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Sample records for cancer prostatic cancer

  1. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  2. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000380.htm Prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. ...

  3. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  4. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  5. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  6. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  7. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  8. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  9. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... finasteride who did have prostate cancer had more aggressive tumors . The number of deaths from prostate cancer ... men that did not. The number of less aggressive prostate cancers was lower, but the number of ...

  13. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  14. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer Past ... Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer / Prostate ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ... Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ...

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  18. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  19. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... present it is not clear if screening for prostate cancer is helpful for most men. For this reason, ...

  20. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  1. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  2. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  3. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  4. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is ... Possible short-term side effects of cryotherapy for prostate ... of the penis or scrotum Problems controlling your bladder (more ...

  5. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  6. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  7. Prostate cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer (i.e., spread) and may include surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation or a combination of these treatments.

  8. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  9. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... when cancer has spread to the bone. External beam radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays pointed ... radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. Proton beams target the tumor precisely, so there is less ...

  10. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  11. Cancer of the Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 180,890 % of All New Cancer Cases 10.7% Estimated Deaths in 2016 26,120 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 2,850,139 men living with prostate cancer ...

  12. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vemana, Goutham; Hamilton, Robert J; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence. PMID:24188663

  13. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that checks the level of PSA in your blood. In some cases, a high level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high level, such as infection in the prostate or ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  15. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Andrew J; Abouassaly, Robert; Klein, Eric A

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is an appropriate target for primary chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, disease-related mortality, treatment-related morbidity, and long latency period. The PCPT and REDUCE trials demonstrate that this cancer can be prevented by a relatively nontoxic oral pharmacologic agent (5alpha-reductase inhibitors). Evidence from the SELECT trial argues against the recommendation of the use of vitamins and micronutrients as chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Dietary modification may substantially alter a man's risk of prostate cancer, but the specific dietary manipulations that are necessary are poorly defined and these may need to be instituted in early adulthood to be successful. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors represent an effective primary prevention strategy, and these agents should be used more liberally for the prevention of prostate cancer, particularly in high-risk patients. PMID:20152515

  16. Screening for prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cher, M L; Carroll, P R

    1995-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a serious health care problem in the United States. Whether or not to screen for it has become a timely issue. Although a large number of men have clinically important, asymptomatic, undetected prostate cancer, an even larger number have clinically unimportant cancer. To justify screening programs, not only must we avoid detecting biologically unimportant cancers, we must also detect and effectively treat that subset of tumors that, if undiagnosed, would progress, produce symptoms, and reduce life expectancy. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay, or its variations such as PSA density, PSA velocity, and age-specific reference ranges, and the digital rectal examination are the best tests for detecting clinically important, asymptomatic, curable tumors. Recent data suggest that using serum PSA levels does not result in an overdetection of unimportant tumors. Highly effective, curative treatment of localized prostate cancer is available. These factors promote optimism that screening for prostate cancer will ultimately prove beneficial. Nonetheless, men should be informed regarding the benefits and possible risks before being screened for prostate cancer. PMID:7536993

  17. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rittmaster, Roger S

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, many more men are diagnosed with prostate cancer then die of the disease. This increase in diagnosis has led to aggressive treatment of indolent disease in many individuals and has been the impetus for finding a means of reducing the risk of prostate cancer. In the past decade, there have been eight large trials of prostate cancer risk reduction using dietary supplements, 5α-reductase inhibitors, or anti-estrogens. The only two trials which have demonstrated efficacy are those involving 5α-reductase inhibitors: the PCPT (finasteride) and REDUCE (dutasteride). This review examines prostate cancer risk reduction, with emphasis on conclusions that can be drawn from these two landmark studies. PMID:21604953

  18. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venniyoor, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach. PMID:27051149

  19. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » More Information » Prostate Cancer Early Detection » American ... Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News ...

  20. Clinical Perspective of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Gaitonde, Krishnanath

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men today. It largely affects men in the fifth and sixth decade of life. Screening for prostate cancer, though controversial, is still the only way to detect early prostate cancer. Multiple newer options such as blood tests and genetic markers are being used in the clinical domain today to improve cancer detection and avoid unnecessary biopsies. To date, biopsy of the prostate remains the only modality to stratify the grade of cancer. Significant improvements in the imaging technology have improved localizing and detecting the disease. Treatment of prostate cancer is stratified on the basis of the grade and volume of the disease. There are multiple treatment options involved in the management of prostate cancer. Treatment of localized prostate cancer still continues to have very high cure rates and long-term cancer-specific survival rates. PMID:27187167

  1. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Ilya; Thompson, R H; Dong, Haidong; Krco, Christopher; Kwon, Eugene D

    2015-06-01

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant neoplasms has made significant progress over the last 20 years. Multiple molecular targets and clinical agents have been developed recently, particularly in the field of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Sipuleucel-T is currently the only FDA approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer. PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac) currently has a phase III randomized trial underway after a phase II trial showed an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, both these agents showed improvement in overall survival with no measurable change in disease state, leading to significant controversy as the utility of these agents in prostate cancer. Ipilimumab revealed a benefit for a sub-cohort of men in a post-docetaxel group and is currently undergoing investigation in a pre-docetaxel group. There are a number of other targets such as PD-1 which have shown effectiveness in other neoplasms that will likely be investigated in the future for use in prostate cancer. PMID:25894495

  2. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Newly Diagnosed Staging the Disease Issues ... you care about has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, this section will help guide you through the ...

  3. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  4. Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne; Garrett, Bernie; Bottorff, Joan L.; McKenzie, Michael; Han, Christina S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand prostate cancer (PCa) specialists’ views about prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs), a volunteer sample of Canada-based PCa specialists (n = 150), including urologists (n = 100), radiation oncologists (n = 40), and medical oncologists (n = 10) were surveyed. The 56-item questionnaire used in this study included six sets of attitudinal items to measure prostate cancer specialists’ beliefs about positive and negative influences of PCSGs, reasons for attending PCSGs, the attributes of effective PCSGs, and the value of face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. In addition, an open-ended question was included to invite additional input from participants. Results showed that PCSGs were positively valued, particularly for information sharing, education and psychosocial support. Inclusivity, privacy, and accessibility were identified as potential barriers, and recommendations were made for better marketing PCSGs to increase engagement. Findings suggest prostate cancer specialists highly valued the role and potential benefits of face-to-face PCSGs. Information provision and an educational role were perceived as key benefits. Some concerns were expressed about the ability of web-based PCSGs to effectively engage and educate men who experience prostate cancer. PMID:25061087

  5. MYC and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cheryl M.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Dang, Chi V.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell–like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology. PMID:21779461

  6. Prostate Cancer: Take Time to Decide

    MedlinePlus

    ... printing [PDF-983KB] Cancer Home Prostate Cancer: Take Time to Decide Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prostate Cancer: Take Time to Decide Most prostate cancers grow slowly, and ...

  7. Vitamin E and Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E, its metabolites or its analogs, might help prevent prostate cancer initiation or progression. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States, exceeded only by lung cancer. About 218,890 new cases of prost...

  8. Chemotherapy in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2015-10-01

    For approximately a decade, chemotherapy has been shown to prolong life in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Since that time, however, only two agents have proven to prolong life (docetaxel and cabazitaxel). However, in the last year, the addition of chemotherapy to primary hormonal therapy became a standard of care for high-volume castration-sensitive metastatic disease. Here I will review current prostate cancer chemotherapies, mechanisms of resistance to those therapies, and ongoing clinical studies of chemotherapy combinations and novel chemotherapeutics. PMID:26216506

  9. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Babaian, R.J.; Lamki, L.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The development of hybridoma technology has increased research efforts and clinical applications in the area of radioimmunodetection. Despite the many investigative antibodies directed against prostatic tissue or prostate cancer cell lines, only two have been tested in clinical trials. A 111In-labeled antibody directed against prostate-specific antigen, the best available serum tumor marker for prostate cancer, has shown poor sensitivity in limited clinical radioimmunoimaging trials. Monoclonal antibodies against prostatic acid phosphatase have shown better imaging results, particularly at higher antibody doses (greater than or equal to 40 mg). The limitations of this antibody include the poor results in detecting soft tissue lesions, including the primary lesion; the development of human antimouse antibodies in 50% of the patients at doses greater than or equal to 40 mg; the expense of the antibody; and the fact that better results are currently attainable by other less expensive imaging modalities. If and when a more suitable antibody or fragment is developed, the prospect of improved staging and new treatments using immunologic conjugates carrying therapeutic agents may become realities. Until such time, prostatic cancer will be staged with other currently available imaging modalities and conventional therapies with their limitations will remain state of the art. 56 references.

  10. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  11. Prostate cancer markers: An update

    PubMed Central

    PENTYALA, SRINIVAS; WHYARD, TERRY; PENTYALA, SAHANA; MULLER, JOHN; PFAIL, JOHN; PARMAR, SUNJIT; HELGUERO, CARLOS G.; KHAN, SARDAR

    2016-01-01

    As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of the most common techniques used to detect prostate cancer are the digital rectal exam, the transrectal ultrasound, and the use of biomarkers. This review presents an update regarding the field of prostate cancer biomarkers and comments on future biomarkers. Although there is not a lack of research in the field of prostate cancer biomarkers, the discovery of a novel biomarker that may have the advantage of being more specific and effective warrants future scientific inquiry. PMID:26998261

  12. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system. PMID:27393141

  13. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate cancer early detection What tests can detect prostate cancer early? The tests discussed below are used to ... also found in the blood. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter ( ...

  14. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Cancer.gov

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  15. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  16. Prostate Cancer MR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J.

    With a total of 192,280 new cases predicted for 2009, prostate cancer (PC) now accounts for 25% of all new male cancers diagnosed in the United States [1]. Furthermore, in their lifetime, one in six men will be clinically diagnosed with having PC, although many more men are found to have histological evidence of PC at autopsy [2,3,4]. Presently, approximately 1 in 10 men will die of PC [5,6]. The ever-aging population and wider spread use of the blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test [7,8], as well as the tendency to apply lower cut-off levels for this test [9], will further increase the diagnosis of this disease [10].

  17. [Screening for prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Koch, Klaus; Büchter, Roland; Lange, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer screening has been a controversial for decades. The recently published findings of large trials have further intensified the debate. The prospect of reducing mortality from prostate cancer is measured against the risk of over-diagnosing the disease. In individual cases, the trade-off between possible benefits and harms is possible to ascertain, so general recommendations in favor of or against PSA tests for individuals cannot be made. The majority of men, however, are not well-informed on the possible advantages and drawbacks of screening. This situation urgently needs to be corrected. The PSA test is promoted to healthy men, who need to be provided with especially detailed information. If not provided with clear and unbiased information on the risks associated with the test (above all over-diagnosis and over-treatment), these men cannot be considered to be fully informed. PMID:23535548

  18. Biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) are currently being assessed for utility in PCa diagnosis. This article aims to provide concise information on the current findings that impact prostate cancer research. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for single biomarkers, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for DNA/RNA markers will be reviewed in addition to high-throughput proteomic profiling of PCa specimens. The advantages/disadvantages of tissue, blood, urine or seminal plasma as sources for potential biomarkers are discussed emphasizing the consequences for PCa diagnosis. In summary, the majority of promising marker candidates available today needs further validation. Some of the identified markers have the potential to yield novel prognostic tools for PCa, provide novel insights into its pathophysiology, and contribute to the establishment of novel treatment strategies. PMID:17690889

  19. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... pork, lamb, and processed meat (such as hot dogs, sausage, and bacon); and low in high-fat ... ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  20. Biochip analysis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Q; Wang, P X; Feng, J Y; Xiao, Y; Huang, C B

    2014-01-01

    Microarray expression analysis was used to forecast the roles of differentially co-expressed genes (DCG) and DCG and links in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between transcriptional factors (TFs) and their targets can be considered a key factor in determining the difference between primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Regulatory impact factors were adopted to calculate the impact of TF. We identified 5 TFs and 29 target genes important in the transition between normal prostate and primary prostate cancer and 2 TFs and 7 target genes important in the transition between primary and metastatic prostate cancer. These results suggest that it may be possible to predict the clinical behavior of prostate cancer based on gene expression analysis. PMID:24446298

  1. Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method. PMID:23596596

  2. Cabazitaxel Plus Prednisone With Octreotide For Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Previously Treated With Docetaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-21

    Diarrhea; Hormone-resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  3. Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wibmer, Andreas G; Burger, Irene A; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig; Weber, Wolfgang A; Vargas, Hebert Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among men in the Western world. The natural history and clinical course of prostate cancer are markedly diverse, ranging from small indolent intraprostatic lesions to highly aggressive disseminated disease. An understanding of this biologic heterogeneity is considered a necessary requisite in the quest for the adoption of precise and personalized management strategies. Molecular imaging offers the potential for noninvasive assessment of the biologic interactions underpinning prostate carcinogenesis. Currently, numerous molecular imaging probes are in clinical use or undergoing preclinical or clinical evaluation. These probes can be divided into those that image increased cell metabolism, those that target prostate cancer-specific membrane proteins and receptor molecules, and those that bind to the bone matrix adjacent to metastases to bone. The increased metabolism and vascular changes in prostate cancer cells can be evaluated with radiolabeled analogs of choline, acetate, glucose, amino acids, and nucleotides. The androgen receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (ie, bombesin) are overexpressed in prostate cancer and can be targeted by specific radiolabeled imaging probes. Because metastatic prostate cancer cells induce osteoblastic signaling pathways of adjacent bone tissue, bone-seeking radiotracers are sensitive tools for the detection of metastases to bone. Knowledge about the underlying biologic processes responsible for the phenotypes associated with the different stages of prostate cancer allows an appropriate choice of methods and helps avoid pitfalls. PMID:26587888

  4. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  5. Androgen Control in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelekanou, Vasiliki; Castanas, Elias

    2016-10-01

    Research on prostate cancer has extensively advanced in the past decade, through an improved understanding for its genetic basis and risk-stratification. Molecular classification of prostate cancer into distinct subtypes and the recognition of new histologic entities promise the development of tailored-made management strategies of patients. Nowadays, various alternatives are available for clinical management of localized disease ranging from observation alone through radical prostatectomy. In patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, the approval of new drugs for the management of metastatic disease has offered promising results improving the survival of these patients. In this context, androgen receptors (AR) remain at the epicenter of prostate cancer research holding a prominent role in the biology and therapeutic regimens of prostate cancer. As many of castration-resistant tumors retain hormone-responsiveness, AR is a clinical relevant, druggable target. However, AR paradoxically remains neglected as a prostate cancer biomarker. The great advancements in prostate cancer preclinical and clinical research, imply further improvement in clinical and translational data, for patient selection and treatment optimization. For a precision medicine-guided clinical management of prostate cancer, AR evaluation has to be implemented in companion and complementary diagnostics, as discussed here. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2224-2234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27104784

  6. New drugs in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sangjun; Choi, Se Young; You, Dalsan; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2016-06-01

    The standard primary treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy since the 1940s. However, prostate cancer inevitably progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after a median duration of 18 months of androgen deprivation therapy. In patients with CRPC, docetaxel has been regarded as the standard treatment. However, survival advantages of docetaxel over other treatments are slim, and the need for new agents persists. In recent years, novel agents, including abiraterone, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel, radium-223, and sipuleucel-T, have been approved for the treatment of CRPC, and more such agents based on diverse mechanisms are under investigation or evaluation. In this article, the authors reviewed the current literature on recent advances in medical treatment of prostate cancer, especially CRPC. In addition, the authors elaborated on novel drugs for prostate cancer currently undergoing investigation and their mechanisms. PMID:27358841

  7. Cancer of the prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Dearnaley, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    Prostate cancer presents a growing health problem in Western societies as longevity increases. It is characteristically a disease of elderly men associated with the development of osteoblastic bone metastases and initial hormone responsiveness to androgen deprivation. Previously regarded as a Cinderella of cancers, there is currently more controversy concerning the detection and management of both localised and metastatic disease than for any other common malignancy. A balance needs to be drawn between the potential gains of more aggressive management and the disadvantages in terms of increased treatment side effects and cost, taking into account both the natural course of the disease and the life expectancy of patients. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:8142838

  8. Prostate Cancer for the Internist

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Shikha; Sarmad, Rehan; Arora, Sumant; Dasaraju, Radhikha; Sarmad, Komal

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 240,000 men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer. Although effective treatment options are available for clinically localized cancer, the potential burdensome co-morbidities and attendant healthcare costs from over diagnosis and over treatment have escalated the discussion and controversy regarding appropriate screening, diagnosis, and optimal management of prostate cancer. Although the lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer is approximately 1 in 6 (~16%), the risk of dying from the disease is only ~2%. The discrepancy between the cancer incidence and lethality has led to widespread scrutiny of prostate cancer patient management, particularly for low-grade, low-stage (indolent) disease. The vast majority of men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer are treated with interventional therapies despite studies demonstrating that even without treatment, prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. A MedLine/PubMed search was performed using PICO format (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) identifying all relevant articles. No restrictions were used for publication dates. The terms “Prostate Cancer”, “Screening”, “Mortality”, “Morbidity” yielded 307 results. “Diagnosis”, “Prognosis” and “Survival” yielded 1504 results. Further filters were applied to narrow down the results using keywords “Prostate cancer screening guidelines 2014”, “Beyond PSA”, “NCCN Guidelines prostate”, “MRI guided Prostate biopsy” yielding 72, 274, 54 and 568 results respectively. Of these, approximately 137 articles were found relevant and were reviewed. References from the reviewed articles were included in the final article. PMID:26713287

  9. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  10. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  11. Lycopene: redress for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-03-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals. PMID:24826034

  12. Lycopene: Redress for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals. PMID:24826034

  13. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  14. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  15. Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Josef J.; Schöder, Heiko; Larson, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a complex and biologically heterogeneous disease that is not adequately assessed with conventional imaging alone. Molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is poised to fill this unmet need through noninvasive probing of the multiple molecular and cellular processes that are active in prostate cancer patients. Recent findings Several PET tracers are active in early and late stage prostate cancer in humans. F18-FDG, C11/F18-choline and F18-sodium fluoride (NaF) have been studied most extensively. There is a growing body of literature supporting to the utility of choline in early stage prostate cancer. FDG and NaF are more valuable in advanced disease, especially for assessing bone metastases, the prevalent form of metastases in this patient population. F18-Fluoro-dihydrotestosterone is active in castrate disease and is emerging as a valuable pharmacodynamic marker in the development of novel AR-targeted therapies. Anti-PSMA PET tracers are in the early stages of clinical development. Summary Multiple PET tracers are currently available to aid in the detection and management of prostate cancer across the clinical spectrum of the disease. Prospective, rigorously controlled, clinical imaging trials are needed to establish the optimal role of PET in prostate cancer. PMID:22617062

  16. Hepcidin regulation in prostate and its disruption in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Lia; Clausen, Kathryn A.; Kim, Jin W.; Hegde, Poornima; Wang, Xiaohong; Miller, Lance D.; Deng, Zhiyong; Blanchette, Nicole; Arvedson, Tara; Miranti, Cindy K.; Babitt, Jodie L.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Peehl, Donna M.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a circulating peptide hormone made by the liver that is a central regulator of systemic iron uptake and recycling. Here we report that prostate epithelial cells also synthesize hepcidin, and that synthesis and secretion of hepcidin are markedly increased in prostate cancer cells and tissue. Prostatic hepcidin functions as an autocrine hormone, decreasing cell surface ferroportin, an iron exporter, increasing intracellular iron retention, and promoting prostate cancer cell survival. Synthesis of hepcidin in prostate cancer is controlled by a unique intersection of pathways that involves BMP4/7, IL6, Wnt, and the dual BMP and Wnt antagonist, SOSTDC1. Epigenetic silencing of SOSTDC1 through methylation is increased in prostate cancer, and is associated with accelerated disease progression in prostate cancer patients. These results establish a new connection between iron metabolism and prostate cancer, and suggest that prostatic dysregulation of hepcidin contributes to prostate cancer growth and progression. PMID:25858146

  17. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W; Brown, Powel H; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ford, Leslie G; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L; Minasian, Lori M; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J; Schröder, Fritz H; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  18. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  20. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood in the urine There are reports of secondary cancers arising from the radiation as well. Proton therapy ... Chemotherapy and immunotherapy (medicine that helps the body's immune system fight the cancer) may be used to ...

  1. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  2. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  3. Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jungmi; Park, Sulgi; Zuniga, Baltazar; Bera, Alakesh; Song, Chung Seog; Chatterjee, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26827958

  4. Height and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Harris, Ross; Gunnell, David; Oliver, Steven; Lane, Jane Athene; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David; Hamdy, Freddie; Beynon, Rebecca; Savovic, Jelena; Martin, Richard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Height, a marker of childhood environmental exposures, is positively associated with prostate cancer risk, perhaps through the insulin-like growth factor system. We investigated the relationship of prostate cancer with height and its components (leg and trunk length) in a nested case-control study and with height in a dose-response meta-analysis. Methods We nested a case-control study within a population-based randomized controlled trial evaluating treatments for localized prostate cancer in British men ages 50 to 69 years, including 1,357 cases detected through prostate-specific antigen testing and 7,990 controls (matched on age, general practice, assessment date). Nine bibliographic databases were searched systematically for studies on the height-prostate cancer association that were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results Based on the nested case-control, the odds ratio (OR) of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer per 10 cm increase in height was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.97-1.16; ptrend = 0.2]. There was stronger evidence of an association of height with high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), mainly due to the leg component, but not with low-grade disease (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.10). In general, associations with leg or trunk length were similar. A meta-analysis of 58 studies found evidence that height is positively associated with prostate cancer (random-effects OR per 10 cm: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09), with a stronger effect for prospective studies of more advanced/aggressive cancers (random-effects OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05-1.19). Conclusion These data indicate a limited role for childhood environmental exposures—as indexed by adult height—on prostate cancer incidence, while suggesting a greater role for progression, through mechanisms requiring further investigation. PMID:18768501

  5. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  6. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tangney, Mark; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Collins, Sara A; O'Sullivan, Gerald C

    2010-05-01

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor's vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  7. [Prostate cancer and chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gravis, Gwenaelle; Salem, Naji; Bladou, Franck; Viens, Patrice

    2007-07-01

    Androgen deprivation in patients with metastatic prostate cancer produces palliation of symptoms, PSA decrease and tumoral regression in most patients. After a brief period of disease regression lasting 18 to 24 months nearly all pts will progress to androgen independence disease (HRPC) with progressive clinical deterioration and ultimately death. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone has been shown to palliate symptoms but did not extend survival. Two large randomized trials showed a survival benefit for pts with HRPC treated with docetaxel with a reduction risk of death by 21-24%, and significant improvement in palliation of symptoms and quality of life. New agents targeting angiogenesis, apoptosis, signal transduction pathway, used alone or in combination with docetaxel currently are under trial in an attempt to provide much needed improvements in outcome. Questions remains in suspend when and who need to be treated, earlier, in high risk as in adjuvant setting? Current data have demonstrated that neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy is relatively safe and feasible. Further investigation through prospective randomize trials is critical to define the precise role of this modality in high risk populations. PMID:17845990

  8. Prostate cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Konstantinos, Hatzimouratidis

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men. Despite earlier diagnosis due to prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening, it is still a disease of the elderly. Diagnosis is based on digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA assessment. Refinements in PSA testing (age-specific reference ranges, free PSA, PSA density and velocity) increased specificity and limited unnecessary prostate biopsies. Diagnosis in earlier stages (T1 and T2) commonly leads to cure with current treatment modalities. These include radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Other treatment options under development include cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Metastatic prostate cancer is incurable and treatment is based on hormonal therapy. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has only limited role in hormone-independent prostate cancer. Radioisotopes and biphosphonates may alleviate bone pain and prevent osteoporosis and pathological fractures. Follow-up is based on PSA. Prognostic factors for recurrence include stage, Gleason score, pre- and posttreatment PSA. Quality of life issues play an important role in selecting treatment, especially in the elderly due to comorbidities that may negatively affect the overall quality of life. A holistic approach is recommended addressing all quality of life issues without focus only in cancer control. PMID:16362603

  9. Counseling the Client with Prostate Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell C.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is prevalent in the United States and has a far-reaching effect on men and their relationships. Being diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer often causes men to experience side effects that induce physical, emotional, and social change. Counselors need to be aware of prostate cancer's impact on men and their families.…

  10. Lipid metabolism in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyu; Daniels, Garrett; Lee, Peng; Monaco, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of cells requires adaptations across multiple metabolic processes to satisfy the energy required for their increased rate of proliferation. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been a hallmark of the malignant phenotype; increased lipid accumulation secondary to changes in the levels of a variety of lipid metabolic enzymes has been documented in a variety of tumors, including prostate. Alterations in prostate lipid metabolism include upregulation of several lipogenic enzymes as well as of enzymes that function to oxidize fatty acids as an energy source. Cholesterol metabolism and phospholipid metabolism are also affected. With respect to lipogenesis, most studies have concentrated on increased expression and activity ofthe de novo fatty acid synthesis enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FASN), with suggestions that FASN might function as an oncogene. A central role for fatty acid oxidation in supplying energy to the prostate cancer cell is supported by the observation that the peroxisomal enzyme, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), which facilitates the transformation of branched chain fatty acids to a form suitable for β-oxidation, is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate. Exploitation of the alterations in lipid metabolic pathways in prostate cancer could result in the development of new therapeutic modalities as well as provide candidates for new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AMACR has already proven to be a valuable biomarker in distinguishing normal from malignant prostate tissue, and is used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:25374912

  11. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  12. Signaling lansdscape of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Aslam, A; Attar, R; Yaylim, I; Qureshi, M Z; Hasnain, S; Qadir, M I; Farooqi, A A

    2016-01-01

    Research over the decades has gradually and sequentially shown that both intratumor heterogeneity and multifocality make prostate cancer difficult to target. Different challenges associated with generation of risk-stratification tools that correlate genomic landscape with clinical outcomes severely influence clinical efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Androgen receptor mediated signaling has gained great appreciation and rewiring of AR induced signaling cascade in absence of androgen, structural variants of AR have provided near complete resolution of genomic landscape and underlying mechanisms of prostate cancer. In this review we have attempted to provide an overview of most recent advancements in our knowledge related to different signaling cascades including TGF, SHH, Notch, JAK-STAT in prostate cancer progression and development. PMID:26828986

  13. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider. This review provides a comparative update on the reduce and pcpt trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds—including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice—are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered. The future of pca prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  14. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N; Fleshner, N E

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider.This review provides a comparative update on the REDUCE and PCPT trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds-including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice-are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered.The future of PCa prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  15. DNA microarrays in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lau, Kin-Mang

    2002-02-01

    DNA microarray technology provides a means to examine large numbers of molecular changes related to a biological process in a high throughput manner. This review discusses plausible utilities of this technology in prostate cancer research, including definition of prostate cancer predisposition, global profiling of gene expression patterns associated with cancer initiation and progression, identification of new diagnostic and prognostic markers, and discovery of novel patient classification schemes. The technology, at present, has only been explored in a limited fashion in prostate cancer research. Some hurdles to be overcome are the high cost of the technology, insufficient sample size and repeated experiments, and the inadequate use of bioinformatics. With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advance of several highly complementary technologies, such as laser capture microdissection, unbiased RNA amplification, customized functional arrays (eg, single-nucleotide polymorphism chips), and amenable bioinformatics software, this technology will become widely used by investigators in the field. The large amount of novel, unbiased hypotheses and insights generated by this technology is expected to have a significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of prostate cancer. Finally, this review emphasizes existing, but currently underutilized, data-mining tools, such as multivariate statistical analyses, neural networking, and machine learning techniques, to stimulate wider usage. PMID:12084220

  16. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  17. Prostate cancer immunotherapy: beyond immunity to curability.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jonathan W

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. It is the first prevalent cancer in which overall survival in advanced disease is modestly, but objectively, improved with outpatient delivered dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. More prostate cancer patients have enrolled through Facebook and trusted-site Internet searches in clinical trials for prostate cancer vaccine-based immunotherapy than in immunotherapy trials for lung, breast, colon, pancreas, ovarian, and bladder cancer combined in the past 7 years. Exceptional responses to anti-CTLA-4 treatment have been documented in clinics, and prostate cancer neoantigen characterization and T-cell clonotyping are in their research ascendancy. The prostate is an accessory organ; it is not required for fertility, erectile function, or urinary continence. The true evolutionary advantage of having a prostate for male mammalian physiology is a topic of speculation in seminar rooms and on bar stools, but it remains unknown. Hundreds of prostate lineage-unique proteins (PLUP) exist among the >37,000 normal human prostate lineage-unique open reading frames that can be targeted for immunologic ablation of PLUP(+) prostate cancer cells by prostate-specific autoimmunity. This bioengineered graft-versus-prostate disease is a powerful strategy that can eliminate deaths from prostate cancer. Immunologic tolerance to prostate cancer can be overcome at every clinical stage of presentation. This Cancer Immunology at the Crossroads article aims to present advances in the past two decades of basic, translational, and clinical research in prostate cancer, including bioengineering B-cell and T-cell responses, and ongoing prostate cancer immunotherapy trials. PMID:25367978

  18. Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy with docetaxel is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer, and results in statistically significant improvements in survival, as well as in quality of life. However, the response rate to single-agent docetaxel is approximately 40% to 45%, emphasizing a need for alternative approaches. More significantly, with the onset of early, PSA-based detection of prostate cancer and closer follow-up, many men present with metastatic disease that remains asymptomatic. For such patients, the side effects of chemotherapy would compromise their current performance status and, thus, a nontoxic, early treatment option that could improve overall survival would be highly desirable. Immunotherapy represents one such approach; a number of clinical trials have suggested a survival benefit for immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer and confirmed that these agents are generally well-tolerated. As is the case for chemotherapy, it is doubtful that maximal survival benefit will be achieved with single-agent immunotherapy; experimental treatments in which mechanistically distinct immunotherapy approaches are combined, as well as approaches in which immunotherapy is combined with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy are currently under investigation. This review will discuss the mechanisms of action of several immunotherapy approaches for metastatic prostate cancer, focusing on active immunotherapy as opposed to administration of anti-tumor antibodies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of current approaches will be noted, and ongoing clinical trials will be highlighted. PMID:18593624

  19. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  20. Common Gene Rearrangements in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Mark A.; Maher, Christopher A.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common heterogeneous disease, and most patients diagnosed in the post prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era present with clinically localized disease, the majority of which do well regardless of treatment regimen undertaken. Overall, those with advanced prostate cancer at time of diagnosis do poorly after androgen withdrawal therapy. Understanding the biologic underpinning of prostate cancer is necessary to best determine the risk of disease progression and would be advantageous for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to impede or prevent disease. This review focuses on the recently identified common ETS and non-ETS gene rearrangements in prostate cancer. Although multiple molecular alterations have been detected in prostate cancer, a detailed understanding of gene fusion prostate cancer should help explain the clinical and biologic diversity, providing a rationale for a molecular subclassification of the disease. PMID:21859993

  1. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  2. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles to the prostate gland. Then, very cold gas passes through the needles, creating ice balls that destroy the prostate gland. Warm salt water will flow through the catheter to keep your urethra (the tube from the bladder to ...

  3. Antisense approaches in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kim N; Gleave, Martin E

    2004-06-01

    Patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer have limited treatment options and new therapies are urgently needed. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms implicated in prostate cancer progression have identified many potential therapeutic gene targets that are involved in apoptosis, growth factors, cell signalling and the androgen receptor (AR). Antisense oligonucleotides are short sequences of synthetic modified DNA that are designed to be complimentary to a selected gene's mRNA and thereby specifically inhibit expression of that gene. The antisense approach continues to hold promise as a therapeutic modality to target genes involved in cancer progression, especially those in which the gene products are not amenable to small molecule inhibition or antibodies. The current status and future direction of a number of antisense oligonucleotides targeting several genes, including BCL-2, BCL-XL, clusterin, the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family, MDM2, protein kinase C-alpha, c-raf, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and the AR, that have potential clinical use in prostate cancer are reviewed. PMID:15174974

  4. Bone imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Zohar A

    2008-08-01

    Bone metastases of solid tumors are common, and about 80% of them occur in patients with breast, lung or prostate cancer. Bone metastases can be suspected clinically and by laboratory tests; however, a final diagnosis relies on radiographic evidence. Bone metastases of prostate cancer usually have osteoblastic characteristics, manifested by pathological bone resorption and formation. Conventional bone scans (e.g. with (99m)Tc-labeled methylene diphosphonate) are preferred to plain-film radiography for surveillance of the entire skeleton. Radiologic diagnosis of bone metastases, particularly in patients with low burden of disease, is difficult because noncancerous bone lesions that mimic cancer are common. Conventional bone scans are limited by their low sensitivity and high false-negative rate (up to 40%) compared with advanced bone-imaging modalities such as PET, PET-CT and MRI, which might assist or replace conventional scanning methods. The correct diagnosis of bone involvement in prostate cancer is crucial to assess the effects of therapy on the primary tumor, the patient's prognosis, and the efficacy of bone-specific treatments that can reduce future bone-associated morbidity. In addition, predictive tools such as nomograms enable the identification of patients at risk of bone involvement during the course of their disease. Such tools may limit treatment costs by avoidance of unnecessary tests and might reduce both short-term and long-term complication rates. PMID:18682719

  5. Androgen receptors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Culig, Z; Klocker, H; Bartsch, G; Hobisch, A

    2002-09-01

    The androgen receptor (AR), a transcription factor that mediates the action of androgens in target tissues, is expressed in nearly all prostate cancers. Carcinoma of the prostate is the most frequently diagnosed neoplasm in men in industrialized countries. Palliative treatment for non-organ-confined prostate cancer aims to down-regulate the concentration of circulating androgen or to block the transcription activation function of the AR. AR function during endocrine therapy was studied in tumor cells LNCaP subjected to long-term steroid depletion; newly generated sublines could be stimulated by lower concentrations of androgen than parental cells and showed up-regulation of AR expression and activity as well as resistance to apoptosis. Androgenic hormones regulate the expression of key cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and 4, and that of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. Inhibition of AR expression could be achieved by potential chemopreventive agents flufenamic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and interleukin-1beta, and by the application of AR antisense oligonucleotides. In the clinical situation, AR gene amplification and point mutations were reported in patients with metastatic disease. These mutations generate receptors which could be activated by other steroid hormones and non-steroidal antiandrogens. In the absence of androgen, the AR could be activated by various growth-promoting (growth factors, epidermal growth factor receptor-related oncogene HER-2/neu) and pleiotropic (protein kinase A activators, interleukin-6) compounds as well as by inducers of differentiation (phenylbutyrate). AR function is modulated by a number of coactivators and corepressors. The three coactivators, TIF-2, SRC-1 and RAC3, are up-regulated in relapsed prostate cancer. New experimental therapies for prostate cancer are aimed to down-regulate AR expression and to overcome difficulties which occur because of the acquisition of agonistic properties

  6. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for prostate cancer What’s new in prostate cancer research? Research into the causes , ... in many medical centers throughout the world. Genetics New research on gene changes linked to prostate cancer ...

  7. Progress Against Prostate Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Click ... This can narrow the urethra, decreasing urine flow. Prostate cancer is made up of cells the body does ...

  8. Toll-Like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Qingyuan; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Dekai

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25101092

  9. Prostate-specific antigen-negative prostate cancer recurrence?

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Wirth, Manfred P

    2013-02-01

    We describe a patient with bone metastases occurring shortly after radical prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer. The medical history and immunohistochemical findings suggested prostate cancer recurrence to the skeleton. Undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels, however, raised doubts about this diagnosis. A whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was obtained and revealed a right-sided breast cancer as the primary site of metastatic spread. PMID:23374851

  10. Decision making and prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sara J

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the challenges that men encounter in making decisions about prostate cancer screening, including complex affective and cognitive factors and controversies in the interpretation of the evidence on prostate cancer screening. Shared decision making involving patient decision aids are discussed as approaches that can be used to improve the quality of prostate cancer screening decisions, including a close alignment between a man's values, goals, and preferences and his choice about screening. PMID:24725488

  11. Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer: PET Radiotracers

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent advances in the fundamental understanding of the complex biology of prostate cancer have provided an increasing number of potential targets for imaging and treatment. The imaging evaluation of prostate cancer needs to be tailored to the various phases of this remarkably heterogeneous disease. CONCLUSION In this article, I review the current state of affairs on a range of PET radiotracers for potential use in the imaging evaluation of men with prostate cancer. PMID:22826388

  12. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While early studies demonstrated a positive association between testosterone and prostate cancer, evidence on the nature of the relationship has evolved with time and newer data. Studies examining links between baseline testosterone levels as well as testosterone therapy and incident prostate cancer, reveal a more complex relationship. Moreover, investigators have reported their initial experiences with supplementing testosterone in men with a history of both treated and untreated prostate cancer. PMID:26770932

  13. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment. PMID:8066398

  14. Oxidative stress in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Kumar, Binod; Koul, Sweaty; Maroni, Paul; Koul, Hari K

    2009-09-18

    As prostate cancer and aberrant changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) become more common with aging, ROS signaling may play an important role in the development and progression of this malignancy. Increased ROS, otherwise known as oxidative stress, is a result of either increased ROS generation or a loss of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Oxidative stress is associated with several pathological conditions including inflammation and infection. ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism and play vital roles in stimulation of signaling pathways in response to changing intra- and extracellular environmental conditions. Chronic increases in ROS over time are known to induce somatic mutations and neoplastic transformation. In this review we summarize the causes for increased ROS generation and its potential role in etiology and progression of prostate cancer. PMID:19185987

  15. Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016.

    PubMed

    Mohler, James L; Armstrong, Andrew J; Bahnson, Robert R; D'Amico, Anthony Victor; Davis, Brian J; Eastham, James A; Enke, Charles A; Farrington, Thomas A; Higano, Celestia S; Horwitz, Eric M; Hurwitz, Michael; Kane, Christopher J; Kawachi, Mark H; Kuettel, Michael; Lee, Richard J; Meeks, Joshua J; Penson, David F; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Pow-Sang, Julio M; Raben, David; Richey, Sylvia; Roach, Mack; Rosenfeld, Stan; Schaeffer, Edward; Skolarus, Ted A; Small, Eric J; Sonpavde, Guru; Srinivas, Sandy; Strope, Seth A; Tward, Jonathan; Shead, Dorothy A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after an initial diagnosis of prostate cancer and management options for localized, regional, and metastatic disease. Recommendations for disease monitoring, treatment of recurrent disease, and systemic therapy for metastatic castration-recurrent prostate cancer also are included. This article summarizes the NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 update of the guidelines, which include refinement of risk stratification methods and new options for the treatment of men with high-risk and very-high-risk disease and progressive castration-naïve disease. PMID:26733552

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications of advanced disease. ● For men with an aggressive prostate cancer, the best chance for curing it ... body. However, many early-stage cancers are not aggressive, and the five-year survival will be nearly ...

  17. Environmental exposures and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Jeffrey K; Loeb, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Many malignancies have been linked to specific environmental exposures. Several environmental and occupational factors have been studied for an association to prostate cancer (CaP) risk. These include Agent Orange exposure, farming and pesticides, sunlight/ultraviolet radiation, as well as trace minerals used in tire and battery manufacturing. This manuscript reviews the literature on these environmental exposures and CaP. PMID:22385992

  18. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullane, Stephanie A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Summary Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients. PMID:26909474

  19. Epidemiology of Prostate and Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Filippou, Pauline; Ferguson, James E; Nielsen, Matthew E

    2016-09-01

    Prostate and testicular cancers account for a large percentage of cancer morbidity in men in the United States and worldwide due to high prevalence rates that continue to grow. Patterns of incidence and mortality vary greatly in both cancers among men of different age groups, ethnicities, and geographic locations. This article summarizes the incidence, prognosis, and risk factors of both prostate and testicular cancers, globally and in the United States. PMID:27582605

  20. [Novel treatment for prostate cancer targeting prostaglandins].

    PubMed

    Terada, Naoki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    PGE2 is highly expressed in the prostate, associating with prostate cancer progression. Targeting downstream signaling pathways of PGE2 may represent an attractive new strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. We have established a novel prostate cancer xenograft model, KUCaP-2. The expression of EP4, one of PGE2 receptors, was significantly up-regulated during the development of castration resistance. A specific EP4 antagonist, ONO-AE3-208, decelerated castration-resistant growth of KUCaP-2 tumors in vivo. Moreover, ONO-AE3-208 could in vitro inhibit the cell invasion and in vivo suppress the bone metastasis of prostate cancer cells. These results indicated that EP4 is a novel target for the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. PMID:25518348

  1. Prostate Cancer Prevention: Concepts and Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Zachary; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-04-01

    Prevention is an important treatment strategy for diminishing prostate cancer morbidity and mortality and is applicable to both early- and late-stage disease. There are three basic classifications of cancer prevention: primary (prevention of incident disease), secondary (identification and treatment of preclinical disease), and tertiary (prevention of progression or recurrence). Based on level I evidence, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) should be considered in selected men to prevent incident prostate cancer. Level I evidence also supports the consideration of dutasteride, a 5-ARI, for tertiary prevention in active surveillance and biochemical recurrence patients. Vitamins and supplements, including selenium or vitamin E, have not been proven in clinical trials to prevent prostate cancer and in the case of Vitamin E has been found to increase the risk of incident prostate cancer. Ongoing and future trials may further elucidate the role of diet and immunotherapy for prevention of prostate cancer. PMID:26957512

  2. Review of selenium and prostate cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Pascal, Mouracade; Wu, Xiao-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. Surgery or radiation are sometimes unsatisfactory treatments because of the complications such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Selenium was found to be effective to prevent prostate cancer in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPC), which motivated two other clinical trials: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and a Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. However, these two trials failed to confirm the results of the NPC trial and indicated that the selenium may not be preventive of prostate cancer. In this article we review the three clinical trials and discuss some different points which might be potential factors underlying variation in results obtained. PMID:23725109

  3. [Roles of folate metabolism in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei-vu; Hu, Qing-feng; Xia, Guo-wei

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological surveys show that folic acid can prevent prostate cancer, but fortified folic acid may increase the risk of the malignancy. The physician data queries from the National Cancer Institute of the USA describe folate as protective against prostate cancer, whereas its synthetic analog, folic acid, is considered to increase prostate cancer risk when taken at levels easily achievable by eating fortified food or taking over-the-counter supplements. We review the current literature to examine the effects of folate and folic acid on prostate cancer, help interpret previous epidemiologic data, and provide a clarification regarding the apparently opposing roles of folate for patients with prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted in Medline to identify studies investigating the effect of nutrition and specifically folate and folic acid on prostate carcinogenesis and progression. In addition, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database was analyzed for the trends in serum folate levels before and after mandatory fortification. Folate likely plays a dual role in prostate carcinogenesis. There remains some conflicting epidemiologic evidence regarding folate and prostate cancer risk. However, there is growing experimental evidence that higher circulating folate levels can contribute to prostate cancer progression. Further research is needed to clarify these complex relationships. PMID:26333231

  4. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  5. Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Terrence M.; Su, Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on prostate cancer, with alpha-tocopherol potentially increasing and gamma-tocopherol potentially decreasing risk of the disease. There is no strong evidence for a beneficial effect of selenium, vitamin C, or beta-carotene, while lycopene appears to be negatively associated with risk of the disease. The effect of dietary antioxidants on prostate cancer remains undefined and inconclusive, with different antioxidants affecting prostate cancer risk differentially. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between antioxidants and prostate cancer risk and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23909722

  6. Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects. PMID:22840598

  7. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  8. Approach to Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brandon; Gershman, Boris; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Sweeney, Christopher J; Vapiwala, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Oligometastatic prostate cancer has increasingly been recognized as a unique clinical state with therapeutic implications. It has been proposed that patients with oligometastases may have a more indolent course and that outcome may be further improved with metastasis-directed local ablative therapy. In addition, there are differing schools of thoughts regarding whether oligometastases represent isolated lesions-where targeted therapy may render a patient disease free-or whether they coexist with micrometastases, where targeted therapy in addition to systemic therapy is required for maximal clinical impact. As such, the approach to the patient with oligometastatic prostate cancer requires multidisciplinary consideration, with surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy potentially of benefit either singularly or in combination. Indeed, mounting evidence suggests durable disease-free intervals and, in some cases, possibly cure, may be achieved with such a multimodal strategy. However, selecting patients that may benefit most from treatment of oligometastases is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, with the advent of new, highly sensitive imaging technologies, the spectrum based on CT of the abdomen and pelvis and technetium bone scan of localized to oligometastatic to widespread disease has become increasingly blurred. As such, new MRI- and PET-based modalities require validation. As some clinical guidelines advise against routine prostate-specific antigen screening, the possibility of more men presenting with locally advanced or de novo oligometastatic prostate cancer exists; thus, knowing how best to treat these patients may become more relevant at a population level. Ultimately, the arrival of prospective clinical data and better understanding of biology will hopefully further inform how best to treat men with this disease. PMID:27249693

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  10. Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Erika M; Farrell, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated. Prostate cancer survivors should be screened regularly for urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Patients with predominant urge incontinence symptoms, which can occur after surgical and radiation treatments, may benefit from an anticholinergic agent. If there is difficulty with bladder emptying, a trial of an alpha blocker may be considered. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can effectively treat sexual dysfunction following treatment for prostate cancer. Osteoporosis screening should occur before initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy should be monitored for anemia, metabolic syndrome, and vasomotor symptoms. Healthy lifestyle choices should be encouraged, including weight management, regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and smoking cessation. Primary care physicians should be vigilant for psychosocial distress, including depression, among prostate cancer survivors, as well as the potential impact of this distress on patients' family members and partners. PMID:27175954

  11. MedlinePlus: Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) - PDF Specifics Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) (American Society of Clinical Oncology) Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test (National ...

  12. A history of prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The increased incidence of prostate cancer has led to remarkable changes in diagnosis and treatment over the past century. What were the first ways in which prostate cancer was treated, and how did these evolve into the variety of therapeutic strategies from which patients have to choose today? PMID:12044015

  13. AB012. Brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the security and effect of brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods Forty five patients with Tl–T2 prostate cancer were treated with real-time transperineal ultrasound-guide 125I seeds prostate implantation. Results The median operation time was 90 min, the median number of I seeds used was 56. The follow up time was 12–48 months, the cases of PSA <1 µg/L were 29, PSA 1–2 µg/L were 11 and PSA ≥2 µg/L were 5. Conclusions Brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer is safe and effective.

  14. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and chemoprevention

  15. Bone-targeting agents in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzman, Daniel L.; Boikos, Sosipatros A.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases are present in the vast majority of men with advanced prostate cancer, representing the main cause for morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or metastatic disease is managed initially with androgen deprivation but the majority of the patients eventually will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer, with patients developing bone metastases in most of the cases. Survival and growth of the metastatic prostate cancer cells is dependent on a complex microenvironment (onco-niche) that includes the osteoblasts, the osteoclasts, the endothelium, and the stroma. This review summarizes agents that target the pathways involved in this complex interaction between prostate cancer and bone micro-environment and aim to transform lethal metastatic prostate cancer into a chronic disease. PMID:24398856

  16. Metabolomic Imaging for Human Prostate Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Lee; Jordan, Kate W.; Ratai, Eva M.; Sheng, Jinhua; Adkins, Christen B.; DeFeo, Elita M; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Ying, Leslie; McDougal, W. Scott; Cheng, Leo L.

    2010-01-01

    As current radiological approaches cannot accurately localize prostate cancer in vivo, biopsies are conducted at random within prostates for at-risk patients, leading to high false-negative rates. Metabolomic imaging can map cancer-specific biomolecular profile values onto anatomical structures to direct biopsy. In this preliminary study, we evaluated five prostatectomy-removed whole prostates from biopsy-proven cancer patients on a 7 Tesla human, whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Localized, multi-cross-sectional, multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectra were used to construct a malignancy index based on prostate cancer metabolomic profiles obtained from previous, intact tissue analyses by a 14 Tesla spectrometer. This calculated Malignancy Index shows linear correlation with lesion size (p<0.013) and demonstrates a 93–97% overall accuracy for detecting the presence of prostate cancer lesions. PMID:20371475

  17. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication. PMID:26527873

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; Oei, Tamara N; McDermott, Shaunagh; Cao, Kai; Patel M, Zena; Harisinghani, Mukesh G

    2012-07-01

    In India, prostate cancer has an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100,000 men and is responsible for 9% of cancer-related mortality. It is the only malignancy that is diagnosed with an apparently blind technique, i.e., transrectal sextant biopsy. With increasing numbers of high-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment being installed in India, the radiologist needs to be cognizant about endorectal MRI and multiparametric imaging for prostate cancer. In this review article, we aim to highlight the utility of multiparamteric MRI in prostate cancer. It plays a crucial role, mainly in initial staging, restaging, and post-treatment follow-up. PMID:23599562

  19. Quality of Prostate Cancer Treatment Information on Cancer Center Websites

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Olivia Claire; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Wakefield, Daniel; Fiveash, John; Dobelbower, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer center websites are trusted sources of internet information about treatment options for prostate cancer. The quality of information on these websites is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of information on cancer center websites addressing prostate cancer treatment options, outcomes, and toxicity. Materials and methods We evaluated the websites of all National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers to determine if sufficient information was provided to address eleven decision-specific knowledge questions from the validated Early Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Quality Instrument. We recorded the number of questions addressed, the number of clicks to reach the prostate cancer-specific webpage, evaluation time, and Spanish and mobile accessibility. Correlation between evaluation time and questions addressed were calculated using the Pearson coefficient. Results Sixty-three websites were reviewed. Eighty percent had a prostate cancer-specific webpage reached in a median of three clicks. The average evaluation time was 6.5 minutes. Information was available in Spanish on 24% of sites and 59% were mobile friendly. Websites provided sufficient information to address, on average, 19% of questions. No website addressed all questions. Evaluation time correlated with the number of questions addressed (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.001). Conclusions Cancer center websites provide insufficient information for men with localized prostate cancer due to a lack of information about and direct comparison of specific treatment outcomes and toxicities. Information is also less accessible in Spanish and on mobile devices. These data can be used to improve the quality and accessibility of prostate cancer treatment information on cancer center websites. PMID:27226941

  20. The Japanese guideline for prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Nakayama, Tomio; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, there were 9264 deaths from prostate cancer, accounting for 4.7% of the total number of cancer deaths in Japan. As the population continues to age, interest in prostate cancer screening has increased, and opportunistic screening for prostate cancer has been conducted worldwide. The guideline for prostate cancer screening was developed based on the established method. The efficacies of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screening were formulated. Two methods of prostate cancer screening were evaluated. Based on the analytic framework involving key questions, 1186 articles published from January 1985 to October 2006 were selected using MEDLINE and other methods. After the systematic literature review, 28 articles were identified as providing evidence of mortality reduction from prostate cancer, including 5 observational studies for DRE screening, 1 meta-analysis, 3 randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies for PSA screening. Although several studies showed that PSA screening had a beneficial effect, the results of the selected studies were inconsistent. Overall, the evidence that screening reduced mortality from prostate cancer was insufficient. Furthermore, prostate cancer screening is associated with serious harms, including overdiagnosis, adverse effects of needle biopsy and adverse effects of local prostatectomy. At present, the evidence for the effect of prostate cancer screening is insufficient. Both PSA and DRE were not recommended for population-based screening programs, but they could be conducted as individual-based screening if basic requirements were met. PMID:19346535

  1. The Prostate Health Index Selectively Identifies Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G.; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Bangma, Chris H.; Wei, John T.; Partin, Alan W.; Klee, George G.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.; Catalona, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. Materials and Methods From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. Results The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and “Epstein significant” cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. Conclusions The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. PMID:25463993

  2. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  3. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  4. Opposing roles of folate in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rycyna, Kevin J; Bacich, Dean J; O'Keefe, Denise S

    2013-12-01

    The US diet has been fortified with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects since 1998. The Physician Data Queries from the National Cancer Institute describe folate as protective against prostate cancer, whereas its synthetic analog, folic acid, is considered to increase prostate cancer risk when taken at levels easily achievable by eating fortified food or taking over-the-counter supplements. We review the present literature to examine the effects of folate and folic acid on prostate cancer, help interpret previous epidemiologic data, and provide clarification regarding the apparently opposing roles of folate for patients with prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted in Medline to identify studies investigating the effect of nutrition and specifically folate and folic acid on prostate carcinogenesis and progression. In addition, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database was analyzed for trends in serum folate levels before and after mandatory fortification. Folate likely plays a dual role in prostate carcinogenesis. There remains conflicting epidemiologic evidence regarding folate and prostate cancer risk; however, there is growing experimental evidence that higher circulating folate levels can contribute to prostate cancer progression. Further research is needed to clarify these complex relationships. PMID:23992971

  5. [Prostate cancer and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Hirotaka; Teishima, Jun; Inoue, Shogo; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Matsubara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing in Japan because of westernization of diet and lifestyle. Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated MS to relate with the malignant potential of prostate cancer (PCa) while its relationship to the risk of PCa has been still controversial. Several pathologies involved in MS, such as insulin resistance, abnormality of secreted adipokines, chronic inflammation, alteration of sex hormones, have been reported to affect the progression of PCa. Based on these evidences, clinical studies for PCa patients have been tried for suppressing the progression of PCa through the management of MS. PMID:26793896

  6. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  7. The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a previous meta-analysis reported no association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer risk, a number of studies suggest that MetS may be associated with the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancer. However, these results have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the nature of this association. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and bibliographies of retrieved studies up to January 2013 using the keywords “metabolic syndrome” and “prostate cancer”. We assessed relative risks (RRs) of the prostate cancer, several parameters of prostate cancer aggressiveness and progression associated with MetS using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results The literature search produced 547 hits from which 19 papers were extracted for the meta-analysis. In cancer-free population with and without MetS, the combined adjusted RR (95% CI) of prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality in longitudinal cohort studies is 0.96 (0.85 ~ 1.09) and 1.12 (1.02 ~ 1.23) respectively. In the prostate cancer patients with and without MetS, the combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of high grade Gleason prostate cancer is 1.44 (1.20 ~ 1.72), the OR of advanced prostate cancer is 1.37 (1.12 ~ 1.68) and the OR of biochemical recurrence is 2.06 (1.43 ~ 2.96). Conclusions The overall analyses revealed no association between MetS and prostate cancer risk, although men with MetS appear more likely to have high-grade prostate cancer and more advanced disease, were at greater risk of progression after radical prostatectomy and were more likely to suffer prostate cancer-specific death. Further primary studies with adjustment for appropriate confounders and larger, prospective, multicenter investigations are required. PMID:23406686

  8. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  9. Nanotherapies for treating prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danquah, Michael

    Current prostate cancer treatment remains ineffective primarily due to ineffectual therapeutic strategies and numerous tumor-associated physiological barriers which hinder efficacy of anticancer agents. Therefore, the focus of this study was to investigate a new combination therapy approach for treating prostate cancer and develop polymeric nanocarriers to facilitate anticancer drug and nucleic acid delivery. It was hypothesized that simultaneously targeting androgen-androgen receptor (AR) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) signaling pathways would be effective in treating prostate cancer. The effect of bicalutamide (antiandrogen) and embelin (XIAP inhibitor) on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was first examined. Embelin induced caspase 3 and 9 activation in LNCaP and C4-2 cells by decreasing XIAP expression and was more potent than bicalutamide in killing prostate tumor cells irrespective of their androgen status. Using a combination of MTT assay and isobologram analyses, combination of bicalutamide and embelin was observed to be cell line and schedule dependent. Since bicalutamide and embelin are extremely hydrophobic, polymeric micelles were fabricated using polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-b-PLA) copolymer to improve drug solubility. Micellar formulations were found to result in at least 60-fold increase in the aqueous solubility of bicalutamide and embelin. Tumor growth was also effectively regressed upon treatment with bicalutamide, but the extent of tumor regression was significantly higher when bicalutamide was formulated in micelles. To further improve bicalutamide aqueous solubility, a series of novel biodegradable copolymers for the systematic micellar delivery of bicalutamide was designed and synthesized. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χFH) was used to assess compatibility between bicalutamide and poly (L-lactide) or poly (carbonate-co-lactide) polymer pairs. Polyethylene glycol-b-poly (carbonate

  10. Statin Use in Prostate Cancer: An Update.

    PubMed

    Babcook, Melissa A; Joshi, Aditya; Montellano, Jeniece A; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords "statin and prostate cancer" within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. These human studies consist of meta-analyses of secondary endpoints obtained from randomized, controlled cardiovascular disease clinical trials of statins, patient database, observational studies, and a few, small case-control studies, directly addressing statin use on prostate cancer pathology and recurrence. This review summarizes and discusses the recent clinical literature on statins and prostate cancer with a recommendation to move forward with randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, investigating the use of statins. Additional preclinical testing of statins on prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo models is needed to elucidate pathways and determine its efficacy for prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer, more specifically, the difference in the effectiveness of lipophilic versus hydrophilic statins in prostate cancer. PMID:27441003

  11. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Erdem, Cemile Zuhal; Erdem, Lutfi Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the causes of cancer-related deaths. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue resolution and plays an important role in the management of prostate cancer patients. It is the recommended imaging modality for patients with prostate cancer, and it is clinically indicated for diagnosis, staging, tumor localization, detection of tumor aggressiveness, follow-up, and MRI-guided interventions. Multiparametric MRI includes T1- and high-resolution T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. We evaluated MR images of patients with prostate cancer who underwent multiparametric endorectal MRI on a 3.0-T scanner and presented demonstrative images. PMID:27317204

  13. Prostate cancer progression. Implications of histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This review examines selected areas of contemporary prostate cancer research in terms of the impact of prostatic cellular and histopathological heterogeneity. Prostate tumor progression is accompanied by dysregulation of multiple growth factor networks as well as disruption of normal patterns of cell-cell interactions. Molecular and cytogenetic studies demonstrate that prostate cancer results from the accumulation of several different genetic defects. No single event predominates, but modifications in tumor suppressor genes or functional elimination of the suppressor gene product are more common than activation of known oncogenes. Intratumor heterogeneity is also detectable at the genetic level. This further complicates efforts to correlate modifications at specific loci with progression or outcome. The development of new in vitro and in vivo systems for the study of human prostate cancer should increase our understanding of this complex disease. In each approach, knowledge of the histopathology of the normal and neoplastic prostate is essential. PMID:7977655

  14. Recurrent Gene Fusions in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of recurrent gene fusions in a majority of prostate cancers has important clinical and biological implications in the study of common epithelial tumors. Gene fusion and chromosomal rearrangements were previously thought to be the primary oncogenic mechanism of hematological malignancies and sarcomas. The prostate cancer gene fusions that have been identified thus far are characterized by 5’ genomic regulatory elements, most commonly controlled by androgen, fused to members of the ETS family of transcription factors, leading to the over-expression of oncogenic transcription factors. ETS gene fusions likely define a distinct class of prostate cancer which may have a bearing on diagnosis, prognosis and rational therapeutic targeting. PMID:18563191

  15. Detection of DNA viruses in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smelov, Vitaly; Bzhalava, Davit; Arroyo Mühr, Laila Sara; Eklund, Carina; Komyakov, Boris; Gorelov, Andrey; Dillner, Joakim; Hultin, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    We tested prostatic secretions from men with and without prostate cancer (13 cases and 13 matched controls) or prostatitis (18 cases and 18 matched controls) with metagenomic sequencing. A large number (>200) of viral reads was only detected among four prostate cancer cases (1 patient each positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus and Human Papillomavirus types 89 or 40, respectively). Lower numbers of reads from a large variety of viruses were detected in all patient groups. Our knowledge of the biology of the prostate may be furthered by the fact that DNA viruses are commonly shed from the prostate and can be readily detected by metagenomic sequencing of expressed prostate secretions. PMID:27121729

  16. Statin Use in Prostate Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Babcook, Melissa A.; Joshi, Aditya; Montellano, Jeniece A.; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords “statin and prostate cancer” within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. These human studies consist of meta-analyses of secondary endpoints obtained from randomized, controlled cardiovascular disease clinical trials of statins, patient database, observational studies, and a few, small case–control studies, directly addressing statin use on prostate cancer pathology and recurrence. This review summarizes and discusses the recent clinical literature on statins and prostate cancer with a recommendation to move forward with randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, investigating the use of statins. Additional preclinical testing of statins on prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo models is needed to elucidate pathways and determine its efficacy for prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer, more specifically, the difference in the effectiveness of lipophilic versus hydrophilic statins in prostate cancer. PMID:27441003

  17. Farming, reported pesticide use, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ragin, Camille; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Tadesse, Helina; Daniels, Dennis; Bunker, Clareann H; Jackson, Maria; Ferguson, Trevor S; Patrick, Alan L; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed in American men and is the second leading cancer diagnosed in men worldwide. Although studies have been conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides and/or farming, the results have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association of farming and prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to identify all published case-control studies that evaluated farming as an occupational exposure by questionnaire or interview and prostate cancer. Ten published and two unpublished studies were included in this analysis, yielding 3,978 cases and 7,393 controls. Prostate cancer cases were almost four times more likely to be farmers compared with controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; meta odds ratio [OR], crude = 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-7.48, Q-test p value = .352; two studies); similar results were obtained when non-BPH controls were considered, but with moderate heterogeneity between studies (meta OR crude = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.16-1.64, Q-test p value = .216, I (2) = 31% [95% CI = 0-73]; five studies). Reported pesticide exposure was inversely associated with prostate cancer (meta OR crude = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96, Q-test p value = .331; four studies), whereas no association with exposure to fertilizers was observed. Our findings confirm that farming is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but this increased risk may not be due to exposure to pesticides. PMID:22948300

  18. Update: immunological strategies for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Drake, Charles G; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2010-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in US men. Along with initial therapy using surgery, radiotherapy, or cryotherapy, hormonal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. For men with advanced (metastatic) disease, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and provides a significant survival advantage. This relative paucity of treatment options drives an ongoing quest for additional treatment modalities; among these is immunotherapy. The concept that prostate cancer is a malignancy that can be targeted by the immune system may seem counterintuitive; certainly kidney cancer and melanoma are more traditionally thought of as immune responsive cancers. However, prostate cancer arises in a relatively unique organ and may express a number of proteins (antigens) against which an immune response can be generated. More importantly, several of these agents have now demonstrated a significant survival benefit in randomized controlled clinical trials, and one agent in particular (Sipuleucel-T, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA) could be FDA-approved in 2010. This update summarizes recent clinical developments in the field of prostate cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on dendritic cell vaccines, virus-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and cell-based vaccines. In addition, the notion of agents that target immune checkpoints is introduced. Enthusiasm for prostate cancer immunotherapy is founded upon its potential to mediate targeted, specific, tumor cell destruction without significant systemic toxicity; however, this has yet to be fully realized in the clinical arena. PMID:20425628

  19. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  20. Shorter, Intensive Radiation Works for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A slightly higher dose of radiation therapy for early stage prostate cancer may reduce treatment time without compromising effectiveness, researchers report. The ...

  1. Regular Exercise May Boost Prostate Cancer Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158374.html Regular Exercise May Boost Prostate Cancer Survival Study found that ... HealthDay News) -- Sticking to a moderate or intense exercise regimen may improve a man's odds of surviving ...

  2. Radium-223 for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared radium-223 dichloride plus the best standard of care versus a placebo plus the best standard of care in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  3. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Gail S

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence both from epidemiology studies and animal models that specific endocrine-disrupting compounds may influence the development or progression of prostate cancer. In large part, these effects appear to be linked to interference with estrogen signaling, either through interacting with ERs or by influencing steroid metabolism and altering estrogen levels within the body. In humans, epidemiologic evidence links specific pesticides, PCBs and inorganic arsenic exposures to elevated prostate cancer risk. Studies in animal models also show augmentation of prostate carcinogenesis with several other environmental estrogenic compounds including cadmium, UV filters and BPA. Importantly, there appears to be heightened sensitivity of the prostate to these endocrine disruptors during the critical developmental windows including in utero and neonatal time points as well as during puberty. Thus infants and children may be considered a highly susceptible population for ED exposures and increased risk of prostate cancers with aging. PMID:18524946

  4. Immune Infiltration and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strasner, Amy; Karin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammation influences prostate cancer (PCa) development and that immune cells are among the primary drivers of this effect. This information has launched numerous clinical trials testing immunotherapy drugs in PCa patients. The results of these studies are promising but have yet to generate a complete response. Importantly, the precise immune profile that determines clinical outcome remains unresolved. Individual immune cell types are divided into various functional subsets whose effects on tumor development may differ depending on their particular phenotype and functional status, which is often shaped by the tumor microenvironment. Thus, this review aims to examine the current knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and specific immune cell types in mediating PCa progression to assist in directing and optimizing immunotherapy targets, regimens, and responses and to uncover areas in which further research is needed. Finally, a summary of ongoing immunotherapy clinical trials in PCa is provided. PMID:26217583

  5. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of prostate cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for prostate cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary prostate cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  6. New agents for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Di Lorenzo, G; Sonpavde, G; Bellmunt, J

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic landscape of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been revolutionized by the arrival of multiple novel agents in the past 2 years. Immunotherapy in the form of sipuleucel-T, androgen axis inhibitors, including abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, a chemotherapeutic agent, cabazitaxel, and a radiopharmaceutical, radium-223, have all yielded incremental extensions of survival and have been recently approved. A number of other agents appear promising in early studies, suggesting that the armamentarium against castrate-resistant prostate cancer is likely to continue to expand. Emerging androgen pathway inhibitors include androgen synthesis inhibitors (TAK700), androgen receptor inhibitors (ARN-509, ODM-201), AR DNA binding domain inhibitors (EPI-001), selective AR downregulators or SARDs (AZD-3514), and agents that inhibit both androgen synthesis and receptor binding (TOK-001/galeterone). Promising immunotherapeutic agents include poxvirus vaccines and CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab). Biologic agents targeting the molecular drivers of disease are also being investigated as single agents, including cabozantinib (Met and VEGFR2 inhibitor) and tasquinimod (angiogenesis and immune modulatory agent). Despite the disappointing results seen from studies evaluating docetaxel in combination with other agents, including GVAX, anti-angiogentic agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept, lenalinomide), a SRC kinase inhibitor (dasatinib), endothelin receptor antagonists (atrasentan, zibotentan), and high-dose calcitriol (DN-101), the results from the trial evaluating docetaxel in combination with the clusterin antagonist, custirsen, are eagerly awaited. New therapeutic hurdles consist of discovering new targets, understanding resistance mechanisms, the optimal sequencing and combinations of available agents, as well as biomarkers predictive for benefit. Novel agents targeting bone metastases are being developed following the success of zoledronic acid

  7. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  8. Medical hospitalizations in prostate cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gnanaraj, Jerome; Balakrishnan, Shobana; Umar, Zarish; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Pavlovich, Christian P; Wright, Scott M; Khaliq, Waseem

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to explore the context and reasons for medical hospitalizations among prostate cancer survivors and to study their relationship with obesity and the type of prostate cancer treatment. A retrospective review of medical records was performed at an academic institution for male patients aged 40 years and older who were diagnosed and/or treated for prostate cancer 2 years prior to the study's observation period from January 2008 to December 2010. Unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients' characteristics, admission types, and medical comorbidities by body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer treatment. Mean age for the study population was 76 years (SD = 9.2). Two hundred and forty-five prostate cancer survivors were stratified into two groups: non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). The study population's characteristics analyzed by BMI were similar including Gleason score, presence of metastatic disease and genitourinary-related side effects. Only 13 % of admissions were for complaints related to their genitourinary system. Neither the specific treatment that the patients had received for their prostate cancer, nor obesity was associated with the reasons for their medical admission. Survivorship after having a diagnosis of prostate cancer is often lengthy, and these men are at risk of being hospitalized, as they get older. From this inquiry, it has become clear that neither body mass index nor prior therapy is associated with specific admission characteristics, and only a minority of such admissions was directly related to prostate cancer or the genitourinary tract. PMID:27324503

  9. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  10. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  11. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  12. FDG PET/CT in Peritoneal Metastasis From Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Serkan; Asa, Sertac; Kupik, Osman

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men. The prognosis in prostate cancer is greatly worsened by the presence of metastases, which are most commonly found in bone, lung, liver, and brain. The peritoneum is an extremely uncommon metastatic site for prostate cancer, even in autopsy series. We present a case of FDG PET/CT demonstration of peritoneal metastasis from prostate cancer. PMID:27187732

  13. Molecular pathways and targets in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shtivelman, Emma; Beer, Tomasz M.; Evans, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer co-opts a unique set of cellular pathways in its initiation and progression. The heterogeneity of prostate cancers is evident at earlier stages, and has led to rigorous efforts to stratify the localized prostate cancers, so that progression to advanced stages could be predicted based upon salient features of the early disease. The deregulated androgen receptor signaling is undeniably most important in the progression of the majority of prostate tumors. It is perhaps because of the primacy of the androgen receptor governed transcriptional program in prostate epithelium cells that once this program is corrupted, the consequences of the ensuing changes in activity are pleotropic and could contribute to malignancy in multiple ways. Following localized surgical and radiation therapies, 20-40% of patients will relapse and progress, and will be treated with androgen deprivation therapies. The successful development of the new agents that inhibit androgen signaling has changed the progression free survival in hormone resistant disease, but this has not changed the almost ubiquitous development of truly resistant phenotypes in advanced prostate cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular pathways involved in localized and metastatic prostate cancer, with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the new knowledge. PMID:25277175

  14. Triple orbital metastases from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tun, Kagan; Bulut, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma, when metastatic, typically involves bone and produces both osteoblastic and osteolytic changes. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our department because of unilateral progressive proptosis and visual blurriness for 3 months. The patient had a history of prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosis 5 years ago. We report a case of orbital involvement presented that intraorbital mass (including periocular structures), temporal bone and temporal muscle from prostate cancer. The mass was removed with total excision. Despite the frequency of bone metastasis in prostatic carcinoma, triple orbital metastases are extremely rare. The best of our knowledge, prostate adenocarcinoma and its triple (temporal bone, temporal muscle and intraorbital mass) orbital metastases have not been published previously. Metastatic orbital tumor secondary to prostate cancer should be considered in patients who have varying degrees of eye symptoms. PMID:27591068

  15. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality.

    PubMed

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325648

  16. Molecular aspects of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Connie S.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED), which is not uncommon in prostate cancer, is increases in prostate cancer after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and generally appears in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Neuroendocrine cells, which are found in normal prostate tissue, are a small subset of cells and have unique function in regulating the growth of prostate cells. Prostate cancer with NED includes different types of tumor, including focal NED, pure neuroendocrine tumor or mixed neuroendocrine-adenocarcinoma. Although more and more studies are carried out on NED in prostate cancer, the molecular components that are involved in NED are still poorly elucidated. We review neuroendocrine cells in normal prostate tissue, NED in prostate cancer, terminology of NED and biomarkers used for detecting NED in routine pathological practice. Some recently reported molecular components which drive NED in prostate cancer are listed in the review. PMID:27041934

  17. Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

  18. Role of PARP-1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Dhanraj; Qiu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) moieties on itself and its target proteins. PARP1 activity is frequently deregulated in various cancers and therefore it has emerged as a new drug target for cancer therapy. The role of PARP-1 in DNA repair has been well documented and BRCA mutations are implicated for determining the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Recent studies also point to a role of PARP-1 in transcription regulation which may contribute to oncogenic signaling and cancer progression. Given that efficacy of PARP inhibitors are also seen in patients not harboring BRCA mutations, some other mechanisms might also be involved. In the present review, we highlight the mechanisms by which PARP-1 regulates gene expression in prostate cancer and provide an overview of the ongoing clinical trials using PARP inhibitors in various cancers including prostate cancer. PMID:26069882

  19. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  20. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  1. [Sharing uncertainties of prostate cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Valerio, Massimo; Jichlinski, Patrice; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The decision of whether our patients should undergo prostate cancer screening with the prostate specifc antigen (PSA) test remains daunting. The role of the primary care doctor is to help men decide between a potential decrease in mortality from a slow evolving but sometimes lethal cancer, and the risk of diagnosing and treating cancers that would have otherwise been indolent and asymptomatic. We can structure our discussions with three steps: choice, option, and decision making. A decision aid, such as the one that we have adapted and simplifed from the Collège des médecins du Québec, can help with this complex decision. PMID:26742351

  2. Chemotherapy of prostate cancer: present and future.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald; Lau, Yiu-Keung

    2003-06-01

    The role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer continues to evolve. In men with symptomatic androgen-independent prostate cancer, significant reduction in pain and analgesic requirements are achievable with mitoxantrone and glucocorticoid combinations compared with glucocorticoids alone. However, survival rates are not improved. Taxane-based combinations with estramustine phosphate or other new agents show promise. Prostate-specific antigen response rates with these combinations appear to be 1.5 to 2 times more frequent than with mitoxantrone-based combinations. Randomized trials of taxane versus mitoxantrone-based therapies are underway. New agents and applications of current agents in adjuvant settings should be explored if survival in men with prostate cancer is to be improved. PMID:12756087

  3. Prostate cancer radiation therapy: A physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Dal Pra, Alan; Souhami, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and a major cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Ionizing radiation has played a substantial role in the curative treatment of this disease. The historical evolution of radiotherapy techniques through 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has allowed more accurate and precise treatments toward significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio. The addition of androgen deprivation therapy has significantly improved overall survival becoming the standard therapy for intermediate- and high-risk disease. Many randomized controlled trials have shown improved local control with dose escalation, and hypofractionated RT has been consolidated with proven efficacy and safe clinical results. However, several questions remain open in the radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer patients and hopefully ongoing studies will shed light on these uncertainties. More individualized approaches are essential through better prognostic and novel predictive biomarkers of prostate radiotherapy response. Clinicians should critically interpret the evolving technologies in prostate cancer radiotherapy with important optimism but balancing the costs and the actual magnitude of clinical benefit. This article provides an overview of the basic aspects of radiotherapy treatment in localized prostate cancer from a physician's perspective. PMID:27056435

  4. Extremely Early Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    James, Veronica Jean

    2011-11-17

    This article reports the results of a blinded fiber diffraction study of skin samples taken from TRAMP mice and age-matched controls to determine whether changes noted in fiber diffraction studies of human skin were present in these TRAMP mice studies. These mice are bred to progress to Gleeson Type 3 to Type 5 prostate cancer. Small strips, 1 mm x 5 mm, cut from the mouse skin samples were loaded into cells in the same way as human samples and slightly stretched to remove the crimp. They remained fully hydrated throughout exposure to the synchrotron beam. The added change that was reported for prostate cancer in 2009 was obtained for all TRAMP mice samples, indicating that this change can be read as High Grade Cancer in human diagnostic tests. These changes were evident for all 3 and 7 week old TRAMP mice samples but not for any of the control samples. This indicates that the changes in the fibre diffraction patterns appear much earlier than in any other available prostate cancer diagnostic test, as none of these can verify the presence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mice before 10 weeks of age. The fiber diffraction test is therefore the most accurate and earliest test for high grade prostate cancer.

  5. SPARCL1 suppresses metastasis in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yuzhu; Qiu, Qingchao; Jiang, Ming; Jin, Renjie; Lehmann, Brian D; Strand, Douglas W; Jovanovic, Bojana; DeGraff, David J; Zheng, Yi; Yousif, Dina A; Case, Thomas C; Yi, Jia; Cates, Justin M; Virostko, John; He, Xiusheng; Jin, Xunbo; Hayward, Simon W; Matusik, Robert J; George, Alfred L; Yi, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Metastasis, the main cause of death from cancer, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Experimental design Based on a pattern of reduced expression in human prostate cancer tissues and tumor cell lines, a candidate suppressor gene (SPARCL1) was identified. We used in vitro approaches to determine whether overexpression of SPARCL1 affects cell growth, migration, and invasiveness. We then employed xenograft mouse models to analyze the impact of SPARCL1 on prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis in vivo. Results SPARCL1 expression did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro. By contrast, SPARCL1 did suppress tumor cell migration and invasiveness in vitro and tumor metastatic growth in vivo, conferring improved survival in xenograft mouse models. Conclusions We present the first in vivo data suggesting that SPARCL1 suppresses metastasis of prostate cancer. PMID:23916135

  6. Could Certain Fatty Foods Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Certain Fatty Foods Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer? Study also suggests that cholesterol-lowering ... fatty beef and cheese was linked with more aggressive prostate cancer, the researchers found. A diet high ...

  7. Could Certain Fatty Foods Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Could Certain Fatty Foods Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer? Study also suggests that cholesterol-lowering drugs may ... meats and cheese -- may affect how quickly their prostate cancer progresses, a new study suggests. "We show that ...

  8. Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer May Carry Certain Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157587.html Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer May Carry Certain Risks ... 3, 2016 THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Radiation treatment for prostate cancer may put men at ...

  9. Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer But men should not expect supplements ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prostate cancer may be more aggressive in men who are deficient in vitamin D, ...

  10. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  11. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Bryan D.; Hum, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Sebastian, Aimy; Collette, Nicole M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Christiansen, Blaine A.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings. PMID:26545120

  12. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D.; Mehra, Rohit; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer prevalence increases, challenges remain in the diagnosis of clinically relevant prostate cancer as well as the management of the metastatic and androgen-independent metastatic disease states. PMID:17786228

  13. Measurement of quality of life in men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Jeffrey; Hacker, Eileen Danaher

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men. In light of the excellent survival rates for prostate cancer, quality of life is a primary concern during and following prostate cancer treatment. Quality of life is defined and determined in multiple ways. This article explores quality of life in men with prostate cancer. Quality-of-life dimensions, measurement tools, and implications of quality of life with prostate cancer on clinical practice for oncology nurses will be presented. PMID:18258577

  14. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  15. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  16. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8–10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:20693267

  17. Cytoskeleton targeting value in prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah K; Kamelgarn, Marisa; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a disease that affects hundreds of thousands of men in the United States each year. In the early stages of advanced prostate cancer, the disease can be suppressed by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eventually, however, most patients experience resistance to androgen deprivation, and their treatment transitions to alternative targeting of the androgen axis with abiraterone and enzalutamide, as well as taxane-based chemotherapy. Development of advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of lack of an apoptotic response by the tumor cells to treatment. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to prostate tumor therapeutic resistance and progression to metastasis requires dissection of the signaling mechanisms navigating tumor invasion and metastasis as mediated by cell-matrix interactions engaging components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), to form adhesion complexes. For a tumor call to metastasize from the primary tumor, it requires disruption of cell-cell interactions from the surrounding cells, as well as detachment from the ECM and resistance to anoikis (apoptosis upon cell detachment from ECM). Attachment, movement and invasion of cancer cells are functionally facilitated by the actin cytoskeleton and tubulin as the structural component of microtubules. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has tumor-inhibitory activity in the early stages of tumorigenesis, but it promotes tumor invasive characteristics in metastatic disease. Recent evidence implicates active (dephosphorylated) cofilin, an F-actin severing protein required for cytoskeleton reorganization, as an important contributor to switching TGF-β characteristics from a growth suppressor to a promoter of prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer cells eventually lose the ability to adhere to adjacent neighboring cells as well as ECM proteins, and via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), acquire invasive and metastatic characteristics. Microtubule

  18. Current clinical challenges in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Pal, Sumanta Kumar; Lewis, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Close to $12 billion are spent annually on the treatment of prostate cancer in the US alone. Yet still there remain tremendous controversies and challenges that exist in all facets of the disease. This review and discussion will focus on issues and challenges for clinicians and patients diagnosed with the disease. Appropriate risk stratification for men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer is an appropriate first step for all patients. Once risk-stratified, for those with low-risk of death, it is increasingly recognized that overtreatment creates an unnecessary burden for many patients. This is particularly evident when put in the context of competing comorbidities in an elderly population. For those with advanced or high-risk localized disease, under-treatment remains too common. For those with a high-risk of recurrence or failure following primary treatment, adjuvant or salvage therapies are an option, but how and when to best deploy these treatments are controversial. Recently, tremendous progress has been made for those with advanced disease, in particular those with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Within the last 4 years, five novel FDA approved agents, acting through distinct mechanisms have been FDA approved for mCRPC. With the introduction of these new agents a host of new challenges have arisen. Timing, sequencing and combinations of these novel agents are welcomed challenges when compared with the lack of available therapies just a few years ago. In this summary of current clinical challenges in prostate cancer we review critical recent studies that have created or shifted the current paradigms of treatment for prostate cancer. We will also highlight ongoing issues that continue to challenge our field. PMID:26816735

  19. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2012-07-15

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a "probable human carcinogen." High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 US men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, using updated dietary acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002. From 1986 through 2006, we documented 5025 cases of prostate cancer, and 642 lethal cancers. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide intake from diet and prostate cancer risk overall as well as risk of advanced or lethal cancer. Acrylamide intake ranged from a mean of 10.5 mcg/day in the lowest quintile to 40.1 mcg/day in the highest quintile; coffee and potato products were largest contributors to intake. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of prostate cancer was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.13) for the highest versus lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (p-value for trend = 0.90). Results were similar when restricted to never smokers and to men who had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. There was no significant association for dietary acrylamide and risk of lethal, advanced or high-grade disease, or for different latency periods ranging from 0-4 years to 12-16 years. We found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:21866549

  20. Stroma–epithelium crosstalk in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yi-Nong; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2009-01-01

    The critical role played by stroma–epithelium crosstalk in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer has been increasingly recognized. These interactions are mediated by a variety of paracrine factors secreted by cancer cells and/or stromal cells. In human prostate cancer, reactive stroma is characterized by an increase in myofibroblasts and a corresponding amplification of extracellular matrix production and angiogenesis. Permanent genetic mutations have been reported in stromal cells as well as in tumour cells. Transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor signalling pathways are involved in the process of angiogenesis, whereas hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, epidermal growth factor, CXC12 and Interleukin-6 play active roles in the progression, androgen-independent conversion and distal metastasis of prostate cancer. Some soluble factors have reciprocal interactions with androgens and the androgen receptor (AR), and can even activate AR in the absence of the androgen ligand. In this article, we review the complex interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment, and discuss the potential therapeutic targets in the stromal compartment of prostate cancer. PMID:19098934

  1. Changing trends of prostate cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Y S; Chiang, H S; Lin, C C; Huang, C Y; Huang, K H; Chen, J

    2004-06-01

    Although Asian people have the lowest incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in the world, these rates have risen rapidly in the past two decades in most Asian countries. Prostate cancer has become one of the leading male cancers in some Asian countries. In 2000, the age-adjusted incidence was over 10 per 100000 men in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines and Israel. Although some of the increases may result from enhanced detection, much of the increased incidence may be associated with westernization of the lifestyle, with increasing obesity and increased consumption of fat. The differences in incidences between native Americans and Asian immigrants are getting smaller, reflecting a possible improvement of diagnostic efforts and changes of environmental risk factors in Asian immigrants. Nevertheless, the huge variations in incidences among ethnic groups imply that there are important genetic risk factors. The stage distributions of prostate cancer in Asian populations are still unfavorable compared to those of Western developed countries. However, a trend towards diagnosing cancer with more favorable prognosis is seen in most Asian countries. Both genetic and environmental risk factors responsible for elevated risks in Asian people are being identified, which may help to reduce prostate cancer incidence in a chemopreventive setting. PMID:15672937

  2. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the Risk of Prostate Cancer and Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyu; Fang, Xiangming; Ma, Ying; Xianyu, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been suggested to be a risk factor for certain urologic cancers, but the current evidence is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BPH and urologic cancers. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for potential eligible studies. We included case-control studies or cohort studies, which evaluated the association between BPH and urologic cancers (including prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, or penile cancer). Overall effect estimates were calculated using the DerSimonian–Laird method for a random-effects model. Summary effect-size was calculated as risk ratio (RR), together with the 95% confidence interval (CI). This systematic review included 16 case-control studies and 10 cohort studies evaluating the association of BPH and prostate or bladder cancer; we did not identify any study about other urologic cancers. Meta-analyses demonstrated that BPH was associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (case-control study: RR = 3.93, 95% CI = 2.18–7.08; cohort-study: RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.00–1.99) and bladder cancer (case-control study: RR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.63–3.84; cohort-study: RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.28–1.95). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the association between BPH and prostate cancer was much stronger in Asians (RR = 6.09, 95% CI = 2.96–12.54) than in Caucasians (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.19–2.01). Egger's tests indicated low risk of publication bias (prostate cancer: P = 0.11; bladder cancer: P = 0.95). BPH is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The risk of prostate cancer is particularly high in Asian BPH patients. Given the limitations of included studies, additional prospective studies with strict design are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27149447

  3. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  4. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D R; Tree, A C; van As, N J

    2015-05-01

    The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localised prostate cancer is now supported by a substantial body of non-randomised data, with medium-term outcomes consistent with current standard radiotherapy. The ability to deliver profoundly hypofractionated treatment, combined with the relatively low α/β ratio of prostate cancer, may result in a more favourable therapeutic ratio, presenting an opportunity for isotoxic dose escalation. Furthermore, as treatment can be given in five attendances, SBRT has the potential both to reduce costs and improve patient quality of life. However, in a treatment landscape with many competing options of broadly similar efficacy, randomised trials are essential to define the relative benefits of this approach. SBRT also has an emerging application in oligometastatic prostate cancer, with promising early outcomes for delaying disease progression and deferring the need for androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:25707911

  5. Development of PROSTVAC immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Pal, Sumanta K; Alex, Anitha; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    PROSTVAC immunotherapy is a heterologous prime-boost regimen of two different recombinant pox-virus vectors; vaccinia as the primary immunotherapy, followed by boosters employing fowlpox, to provoke immune responses against prostate-specific antigen. Both vectors contain transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and a triad of T-cell costimulatory molecules (TRICOM). In a placebo-controlled Phase II trial of men with minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, PROSTVAC was well tolerated and associated with a 44% reduction in death. With a novel mechanism of action, and excellent tolerability, PROSTVAC has the potential to dramatically alter the treatment landscape of prostate cancer, not only as a monotherapy, but also in combination with other novel agents, such as immune check point inhibitors and novel androgen receptor blockers. A Phase III trial recently completed accrual. PMID:26235179

  6. Development of PROSTVAC immunotherapy in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parminder; Pal, Sumanta K; Alex, Anitha; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    PROSTVAC immunotherapy is a heterologous prime-boost regimen of two different recombinant pox-virus vectors; vaccinia as the primary immunotherapy, followed by boosters employing fowlpox, to provoke immune responses against prostate-specific antigen. Both vectors contain transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and a triad of T-cell costimulatory molecules (TRICOM). In a placebo-controlled Phase II trial of men with minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, PROSTVAC was well tolerated and associated with a 44% reduction in death. With a novel mechanism of action, and excellent tolerability, PROSTVAC has the potential to dramatically alter the treatment landscape of prostate cancer, not only as a monotherapy, but also in combination with other novel agents, such as immune check point inhibitors and novel androgen receptor blockers. A Phase III trial recently completed accrual. PMID:26235179

  7. [Optimization of prostate biopsy strategy in diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Go

    2016-01-01

    The prostate gland is the sole organ that uses not targeted but systematic biopsy in the pathological diagnosis of prostate cancer due to its anatomical location and lack of adequate imaging modality to depict cancer nodules clearly. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published that the harms of PSA based screening outweigh the benefits, yielding a grade D recommendation against screening. In this current situation, what we need is to optimize a biopsy template that maximizes the detection rate of clinically significant cancer and provides adequate pathological information for a treatment plan while minimizing the detection of indolent cancers and has good cost-effectiveness and safety. In this manuscript, optimal systematic biopsy templates and possible role of MRI-guided biopsy are reviewed. PMID:26793884

  8. Vaccine Therapy and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant, Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-22

    Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  9. 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor use and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Murtola, Teemu J; Karppa, Elina K; Taari, Kimmo; Talala, Kirsi; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-06-15

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) lowers overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk compared to placebo, while the proportion of Gleason 8-10 tumors is elevated. It is unknown whether this affects PCa-specific survival. We studied disease-specific survival by 5-ARI usage in a cohort of 6,537 prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial and linked to the national prescription database for information on medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer-specific deaths. For comparison, survival among alpha-blocker users was also evaluated. During the median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis a total of 2,478 men died; 617 due to prostate cancer and 1,861 due to other causes. The risk of prostate cancer death did not differ between 5-ARI users and nonusers (multivariable adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.24 and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.41 for usage before and after the diagnosis, respectively). Alpha-blocker usage both before and after diagnosis was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54 and HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, respectively). The risk increase vanished in long-term alpha-blocker usage. Use of 5-ARIs does not appear to affect prostate cancer mortality when used in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased risk associated with alpha-blocker usage should prompt further exploration on the prognostic role of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:26804670

  10. CYP17 inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vasaitis, Tadas S; Bruno, Robert D; Njar, Vincent C O

    2011-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is now the second most prevalent cause of death in men in the USA and Europe. At present, the major treatment options include surgical or medical castration. These strategies cause ablation of the production of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and related androgens by the testes. However, because these procedures do not affect adrenal, prostate and other tissues' androgen production, they are often combined with androgen receptor antagonists to block their action. Indeed, recent studies have unequivocally established that in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) many androgen-regulated genes become re-expressed and tissue androgen levels increase despite low serum levels. Clearly, inhibition of the key enzyme which catalyzes the biosynthesis of androgens from pregnane precursors, 17α-hydroxy/17,20-lyase (hereafter referred to as CYP17) could prevent androgen production from all sources. Thus, total ablation of androgen production by potent CYP17 inhibitors may provide effective treatment of prostate cancer patients. This review highlights the role of androgen biosynthesis in the progression of prostate cancer and the impact of CYP17 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, abiraterone acetate, VN/124-1 (TOK-001) and TAK-700 in the clinic and in clinical development. Article from the special issue on Targeted Inhibitors. PMID:21092758

  11. CYP17 inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vasaitis, Tadas S.; Bruno, Robert D.; Njar, Vincent C. O.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is now the second most prevalent cause of death in men in the USA and Europe. At present, the major treatment options include surgical or medical castration. These strategies cause ablation of the production of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and related androgens by the testes. However, because these procedures do not affect adrenal, prostate and other tissues androgen production, they are often combined with androgen receptor antagonists to block their action. Indeed, recent studies have unequivocally established that in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) many androgen-regulated genes become re-expressed and tissue androgen levels increase despite low serum levels. Clearly, inhibition of the key enzyme which catalyzes the biosynthesis of androgens from pregnane precursors, 17α-hydroxy/17,20-lyase (hereafter referred to as CYP17) could prevent androgen production from all sources. Thus, total ablation of androgen production by potent CYP17 inhibitors may provide effective treatment of prostate cancer patients. This review highlights the role of androgen biosynthesis in the progression of prostate cancer and the impact of CYP17 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, abiraterone acetate, VN/124-1 (TOK-001) and TAK-700 in the clinic and in clinical development. PMID:21092758

  12. Translational Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Ana P.; Cho, Steve Y.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and its management is now evolving to become more personalized and to incorporate new targeted therapies. With these new changes comes a demand for molecular imaging techniques that can not only detect disease but also assess biology and treatment response. This review article summarizes current molecular imaging approaches in prostate cancer (e.g. 99mTc bone scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) and highlights emerging clinical and preclinical imaging agents, with an emphasis on mechanism and clinical application. Emerging agents at various stages of clinical translation include radiolabeled analogs of lipid, amino acid, and nucleoside metabolism, as well as agents more specifically targeting prostate cancer biomarkers including androgen receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen and others. We also highlight new techniques and targeted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. For all these imaging techniques, a growing and important unmet need is for well-designed prospective clinical trials to establish clear indications with clinical benefit in prostate cancer. PMID:24159427

  13. [THE EVOLUTION OF MARKERS OF PROSTATE CANCER].

    PubMed

    Peshkov, M N; Generozov, E V; Kostryukova, E S

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of biochemical laboratory tests in oncology practice increased exponentially during last decades and continues to be in progress nowadays. The application of modern molecular genetic technologies permits using diagnostic systems with greater diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The new tests are actively implemented permitting to diagnose physical presence of tumor systemic manifestations of malignant neoplasm (cachexia, pyrexia), paraneoplastic syndromes and also to detect tumor markers. The oncomarker permits to differentiate malignant from benign tumor on the basis of quantitative differences in content of corresponding antigene-tumor marker in blood serum independently of localization of tumor nidus. The prostate cancer is a medical social problem of male population. On initial stages, this disease can take its course asymptomatically or with symptomatic conditioned by such concomitant and more prevalent pathologies as chronic prostatitis and prostate benign hyperplasia. The early diagnostic ofprostate cancer permits implementing timely radical treatment frequently contributing to total recovery of patients. The article presents detailed description of evolutionary conception of markers using in diagnostic, staging and prognostication of course of prostate cancer. The acid phosphatase was applied for the first time in early diagnostic of staging of prostate cancer in 1974. Nowadays, in century of "OMX"-technologies, in common clinical practice detection of RNA in urine of patient is used for staging diagnostic and prognostication of progression of process of tissue neotransformation. PMID:27506103

  14. Applications of transrectal ultrasound in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, C J; Pilcher, J; Richenberg, J; Patel, U; Frauscher, F

    2012-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) was first developed in the 1970s. TRUS-guided biopsy, under local anaesthetic and prophylactic antibiotics, is now the most widely accepted method to diagnose prostate cancer. However, the sensitivity and specificity of greyscale TRUS in the detection of prostate cancer is low. Prostate cancer most commonly appears as a hypoechoic focal lesion in the peripheral zone on TRUS but the appearances are variable with considerable overlap with benign lesions. Because of the low accuracy of greyscale TRUS, TRUS-guided biopsies have become established in the acquisition of systematic biopsies from standard locations. The number of systematic biopsies has increased over the years, with 10–12 cores currently accepted as the minimum standard. This article describes the technique of TRUS and biopsy and its complications. Novel modalities including contrast-enhanced modes and elastography as well as fusion techniques for increasing the sensitivity of TRUS-guided prostate-targeted biopsies are discussed along with their role in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. PMID:22844031

  15. MMP inhibition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lokeshwar, B L

    1999-06-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role during the development and metastasis of prostate cancer (CaP). CaP cells secrete high levels of MMPs and low levels of endogenous MMP inhibitors (TIMPs), thus creating an excess balance of MMPs. Established CaP cell lines that express high levels of MMPs frequently metastasize to the bone and the lungs. Drugs such as Taxol and alendronate that reduce cell motility and calcium metabolism reduce bony metastasis of xenografted CaP tumors. We tested several synthetic, nontoxic inhibitors of MMPs that can be administered orally, including doxycycline (DC) and chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) on CaP cells in vitro and on a rat CaP model in vivo. Among several anti-MMP agents tested, CMT-3 (6-deoxy, 6-demethyl,4-de-dimethylamino tetracycline) showed highest activity against CaP cell invasion and cell proliferation. Micromolar concentration of CMT-3 and DC inhibited both the secretion and activity of MMPs by CaP cells. When tested for in vivo efficacy in the Dunning rat CaP model by daily oral gavage, CMT-3 and DC both reduced the lung metastases (> 50%). CMT-3, but not DC, inhibited tumor incidence (55 +/- 9%) and also reduced the tumor growth rate (27 +/- 9.3%). More significantly, the drugs showed minimum systemic toxicity. Ongoing studies indicate that CMT-3 may inhibit the skeletal metastases of CaP cells and delay the onset of paraplegia due to lumbar metastases. These preclinical studies provide the basis for clinical trials of CMT-3 for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:10415736

  16. The Genomic Landscape of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spans, Lien; Clinckemalie, Liesbeth; Helsen, Christine; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Lerut, Evelyne; Joniau, Steven; Claessens, Frank

    2013-01-01

    By the age of 80, approximately 80% of men will manifest some cancerous cells within their prostate, indicating that prostate cancer constitutes a major health burden. While this disease is clinically insignificant in most men, it can become lethal in others. The most challenging task for clinicians is developing a patient-tailored treatment in the knowledge that this disease is highly heterogeneous and that relatively little adequate prognostic tools are available to distinguish aggressive from indolent disease. Next-generation sequencing allows a description of the cancer at an unprecedented level of detail and at different levels, going from whole genome or exome sequencing to transcriptome analysis and methylation-specific immunoprecipitation, followed by sequencing. Integration of all these data is leading to a better understanding of the initiation, progression and metastatic processes of prostate cancer. Ultimately, these insights will result in a better and more personalized treatment of patients suffering from prostate cancer. The present review summarizes current knowledge on copy number changes, gene fusions, single nucleotide mutations and polymorphisms, methylation, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs obtained from high-throughput studies. PMID:23708091

  17. Olaparib Targets Some Advanced Prostate Cancers.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In the phase II TOPARP-A clinical trial, patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer who were treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib lived nearly three times longer without their cancer worsening if their tumors had mutations in at least one of 12 DNA repair genes. However, physicians say that a larger trial is needed to confirm olaparib's effectiveness against the disease before they start routinely sequencing tumors and prescribing the drug. PMID:26658963

  18. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  19. [Epidemiological situation of prostate cancer in Spain].

    PubMed

    Granado de la Orden, S; Saá Requejo, C; Quintás Viqueira, A

    2006-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the third most frequent neoplasms in Spanish men and the third cause of cancer death. Incidence grows up with the increase of age. 90% of cases are diagnostic in people over 65 years old. Etiology is quite unknown and has been associated with environmental exposure, life style, family sign and genetic factors. In 2002 mortality rate was 21.5/ 100.000 (situated among the lowest in Europe), with more than 5.000 deaths. Trend of mortality has grown up until 1998, from this year it has decreased due to improve on diagnostic and treatment. In order to study prostate cancer incidence we find a difficulty due to shortage of population cancer register. Estimations have found incidence rates of 45.33/100.000 which are among the lowest in Europe. Annual incidence of prostatic cancer has grown up in all Spanish registers, not only improve in register systems explains it, but also the development of diagnosis tests with a higher survival from the beginning of 90s (86% the first year after diagnosis and 65,5% five years after diagnosis), similar to other European countries. Blow up the cancer register system is necessary to know the incidence and prevalence, to assess survival and effectiveness of screening programs and to improve the knowledge of risk factors. PMID:16921834

  20. Tumor microenvironment and metabolism in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Paoli, Paolo; Cirri, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer is no longer viewed mostly as a disease of abnormally proliferating epithelial cells, but rather as a disease affecting the complex interactions between the cells of the prostate epithelial compartment and the surrounding stromal compartment in which they live. Indeed, the microenvironment in which tumor cells evolve towards an aggressive phenotype is highly heterogeneous, as it is composed of different cell populations such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes, either resident or trans-differentiated by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells recruited at the tumor site. Cancer-associated fibroblasts, the most abundant population within this microenvironment, exert a mandatory role in prostate cancer progression as they metabolically sustain cancer cell survival and growth, recruit inflammatory and immune cells, and promote cancer cells stemness and epithelial mesenchymal transition, thereby favoring metastatic dissemination of aggressive cancers. The interruption of this two-compartment crosstalk, together with the idea that stromal cells are mostly vulnerable, being drug-sensitive, could lead to the development of anticancer therapies that target tumor stromal elements. PMID:24787298

  1. State-of-the-art imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marko, Jamie; Gould, C Frank; Bonavia, Grant H; Wolfman, Darcy J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Modern medical imaging is intimately involved in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is primarily used to guide prostate biopsy to establish the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging uses a multiparametric approach, including anatomic and functional imaging sequences. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used for detection and localization of prostate cancer and to evaluate for disease recurrence. Computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging are primarily used to detect regional lymph node spread and distant metastases. Recent advancements in ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic imaging have the potential to change the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. This article addresses the major imaging modalities involved in the evaluation of prostate cancer and updates the reader on the state of the art for each modality. PMID:26087969

  2. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  3. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  4. Shared gene expression alterations in prostate cancer and histologically benign prostate from patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kosari, Farhad; Cheville, John C; Ida, Cristiane M; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Leontovich, Alexey A; Sebo, Thomas J; Erdogan, Sibel; Rodriguez, Erika; Murphy, Stephen J; Vasmatzis, George

    2012-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) field effect alterations provide important clues regarding the initiation of these tumors and suggest targets for prevention or biomarkers for early detection. However, biomarkers of PCa field effects that have passed independent validation are lacking, largely because these alterations are subtle and difficult to distinguish from unrelated small changes in gene expression. We hypothesized that shared expression alterations in PCa and benign prostates containing PCa (BPCs) would have a higher potential for independent validation than alterations identified in BPCs alone. Expression analyses were performed on 37 PCas and 36 unmatched BPCs and were contrasted with 28 benign prostates (BPs) from patients free of PCa. Most of the protein-coding genes and nonexonic RNAs selected according to the hypothesis were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in an independent set of 51 BPCs and BPs. A statistical model based on two markers distinguished BPCs from BPs in the RT-PCR set and in an external microarray (area under the curve = 0.84 and 0.90, respectively). In addition, genes with predominant expression in stroma were identified by expression profiling of pure stroma and epithelial cells. Pathway analysis identified dysregulated platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling in BPC stroma. These results validate our approach for finding PCa field effect alterations and demonstrate a PCa transcriptome fingerprint in nonneoplastic cells in prostates containing cancer. PMID:22640805

  5. Comparison of different prostatic markers in lymph node and distant metastases of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Queisser, Angela; Hagedorn, Susanne A; Braun, Martin; Vogel, Wenzel; Duensing, Stefan; Perner, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is mostly diagnosed at an early stage; however, some tumors are diagnosed in a metastatic stage as cancer of unknown primary origin. In order to allow specific treatment in the case of prostate cancer presenting as cancer of unknown primary origin, it is important to determine the tumor origin. Prostate-specific antigen is used as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer but the expression declines with progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer. Aim of this study was to identify the most informative marker constellation, which is able to detect metastatic prostate cancer at high sensitivity. The widely used prostate cancer markers such as prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostein, and ETS-related gene were investigated for their sensitivity to detect prostatic origin of metastases. Expression of prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostein, and ETS-related gene was determined on archived tissue specimens consisting of benign prostatic tissue (n=9), primary prostate cancer (n=79), lymph node metastases (n=58), and distant metastases (n=39) using immunohistochemistry. The staining intensity was categorized as negative (0), weak (1), moderate (2), and strong (3). All markers except ETS-related gene were able to detect at least 70% of lymph node metastases and distant metastases, with prostate-specific antigen, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific membrane antigen having the highest sensitivity (97%, 91%, and 94%, respectively). A further increase of the sensitivity up to 98% and 100% could be achieved by the combination of prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific membrane antigen, or androgen receptor for lymph node metastases and for distant metastases, respectively. The same sensitivity could be reached by combining prostate-specific membrane antigen and prostein. Our

  6. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate ...

  7. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  8. The Molecular Taxonomy of Primary Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects. PMID:26544944

  9. Metastatic Sites Predict Prostate Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    A new meta-analysis of clinical trial data from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer indicates that overall survival is strongly influenced by where the disease spreads. Men with visceral disease-liver or lung metastases-fare worse than those with bone or lymph node involvement. PMID:27001152

  10. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  11. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  12. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cuttingedge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy. PMID:25421674

  13. Altered Endosome Biogenesis in Prostate Cancer has Biomarker Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian R D; Parkinson-Lawrence, Emma J; Shandala, Tetyana; Weigert, Roberto; Butler, Lisa M; Brooks, Doug A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in males, affecting one in eight men by the time they reach the age of 70. Current diagnostic tests for prostate cancer have significant problems with both false negatives and false positives, necessitating the search for new molecular markers. A recent investigation of endosomal and lysosomal proteins revealed that the critical process of endosomal biogenesis might be altered in prostate cancer. Here, a panel of endosomal markers was evaluated in prostate cancer and non-malignant cells and a significant increase in gene and protein expression was found for early, but not late endosomal proteins. There was also a differential distribution of early endosomes, and altered endosomal traffic and signalling of the transferrin receptors (TFRC and TFR2) in prostate cancer cells. These findings support the concept that endosome biogenesis and function is altered in prostate cancer. Microarray analysis of a clinical cohort confirmed the altered endosomal gene expression observed in cultured prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, in prostate cancer patient tissue specimens, the early endosomal marker and adaptor protein APPL1 showed consistently altered basement membrane histology in the vicinity of tumours and concentrated staining within tumour masses. These novel observations on altered early endosome biogenesis provide a new avenue for prostate cancer biomarker investigation and suggest new methods for the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis of prostate cancer. PMID:25080433

  14. Palliative Radiofrequency Ablation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jindal, Gaurav; Friedman, Marc; Locklin, Julia Wood, Bradford J.

    2006-06-15

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive local therapy for cancer. Its efficacy is now becoming well documented in many different organs, including liver, kidney, and lung. The goal of RFA is typically complete eradication of a tumor in lieu of an invasive surgical procedure. However, RFA can also play an important role in the palliative care of cancer patients. Tumors which are surgically unresectable and incompatible for complete ablation present the opportunity for RFA to be used in a new paradigm. Cancer pain runs the gamut from minor discomfort relieved with mild pain medication to unrelenting suffering for the patient, poorly controlled by conventional means. RFA is a tool which can potentially palliate intractable cancer pain. We present here a case in which RFA provided pain relief in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer with pain uncontrolled by conventional methods.

  15. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A.; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Results Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT

  16. [Recent advances in diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Hara, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Most valuable tool for diagnosis of prostate cancer is PSA. Although PSA is highly specific for organ, it is not so specific for disease. Therefore, about 70% of patients whose PSA value is 4-10 ng/mL are forced to undergo unnecessary prostate biopsy. In order to discriminate the unnecessary biopsies, several markers such as free/total PSA ratio, PSA density, and PSA velocity have been developed. However, none of these markers were widely approved in daily clinical settings. Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is thought to be a useful marker for necessity of repeat biopsy. Functional MR imaging such as dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), diffusion weighted imaging(DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) have been developed. Recently MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy is gathering attention. In terms of pathology, atypical glands but not high grade PIN require repeat biopsy after 3 to 6 months from initial biopsy. PMID:26793874

  17. What's wrong with chemoprevention of prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-12-01

    When prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was introduced, proponents expected it to cut prostate-cancer mortality and did not expect it to unleash an epidemic of unnecessary treatments. Now that evidence of a mortality benefit remains unclear while evidence of overtreatment in undeniable, there is understandable interest in reducing the human costs of the PSA system. Two related drugs, finasteride and dutasteride, both proven to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer and the "risk of diagnosis," are being promoted accordingly. However, if not for the flaws of the PSA system the use of these drugs for purposes of prevention would lose its rationale. Not only are the drugs in this sense dependent on a faulty system, but their own mortality benefits are as speculative as PSA's-in addition to which, they introduce new risks. PMID:22146025

  18. Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rene, Nicholas; Faria, Sergio; Cury, Fabio; David, Marc; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Souhami, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Since the recognition that prostate cancer probably has a low {alpha}/{beta} ratio, hypofractionated radiotherapy has become an attractive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. However, there is little experience with the use of hypofractionation delivering a high biologically equivalent dose. We report our experience with high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy. Material and Methods: A total of 129 patients with favorable risk prostate cancer were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment plans to the dose of 66 Gy in 22 fractions, prescribed at the isocenter. Planning target volume consisted of the prostate plus a uniform 7-mm margin, including the rectal margin. No patient received hormonal therapy. Toxicity was prospectively graded by the Common Toxicity Criteria version3. Biochemical relapse was defined as postradiotherapy nadir prostate-specific antigen + 2 ng/mL. Results: With a median follow-up of 51 months, the 5-year actuarial biochemical control rate is 98%. The only 3 cases with biochemical failure did not have a clinical local relapse. More than 50% of patients did not develop acute toxicity. For late toxicity, the worst crude rate of Grade {>=}2 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity seen at any time during follow-up were 32% and 25%, respectively. There was no Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. At the last follow-up, persistent Grade {>=}2 late GU and GI toxicity were 2% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusions: This hypofractionated regimen provides excellent biochemical control in favorable risk prostate cancer with an acceptable rate of late toxicity. Further studies exploring this hypofractionation regimen are warranted.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Cuong V; Steenbergen, Peter; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Heijmink, Stijn W T J P; Pos, Floris J; Haustermans, Karin; van der Heide, Uulke A

    2016-03-01

    For radiotherapy of prostate cancer, MRI is used increasingly for delineation of the prostate gland. For focal treatment of low-risk prostate cancer or focal dose escalation for intermediate and high-risk cancer, delineation of the tumor is also required. While multi-parametric MRI is well established for detection of tumors and for staging of the disease, delineation of the tumor inside the prostate is not common practice. Guidelines, such as the PI-RADS classification, exist for tumor detection and staging, but no such guidelines are available for tumor delineation. Indeed, interobserver studies show substantial variation in tumor contours. Computer-aided tumor detection and delineation may help improve the robustness of the interpretation of multi-parametric MRI data. Comparing the performance of an earlier developed model for tumor segmentation with expert delineations, we found a significant correlation between tumor probability in a voxel and the number of experts identifying this voxel as tumor. This suggests that the model agrees with 'the wisdom of the crowd', and thus could serve as a reference for individual physicians in their decision making. With multi-parametric MRI it becomes feasible to revisit the GTV-CTV concept in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. While detection of index lesions is quite reliable, contouring variability and the low sensitivity to small lesions suggest that the remainder of the prostate should be treated as CTV. Clinical trials that investigate the options for dose differentiation, for example with dose escalation to the visible tumor or dose reduction to the CTV, are therefore warranted. PMID:26858164

  20. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  1. 4-Kallikrein Test and Kallikrein Markers in Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michelle L; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-02-01

    A preponderance of clinical evidence supports a significant public health benefit for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening and early detection of prostate cancer in appropriately counseled and selected men. Population-based screening with PSA decreases prostate cancer mortality; however, because of relatively poor specificity, PSA-based screening may also increase the detection of clinically insignificant cancers that would otherwise never require treatment. Use of newer biomarkers that increase the specificity for prostate cancer detection may aid in risk stratification and the appropriate identification of men for prostate biopsy. The authors review the 4-kallikrein panel and 4K probability score. PMID:26614027

  2. Challenges in Clinical Prostate Cancer: Role of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kelloff, Gary J.; Choyke, Peter; Coffey, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This article reviews a recent 2-day workshop on prostate cancer and imaging technology that was conducted by the Cancer Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute. The workshop dealt with research trends and avenues for improving imaging and applications across the clinical spectrum of the disease. Conclusion After a summary of prostate cancer incidence and mortality, four main clinical challenges in prostate cancer treatment and management—diagnostic accuracy; risk stratification, initial staging, active surveillance, and focal therapy; prostate-specific antigen relapse after radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy; and assessing response to therapy in advanced disease—were discussed by the 55-member panel. The overarching issue in prostate cancer is distinguishing lethal from nonlethal disease. New technologies and fresh uses for established procedures make imaging effective in both assessing and treating prostate cancer. PMID:19457806

  3. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  4. Defining Young in the Context of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Anthony; Hyde, Melissa K.; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Gardiner, Robert A.; Sandoe, David; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The experience of prostate cancer is for most men a major life stress with the psychological burden of this disease falling more heavily on those who are younger. Despite this, being young as it applies to prostate cancer is not yet clearly defined with varied chronological approaches applied. However, men’s responses to health crises are closely bound to life course and masculinities from which social roles emerge. This paper applied qualitative methodology (structured focus groups and semistructured interviews with expert informants) using interpretative phenomenological analysis to define what it means to be young and have prostate cancer. Structured focus groups were held with 26 consumer advisors (men diagnosed with prostate cancer who provide support to other men with prostate cancer or raise community awareness) and health professionals. As well, 15 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and in their 40s, 50s, or 60s participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants discussed the attributes that describe a young man with prostate cancer and the experience of being young and diagnosed with prostate cancer. Chronological definitions of a young man were absent or inconsistent. Masculine constructions of what it means to be a young man and life course characteristics appear more relevant to defining young as it applies to prostate cancer compared with chronological age. These findings have implications for better understanding the morbidities associated with this illness, and in designing interventions that are oriented to life course and helping young men reconstruct their identities after prostate cancer. PMID:24780936

  5. Defining young in the context of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Lowe, Anthony; Hyde, Melissa K; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Gardiner, Robert A; Sandoe, David; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    The experience of prostate cancer is for most men a major life stress with the psychological burden of this disease falling more heavily on those who are younger. Despite this, being young as it applies to prostate cancer is not yet clearly defined with varied chronological approaches applied. However, men's responses to health crises are closely bound to life course and masculinities from which social roles emerge. This paper applied qualitative methodology (structured focus groups and semistructured interviews with expert informants) using interpretative phenomenological analysis to define what it means to be young and have prostate cancer. Structured focus groups were held with 26 consumer advisors (men diagnosed with prostate cancer who provide support to other men with prostate cancer or raise community awareness) and health professionals. As well, 15 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and in their 40s, 50s, or 60s participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants discussed the attributes that describe a young man with prostate cancer and the experience of being young and diagnosed with prostate cancer. Chronological definitions of a young man were absent or inconsistent. Masculine constructions of what it means to be a young man and life course characteristics appear more relevant to defining young as it applies to prostate cancer compared with chronological age. These findings have implications for better understanding the morbidities associated with this illness, and in designing interventions that are oriented to life course and helping young men reconstruct their identities after prostate cancer. PMID:24780936

  6. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer. PMID:22792684

  7. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  8. (-)-Gossypol reduces invasiveness in metastatic prostate cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acquisition of metastatic ability by prostatic cancer cells is the most lethal aspect of prostatic cancer progression. (-)-Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound present in cottonseeds, possesses anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects in various cancer cells. In this study, the differences betwee...

  9. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-22429 Filed 9-3-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8552 of August 31, 2010 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... the last decade, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in...

  10. Gene regulatory mechanisms underpinning prostate cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Whitington, Thomas; Gao, Ping; Song, Wei; Ross-Adams, Helen; Lamb, Alastair D; Yang, Yuehong; Svezia, Ilaria; Klevebring, Daniel; Mills, Ian G; Karlsson, Robert; Halim, Silvia; Dunning, Mark J; Egevad, Lars; Warren, Anne Y; Neal, David E; Grönberg, Henrik; Lindberg, Johan; Wei, Gong-Hong; Wiklund, Fredrik

    2016-04-01

    Molecular characterization of genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci can uncover key genes and biological mechanisms underpinning complex traits and diseases. Here we present deep, high-throughput characterization of gene regulatory mechanisms underlying prostate cancer risk loci. Our methodology integrates data from 295 prostate cancer chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing experiments with genotype and gene expression data from 602 prostate tumor samples. The analysis identifies new gene regulatory mechanisms affected by risk locus SNPs, including widespread disruption of ternary androgen receptor (AR)-FOXA1 and AR-HOXB13 complexes and competitive binding mechanisms. We identify 57 expression quantitative trait loci at 35 risk loci, which we validate through analysis of allele-specific expression. We further validate predicted regulatory SNPs and target genes in prostate cancer cell line models. Finally, our integrated analysis can be accessed through an interactive visualization tool. This analysis elucidates how genome sequence variation affects disease predisposition via gene regulatory mechanisms and identifies relevant genes for downstream biomarker and drug development. PMID:26950096