate cancer and SPC had lower overall survival rates than those with one primary prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that men with prostate cancer have a 25% lower risk of developing an SPC in Korea, but a higher risk of developing subsequent bladder and thyroid cancers, which suggests the need for continued cancer surveillance among prostate cancer survivors. PMID:26469085

  4. Treatment principles for peritoneal surface malignancies.

    PubMed

    Deraco, Marcello; Kusamura, Shigeki; Corbellini, Carlo; Guaglio, Marcello; Paviglianiti, Cosimo; Baratti, Dario

    2016-04-01

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in the clinical management of peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM). Once regarded as end-stage disseminated conditions only to be palliated, PSM are now increasingly recognized as local-regional disease entities amenable to potentially curative therapies. Better knowledge of the natural history and patterns of disease-progression has evolved into a novel treatment approach combining aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy, to treat the microscopic residual disease. Such a complex comprehensive treatment has reportedly resulted in a survival improvement over historical controls, and it is gaining an increasing acceptance as standard of care for selected patients with peritoneal metastases from gastrointestinal and gynecological tumor and rare primary peritoneal malignancies. This article addresses the rational bases supporting the comprehensive treatment of PSM. The biology and patho-physiology of peritoneal tumor dissemination, with their implication on surgical and local-regional management are reviewed. The cytoreductive surgical procedures and intraperitoneal chemotherapy administration techniques are described, together with the theoretical principles from which have originated. The main controversial issues in the operative management of PSM are discussed, focusing on the technical variants adopted in our institution. The most recent literature data on both patient selection and appropriate indications for combined treatment are presented. Additionally, a brief overview of treatment results and long-term outcomes following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the different PSM is provided. PMID:26847729

  5. Risk of cancer in retransplants compared to primary kidney transplants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Roberto S; Lynch, Charles F; Engels, Eric A

    2015-10-01

    Recipients of kidney transplantation have elevated risk of developing cancer. There are limited data on cancer risk in recipients of kidney retransplantation. We used data from the Transplant Cancer Match Study, which links the U.S. transplant registry with 15 cancer registries. Cancer incidence in recipients of kidney retransplantation and primary kidney transplants was compared utilizing Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic and medical characteristics. We assessed 109 224 primary recipients and 6621 retransplants. Compared to primary recipients, retransplants were younger (median age 40 vs. 46 yr), had higher PRA, and more often received induction with polyclonal antibodies (43% vs. 25%). A total of 5757 cancers were observed in primary recipients and 245 in retransplants. Overall cancer risk was similar in retransplants compared with primary recipients (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.93-1.20, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, PRA, and use of polyclonal induction). However, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurred in excess among retransplants (adjusted IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.45-2.77), based on 514 cases in primary recipients and 43 cases in retransplants. Overall cancer risk did not differ in retransplants compared to primary recipients. Increased risk of RCC may be explained by the presence of acquired cystic kidney disease, which is more likely to develop with additional time with kidney disease and time spent on dialysis waiting for retransplantation. PMID:26255999

  6. Genomic characterisation of two cancers of unknown primary cases supports a kidney cancer origin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Elizabeth Y; Chen, Ying-Bei; Hsieh, James J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) comprises of 3-5% of new cancer diagnoses in the USA. Diagnostic work up typically includes CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and histopathological review of tissue specimens. These measures are neither sensitive nor specific in determining tissue of origin (ToO) of primary tumours and, therefore, are unable to guide therapy. We present two cases of CUP for which we utilised ultra-deep genomic sequencing to identify the candidate ToO and to propose treatment. Patient 1 presented with metastases involving the lung, lymph nodes and bone. Patient 2 presented with an acute pathological fracture of the T7 vertebral body and metastases involving the bone, lymph nodes and soft tissue. No primary renal mass was found. Sequencing revealed SETD2 and NF2 mutations, and heterozygous loss of the short arm of chromosome 3 (3p). Mutations in conjunction with clinicopathological features strongly support a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Both patients initially responded to mTORC1 inhibition therapy. PMID:26494726

  7. Indicators of Cellular and Developmental Disorders in Multiple Primary Cancers.

    PubMed

    Redzović, Arnela; Dintinjana, Renata Dobrila; Nacinović, Antica Duletić

    2016-04-01

    In human organism development is a very complex and highly regulated system that enables the functional balance of each organ in a whole body. Disorders and tumor micro-environment weaken host immune system that is not able to recognize the tumor as a unknown body and fight against its uncontrollable forces. Tumor avoids the immune system in a way that promotes immunosuppression and orientation cytokine production towards Th2 immune responses which are responsible for infection appearances. Some of infectious agents (viruses) can cause oncogene activation and inhibition of tumor suppressor genes. It is also known that oncology treatment can be detrimental to the host immune system. The drugs or radiation can activate different signaling pathways which lead to a vicious circle from which there is no return. Experimental models of tumor biology and molecular events in vivo are patients who have multiple primary cancers (MPC) diagnosed during life. Such patients confirm the complexity of disorders that occur in the cell and explain all the influences and contributions to developmental tumor cascade. PMID:27301239

  8. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics. PMID:24761922

  9. Concordance of folate receptor-α expression between biopsy, primary tumor and metastasis in breast cancer and lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Ann-Jean; Charehbili, Ayoub; Hoogstins, Charlotte E.S.; Prevoo, Hendrica A. J. M.; Singhal, Sunil; Low, Philip S.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Folate receptor alpha (FRα) is known to be upregulated in a variety of cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and breast cancer. To ensure reliable implementation of diagnostic- and therapeutic agents, concordance of FRα expression between biopsy, primary tumor and metastases is important. Using immunohistochemistry (Mab 26B3.F2) these concordances were investigated in 60 NSCLC and 40 breast cancer patients. False positivity of FRα expression on breast and lung cancer biopsies was limited to less than 5%. In NSCLC, FRα expression was shown in 21/34 adenocarcinomas and 4/26 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Concordance of FRα expression between biopsy and primary tumor was achieved in respectively 83% and 91% of adenocarcinomas and SCCs. Approximately 80% of all local and distant metastases of NSCLC patients showed concordant FRα expression as their corresponding primary tumor. In breast cancer, FRα positivity was shown in 12/40 biopsies, 20/40 lumpectomies and 6/20 LN metastases, with concordance of 68% between biopsy and primary tumor and 60% between primary tumor and LN metastases. In conclusion, this study shows high concordance rates of FRα expression between biopsies and metastases compared to primary NSCLC and breast cancers, underscoring the applicability of FRα-targeted agents in these patients. PMID:26943581

  10. The Value of Continuity between Primary Care and Surgical Care in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tanvir; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Luu, Ngoc-Phuong; Pollack, Craig Evan

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving continuity between primary care and cancer care is critical for improving cancer outcomes and curbing cancer costs. A dimension of continuity, we investigated how regularly patients receive their primary care and surgical care for colon cancer from the same hospital and whether this affects mortality and costs. Methods Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Registry (SEER)-Medicare data, we performed a retrospective cohort study of stage I-III colon cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. There were 23,305 stage I-III colon cancer patients who received primary care in the year prior to diagnosis and underwent operative care for colon cancer. Patients were assigned to the hospital where they had their surgery and to their primary care provider’s main hospital, and then classified according to whether these two hospitals were same or different. Outcomes examined were hazards for all-cause mortality, subhazard for colon cancer specific mortality, and generalized linear estimate for costs at 12 months, from propensity score matched models. Results Fifty-two percent of stage I-III colon patients received primary care and surgical care from the same hospital. Primary care and surgical care from the same hospital was not associated with reduced all-cause or colon cancer specific mortality, but was associated with lower inpatient, outpatient, and total costs of care. Total cost difference was $8,836 (95% CI $2,746–$14,577), a 20% reduction in total median cost of care at 12 months. Conclusions Receiving primary care and surgical care at the same hospital, compared to different hospitals, was associated with lower costs but still similar survival among stage I-III colon cancer patients. Nonetheless, health care policy which encourages further integration between primary care and cancer care in order to improve outcomes and decrease costs will need to address the significant proportion of patients receiving health care

  11. Effect of Metformin on Progression of Head and Neck Cancers, Occurrence of Second Primary Cancers, and Cause-Specific Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Minsu; Song, Jihyun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Sung-Bae; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on progression of head and neck cancers, occurrence of second primary cancers, and cause-specific survival. Methods. This study analyzed a retrospective cohort of 1,151 consecutive patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were treated at our hospital. Patients were divided into three groups: nondiabetic, nonmetformin, and metformin. Clinical characteristics, recurrence of index head and neck cancer, occurrence of second primary cancer, and survival were compared among the different groups. Results. Of 1,151 patients, 99 (8.6%) were included in the metformin group, 79 (6.8%) were in the nonmetformin group, and 973 (84.5%) were in the nondiabetic group. Diabetic status and metformin exposure had no significant impact on index head and neck cancer recurrence or second primary cancer development (p > .2). The nonmetformin group showed relatively lower overall (p = .017) and cancer-specific (p = .054) survival rates than the other groups in univariate analyses, but these results were not confirmed in multivariate analyses. Conclusion. Metformin use did not show beneficial effects on index tumor progression, second primary cancer occurrence, and cause-specific survival in patients with head and neck cancer compared with nonmetformin users and nondiabetic patients. PMID:25802404

  12. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mirnezami, Reza; Moran, Brendan J; Harvey, Kate; Cecil, Tom; Chandrakumaran, Kandiah; Carr, Norman; Mohamed, Faheez; Mirnezami, Alexander H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review the available evidence regarding cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) for colorectal peritoneal metastases (CPM). METHODS: An electronic literature search was carried out to identify publications reporting oncological outcome data (overall survival and/or disease free survival and/or recurrence rates) following CRS and IPC for treatment of CPM. Studies reporting outcomes following CRS and IPC for cancer subtypes other than colorectal were only included if data were reported independently for colorectal cancer-associated cases; in addition studies reporting outcomes for peritoneal carcinomatosis of appendiceal origin were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty seven studies, published between 1999 and 2013 with a combined population of 2838 patients met the predefined inclusion criteria. Included studies comprised 21 case series, 5 case-control studies and 1 randomised controlled trial. Four studies provided comparative oncological outcome data for patients undergoing CRS in combination with IPC vs systemic chemotherapy alone. The primary indication for treatment was CPM in 96% of cases (2714/2838) and recurrent CPM (rCPM) in the remaining 4% (124/2838). In the majority of included studies (20/27) CRS was combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). In 3 studies HIPEC was used in combination with early post-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC), and 2 studies used EPIC only, following CRS. Two studies evaluated comparative outcomes with CRS + HIPEC vs CRS + EPIC for treatment of CPM. The delivery of IPC was performed using an “open” or “closed” abdomen approach in the included studies. CONCLUSION: The available evidence presented in this review indicates that enhanced survival times can be achieved for CPM after combined treatment with CRS and IPC. PMID:25320542

  13. Environmental and Occupational Interventions for Primary Prevention of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V.; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. Objective: We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. Methods: We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “environmental,” “occupational,” “exposure,” “cancer,” “primary prevention,” and “interventions.” To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled “Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention” under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17–18 March 2011. Discussion: Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Conclusions: Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens. PMID:23384642

  14. Risk of Second Primary Cancers in Multiple Myeloma Survivors in German and Swedish Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Fallah, Mahdi; Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina; Mai, Elias K.; Castro, Felipe A.; Katalinic, Alexander; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Geiss, Karla; Eberle, Andrea; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari; Geiss, Karla; Meyer, Martin; Eberle, Andrea; Luttmann, Sabine; Stabenow, Roland; Hentschel, Stefan; Nennecke, Alice; Kieschke, Joachim; Sirri, Eunice; Holleczek, Bernd; Emrich, Katharina; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Mattauch, Volkmar; Katalinic, Alexander; Eisemann, Nora; Kraywinkel, Klaus; Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at investigating the distribution and risk of second primary cancers (SPCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) survivors in Germany and Sweden to provide etiological understanding of SPCs and insight into their incidence rates and recording practices. MM patients diagnosed in 1997–2010 at age ≥15 years were selected from the Swedish (nationwide) and 12 German cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess risk of a specific SPC compared to risk of the same first cancer in the corresponding background population. Among 18,735 survivors of first MM in Germany and 7,560 in Sweden, overall 752 and 349 SPCs were recorded, respectively. Significantly elevated SIRs of specific SPCs were observed for acute myeloid leukemia (AML; SIR = 4.9) in Germany and for kidney cancer (2.3), AML (2.3) and nervous system cancer (1.9) in Sweden. Elevated risk for AML was more pronounced in the earlier diagnosis period compared to the later, i.e., 9.7 (4.2–19) for 1997–2003 period versus 3.5 (1.5–6.9) for 2004–2010 in Germany; 3.8 (1.4–8.3) for 1997–2003 versus 2.2 (0.3–7.8) for 2004–2010 in Sweden. We found elevated risk for AML for overall, early diagnosis periods and longer follow-up times in both populations, suggesting possible side effects of treatment for MM patients. PMID:26908235

  15. Angiotensin II receptors and peritoneal dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morinelli, Thomas A; Luttrell, Louis M; Strungs, Erik G; Ullian, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    The vasoactive hormone angiotensin II initiates its major hemodynamic effects through interaction with AT1 receptors, a member of the class of G protein-coupled receptors. Acting through its AT1R, angiotensin II regulates blood pressure and renal salt and water balance. Recent evidence points to additional pathological influences of activation of AT1R, in particular inflammation, fibrosis and atherosclerosis. The transcription factor nuclear factor κB, a key mediator in inflammation and atherosclerosis, can be activated by angiotensin II through a mechanism that may involve arrestin-dependent AT1 receptor internalization. Peritoneal dialysis is a therapeutic modality for treating patients with end-stage kidney disease. The effectiveness of peritoneal dialysis at removing waste from the circulation is compromised over time as a consequence of peritoneal dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis. The non-physiological dialysis solution used in peritoneal dialysis, i.e. highly concentrated, hyperosmotic glucose, acidic pH as well as large volumes infused into the peritoneal cavity, contributes to the development of fibrosis. Numerous trials have been conducted altering certain components of the peritoneal dialysis fluid in hopes of preventing or delaying the fibrotic response with limited success. We hypothesize that structural activation of AT1R by hyperosmotic peritoneal dialysis fluid activates the internalization process and subsequent signaling through the transcription factor nuclear factor κB, resulting in the generation of pro-fibrotic/pro-inflammatory mediators producing peritoneal fibrosis. PMID:27167177

  16. The Initial Indian Experience with Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC in the Treatment of Peritoneal Metastases.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Mehta, Sanket; Seshadri, Ramakrishnan Ayloor; Sethna, Kayomarz; Zaveri, Shabber; Rajan, Firoz; Mahajan, Vikas; Singh, Shivendra; Raj, E Hemanth; Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been used for nearly 3 decades to treat peritoneal metastases (PM), improve quality of life, and prolong survival substantially in selected patients. In India, the use of the combined modality of treatment dates back a decade with majority of the efforts taking place within the last 5 years. The first PSOGI workshop (India) held in April 2015, at Bangalore, India offered an opportunity for Indian surgeons performing CRS and HIPEC to share their experience. To study the methodologies of CRS and HIPEC (hospital set up, equipment, training and surgical background) as well as the outcomes in terms of perioperative morbidity and mortality and short and long term survival of patients treated in India, Indian surgeons who had treated at least 10 patients with this combined modality were invited to present their experience. Data collection was retrospective. Analysis of the pooled data was carried out. Eight surgeons treated 384 patients with CRS and HIPEC over a period of 10 years. The commonest primary sites were ovary (as first line therapy n = 124), followed by appendix, including pseudomyxoma peritonei (n = 99), colorectum (n = 77), recurrent ovary (as second line therapy, n = 33), stomach (n = 15), primary peritoneal cancer (n = 10), peritoneal mesothelioma (n = 9) and rare tumors in 17 patients. The weighted mean PCI for all 384 patients was 18.25. 349/384 patients (90.88 %) had a complete cytoreduction (completeness of cytoreduction score of CC-0/1). Grade 3-5 complications developed in 108 patients (27.34 %) and 30 day mortality occurred in 28 (7.29 %) patients. This study showed that CRS and HIPEC can be performed with an acceptable morbidity and mortality in Indian patients. Most of the surgeons are on the learning curve and further improvement in these outcomes is expected over a period of time. Pooling of data related to both common and rare

  17. Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Individual or familial predisposition?

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, José A; Perea, José

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most frequent cancers. Along the surface of the large bowel, several foci of CRC may appear simultaneously or over the time. The development of at least two different tumours has been defined as multiple primary CRC (MPCRC): When more than one tumour is diagnosed at the same time, it is known as synchronous CRC (SCRC), while when a second neoplasm is diagnosed some time after the resection and/or diagnosis of the first lesion, it is called metachronous CRC (MCRC). Multiple issues can promote the development of MPCRC, ranging from different personal factors, such as environmental exposure, to familial predisposition due to hereditary factors. However, most studies do not distinguish this dichotomy. High- and low-pentrance genetic variants are involved in MPCRC. An increased risk for MPCRC has been described in Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and serrated polyposis. Non-syndromic familial CRCs should also be considered as risk factors for MPCRC. Environmental factors can promote damage to colon mucosae that enable the concurrence of MPCRC. Epigenetics are thought to play a major role in the carcinogenesis of sporadic MPCRC. The methylation state of the DNA depends on multiple environmental factors (e.g., smoking and eating foods cooked at high temperatures), and this can contribute to increasing the MPCRC rate. Certain clinical features may also suggest individual predisposition for MPCRC. Different etiopathogenic factors are suspected to be involved in SCRC and MCRC, and different familial vs individual factors may be implicated. MCRC seems to follow a familial pattern, whereas individual factors are more important in SCRC. Further studies must be carried out to know the molecular basis of risks for MPCRC in order to modify, if necessary, its clinical management, especially from a preventive point of view. PMID:26688706

  18. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman O.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and non-specific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%), distension (44.9%) or a mass (30.5%). Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2%) without postoperative complications (88.1%). PMID:27226904

  19. Second primary cancer in survivors following concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, N; Kiura, K; Segawa, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kamei, H; Moritaka, T; Shibayama, T; Ueoka, H; Gemba, K; Yonei, T; Tabata, M; Shinkai, T; Hiraki, S; Takemoto, M; Kanazawa, S; Matsuo, K; Tanimoto, M

    2006-01-01

    Long-term cancer survivors risk development of second primary cancers (SPC). Vigilant follow-up may be required. We report outcomes of 92 patients who underwent chemoradiation for unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer, with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The incidence of SPC was 2.4 per 100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 1.0–4.9). PMID:17031394

  20. Lung Cancer Screening with Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Primary Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Thomas B.; White, Mary C.; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an update on lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and its implications for primary care providers. One of the unique features of lung cancer screening is the potential complexity in patient management if an LDCT scan reveals a small pulmonary nodule. Additional tests, consultation with multiple specialists, and follow-up evaluations may be needed to evaluate whether lung cancer is present. Primary care providers should know the resources available in their communities for lung cancer screening with LDCT and smoking cessation, and the key points to be addressed in informed and shared decision-making discussions with patients. PMID:24830610

  1. Comparison of the response of primary murine peritoneal macrophages and the U937 human histiocytic cell line to challenge with in vitro generated clinically relevant UHMWPE particles.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J B; Green, T R; Stone, M H; Wroblewski, B M; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2000-01-01

    The response of primary murine macrophages and the U937 human histiocytic cell line to challenge with clinically relevant UHMWPE wear debris of known particle size and dose was evaluated. Particles with mean sizes of 0.24, 0.45, 1.71, 7.62 and 88 microm were co-cultured with cells for 24 hours prior to assessment of cell viability and production of the osteolytic mediators IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha and, in supernatants from murine phagocytes, PGE2 and GM-CSF. All particle fractions were evaluated at particle volume (microm3) to cell number ratios of 10 : 1 and 100 : 1 (and, additionally, 0.1 : 1 and 1 : 1 for U937 cells). These ratios had previously been identified as the most stimulatory and clinically relevant. Although the results for the cell line were highly variable, stimulation with phagocytosable particles (range 0.1 to 15 microm) resulted in enhanced levels of cytokine secretion by both murine macrophages and U937 histiocytes. The most biologically active particles were sub-micrometre in size. However, U937 cells responded to wear debris at much lower particle volume to cell number ratios (>0.1 microm3 per cell) than the murine cells (> 10 microm3 per cell). No GM-CSF was produced by particle or LPS stimulated murine macrophages. Similarly, U937 histiocytes failed to secrete any IL-1beta. Neither macrophage population responded to stimulation with the largest (88 microm) particles. These results confirm earlier findings and suggest that the size of UHMWPE wear particles is a critical factor in macrophage activation. Moreover, primary murine macrophages have been demonstrated to be a suitable model for studying cell-particle interactions in vitro. PMID:11202151

  2. Increased consultation frequency in primary care, a risk marker for cancer: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Marcela; Naredi, Peter; Nemes, Szilard; Zhang, Chenyang; Månsson, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify early diagnostic profiles such as diagnostic codes and consultation patterns of cancer patients in primary care one year prior to cancer diagnosis. Design Total population-based case–control study. Setting and subjects 4562 cancer patients and 17,979 controls matched by age, sex, and primary care unit. Data were collected from the Swedish Cancer Register and the Regional Healthcare Database. Method We identified cancer patients in the Västra Götaland Region of Sweden diagnosed in 2011 with prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, gynaecological, and skin cancers including malignant melanoma. We studied the symptoms and diagnoses identified by diagnostic codes during a diagnostic interval of 12 months before the cancer diagnosis. Main outcome measures Consultation frequency, symptom density by cancer type, prevalence and odds ratios (OR) for the diagnostic codes in the cancer population as a whole. Results The diagnostic codes with the highest OR were unspecified lump in breast, neoplasm of uncertain behaviour, and abnormal serum enzyme levels. The codes with the highest prevalence were hyperplasia of prostate, other skin changes and abdominal and pelvic pain. The frequency of diagnostic codes and consultations in primary care rose in tandem 50 days before diagnosis for breast and gynaecological cancer, 60 days for malignant melanoma and skin cancer, 80 days for prostate cancer and 100 days for colorectal and lung cancer. Conclusion Eighty-seven percent of patients with the most common cancers consulted a general practitioner (GP) a year before their diagnosis. An increase in consultation frequency and presentation of any symptom should raise the GP’s suspicion of cancer. Key pointsKnowledge about the prevalence of early symptoms and other clinical signs in cancer patients in primary care remains insufficient.• Eighty-seven percent of the patients with the seven most common cancers consulted a general practitioner 12 months prior to cancer

  3. Increased Risk of Second Primary Cancers After a Diagnosis of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.; Michal Freedman, D.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Tucker, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of subsequent primary cancers among patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Design Population-based registry study. Setting We evaluated data from 9 cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1973–2006. Participants We included 89 515 patients who survived at least 2 months after their initial melanoma diagnosis. Results Of the patients with melanoma, 10 857 (12.1%) developed 1 or more subsequent primary cancers. The overall risk of a subsequent primary cancer increased by 28% (observed to expected [O:E] ratio=1.28). One quarter of the cancers were subsequent primary melanomas (O:E=8.61). Women with head and neck melanoma and patients younger than 30 had markedly increased risks (O:E=13.22 and 13.40, respectively) of developing a subsequent melanoma. Second melanomas were more likely to be thin than were the first of multiple primary melanomas (thickness at diagnosis <1.00mm, 77.9% vs 70.3%, respectively; P<.001). Melanoma survivors had increased risk of developing several cancers; the most common cancers with elevated risks were breast, prostate, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (O:E=1.10, 1.15, and 1.25, respectively). Conclusions Melanoma survivors have an approximately 9-fold increased risk of developing subsequent melanoma compared with the general population. The risk remains elevated more than 20 years after the initial melanoma diagnosis. This increased risk may be owing to behavioral factors, genetic susceptibility, or medical surveillance. Although the percentage of subsequent primary melanomas thicker than 1 mm is lower than for the first of multiple primary melanomas, it is still substantial. Melanoma survivors should remain under surveillance not only for recurrence but also for future primary melanomas and other cancers. PMID:20231496

  4. [The Significance of Primary Tumor Resection in Unresectable Stage Ⅳ Colorectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Hajime; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Nakayama, Mao; Satake, Masaya; Sakuma, Akiko; Okayama, Sachiyo; Yano, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuo; Fujimoto, Takashi; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Katsube, Takao; Kato, Hiroyuki; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2015-11-01

    The significance of primary tumor resection for unresectable Stage Ⅳcolorectal cancer is controversial. In the present study, we examined cases of unresectable Stage Ⅳ colorectal cancer treated in our department. The subjects were 78 patients with unresectable Stage Ⅳ colorectal cancer who received either resection of the primary tumor, intensive chemotherapy, or both, between 2006 and 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the group that received primary tumor resection (67 patients) and the non-resection group (11 patients). No differences were noted between a history of primary tumor resection and various clinicopathological factors, but the prognoses in the primary tumor resection group were favorable. The subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the selection of primary tumor resection and chemotherapy. The median survival time was 21.6 months, 11.8 months, and 8.1 months for patients who underwent chemotherapy after primary tumor resection (52 patients), patients who received primary tumor resection only (15 patients), and patients who received only chemotherapy (11 patients), respectively. The prognoses of patients who received primary tumor resection were favorable in comparison with those who received only chemotherapy. The results of the present study suggest the possibility that primary tumor resection can improve the prognoses of patients who have unresectable Stage Ⅳ colorectal cancer. PMID:26805083

  5. Second Primary Lung Cancers Demonstrate Better Survival with Surgery than Radiation.

    PubMed

    Taioli, Emanuela; Lee, Dong-Seok D; Kaufman, Andrew; Wolf, Andrea; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Gomez, Jorge; Flores, Raja M

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have had curative surgery for lung cancer are at the highest risk of developing a new lung cancer. Individual studies are usually underpowered to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in second primary lung cancer (SPLC). The goal of this study is to determine which treatment is best associated with survival in patients who develop a new primary lung cancer. All pathologically proven stage I lung cancer cases that received cancer-directed surgery included in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database between 2004 and 2010 were selected. Cases that received radiation therapy were excluded. Cases that developed a SPLC 6 or more months after the diagnosis of the first cancer were analyzed. The original data set consisted of 9564 stage I lung cancer cases treated with surgery; 520 of them developed a second primary, and completed data were available for 494 of them. Stage I disease was diagnosed in 272 patients with SPLCs (58.5%); 45.8% of these underwent cancer surgery alone, and 31.6% received radiation alone. Surgery was performed more frequently in early stages and younger patients. Surgical patients had statistically significant longer survival than patients treated with radiation (log-rank P < 0.0001) or not treated with surgery or radiation (log-rank P < 0.0001). The incidence of SPLCs was 5.4%. Stage I second primaries had improved survival when compared with later stage disease, and surgery conferred an increased survival benefit as compared with radiation. PMID:27568161

  6. Marked heterogeneity of ERG expression in large primary prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Minner, Sarah; Gärtner, Michael; Freudenthaler, Fabian; Bauer, Melanie; Kluth, Martina; Salomon, Georg; Heinzer, Hans; Graefen, Markus; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Wilczak, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of prostate cancers are characterized by TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2)-ERG (avian v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog) gene fusions resulting in an androgen-regulated overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Some studies have suggested prognostic or predictive relevance of ERG status in prostate cancer. Such concepts could be impaired by extensive ERG heterogeneity in analyzed tumors. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent of heterogeneity for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer. To enable large-scale studies on the extent of heterogeneity of biomarkers in prostate cancer, a heterogeneity tissue microarray containing samples from 10 different tumor blocks of 190 large prostate cancers selected from a consecutive series of 480 radical prostatectomies was developed. ERG expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Positive ERG immunostaining was found in arrayed cancer-containing samples from 103 of the 178 analyzable patients (58%). ERG immunostaining was homogeneously positive in 29 prostate cancers (16%), whereas heterogeneous ERG positivity was seen in 74 cancers (42%). ERG heterogeneity was within one tumor focus (intrafocal heterogeneity) in 69 cases (93% of heterogeneous cases) and between different tumor foci (interfocal heterogeneity) in 5 cases (7%). Marked intrafocal heterogeneity challenges the concept of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion always representing an early step in prostate cancer development. Marked heterogeneity also compromises the concept of analyzing ERG status for treatment decisions in diagnostic needle core biopsies. PMID:22899295

  7. Risk factors for metachronous colorectal cancer following a primary colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Harindra; Reece, Jeanette C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Rosty, Christophe; Dashti, S Ghazaleh; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Winship, Ingrid M; Macrae, Finlay A; Boussioutas, Alex; Giles, Graham G; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lowery, Jan; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) are at risk of developing a metachronous CRC. We examined the associations between personal, tumour-related and lifestyle risk factors, and risk of metachronous CRC. A total of 7,863 participants with incident colon or rectal cancer who were recruited in the USA, Canada and Australia to the Colon Cancer Family Registry during 1997-2012, except those identified as high-risk, for example, Lynch syndrome, were followed up approximately every 5 years. We estimated the risk of metachronous CRC, defined as the first new primary CRC following an interval of at least one year after the initial CRC diagnosis. Observation time started at the age at diagnosis of the initial CRC and ended at the age at diagnosis of the metachronous CRC, last contact or death whichever occurred earliest, or were censored at the age at diagnosis of any metachronous colorectal adenoma. Cox regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, 142 (1.81%) metachronous CRCs were diagnosed (mean age at diagnosis 59.8; incidence 2.7/1,000 person-years). An increased risk of metachronous CRC was associated with the presence of a synchronous CRC (HR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.30-5.72) and the location of cancer in the proximal colon at initial diagnosis (compared with distal colon or rectum, HR = 4.16; 95% CI: 2.80-6.18). The presence of a synchronous CRC and the location of the initial CRC might be useful for deciding the intensity of surveillance colonoscopy for individuals diagnosed with CRC. PMID:27098183

  8. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess the feasibility of intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, P.H.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Waggoner, Steve; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment. Results Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia). Conclusions Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort. PMID:22155262

  9. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  10. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: common or rare in peritoneal dialysis?

    PubMed

    Triga, Konstantina

    2013-03-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious and often fatal complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) with severe malnutrition and poor prognosis. It causes progressive obstruction and encapsulation of the bowel loops. As EPS becomes more prevalent with longer duration of PD, large multicenter prospective studies are needed to establish its incidence and identify risk factors, therapeutic approach, and prognosis. PMID:23538342

  11. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis—a rare but devastating peritoneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Zia; Summers, Angela; Van Dellen, David; Augustine, Titus; Herrick, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a devastating but, fortunately, rare complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. The disease is associated with extensive thickening and fibrosis of the peritoneum resulting in the formation of a fibrous cocoon encapsulating the bowel leading to intestinal obstruction. The incidence of EPS ranges between 0.7 and 3.3% and increases with duration of peritoneal dialysis therapy. Dialysis fluid is hyperosmotic, hyperglycemic, and acidic causing chronic injury and inflammation in the peritoneum with loss of mesothelium and extensive tissue fibrosis. The pathogenesis of EPS, however, still remains uncertain, although a widely accepted hypothesis is the “two-hit theory,” where, the first hit is chronic peritoneal membrane injury from long standing peritoneal dialysis followed by a second hit such as an episode of peritonitis, genetic predisposition and/or acute cessation of peritoneal dialysis, leading to EPS. Recently, EPS has been reported in patients shortly after transplantation suggesting that this procedure may also act as a possible second insult. The process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells is proposed to play a central role in the development of peritoneal sclerosis, a common characteristic of patients on dialysis, however, its importance in EPS is less clear. There is no established treatment for EPS although evidence from small case studies suggests that corticosteroids and tamoxifen may be beneficial. Nutritional support is essential and surgical intervention (peritonectomy and enterolysis) is recommended in later stages to relieve bowel obstruction. PMID:25601836

  12. Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis due to Enterococcus cecorum

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Thierry; Claeys, Geert; Verschraegen, Gerda; Devriese, Luc A.; Baele, Margo; Van Vlem, Bruno; Vanholder, Raymond; Dequidt, Clement; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2000-01-01

    Enterococcus cecorum was isolated as the etiologic agent of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis episode in an alcoholic patient. To date, this is only the third infection due to this bacterium, found in the intestinal tract of many domestic animals, that has been reported in humans. PMID:10970419

  13. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome. PMID:27180061

  14. Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers: A review of 43 cases

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUANTAO; LI, JUN; JIN, HONGYAN; LU, YING; LU, XIN

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers are uncommon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers. The clinicopathological characteristics of 43 patients with synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between 1999 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Our results revealed that the median age at the time of diagnosis was 51 years (range, 29–71). The common presenting symptoms were abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB, 65.12%), abdominal mass (25.58%), abdominal pain and abdominal fullness (39.53%). An elevated CA125 level was observed in the majority of patients (n=20, 76.9%). Endometrioid type accounted for 60.47% of uterine carcinomas and different pathological types, including serous adenocarcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, adenosquamous and acanthoadenocarcinoma, were also identified in synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers. All patients underwent surgical intervention (hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy or debulking surgery). The 5-year survival rate was 86.05% and nine patients had recurrence (20.93%). The early stage group (FIGO stages I and II) had more favorable prognosis than the advanced stage group (FIGO stages III and IV; P<0.05). In conclusion, synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers are different from either primary endometrial carcinoma or ovarian cancer and are usually identified at early stages with a good prognosis. PMID:23255933

  15. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course. PMID:26667370

  16. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as the primary presentation of relapse in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Keith; Muhammad, Aun; Saleem, Waqar; Alshaker, Heba; Monzon, Leonardo; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Pchejetski, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon presentation of relapse in breast cancer, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes and poor prognosis. Notably, LM most commonly occurs in breast cancer. The aim of the present review was to investigate the occurrence of LM as the primary presentation of relapse following remission in breast cancer patients and to determine whether specific histological subtypes are predisposed to meningeal metastases. In addition, the present review evaluated whether patients presenting with LM as the primary site of relapse exhibit differences in survival when compared with patients exhibiting metastasis to other sites. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that LM is commonly associated with other sites of distant metastasis including lung, liver and bone metastases. The histological breast cancer subtype most commonly associated with LM was invasive lobular carcinoma, while triple-negative breast cancer patients appear to be predisposed to the development of LM when considering the overall prevalence of histological breast cancer subtypes. At present, data regarding LM as the primary site of relapse are limited due to its rarity as the first site of metastasis in breast cancer. Case-controlled studies are required to investigate the incidence of LM as the primary site of recurrence in breast cancer patients as this would enable treatment standardization and identification of prognostic factors for improved survival. PMID:27446350

  17. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Isaäc; de Bree, Remco; Brakenhoff, Ruud; Coebergh, Jan-Willem

    2011-05-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. The delay in diagnosis of oral cancer is caused both by patients' delay and doctors' delay. The total delay, including scheduling delay, work-up delay and treatment planning delay, varies in different studies, but averages some six months. The total delay is more or less evenly distributed between patients' and doctors' delay and is partly due to the unawareness of oral cancer among the public and professionals, and partly to barriers in the health care system that may prevent patients from seeking dental and medical care. Due to the relatively low incidence of oral cancer it will be difficult to increase the awareness of this cancer type among the public, thereby reducing patients' delay. However, it should be possible to considerably reduce doctors' delay by increasing the awareness of oral cancer among professionals and by improving their diagnostic ability. Population-based annual or semi-annual screening for oral cancer is not cost-effective, high-risk groups such as heavy smokers and drinkers perhaps excluded. Dentists and physicians, and also oral hygienists and nurse practitioners, may play a valuable role in such screening programs. PMID:21441877

  18. Cancer detection in primary care: insights from general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Green, T; Atkin, K; Macleod, U

    2015-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) have a key role in cancer detection as the usual first point of contact for patients with potential cancer symptoms. Nevertheless, there is limited work that investigates their perceptions of their role in the early detection of cancer. To address this gap, we aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of cancer diagnosis from the perspective of GPs. Methods: Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 55 GPs from the North and North East of England and Greater London. All interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Repeated reading and co-coding engendered systematic thematic analysis across the interview material. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis of our data. First, we identified the burden of early cancer detection in general practice, both related to the anxiety and symptoms patients bring to GPs and the need for GPs to recognise patterns of cancer symptoms and refer appropriately; second, this burden is intensified by a perceived fragmentation of services within the National Health Service (NHS); and third, it is made more complex by the interface between general practice and public health. Conclusions: GPs occupy a challenging but pivotal role in cancer detection. It is crucial that this role be supported by policy and research. PMID:25734388

  19. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  20. Systematic review of guidelines for the management of suspected lung cancer in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, M. Elisabeth Del; Young, Sheila-Mae; Vella, Emily T.; Ash, Marla; Bansal, Praveen; Robinson, Andrew; Skrastins, Roland; Ung, Yee; Zeldin, Robert; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To systematically review the literature and provide an update and integration of existing peer-reviewed guidelines with recent systematic reviews and with primary studies related to the early recognition and management of lung cancer in primary care. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles. The quality of the evidence to support existing guideline recommendations, and the consistency of recommendations with updated evidence, were assessed. Applicability in a Canadian primary care setting was also evaluated. Study selection All studies that explored signs or symptoms of or risk factors for lung cancer in the primary care setting were included. All diagnostic studies in which symptomatic primary care patients underwent 1 or more investigations were also searched. Synthesis Recommendations were consistent among guidelines despite a paucity of supporting evidence. Updated evidence provided further support for the recommendations. Recommendations for identifying signs and symptoms of lung cancer presenting in primary care and for initial management can be adopted and applied within a Canadian primary care setting. Conclusion This updated review of recommendations might help promote evidence-based practice and, ultimately, more timely management and improved prognosis for lung cancer patients. It might also assist in the development of lung cancer diagnostic assessment programs. PMID:25122830

  1. Paecilomyces variotii in peritoneal dialysate.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, A; Heron, L G; Pritchard, R C; Butcher, R H; Powell, H R; Disney, A P; Tosolini, F A

    1993-01-01

    Four cases of peritonitis caused by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces variotii in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are reported. Removal of the Tenckhoff catheter and antifungal chemotherapy led to resolution of symptoms in all cases. Possible contaminating events are discussed, and reported infections with P. variotii are reviewed. PMID:8408561

  2. HIGH CONSTANT INCIDENCE RATES OF SECOND PRIMARY CANCERS OF THE HEAD AND NECK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 13 CANCER REGISTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, Cristina; Scelo, Ghislaine; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Tonita, Jon M.; Tamaro, Sharon; Jonasson, Jon G.; Kliewer, Erich V.; Hemminki, Kari; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero; Tracey, Elizabeth; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Pompe-Kirn, Vera; Brewster, David H.; Martos, Carmen; Chia, Kee-Seng; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Scanty data are available on the incidence (i.e., the absolute risk) of second cancers of the head and neck (HN) and its pattern with age. We investigated this issue using data from a multicentric study of 13 population-based cancer registries from Europe, Canada, Australia and Singapore for the years 1943-2000. A total of 99,257 patients had a first primary HN cancer (15,985 tongue, 22,378 mouth, 20,758 pharyngeal, and 40,190 laryngeal cancer), contributing to 489,855 person-years of follow-up. 1294 of the patients (1.3%) were diagnosed with second HN cancers (342 tongue, 345 mouth, 418 pharynx, and 189 larynx). Male incidence rates of first HN cancer steeply increased from 0.68/100,000 at age 30-34 to 46.2/100,000 at age 70-74, and leveled off at higher age; female incidence increased from 0.50/100,000 at age 30-34 to 16.5/100,000 at age 80-84. However, age-specific incidence of second HN cancers after a first HN cancer in men was around 200-300/100,000 between age 40-44 and age 70-74, and tended to decline at subsequent ages (150/100,000 at age 80-84); in women, incidence of second HN cancers was around 200-300/100,000 between age 45-49 and 80-84. The patterns of age-specific incidence were consistent for different subsites of second HN cancer and sexes; moreover, they were similar for age-specific incidence of first primary HN cancer in patients who subsequently developed a second HN cancer. The incidence of second HN cancers does not increase with age, but remains constant, or if anything, decreases with advancing age. Impact statement While the incidence of first primary cancers of the head and neck increases with advancing age that of second primary cancers is stable between age 40 and 70 and, if anything, declines thereafter. PMID:20824702

  3. [Breast cancer update in primary care: (V/V)].

    PubMed

    Díaz García, Noiva; Cuadrado Rouco, Carmen; Vich, Pilar; Alvarez-Hernandez, Cristina; Brusint, Begoña; Redondo Margüello, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is a prevalent disease affecting all areas of patients' lives. Therefore, family physicians ought to know thoroughly this pathology to optimize the health care services for these patients making the best use of available resources. A series of five articles on breast cancer is presented below. It is based on a review of the scientific literature over the last ten years. In this final section, the social, psychological, occupational and family issues related to the disease will be reviewed, as well as presenting some special situations of breast cancer, including breast cancer in men, during pregnancy and last stages of life. This summary report aims to provide a current and practical review about this disease, providing answers to family doctors and helping them to be by the patients for their benefit throughout their illness. PMID:25002350

  4. Drug screening and grouping by sensitivity with a panel of primary cultured cancer spheroids derived from endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Yumiko; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kubota, Satoshi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Endo, Hiroko; Ueda, Yutaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kimura, Tadashi; Kamiura, Shoji; Inoue, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Several molecular targeting drugs are being evaluated for endometrial cancer; selecting patients whose cancers are sensitive to these agents is of paramount importance. Previously, we developed the cancer tissue-originated spheroid method for primary cancer cells taken from patients' tumors as well as patient-derived xenografts. In this study, we successfully prepared and cultured cancer tissue-originated spheroids from endometrial cancers. Characteristics of the original tumors were well retained in cancer tissue-originated spheroids including morphology and expression of p53 or neuroendocrine markers. We screened 79 molecular targeting drugs using two cancer tissue-originated spheroid lines derived from endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade 3 and serous adenocarcinoma. Among several hits, we focused on everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor, and YM155, a survivin inhibitor. When sensitivity to everolimus or YM155 was assessed in 12 or 11 cancer tissue-originated spheroids, respectively, from different endometrial cancer patients, the sensitivity varied substantially. The cancer tissue-originated spheroids sensitive to everolimus showed remarkable suppression of proliferation. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream molecules before and after everolimus treatment did not predict the effect of the drug. In contrast, the cancer tissue-originated spheroids sensitive to YM155 showed remarkable cell death. The effect of YM155 was also confirmed in vivo. The histological type correlated with YM155 sensitivity; non-endometrioid adenocarcinomas were sensitive and endometrioid adenocarcinomas were resistant. Non-canonical autophagic cell death was the most likely cause of cell death in a sensitive cancer tissue-originated spheroid. Thus, sensitivity assays using cancer tissue-originated spheroids from endometrial cancers may be useful for screening drugs and finding biomarkers. PMID:26825848

  5. Rat Models of Acute and/or Chronic Peritoneal Injuries Including Peritoneal Fibrosis and Peritoneal Dialysis Complications.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masashi; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal injury is a major cause of discontinuation from long-term peritoneal dialysis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such injury remain unclear. Suitable animal models of peritoneal injury may be useful to analyze pathogenic mechanisms and facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches. We describe herein two rat models of peritoneal injury that we have recently proposed. PMID:26676125

  6. Primary breast cancer induces pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and promotes metastasis via the VEGF-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Man; Qin, Chengyong; Han, Mingyong

    2016-06-01

    The lung is one of the most frequent target organs for breast cancer metastasis. When breast cancer cells from a primary tumor do not colonize the lung, which we named the premetastatic phase, the microenvironment of the lung has already been influenced by the primary tumor. However, little is known about the exact premetastatic alteration and regulatory mechanisms of the lung. Here, we used 4T1 cells (a mouse breast cancer cell line which can specifically metastasize to the lung) to build a mouse breast cancer model. We found that primary breast tumor induced increased pulmonary vascular permeability in the premetastatic phase, which facilitated the leakage of rhodamine-dextran and the extravasation of intravenous therapy injected cancer cells. Furthermore, tight junctions (TJs) were disrupted, and the expression of zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), one of the most important components of tight junctions, was decreased in the premetastatic lung. In addition, elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was involved in the destabilization of tight junctions and the VEGF antagonist bevacizumab reversed the primary tumor-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Moreover, activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway disrupted the integrity of TJs and accordingly, the disruption could be alleviated by blocking VEGF. Taken together, these data demonstrate that primary breast cancer may induce tight junction disruptions in the premetastatic lung via the VEGF-PKC pathway and promote pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability before metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152457

  7. Detection of early primary colorectal cancer with upconversion luminescent NP-based molecular probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyan; Qi, Yifei; Qiao, Ruirui; Hou, Yi; Chan, Kaying; Li, Ziqian; Huang, Jiayi; Jing, Lihong; Du, Jun; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-07-01

    Early detection and diagnosis of cancers is extremely beneficial for improving the survival rate of cancer patients and molecular imaging techniques are believed to be relevant for offering clinical solutions. Towards early cancer detection, we developed a primary animal colorectal cancer model and constructed a tumor-specific imaging probe by using biocompatible NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 upconversion luminescent NPs for establishing a sensitive early tumor imaging method. The primary animal tumor model, which can better mimic the human colorectal cancer, was built upon continual administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in Kunming mice and the tumor development was carefully monitored through histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses to reveal the pathophysiological processes and molecular features of the cancer microenvironment. The upconversion imaging probe was constructed through covalent coupling of PEGylated core-shell NPs with folic acid whose receptor is highly expressed in the primary tumors. Upon 980 nm laser excitation, the primary colorectal tumors in the complex abdominal environment were sensitively imaged owing to the ultralow background of the upconversion luminescence and the high tumor-targeting specificity of the nanoprobe. We believe that the current studies provide a highly effective and potential approach for early colorectal cancer diagnosis and tumor surgical navigation. PMID:26662173

  8. The Incidence Characteristics of Second Primary Malignancy after Diagnosis of Primary Colon and Rectal Cancer: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xu; Jin, Yinghu; Chen, Yinggang; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Zhixun; Yan, Peng; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the expanding population of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the United States, one concerning issue is the risk of developing second primary malignancies (SPMs) for these CRC survivors. The present study attempts to identify the incidence characteristics of SPMs after diagnosis of first primary colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC). Methods 189,890 CC and 83,802 RC cases were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. We performed rate analysis on incidence trend of SPMs in both CC and RC. Expected incidence rates were stratified by age, race and stage, calendar year of first CRC diagnosis and latency period since first CRC diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), measure for estimating risk of SPMs, were calculated for CC and RC respectively. Results The trends of incidence of SPMs in both CC and RC were decreasing from 1992 to 2012. Both CC and RC survivors had higher risk of developing SPMs (SIRCC = 1.13; SIRRC = 1.05). For CC patients, the highest risks of SPM were cancers of small intestine (SIR = 4.03), colon (SIR = 1.87) and rectum (SIR = 1.80). For RC patients, the highest risks of SPMs were cancers of rectum (SIR = 2.88), small intestine (SIR = 2.16) and thyroid (SIR = 1.46). According to stratified analyses, we also identified incidence characteristics which were contributed to higher risk of developing SPMs, including the age between 20 and 40, American Indian/Alaska Native, localized stage, diagnosed at calendar year from 2002 to 2012 and the latency between 12 and 59 months. Conclusions Both CC and RC survivors remain at higher risk of developing SPMs. The identification of incidence characteristics of SPMs is extremely essential for continuous cancer surveillance among CRC survivors. PMID:26571301

  9. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs. PMID:26433502

  10. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  11. Synchronous double primary cancer - intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with bone metastases and thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QING-LIANG; LI, XIAO-JIE; ZHAO, KUN; LIU, BO; YE, XIAO-MING

    2015-01-01

    There is a low incidence of multiple primary cancer, particularly when the cancer is synchronous. The present report presents a case of synchronous double primary malignancies. A 58-year-old woman was admitted to Ling Nan Hospital (Guangzhou, China) complaining of pain in the left hip. X-ray revealed an osteolytic lesion and further examination indicated the presence of double primary cancer, consisting of hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma. Biopsy of the osteolytic lesion showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown origin. Subsequently, final diagnosis was confirmed by I-131 scan and liver lesion biopsy. The patient received positive multidisciplinary treatments and survived for 9 months following diagnosis. The results of the present case suggest that multiplicity of primary malignancy is not necessarily an indicator of poor prognosis, as long as effective diagnosis and adequate disease management are achieved. PMID:26788211

  12. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 over-expression in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, M C E; Cruickshank, M E; Miller, I D; McLeod, H L; Melvin, W T; Haites, N E; Parkin, D; Murray, G I

    2001-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies world wide. Little improvement has been made in the long-term outcome of this disease, with the 5-year survival of patients only 30%. This poor prognosis is due to the late presentation of the disease and to the unpredictable response of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. The cytochrome P450 enzymes are a superfamily of haemoproteins, known to be involved in the metabolic activation and/or detoxification of a number of anti-cancer drugs. CYP1B1 is a tumour-related form of cytochrome P450 which is over expressed in a wide variety of primary tumours of different histological type. The presence of CYP1B1 may be of importance in the modulation of these tumours to anti-cancer drugs. We have conducted a comprehensive immunohistochemical investigation, into the presence of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer. The key findings of this study are the increased expression of CYP1B1 in the majority of ovarian cancers investigated (92%), with a strong correlation demonstrated between CYP1B1 expression in both primary and metastatic ovarian cancer (P= 0.005 Spearman's rank correlation test). In contrast no detectable CYP1B1 was found in normal ovary. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461084

  13. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  14. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  15. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  16. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  17. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  18. Repeated Burkholderia cepacia Peritonitis in a Patient Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Apostolovic, BL; Velickovic-Radovanovic, RM; Andjelkovic-Apostolovic, MR; Cvetkovic, TP; Dinic, MM; Radivojevic, JD

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia cepacia (B cepacia) is a rare opportunistic pathogen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. We describe the first case of repeated B cepacia CAPD peritonitis, occurring in an outpatient environment, treated with antimicrobial medication without peritoneal catheter removal. B cepacia may lead to repeat infection, therefore, we should insist on catheter removal during each peritonitis episode. PMID:26426187

  19. [Biologic and molecular genetic properties of a transplantable human primary gastric cancer in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, S S

    1989-05-01

    A human primary gastric cancer tissue (adenocarcinoma II-III) was transplanted into nude mice (SWISS/DF. nu/nu). It has been transferred for 8 generations at 56 sites in 28 nude mice with transplantable rate of 100%. The transplanted tumor is designated as transplantable human primary gastric cancer-1 in nude mice (THPGC-1). The growth of THPGC-1 is rather rapid and the size of transplanted tumor reaches 1 cm2, 4-5 weeks after transfer. The morphology and histochemistry of the original tumor were retained well in the initial and serial transplanted tumors. THPGC-1 could secret carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). After intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of 131I-antiCEA monoclonal antibody into the THPGC-1 bearing nude mice, the radiolabeled antibody was concentrated and localized in the tumor as shown by gamma-camera analysis. Similar pattern of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme was observed both in primary gastric cancer tissue and THPGC-1 tissue. Chromosomal examination revealed that THPGC-1 was human aneuploid ones. Southern blot analysis showed that the pattern of repetitive DNA bands and the structures of 28s, rDNA, c-H-ras and c-myc genes in THPGC-1 were identical to the original primary gastric cancer DNA. The results suggest that THPGC-1 be a reliable model for the research of the molecular biology of cancer cells and experimental gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2693024

  20. Identification of drugs that restore primary cilium expression in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niamat Ali; Willemarck, Nicolas; Talebi, Ali; Marchand, Arnaud; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Dehairs, Jonas; Rueda-Rincon, Natalia; Daniels, Veerle W.; Bagadi, Muralidhararao; Raj, Deepak Balaji Thimiri Govinda; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Munck, Sebastian; Chaltin, Patrick; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cancer is often accompanied by a loss of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular protrusion that functions as a cellular antenna and that puts a break on cell proliferation. Hence, restoration of the primary cilium in cancer cells may represent a novel promising approach to attenuate tumor growth. Using a high content analysis-based approach we screened a library of clinically evaluated compounds and marketed drugs for their ability to restore primary cilium expression in pancreatic ductal cancer cells. A diverse set of 118 compounds stimulating cilium expression was identified. These included glucocorticoids, fibrates and other nuclear receptor modulators, neurotransmitter regulators, ion channel modulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, DNA gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitors, antibacterial compounds, protein inhibitors, microtubule modulators, and COX inhibitors. Certain compounds also dramatically affected the length of the cilium. For a selection of compounds (Clofibrate, Gefitinib, Sirolimus, Imexon and Dexamethasone) their ability to restore ciliogenesis was confirmed in a panel of human cancer cell line models representing different cancer types (pancreas, lung, kidney, breast). Most compounds attenuated cell proliferation, at least in part through induction of the primary cilium, as demonstrated by cilium removal using chloral hydrate. These findings reveal that several commonly used drugs restore ciliogenesis in cancer cells, and warrant further investigation of their antineoplastic properties. PMID:26862738

  1. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  2. Peritoneal dialysis in microencephaly.

    PubMed

    Peters, April

    2008-01-01

    J.T. was able to remain home in her familiar environment and receive safe and adequate treatment for her renal disease. J.T. had no infectious episodes or hospitalizations while under this unit's care for 35 months. She was also able to participate in her regular activities of daily living, interact with her family members, and travel on occasion, thus maintaining a good quality of life. Therefore, unit goals for her care were met. J.T.'s experience demonstrates that with proper teaching, preparation, and support from the dialysis care team working with a dedicated family, peritoneal dialysis can be an ideal modality for the treatment of ESRD in people with mental disabilities. PMID:19260611

  3. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  4. Acinetobacter Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis: A Changing Landscape over Time

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis are rare. Methods All PD peritonitis episodes caused by Acinetobacter that occurred between 1985 and 2012 at a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes were analysed, with stratifications based upon temporal periods (before and after 2000). Results Acinetobacter species were responsible for 26 PD peritonitis episodes (3.5% of all episodes) in 25 patients. A. baumannii was the most common pathogen (54%), followed by A. iwoffii (35%), with the former being predominant after 2000. Significantly more episodes resulted from breaks in exchange sterility after 2000, while those from exit site infections decreased (P = 0.01). The interval between the last and current peritonitis episodes lengthened significantly after 2000 (5 vs. 13.6 months; P = 0.05). All the isolates were susceptible to cefepime, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides, with a low ceftazidime resistance rate (16%). Nearly half of the patients (46%) required hospitalisation for their Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis, and 27% required an antibiotic switch. The overall outcome was fair, with no mortality and a 12% technique failure rate, without obvious interval differences. Conclusions The temporal change in the microbiology and origin of Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis in our cohort suggested an important evolutional trend. Appropriate measures, including technique re-education and sterility maintenance, should be taken to decrease the Acinetobacter peritonitis incidence in PD patients. PMID:25314341

  5. Coping with and factors impacting upon the experience of lung cancer in patients and primary carers.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J; Lloyd Williams, M; Wagland, R; Bailey, C; Molassiotis, A

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring patients' and their informal carers' experience of coping with and factors impacting on the lung cancer experience. This study aims to explore how patients and their informal carers cope with a diagnosis of lung cancer and describe the key factors that mediate distress in this population in order that they may be better supported in the future. This was a qualitative study employing semi-structured interviews and framework analysis to elicit the experience of 37 patients with lung cancer and 23 primary carers regarding their coping with and factors influencing patient/carer distress. The findings illustrate that participants used both emotional- and problem-focused coping strategies, including accepting the reality of lung cancer, adopting a positive attitude/fighting spirit, denial, avoidance and distraction and information seeking. Maintaining normality was also important. Key factors that mediate the lung cancer experience were also identified including hope, social network, prior experience of cancer and other chronic illnesses, the competing coping strategies of patients and their primary carers, the unpredictable nature of patients' behaviour, changing symptomatology, the perceived attitudes of health professionals and the impact of perceived delays in diagnosis. This study provides important insights into how patients with lung cancer and their primary carers might be better supported. PMID:22978743

  6. Protective Effects of Paricalcitol on Peritoneal Remodeling during Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Stavenuiter, Andrea W. D.; Farhat, Karima; Vila Cuenca, Marc; Schilte, Margot N.; Keuning, Eelco D.; Paauw, Nanne J.; ter Wee, Pieter M.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; Vervloet, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with structural and functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane, consisting of fibrosis, angiogenesis, and loss of ultrafiltration capacity. Vitamin D receptor activation (VDRA) plays an important role in mineral metabolism and inflammation, but also antiangiogenic and antifibrotic properties have been reported. Therefore, the effects of active vitamin D treatment on peritoneal function and remodeling were investigated. Rats were either kept naïve to PDF exposure or daily exposed to 10 mL PDF and were treated for five or seven weeks with oral paricalcitol or vehicle control. Non-PDF-exposed rats showed no peritoneal changes upon paricalcitol treatment. Paricalcitol reduced endogenous calcitriol but did not affect mineral homeostasis. However, upon PDF exposure, loss of ultrafiltration capacity ensued which was fully rescued by paricalcitol treatment. Furthermore, PD-induced ECM thickening was significantly reduced and omental PD-induced angiogenesis was less pronounced upon paricalcitol treatment. No effect of paricalcitol treatment on total amount of peritoneal cells, peritoneal leukocyte composition, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was observed. Our data indicates that oral VDRA reduces tissue remodeling during chronic experimental PD and prevents loss of ultrafiltration capacity. Therefore, VDRA is potentially relevant in the prevention of treatment technique failure in PD patients. PMID:26605330

  7. Primary Peritonitis—A Forgotten Entity

    PubMed Central

    Khilji, Muhammad Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Primary peritonitis is a rare phenomenon in modern antibiotic era. A case of pediatric primary peritonitis is presented here, in which a child presented with complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting for one day. Abdominal examination showed marked tenderness and guarding, diagnosis of appendicitis was made and laparoscopic appendectomy done. Later, ascitic fluid analysis and appendix histopathology proved it to be a case of primary peritonitis. PMID:26171311

  8. e-Health: remote health care models in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Dirk G

    2012-01-01

    A general review is given on advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of e-Health. The sparse available literature on e-Health and peritoneal dialysis is discussed. It is concluded that in general e-Health interventions lead to small but to moderate positive effects on primary health outcomes, although the evidence still is not fully convincing. PMID:22652719

  9. [Diverticular disease complicated by peritonitis: role of conservative surgical therapy].

    PubMed

    Lippi, Carlo Ettore; Braini, Andrea; Cervia, Silvio; Fabbricotti, Alaido; Ferrari, Teresa; Maruelli, Piero; Spessa, Elisabetta; Sturlese, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Peritonitis complicating diverticular disease may be treated by sigmoid resection (with or without primary anastomosis) or by a conservative surgical approach, either laparoscopically or by open surgery. The choice depends on the severity of the peritonitis (Hinchey), the patient's conditions (ASA) and the surgeon's experience. Sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis has a lower morbidity and mortality vs Hartmann's procedure. After the introduction of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery, exploratory laparoscopy combined with drainage has been proposed to treat acute episodes, followed by laparoscopic resection. Since 1982, over 1000 patients have been operated on for colorectal disease: 119 for complicated diverticulitis, 55 of which complicated by peritonitis. In the latter, we performed conservative surgery (25 patients) and resection (30 patients) laparoscopically or by open surgery. Our results show a higher morbidity and mortality for the Hartmann procedure vs sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis and a lower specific morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic exploration and drainage. Moreover, there was a low percentage (52%) of re-canalisations with the Hartmann procedure, with a morbidity of 32% associated with this procedure. In conclusion, we believe that a conservative laparoscopic surgical approach may be advocated in selected cases (Hinchey II and III without clear perforation), followed by laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, resection with primary anastomosis in Hinchey I or in cases of evident perforation with purulent or faecal peritonitis (possibly combined with a stoma), reserving the Hartmann procedure for compromised patients. PMID:18019645

  10. Primary prevention: phytoprevention and chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Turini, Marco E; DuBois, Raymond N

    2002-08-01

    Considering the various stages of carcinogenesis and the numerous tumor types and available chemoprevention agents, knowledge of the etiology and the type of cancer to be treated, or possibly prevented, and understanding of the mechanisms by which agents exert their chemoprevention benefits may provide for improved strategy in designing therapeutic regimens. Because cancer usually develops over a 10- to 20-year period, it may be necessary for some agents to be provided before or early in the initiation steps of carcinogenesis to have beneficial effects. On the other hand, some agents may be more suitable for CRC prevention if provided at a later stage of carcinogenesis. Gene array, genomics, and proteomics are useful tools in advancing our understanding of the molecular events involved in carcinogenesis and in identifying markers of risk and surrogate end-points for colorectal cancer progression. These techniques may also serve for screening, identifying, and providing treatment targets for high-risk patients populations. Treatment could be developed depending on a patient's individual needs and genomic tumor profile. Clinical markers and surrogate end-points should be considered, together with molecular measurements, to more accurately assess risk. NSAIDs and COXIBs are clinically recognized as chemoprevention agents, and clinical trials evaluating their efficacy are ongoing. Treatment protocols, including dose and timing, remain to be determined, however. DFMO may best be used in combination with other chemoprevention agents. Dietary fiber and calcium supplements, as part of an overall low-fat diet, may decrease CRC risk. Long-term compliance with this regimen may be necessary to effect a beneficial outcome. Folate holds promise but needs further investigation, especially because its beneficial effects may depend on cancer type. Phytochemicals have been identified as strong candidates for use as agents to prevent colorectal cancer in cell culture and in rodent

  11. Animal models in peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Nikitidou, Olga; Peppa, Vasiliki I.; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Liakopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use. PMID:26388781

  12. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal injury has occurred in a blunt trauma victim. In many cases, the decision about when to ... One procedure used to determine whether blunt trauma victims require surgery is diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL). DPL ...

  13. Effectively Communicating Colorectal Cancer Screening Information to Primary Care Providers: Application for State, Tribe or Territory Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Jennifer; Vanderpool, Robin; McClung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients are more likely to be screened for colorectal cancer if it is recommended by a health care provider. Therefore, it is imperative that providers have access to the latest screening guidelines. Purpose: This practice-based project sought to identify Kentucky primary care providers' preferred sources and methods of receiving…

  14. Clinical Stages in Patients with Primary and Subsequent Cancers Based on the Czech Cancer Registry 1976–2005

    PubMed Central

    Štampach, Radim; Dítě, Petr; Kozel, Jiří; Horváth, Teodor; Kubíček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Of 1,486,984 new cancers registered in the Czech Cancer Registry in 1976-2005, 290,312 (19.5%) were multiple malignant neoplasms (MMNs), of which there were 65,292 primary and 89,796 subsequent cases in men and 59,970 primary and 75,254 subsequent cases in women. The duplicities were higher in women, and the triplicities and others (3–6 MMNs) were higher in men. The most frequent diagnoses were the primary cancers of skin, gastrointestinal and urinary tract, male genital organs, respiratory tract in men, and cancers of skin, breast, female genital organs, and gastrointestinal tract in women. The analysis of the early and advanced clinical stages shows that the number of subsequent advanced stages increased after primary advanced stages. Their time-age-space distributions visualized maps of MMNs in 14 Czech regions. These results support the improvement of algorithms of dispensary care for the early detection of the subsequent neoplasms. PMID:23936674

  15. Podocalyxin-like protein expression in primary colorectal cancer and synchronous lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims Previous studies have shown that membranous expression of podocalyxin-like protein (PODXL) is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we compared PODXL expression in primary CRC and synchronous lymph node metastases. We further analyzed whether its expression changed in rectal tumours after neoadjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and results The studied cohort consists of 73 consecutive patients from the South-Swedish Colorectal Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemical PODXL expression was examined on full-face sections from all primary tumours and all 140 available lymph node metastases from 31 cases. Membranous PODXL expression was denoted in 18/73 (24,7%) primary tumours, with a high concordance between primary and metastatic lesions. While all negative primary tumours had negative metastases, some PODXL positive primaries had a varying proportion of positive and negative metastatic lymph nodes. PODXL expression was also found to be mainly unaltered in pre- and post-irradiation surgically resected tumour specimens in rectal cancer patients (n=16). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest that analysis of PODXL expression in the primary tumour is sufficient for its use as a prognostic and treatment predictive biomarker in CRC, also in patients with metastatic disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9014177329634352 PMID:23819542

  16. A case of metachronous double primary neuroendocrine cancer in pancreas/ileum and uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Novelli, Luca; Sansovini, Maddalena; Severi, Stefano; Pieralli, Annalisa; Livi, Lorenzo; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of a 50-year-old female patient developing two primary cancers with neuroendocrine features. Initially the patient underwent surgery for an entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. During the subsequent follow-up she experienced some episodes of vaginal bleeding with negative PET scanning with the tracer fluorine-18 (F-18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). A Papanicolaou (pap) smear and an endometrial biopsy revealed a primary neuroendocrine cancer of the uterine cervix. The present case underlines the importance of clinical follow-up after a diagnosis of intestinal neuroendocrine tumor, investigating any new symptom. Female patients, after the diagnosis of entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, must be recommended to continue screening pap test examinations for the likelihood of classical squamous and glandular cervical cancers and also for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. PMID:23009225

  17. A case of three synchronous primary lung cancers within the same lung lobe

    PubMed Central

    Misiak, Piotr; Brocki, Marian

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 74-year-old patient with three synchronous primary lung cancers within the same lung lobe. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography investigations revealed two suspicious nodular lesions in the upper lobe of the left lung. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy confirmed that one of the lesions was non-small cell lung cancer. The patient was qualified for surgical treatment, and left upper lobectomy plus lymphadenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of three primary cancers in the left lung: keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and acinar adenocarcinoma, localized within the same lung lobe. The patient was classified as having stage T3N1M0 lung cancer (stage IIIA) according to the latest, 7th edition of the TNM classification. PMID:27516792

  18. Morbidity and mortality associated with primary and repeat operations for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Venesmaa, P; Ylikorkala, O

    1992-02-01

    Aggressive surgery may improve the outcome of patients with ovarian cancer. To assess the risk of operative complications, we analyzed 472 primary and 299 repeat operations for ovarian cancer in 536 women between 14-91 years of age. Intraoperative bleeding estimated to be over 1000 mL (N = 107) was more common after primary (21%) than repeat surgery (3%). Urinary tract infection accompanied 113 operations (18% of primary and 9% of repeat), bowel complication 51 operations (7% of primary and 6% of repeat), fever 23 operations (4% of primary and 1% of repeat), wound complication 17 operations (3% of primary and 1% of repeat), and thromboembolism 11 operations (2% of primary and 0.3% of repeat). Patient age had no effect on the rate of complications. Pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in connection with primary operations caused substantial blood loss. Five subjects (1%) died after primary operations. On the whole, the surgical procedures, especially repeat operations, were well tolerated and should not be avoided for fear of complications. PMID:1731280

  19. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to streptococcus pneumoniae--case report.

    PubMed

    Litarski, Andrzej; Janczak, Dariusz; Cianciara, Jan; Merenda, Marcin

    2011-05-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is caused by infection of ascitic fluid without any apparent intraabdominal source of infection. The disease most commonly occurs in patients with cirrhosis and 70% of cases of infections are caused by pathogenes from gastrointestinal tract. The article presents the case of 38-year-old patient with spontaneous peritonitis who was treated surgically. The primary nature of the disease was confirmed by laparotomy and bacteriological examination results (Streptoccocus pneumonia) of ascitic fluid. After 54 days of hospitalisation and undergoing re-laparotomy, he was discharged in good condition. PMID:22166482

  20. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Jian; Siva, Shankar; Foroudi, Farshad; Gill, Suki

    2014-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer allows overall treatment times to be reduced to as little as 1 week while maintaining a non-invasive approach. This study provides a comprehensive summary of the literature relating to SBRT in prostate cancer. A systematic review of the relevant literature was performed using structured search terms. Fourteen phase I-II trials and retrospective studies using SBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer were used. Three studies were identified which addressed cost. Dose fractionation, radiotherapy procedures, biochemical progression-free survival, toxicity, cost and quality of life were critically appraised. A total of 1472 patients were examined across studies. Median follow-up ranged from 11 to 60 months. The most common dose fractionation was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions, used in nine out of 14 studies. Ten of 14 studies used CyberKnife. The overall biochemical progression-free survival ranged 81-100%. Acute grade 2 urinary and rectal toxicities were reported in 5-42% and 0-27% of patients, respectively. Acute grade 3 or more urinary and rectal toxicity were 0.5% and 0%, respectively. Late grade 2 urinary toxicity was reported in 0-29% of patients, while 1.3% had a late grade 3 urinary toxicity. There were no late grade 4 urinary toxicities seen. Late grade 2 rectal toxicity was reported in 0-11%, while 0.5% had a late grade 3 rectal toxicity. Late grade 4 rectal toxicity was reported in 0.2% of patients. PMID:25155286

  1. Primary surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Machens, A

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are malignancies of follicular cell derivation. Histopathologically and oncologically, DTC fall into two broad tumor categories: papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). These major tumor categories, based on clinical manifestation and biological behavior, are further subdivided into low-risk [papillary microcarcinoma (mPTC); minimally invasive follicular cancer (MIFTC)] and high-risk DTC [PTC>1 cm or metastatic; MIFTC with histopathological angioinvasion; widely invasive FTC (WIFTC)]. Recently, a surgical approach has been adopted that differentiates between low-risk and high-risk DTC. The rationale behind this new concept is to better balance oncologic risk (high vs low) with the surgical morbidity attendant to the procedure (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism). This surgical risk is larger with routine total thyroidectomy (TT) and central node dissection (CND) than with less than TT or TT without CND.Whereas TT with CND remains the treatment of choice for high-risk DTC with metastases, the extent of thyroid resection and lymph node dissection can be reduced in low-risk PTC and FTC without demonstrable loss of oncological benefit. In the new millennium, the surgical approach to DTC, especially low-risk PTC and FTC, has undergone considerable change, resulting in less extensive procedures. This risk-adapted strategy relies not only on the skillful histopathologic detection of multifocality in PTC and vascular invasion in MIFTC, but likewise necessitates diligent follow-up to spot and adequately treat local recurrences and distant metastases as they become clinically apparent. PMID:23014068

  2. Does Radiotherapy for the Primary Tumor Benefit Prostate Cancer Patients with Distant Metastasis at Initial Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeona; Chang, Jee Suk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Choi, Young Deuk; Ham, Won Sik; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Treatment of the primary tumor reportedly improves survival in several types of metastatic cancer. We herein evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy for the primary tumor in prostate cancer with metastasis. Materials/Methods The study cohort included 140 men with metastatic prostate cancer at initial diagnosis. Metastatic sites were divided into 4 groups as follows: solitary bone, 2–4 bones, ≥5 bones, and visceral organs. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients treated with (prostate radiotherapy [PRT] group) or without radiotherapy to the primary tumor. Results Patients in PRT group presented with a statistically significantly younger age (p = .02), whereas other characteristics showed no significant difference. Overall survival (OS) and biochemical failure-free survival (BCFFS) were improved in PRT patients (3-year OS: 69% vs. 43%, p = 0.004; 3-year BCFFS: 52% vs. 16%, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis identified PRT as a significant predictor of both OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, p = 0.015). None of the 38 PRT patients experienced severe (grade ≥3) genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions Our data suggest that radiotherapy to the primary tumor was associated with improved OS and BCFFS in metastatic prostate cancer. The results of this study warrant prospective controlled clinical trials of this approach in stage IV prostate cancer patients with limited extent of bone metastasis and good performance status. PMID:26807740

  3. New Developments in Peritoneal Fibroblast Biology: Implications for Inflammation and Fibrosis in Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Witowski, Janusz; Kawka, Edyta; Rudolf, Andras; Jörres, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Uraemia and long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) can lead to fibrotic thickening of the peritoneal membrane, which may limit its dialytic function. Peritoneal fibrosis is associated with the appearance of myofibroblasts and expansion of extracellular matrix. The extent of contribution of resident peritoneal fibroblasts to these changes is a matter of debate. Recent studies point to a significant heterogeneity and complexity of the peritoneal fibroblast population. Here, we review recent developments in peritoneal fibroblast biology and summarize the current knowledge on the involvement of peritoneal fibroblasts in peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26495280

  4. Risk of second primary cancer after a first potentially-human papillomavirus-related cancer: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Florent; Jégu, Jérémie; Mougin, Christiane; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Bara, Simona; Bouvier, Véronique; Colonna, Marc; Troussard, Xavier; Trétarre, Brigitte; Grosclaude, Pascale; Velten, Michel; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are involved in the development of anogenital and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC) after a first potentially-HPV-related cancer, and to analyze the sites where SPCs most frequently occurred in these patients. All patients with a first cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2004, as recorded by 10 French cancer registries, were followed up until December 31, 2007. Only invasive potentially-HPV-related cancers (namely, cervical, vagina, vulva, anal canal, penile, oropharynx, tongue and tonsil) were included. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were calculated to assess the risk of SPC. A multivariate Poisson regression model was used to model SIRs separately by gender, adjusted for the characteristics of the first cancer. 10,127 patients presented a first potentially-HPV-related cancer. The overall SIR was 2.48 (95% CI, 2.34-2.63). The SIR was 3.59 (95% CI, 3.33-3.86) and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.46-1.78) in men and women respectively. The relative risk of potentially-HPV-related SPC was high among these patients (SIR=13.74; 95% CI, 8.80-20.45 and 6.78; 95% CI, 4.61-9.63 for men and women, respectively). Women diagnosed in the most recent period (2000-2004) showed a 40% increase of their relative risk of SPC as compared with women diagnosed between 1989 and 1994 (ratio of SIRs=1.40; 95% CI, 1.06-1.85). HPV cancer survivors face an increased risk of SPC, especially second cancer. Clinicians may consider this increased risk of developing HPV-related SPC during follow-up to improve subsequent cancer prevention in these patients. PMID:27370167

  5. Risk prediction tools for cancer in primary care.

    PubMed

    Usher-Smith, Juliet; Emery, Jon; Hamilton, Willie; Griffin, Simon J; Walter, Fiona M

    2015-12-22

    Numerous risk tools are now available, which predict either current or future risk of a cancer diagnosis. In theory, these tools have the potential to improve patient outcomes through enhancing the consistency and quality of clinical decision-making, facilitating equitable and cost-effective distribution of finite resources such as screening tests or preventive interventions, and encouraging behaviour change. These potential uses have been recognised by the National Cancer Institute as an 'area of extraordinary opportunity' and an increasing number of risk prediction models continue to be developed. The data on predictive utility (discrimination and calibration) of these models suggest that some have potential for clinical application; however, the focus on implementation and impact is much more recent and there remains considerable uncertainty about their clinical utility and how to implement them in order to maximise benefits and minimise harms such as over-medicalisation, anxiety and false reassurance. If the potential benefits of risk prediction models are to be realised in clinical practice, further validation of the underlying risk models and research to assess the acceptability, clinical impact and economic implications of incorporating them in practice are needed. PMID:26633558

  6. Risk prediction tools for cancer in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Usher-Smith, Juliet; Emery, Jon; Hamilton, Willie; Griffin, Simon J; Walter, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    Numerous risk tools are now available, which predict either current or future risk of a cancer diagnosis. In theory, these tools have the potential to improve patient outcomes through enhancing the consistency and quality of clinical decision-making, facilitating equitable and cost-effective distribution of finite resources such as screening tests or preventive interventions, and encouraging behaviour change. These potential uses have been recognised by the National Cancer Institute as an ‘area of extraordinary opportunity' and an increasing number of risk prediction models continue to be developed. The data on predictive utility (discrimination and calibration) of these models suggest that some have potential for clinical application; however, the focus on implementation and impact is much more recent and there remains considerable uncertainty about their clinical utility and how to implement them in order to maximise benefits and minimise harms such as over-medicalisation, anxiety and false reassurance. If the potential benefits of risk prediction models are to be realised in clinical practice, further validation of the underlying risk models and research to assess the acceptability, clinical impact and economic implications of incorporating them in practice are needed. PMID:26633558

  7. [Metastasized colonic cancer. When are there no indications for primary resection?].

    PubMed

    Kube, R; Mroczkowski, P

    2015-02-01

    The determination of an optimal treatment protocol for colonic cancer with synchronous incurable metastases remains a challenge, especially if the primary tumor is asymptomatic. Available data on whether resection of the primary tumor means a benefit or a danger to the patient are limited and inhomogeneous. A survival benefit could be shown only in retrospective studies with a bias against primary chemotherapy. The important question of the quality of life (QOL) remains completely unanswered in this respect. There are numerous groups and guidelines in favor of a primary palliative chemotherapy for these patients, possibly intensified by antibodies. The results of the currently ongoing randomized multicenter SYNCHRONUS study will deliver objective data facilitating the decision-making process with respect to the indications for resection of the primary tumor or primary chemotherapy. PMID:24969343

  8. Non-Coding RNAs in Primary Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghidini, Michele; Braconi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the past few years, many studies have evaluated the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. ncRNAs were shown to have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential in HCC. In this manuscript, we review the latest major discoveries concerning microRNAs and long ncRNAs in HCC pathogenesis, and discuss the potentials and the limitations for their use in clinical practice. PMID:26131450

  9. Non-Coding RNAs in Primary Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, Michele; Braconi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the past few years, many studies have evaluated the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. ncRNAs were shown to have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential in HCC. In this manuscript, we review the latest major discoveries concerning microRNAs and long ncRNAs in HCC pathogenesis, and discuss the potentials and the limitations for their use in clinical practice. PMID:26131450

  10. Detection of early primary colorectal cancer with upconversion luminescent NP-based molecular probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyan; Qi, Yifei; Qiao, Ruirui; Hou, Yi; Chan, Kaying; Li, Ziqian; Huang, Jiayi; Jing, Lihong; Du, Jun; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Early detection and diagnosis of cancers is extremely beneficial for improving the survival rate of cancer patients and molecular imaging techniques are believed to be relevant for offering clinical solutions. Towards early cancer detection, we developed a primary animal colorectal cancer model and constructed a tumor-specific imaging probe by using biocompatible NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 upconversion luminescent NPs for establishing a sensitive early tumor imaging method. The primary animal tumor model, which can better mimic the human colorectal cancer, was built upon continual administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in Kunming mice and the tumor development was carefully monitored through histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses to reveal the pathophysiological processes and molecular features of the cancer microenvironment. The upconversion imaging probe was constructed through covalent coupling of PEGylated core-shell NPs with folic acid whose receptor is highly expressed in the primary tumors. Upon 980 nm laser excitation, the primary colorectal tumors in the complex abdominal environment were sensitively imaged owing to the ultralow background of the upconversion luminescence and the high tumor-targeting specificity of the nanoprobe. We believe that the current studies provide a highly effective and potential approach for early colorectal cancer diagnosis and tumor surgical navigation.Early detection and diagnosis of cancers is extremely beneficial for improving the survival rate of cancer patients and molecular imaging techniques are believed to be relevant for offering clinical solutions. Towards early cancer detection, we developed a primary animal colorectal cancer model and constructed a tumor-specific imaging probe by using biocompatible NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 upconversion luminescent NPs for establishing a sensitive early tumor imaging method. The primary animal tumor model, which can better mimic the human colorectal cancer, was built upon continual

  11. A rare recurrence of bilateral breast cancer in the esophagus coincidentally associated with primary gastric cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cases of esophageal metastasis of breast cancer are extremely rare. We present the case of a patient who developed recurrence as esophageal metastasis following treatment of bilateral breast cancer. Early-stage gastric cancer was also found coincidentally. Case presentation An 86-year-old Japanese female patient with a history of bilateral breast cancer was found to have a gastric mass on a medical examination. At 72 years of age, she had undergone a total mastectomy with level II axillary lymph node dissection (pT3N0M0 stage II). Left breast cancer was found at the age of 79. A total mastectomy was performed with level II axillary lymph node dissection (pT1N0M0 stage I). At the time of her current admission, our patient complained of dysphagia. A repeat gastrofiberscopy revealed a submucosal lesion in her middle esophagus, located 27cm distal to her incisors, as well as a known type I tumor of the gastric cardia. Computed tomography showed a mass lesion in her middle esophagus that had grown extraluminally and infiltrated the tracheal bifurcation and her left primary bronchus. A boring biopsy of the esophageal lesion was performed under ultrasonic monitoring, and a pathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the esophagus was obtained. The biopsy of the cardiac lesion revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. The expression status of her hormone receptors indicated that the esophageal lesion reflected metastatic recurrence of her breast cancer with coincidental primary gastric cancer (cT1N0M0 stage IA). Conclusions Esophageal metastasis of breast cancer is extremely rare. An individualized treatment plan combining multimodal approaches should therefore be devised according to the patient’s status. PMID:24533645

  12. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals. PMID:25851202

  13. Adherence of Primary Care Physicians to Evidence-Based Recommendations to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Mortality.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherri L; Townsend, Julie S; Puckett, Mary C; Rim, Sun Hee

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Receipt of treatment from a gynecologic oncologist is an evidence-based recommendation to reduce mortality from the disease. We examined knowledge and application of this evidence-based recommendation in primary care physicians as part of CDC gynecologic cancer awareness campaign efforts and discussed results in the context of CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). We analyzed primary care physician responses to questions about how often they refer patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer to gynecologic oncologists, and reasons for lack of referral. We also analyzed these physicians' knowledge of tests to help determine whether a gynecologic oncologist is needed for a planned surgery. The survey response rate was 52.2%. A total of 84% of primary care physicians (87% of family/general practitioners, 81% of internists and obstetrician/gynecologists) said they always referred patients to gynecologic oncologists for treatment. Common reasons for not always referring were patient preference or lack of gynecologic oncologists in the practice area. A total of 23% of primary care physicians had heard of the OVA1 test, which helps to determine whether gynecologic oncologist referral is needed. Although referral rates reported here are high, it is not clear whether ovarian cancer patients are actually seeing gynecologic oncologists for care. The NCCCP is undertaking several efforts to assist with this, including education of the recommendation among women and providers and assistance with treatment summaries and patient navigation toward appropriate treatment. Expansion of these efforts to all populations may help improve adherence to recommendations and reduce ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26978124

  14. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  15. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Life Saving Role of Peritoneal Lavage and Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Minako; Oyama, Fumie; Ito, Asami; Yokota, Megumi; Matsukura, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Kasai, Tomonori; Nitobe, Yohshiro; Morikawa, Akiko; Ozaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We encountered a case where an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS; ie, Streptococcus pyogenes) initially caused primary peritonitis and then subsequently caused streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The patient’s life was likely saved by an emergency laparotomy followed by extensive peritoneal lavage and drainage. CASE PRESENTATION A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for lower abdominal pain and numbness in the extremities. She presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. An emergency laparotomy was performed, and ascites that resembled pus and general peritonitis were noted. Peritoneal lavage and drainage were performed, and GAS was isolated from peritoneal fluid. Gram staining of cervical polyp specimens revealed Gram-positive bacteria. CONCLUSIONS The patient was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to an ascending GAS infection originating from vagina. PMID:27579001

  16. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    concentration of triglycerides and triglyceride-rich complex lipoproteins. There are indications that dialytic variables may influence this development. When peritoneal function was assessed by the Peritoneal Dialysis Capacity test at start of dialysis, it was observed that peritoneal function reflected patient characteristics and co-morbidity. Patients with systemic disease had enhanced diffusion capacity compared to patients with primary renal disorders. Furthermore, in patients with more severe co-morbidity. peritoneal protein losses were increased. Finally, elderly patients had ultrafiltration conditions that were different from those of younger patients. Peritoneal function remained essentially stable during medium-long term follow up. Body composition features in dialysis patients are similar to those seen in severe disease in general. Thus, it is difficult to separate the effects of malnutrition from the effects of the underlying disease. Specific standards for nutritional status adapted for patients with renal failure are required. PMID:12056516

  17. Locally ablative therapies for primary and metastatic liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Madoff, David C

    2014-08-01

    Locally ablative therapies have an increasing role in the effective multidisciplinary approach towards the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. In patients who are not considered surgical candidates and have low volume disease, these therapies have now become established into consensus practice guidelines. A large range of therapeutic options exist including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), cryoablation, percutaneous laser ablation (PLA), irreversible electroporation (IRE), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU); each having benefits and drawbacks. The greatest body of evidence supporting clinical utility in the liver currently exists for RFA, with PEI having fallen out of favor. MWA, IRE, SBRT and HIFU are relatively nascent technologies, and outcomes data supporting their use is promising. Future directions of ablative therapies include tandem approaches to improve efficacy in the treatment of liver tumors. PMID:24746315

  18. Secondary Primary Malignancy Risk in Patients With Ovarian Cancer in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Min-Huang; Li, Chun-Pin; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chao, Yee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the incidence of secondary primary malignancy (SPM) in patients with ovarian cancer using a nationwide retrospective population-based dataset. Patients newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1997 and 2010 were identified using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. Patients with antecedent malignancies were excluded. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for SPM were calculated and compared with the cancer incidence in the general population. Risk factors for cancer development were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. Effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy after ovarian cancer diagnosis were regarded as time-dependent variables to prevent immortal time bias. During the 14-year study period (follow-up of 56,214 person-years), 707 cancers developed in 12,127 patients with ovarian cancer. The SIR for all cancers was 2.78 (95% confidence interval 2.58–3.00). SIRs for follow-up periods of >5, 1–5, and <1 year were 1.87, 2.04, and 6.40, respectively. After the exclusion of SPM occurring within 1 year of ovarian cancer diagnosis, SIRs were significantly higher for cancers of the colon, rectum, and anus (2.14); lung and mediastinum (1.58); breast (1.68); cervix (1.65); uterus (7.96); bladder (3.17), and thyroid (2.23); as well as for leukemia (3.98) and others (3.83). Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 50 years was a significant SPM risk factor (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60). Different treatments for ovarian cancer, including radiotherapy (HR 2.07) and chemotherapy (HR 1.27), had different impacts on SPM risk. Patients with ovarian cancer are at increased risk of SPM development. Age ≥ 50 years, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are independent risk factors. Close surveillance of patients at high risk should be considered for the early detection of SPM. PMID:26402833

  19. [Peritoneal carcinomatosis: new strategies for more efficacious treatment].

    PubMed

    Zanon, Claudio

    2002-09-01

    The peritoneal carcinomatosis is considered an unlikely treatable disease using standard procedures as surgery or systemic chemotherapy. New improvements in the knowledge of the peritoneum are inducing to consider the mesothelium of the abdominal cavity as an organ similar to the other body organs. This new consideration, unified with the understanding of conditions permitting the implant of the tumor cell into the peritoneal space previous or during the surgical manipulation of the abdominal cancers, leads to the application of news strategies as the advanced cytoreduction with every nodes reduced less than 2.5 mm followed by the chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (CHPP). Last papers indicate improvements in overall survival and quality of the life in ovarian, colonic and gastric cancer treated with an extensive surgical debulking plus CHPP. These results induce surgeons and oncologists to avoid incorrect strategies in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis originating from ovarian and gastrointestinal tumors. In case of malignant untreatable ascites a peritoneo-venous shunt allows a control of the ascites avoiding several hospital admissions for continuous fastidious and sometime dangerous paracentesis. A palliative surgical operation in selected patients effected by trained surgical group permits an improvement of the patient's conditions in more than 80% with a positive feed back on his or her psychological behavior. PMID:12355981

  20. Risk of Diabetes among Patients Receiving Primary Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huei-Ting; Keating, Nancy L.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Haque, Reina; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Smith, Matthew R.; Potosky, Arnold L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Androgen deprivation therapy may increase diabetes risk. As the benefits of primary androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer are controversial, and most prostate cancer survivors are of advanced age with comorbidities, it is important to determine if primary androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and to determine the susceptibility factors. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 12,191 men diagnosed with incident localized prostate cancer during 1995 to 2008, age 35 to 100 years, and without diabetes or receipt of prostatectomy or radiation 1 year after diagnosis. Patients were enrolled in 1 of 3 managed health plans and followed through 2010. Primary androgen deprivation therapy was defined as androgen deprivation therapy within 1 year after diagnosis. Incident diabetes was ascertained using inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, diabetes medications and hemoglobin A1c values. We estimated primary androgen deprivation therapy associated diabetes risk using Cox proportional hazard models in conventional and propensity score analyses. Results Diabetes developed in 1,203 (9.9%) patients during followup (median 4.8 years) with incidence rates of 2.5 and 1.6 events per 100 person-years in the primary androgen deprivation therapy and nonprimary androgen deprivation therapy groups, respectively. Primary androgen deprivation therapy was associated with a 1.61-fold increased diabetes risk (95% CI 1.38–1.88). The number needed to harm was 29. The association was stronger in men age 70 or younger than in older men (HR 2.25 vs 1.40, p value for interaction = 0.008). Conclusions Primary androgen deprivation therapy may increase diabetes risk by 60% and should be used with caution when managing localized prostate cancer. Because of the consistent association between androgen deprivation therapy and greater diabetes risk across disease states, we recommend routine screening and lifestyle