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Sample records for cancer resultats atypiques

  1. Fibrose kystique atypique

    PubMed Central

    Schram, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue le diagnostic des patients atteints de fibrose kystique (FK) atypique. Sources des données On a procédé à une recension exhaustive dans MEDLINE (de 1950 à la troisième semaine de mai 2009), dans MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations and Cases (de 1950 à la troisième semaine de 2009) et dans EMBASE (de 1980 à la quatrième semaine de mars 2009). On a aussi passé en revue le site web de Fibrose kystique Canada et on a consulté son plus récent rapport des inscriptions de données sur les patients. Message principal La FK atypique est une forme moins intense du trouble de la FK, qui est associée à des mutations du gène régulateur de la conductance transmembranaire de la fibrose kystique. Au lieu d’avoir les symptômes classiques, les personnes atteintes d’une FK atypique pourraient avoir une légère dysfonction d’un seul système organique et avoir ou non des concentrations de chlorure élevées dans la sueur. La FK atypique est un trouble très diversifié affectant différents systèmes organiques à divers degrés. Les symptômes du patient peuvent aussi fluctuer avec le temps; par ailleurs, certains signes et symptômes cliniques touchant les systèmes respiratoire, gastro-intestinal, endocrinien et métabolique et génito-urinaire devraient signaler aux médecins la possibilité d’une FK. Les patients atteints d’une FK atypique ont moins d’hospitalisations durant l’enfance que ceux qui ont une FK classique et le diagnostic peut passer inaperçu pendant de nombreuses années, parfois même jusqu’à l’âge adulte. Conclusion Même si les patients atteints d’une FK atypique ont une espérance de vie plus longue que les personnes atteintes de la forme classique, les issues à long terme pour de nombreuses personnes qui ont la forme atypique sont inconnues. Il est important de conseiller les patients à propos de la possibilité d’une manifestation future de la maladie. Renseigner les

  2. Un cas de compression médullaire non traumatique atypique

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Ratovondrainy, Willy; Arolahy, Anja Holinoro Randriam; Rajaonarison, Pascal Jacques; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Les compressions médullaires non traumatiques de topographie dorsale sont rares. Nous rapportons un cas atypique de compression médullaire dorsale non traumatique chez un jeune homme de 19 ans présentant une paralysie flasque aréflexique avec amyotrophie importante des membres inférieurs, diagnostiquée au myéloscanner et confirmée en per opératoire. PMID:26161209

  3. Toxoplasmose oculaire atypique chez une femme congolaise de 72 ans: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Yogolelo Asani; Angel, Musau Nkola; Eric, Kasamba Ilunga; Socrate, Kapalu Mwangala; Sebastien, Mbuyi Musanzayi; Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Leon, Kabamba Ngombe; Bruno, Iye Ombamba Kayimba; Gaby, Chenge Borasisi

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de toxoplasmose oculaire binoculaire, rarement décrit dans la littérature, chez une personne âgée de 72 ans, de sexe féminin, à laquelle s'associe une rétinite pigmentaire unilatérale. Cette observation permet d'attirer l'attention de la communauté scientifique sur les autres formes ou variétés de présentation moins courantes, « atypiques », pouvant être rencontrées ou associées à la toxoplasmose oculaire. PMID:26958130

  4. Le naevus bleu cellulaire atypique du poignet: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Boussakri, Hassan; Roux, Jean Luc; Durand, Luc; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Le naevus bleu cellulaire atypique est une entité pathologique rare et sa localisation au niveau du poignet est exceptionnelle. Il est Considéré comme une Variante à des caractéristiques intermédiaires entre le naevus bleu cellulaire typique et le naevus bleu malin, dont l’évolution est incertaine. Le but de notre travail est d'attirer l'attention sur cette variété lésionnelle rare et de discuter les diagnostiques différentiels, ainsi que décrire les aspects histologique et les options thérapeutiques possibles. PMID:25426206

  5. Etat des lieux des mycobactérioses atypiques au Burkina Faso: résultats d'une enquête régionale

    PubMed Central

    Zida, Sylvie; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Kaboré, Antoinette; Zingué, Dézémon; Hien, Hervé; Sanou, Adama; Michel Gomgnimbou, Kireopori; Nouctara, Moumini; Ouédraogo, Mamoudou; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Godreuil, Sylvain; Méda, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L’étude avait pour but de déterminer la fréquence d'isolement des mycobactéries atypiques chez les patients déclarés tuberculeux pulmonaire à microscopie positive (TPM+) au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale qui s'est déroulée de mars 2011 à février 2012. Les patients TPM+ de plus de 15 ans ont été inclus dans l’étude de manière systématique dans les centres de diagnostic et de traitement (CDT) de la région sanitaire des Hauts Bassins. Une culture des mycobactéries et une identification biochimique ont été réalisées sur les échantillons des patients TPM+ La sérologie VIH a été réalisée par des tests rapides. Résultats Une fréquence de 11% (8/73) de mycobactéries atypiques et 89,0% (65/73) de mycobactéries du complexe tuberculosis ont été identifiées des 73 patients TPM+ inclus dans l’étude. La tranche d’âge de 20 à 40 ans était la plus touchée par les mycobactérioses en général et constituait 48% de l’échantillon. Nous avons trouvé 12,2% (8 / 66) de patients VIH positif, 83,3% (55 / 66) de patients VIH négatif et 4,5% (3 / 66) de patients dont le statut VIH était indéterminé. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en lumière l'implication des mycobactéries atypiques dans la pathogénie de certains patients déclarés TPM+. Le rôle des mycobactéries atypiques dans les infections pulmonaires est probablement sous estimé et devra être examiné avec plus de détails et sur un échantillon plus grand. PMID:25396014

  6. Une présentation atypique de la maladie cœliaque: l'occlusion de la veine centrale de la rétine

    PubMed Central

    Jomni, Taieb; Bellakhal, Syrine; Abouda, Maher; Abdelaali, Imene; Douggui, Hédi

    2015-01-01

    Parmi les complications thrombotiques de la maladie cœliaque l'occlusion de la veine centrale de la rétine a été exceptionnellement décrite. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente âgée de 27 ans chez qui le diagnostic de maladie cœliaque a été porté dans le cadre du bilan étiologique d'une occlusion de la veine centrale de la rétine. L'interrogatoire ne révélait pas de diarrhée chronique ou de douleurs abdominales. La présence d'un amaigrissement, d'une anémie ferriprive et d'une hypocholestérolémie ont permis l'orientation vers la maladie cœliaque. La positivité des anticorps anti endomysium et la biopsie duodénale montrant l'atrophie villositaire confirmaient ce diagnostic. Le régime sans gluten associé à un traitement par aspirine avait partiellement amélioré l'acuité visuelle chez notre patiente. Cette présentation atypique de la maladie cœliaque souligne la diversité des manifestations extra-digestives au cours de cette maladie et l'intérêt de penser à la maladie cœliaque même lorsque ces manifestations sont inaugurales. PMID:26966496

  7. Cancer

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    ... Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer ... have any symptoms. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease ...

  8. Cancer

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  9. Cancer

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    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  11. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  12. Forme atypique d'une maladie de Lyme

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    La maladie de Lyme est une zoonose qui se manifeste essentiellement par des signes cutanés, articulaires, neurologiques et cardiaques. Elle peut exceptionnellement mimer une dermatomyosite. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente âgée de 37 ans qui a présenté des myalgies et un érythroedème de la face et en péri-orbitaire. Une dermatomyosite a été fortement suspectée devant une élévation des enzymes musculaires. Elle a été traitée par une corticothérapie à forte dose. L’évolution a été marquée par l'aggravation des myalgies et l'apparition d'un déficit musculaire. Elle a été alors hospitalisée dans notre service. Les enzymes musculaires étaient élevées. L’électromyogramme était sans anomalies. Le bilan immunologique était négatif. Une enquête infectieuse a été réalisée retrouvant une sérologie de Lyme positive. Après administration d'une antibiothérapie adaptée, l’évolution était bonne avec disparition du tableau clinico-biologique de dermatomyosite. La précocité du diagnostic et l'instauration d'un traitement efficace permet d’éviter des complications graves. PMID:26516401

  13. Cancer Basics

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  17. Cancer Statistics

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  1. Cancer Staging

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  3. Vulva cancer

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  4. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 60,050 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 10,470 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 635,437 women living with endometrial cancer in ...

  5. Oral cancer

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    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  6. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - ovaries ... Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women. It causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive organ cancer. The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. Risk ...

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

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  8. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

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  9. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

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  11. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  12. Thyroid Cancer

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  14. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

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  15. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Pancreatic Cancer - Did you know that an estimated 46,000 Americans were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 53,070 % of All ...

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    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  17. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Breast Cancer

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  1. Ovarian Cancer

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  3. Breast cancer

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  4. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  8. What Causes Cancer?

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    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  9. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  10. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  11. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  12. Parathyroid cancer

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    ... the thyroid gland, which is located at the base of the neck. Parathyroid cancer is a very rare type of cancer. Men and women are equally affected. It usually occurs in people older than 30. The cause of parathyroid cancer ...

  13. Lung Cancer

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  14. Prostate cancer

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  17. Stomach cancer

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    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  18. Uterine Cancer

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  19. Cancer Moonshot

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  20. Bone Cancer

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    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  1. Thyroid Cancer

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  2. Stomach Cancer

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  4. Ovarian Cancer

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  5. Lung Cancer

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    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  6. Metastatic Cancer

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  7. Anal Cancer

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  13. Bone Cancer

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  14. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

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    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  16. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  17. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  18. Cancer of the Uterus (Endometrial Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  20. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  1. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  2. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  3. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  4. Radon and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  6. NCI Designated Cancer Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Cancer Center History Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners ... Profiles in Cancer Research Outstanding Investigator Award Recipients ...

  7. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  9. Metastatic cancer to the lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bladder cancer Breast cancer Colon cancer Kidney cancer Neuroblastoma Prostate cancer Sarcoma Wilms tumor Symptoms Symptoms may ... Breast cancer Cancer Chemotherapy Colon cancer Lung cancer Neuroblastoma Prostate cancer Radiation therapy Wilms tumor Update Date ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  11. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  12. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  14. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  15. Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  16. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  17. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  18. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  19. Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  20. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep forming without control. Chemotherapy is drug ... Your course of therapy will depend on the cancer type, the chemotherapy drugs used, the treatment goal ...

  1. Bladder cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancer usually starts from the cells lining the bladder. These cells are called transitional cells. These tumors are classified by the way ...

  2. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  3. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  4. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and cervical cancer cannot be seen with the naked eye. Special tests and tools are needed to ... Pap smears and cervical cancer References Committee on Adolescent Health Care of the American College of Obstetricians ...

  5. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  6. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  8. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  9. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells. Targeted treatment zeroes in on specific targets (molecules) in cancer cells. These targets play a role ... Cryotherapy Also called cryosurgery , this therapy uses very cold gas to freeze and kill cancer cells. It ...

  10. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of ovarian cancer Already been diagnosed with ovarian cancer to determine how well treatment is working Other tests that may be done include: Complete blood count and blood chemistry Pregnancy test (serum HCG) CT or MRI of ...

  11. Occupational Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinogen List Cancer Clusters Cancer Policy at NIOSH Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Related Topics Asbestos ... Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. Get the Facts ...

  13. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. Get the Facts ...

  14. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of treatments. They may include surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  16. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  17. Cancer Triptych.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    The author uses personal narrative to show how the cold cloak of cancer covered her family during the polar vortex of 2013-2014. The use of a triptych form hinges together related themes of containment, coping, communicative responses, and social support after a cancer diagnosis. This narrative demonstrates the multiple responses and communicative coping strategies to a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26752448

  18. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  19. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  20. Cancer pain

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.

  1. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it. PMID:27533387

  2. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cells , tiny units that make up all living things. Cancer (also known as malignancy , pronounced: muh-LIG- ... cancer and cancer treatments can disrupt a person's life for a while. People ... to take care of the things they have to get done. For example, teens ...

  3. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysplasia of the cervix, vagina, or vulva • A family history of cervical cancer •Smoking •Certain sexually transmitted infections , such as chlamydia • ... to treat your cancer, you still need cervical cancer screening. Cells are taken from the upper vagina ... smallest units of a structure in the body; the building blocks for all ...

  4. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  7. National Cancer Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  8. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  10. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  11. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  12. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  13. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  14. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  15. Biological Therapies for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  17. Head and Neck Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  18. Helicobacter pylori and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  19. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  20. Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  1. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... or use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key ... Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives ...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of pancreatic cancer, and it is now clear that pancreatic cancer is a disease of inherited (germ-line) and somatic gene mutations. The genes mutated in pancreatic cancer include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4, and these are accompanied by a substantial compendium of genomic and transcriptomic alterations that facilitate cell cycle deregulation, cell survival, invasion, and metastases. Pancreatic cancers do not arise de novo, and three distinct precursor lesions have been identified. Experimental models of pancreatic cancer have been developed in genetically engineered mice, which recapitulate the multistep progression of the cognate human disease. Although the putative cell of origin for pancreatic cancer remains elusive, minor populations of cells with stem-like properties have been identified that appear responsible for tumor initiation, metastases, and resistance of pancreatic cancer to conventional therapies. PMID:18039136

  4. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  5. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, C; Hofmann, B T; Wolters-Eisfeld, G; Bockhorn, M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that the current standard therapeutic options for pancreatic cancer are not adequate and still do not meet the criteria to cure patients suffering from this lethal disease. Although research over the past decade has shown very interesting and promising new therapeutic options for these patients, only minor clinical success was achieved. Therefore, there is still an urgent need for new approaches that deal with early detection and new therapeutic options in pancreatic cancer. To provide optimal care for patients with pancreatic cancer, we need to understand better its complex molecular biology and thus to identify new target molecules that promote the proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer cells. In spite of significant progress in curing cancers with chemotherapy, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most resistant solid tumour cancers and many studies suggest that drug-resistant cancer cells are the most aggressive with the highest relapse and metastatic rates. In this context, activated Notch signalling is strongly linked with chemoresistance and therefore reflects a rational new target to circumvent resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Here, we have focused our discussion on the latest research, current therapy options and recently identified target molecules such as Notch-2 and the heparin-binding growth factor midkine, which exhibit a wide range of cancer-relevant functions and therefore provide attractive new therapeutic target molecules, in terms of pancreatic cancer and other cancers also. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24024905

  6. Contagious cancer.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  7. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  8. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheet ePublications Uterine cancer: Cancer of the uterus fact sheet Print this fact sheet Uterine cancer: Cancer ... U.S. federal government and is in the public domain. This public information is not copyrighted and may ...

  9. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  10. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  11. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  12. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  13. Children's cancer centers

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  14. Photodynamic therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer of the esophagus-photodynamic; Esophageal cancer-photodynamic; Lung cancer-photodynamic ... the light at the cancer cells. PDT treats cancer in the: Lungs, using a bronchoscope Esophagus, using upper endoscopy Doctors ...

  15. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about ovarian cancer? What is ovarian cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... section . Other cancers that are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer Primary peritoneal carcinoma Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is ...

  16. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... pork, lamb, and processed meat (such as hot dogs, sausage, and bacon); and low in high-fat ... ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  17. What Is Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... our document called Osteosarcoma . Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma (KON-droh-sar-KOH-muh) is a cancer of cartilage cells. ... AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & ...

  18. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Liver cancer stages Tests for liver cancer If you have some of the signs ... cancer has come back (recurred). Other blood tests Liver function tests (LFTs): Because liver cancer often develops ...

  19. Basic Cancer Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For ...

  20. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For ...

  1. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  2. Photodynamic therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Photoradiation therapy; Cancer of the esophagus-photodynamic; Esophageal cancer-photodynamic; Lung cancer-photodynamic ... the light at the cancer cells. PDT treats cancer in the: Lungs, using a bronchoscope Esophagus, using upper endoscopy Doctors ...

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  4. Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... sex painful and difficult. If found early, vulvar cancer has a high cure rate and the treatment options involve less surgery. ... people may also need radiation therapy. When vulvar cancer is found and treated early, the cure rate is over 90%. The key to a ...

  5. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  6. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... much higher than in the United States. The value of screening in the United States and other countries with much lower rates of stomach cancer is not clear. The following may help reduce your risk of stomach cancer: DO NOT smoke. Keep a ...

  7. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  8. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason Blood in the stool A lump in the abdomen Imaging tests that create pictures of the small ... help diagnose intestinal cancer and show whether it has spread. Surgery is ...

  9. Anal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the last part of your large intestine where solid waste from food (stool) is stored. Stool leaves your body through the anus when you have a bowel movement. Anal cancer is fairly rare. It spreads ... Squamous cell carcinoma. This is the most common type of anal cancer. It starts in cells that ...

  10. Gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patrlj, Leonardo; Kopljar, Mario; Kliček, Robert; Kolovrat, Marijan; Loncar, Bozo; Busic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer involving gastrointestinal tract, but it is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80-95% of biliary tract cancers. This tumor is a highly lethal disease with an overall 5-year survival of less than 5% and mean survival mere than 6 months. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis. The percentage of patients diagnosed to have gallbladder cancer after simple cholecystectomy for presumed gallbladder stone disease is 0.5-1.5%. Patients with preoperative suspicion of gallbladder cancer should not be treated by laparoscopy. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities—inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Improved imaging modalities and improved radical aggressive surgical approach in the last decade has improved outcomes and helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. The overall 5-year survival for patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent R0 curative resection was from 21% to 69%. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. PMID:25392833

  11. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer Past ... Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer / Prostate ...

  12. Ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Sood, Anil K; Fallowfield, Lesley; Howitt, Brooke E; Sehouli, Jalid; Karlan, Beth Y

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a single disease and can be subdivided into at least five different histological subtypes that have different identifiable risk factors, cells of origin, molecular compositions, clinical features and treatments. Ovarian cancer is a global problem, is typically diagnosed at a late stage and has no effective screening strategy. Standard treatments for newly diagnosed cancer consist of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. In recurrent cancer, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are used, and immunological therapies are currently being tested. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most commonly diagnosed form of ovarian cancer and at diagnosis is typically very responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, in addition to the other histologies, HGSCs frequently relapse and become increasingly resistant to chemotherapy. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms underlying platinum resistance and finding ways to overcome them are active areas of study in ovarian cancer. Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), as well as a precursor lesion of HGSC called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, which holds promise for identifying individuals at high risk of developing the disease and for developing prevention strategies. PMID:27558151

  13. Pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Wood, Laura D; Itoi, Takao; Takaori, Kyoichi

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease, for which mortality closely parallels incidence. Most patients with pancreatic cancer remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. There is no standard programme for screening patients at high risk of pancreatic cancer (eg, those with a family history of pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis). Most pancreatic cancers arise from microscopic non-invasive epithelial proliferations within the pancreatic ducts, referred to as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias. There are four major driver genes for pancreatic cancer: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4. KRAS mutation and alterations in CDKN2A are early events in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration offer high diagnostic ability for pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection is regarded as the only potentially curative treatment, and adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine or S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, is given after surgery. FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, folinic acid [leucovorin], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) are the treatments of choice for patients who are not surgical candidates but have good performance status. PMID:26830752

  14. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  15. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  16. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  18. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  19. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  20. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  1. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic ...

  2. Metastatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health ...

  3. Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... and is best made in consultation with your health care team. What happens after treatment for endometrial cancer? ...

  4. Cancer Clusters

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for ... Closeout NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small ...

  5. Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the circulatory system and the lymphatic system , two systems that are located throughout the body. This makes it hard to treat these cancers by operating on just one area. However, in children with ...

  6. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  7. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... known prevention. Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. Sometimes, people with family histories and genetic mutations related to thyroid cancer will have their thyroid ...

  8. Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... having diabetes. Using estrogen replacement therapy without taking progestin may also increase the risk for endometrial cancer. ... take a combination of estrogen and the hormone progestin. While estrogen stimulates growth of the endometrium, progestin ...

  9. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance that you could develop breast cancer: Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The more risk factors you have, the more your risk increases. ...

  10. Endometrial cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage ( D and C ) Pap smear (may raise a suspicion for endometrial cancer, but ... for more than 2 years. Frequent pelvic exams, Pap smears and endometrial biopsy may be considered in some ...

  11. Cancer Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & Events News and Announcements Events – Meetings ...

  12. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye. Special tests and tools are needed to spot such conditions: A Pap smear screens for precancers and cancer, but does not make a final diagnosis. The human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test may be ...

  13. Lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... any symptoms. Symptoms depend on the type of cancer you have, but may include: Chest pain Cough that does not go away Coughing up blood Fatigue Losing weight without trying Loss of appetite Shortness of breath ...

  14. Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam and a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and ...

  15. Aging, cancer, and cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    World population has experienced continuous growth since 1400 A.D. Current projections show a continued increase - but a steady decline in the population growth rate - with the number expected to reach between 8 and 10.5 billion people within 40 years. The elderly population is rapidly rising: in 1950 there were 205 million people aged 60 or older, while in 2000 there were 606 million. By 2050, the global population aged 60 or over is projected to expand by more than three times, reaching nearly 2 billion people [1]. Most cancers are age-related diseases: in the US, 50% of all malignancies occur in people aged 65-95. 60% of all cancers are expected to be diagnosed in elderly patients by 2020 [2]. Further, cancer-related mortality increases with age: 70% of all malignancy-related deaths are registered in people aged 65 years or older [3]. Here we introduce the microscopic aspects of aging, the pro-inflammatory phenotype of the elderly, and the changes related to immunosenescence. Then we deal with cancer disease and its development, the difficulty of treatment administration in the geriatric population, and the importance of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Finally, we aim to analyze the complex interactions of aging with cancer and cancer vaccinology, and the importance of this last approach as a complementary therapy to different levels of prevention and treatment. Cancer vaccines, in fact, should at present be recommended in association to a stronger cancer prevention and conventional therapies (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy), both for curative and palliative intent, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated to cancer progression. PMID:22510392

  16. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  17. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21620466

  18. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » More Information » Prostate Cancer Early Detection » American ... Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News ...

  19. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  20. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  2. American Cancer Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  3. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  4. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  5. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... daily. Lower your intake of processed meats, smoked, nitrite-cured, and salt-preserved foods; emphasize plant-based ...

  8. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  9. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American men, have an increased ...

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  12. What Is Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  13. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  14. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

  15. Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Dating and Intimacy Sexuality and Cancer Treatment: Men ... here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Print to PDF ...

  16. Uterine Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... University School of Medicine Uterine cancer (also called endometrial cancer) is one of the most common cancers in ... help protect themselves. To estimate your risk of uterine cancer and learn about ways to lower that risk, ...

  17. Understanding cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis . Cancer staging is used to help describe the ... cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N) Metastasis (M) , or if and how much the cancer ...

  18. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  19. Epigenetic field cancerization in gastrointestinal cancers.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Kurashige, Junji; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic alterations, including aberrant DNA methylation, play an important role in human cancer development. Importantly, epigenetic alterations are reversible and can be targets for therapy or chemoprevention for various types of human cancers. A field for cancerization, or a field defect, is formed by the accumulation of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations in normal-appearing tissues and can correlate with risk of cancer development. Thus, a better understanding of epigenetic field cancerization may represent a useful translational opportunity for cancer risk assessment, including previous history and exposure to carcinogenic factors, and for cancer prevention. In this article, we summarize current knowledge regarding epigenetic field cancerization and its clinical implications in gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and esophageal cancer. PMID:26971491

  20. Pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jorg; Korc, Murray; Apte, Minoti; La Vecchia, Carlo; Johnson, Colin D; Biankin, Andrew V; Neale, Rachel E; Tempero, Margaret; Tuveson, David A; Hruban, Ralph H; Neoptolemos, John P

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, with a dismal overall prognosis that has remained virtually unchanged for many decades. Currently, prevention or early diagnosis at a curable stage is exceedingly difficult; patients rarely exhibit symptoms and tumours do not display sensitive and specific markers to aid detection. Pancreatic cancers also have few prevalent genetic mutations; the most commonly mutated genes are KRAS, CDKN2A (encoding p16), TP53 and SMAD4 - none of which are currently druggable. Indeed, therapeutic options are limited and progress in drug development is impeded because most pancreatic cancers are complex at the genomic, epigenetic and metabolic levels, with multiple activated pathways and crosstalk evident. Furthermore, the multilayered interplay between neoplastic and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment challenges medical treatment. Fewer than 20% of patients have surgically resectable disease; however, neoadjuvant therapies might shift tumours towards resectability. Although newer drug combinations and multimodal regimens in this setting, as well as the adjuvant setting, appreciably extend survival, ∼80% of patients will relapse after surgery and ultimately die of their disease. Thus, consideration of quality of life and overall survival is important. In this Primer, we summarize the current understanding of the salient pathophysiological, molecular, translational and clinical aspects of this disease. In addition, we present an outline of potential future directions for pancreatic cancer research and patient management. PMID:27158978

  1. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death. Around one in every 60 ... States, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death. Are some women more at ...

  2. Surgery for Pre-Cancers and Cancers of the Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation therapy for cervical cancer Surgery for cervical cancer Cryosurgery A metal probe cooled with liquid nitrogen ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  3. OVARIAN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kathleen R.; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms traditionally sub-classified based on type and degree of differentiation. Although current clinical management of ovarian carcinoma largely fails to take this heterogeneity into account, it is becoming evident that each major histological type has characteristic genetic defects that deregulate specific signaling pathways in the tumor cells. Moreover, within the most common histological types, the molecular pathogenesis of low-grade versus high-grade tumors appears to be largely distinct. Mouse models of ovarian carcinoma have been developed that recapitulate many of the morphological features, biological behavior, and gene expression patterns of selected subtypes of ovarian cancer. Such models will likely prove useful for studying ovarian cancer biology and for pre-clinical testing of molecularly targeted therapeutics, which may ultimately lead to better clinical outcomes for women with ovarian cancer. PMID:18842102

  4. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  5. Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  6. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  7. American Institute for Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... CancerResource Where to Find Help Food for the Fight DVD Estate Planner Publications Reduce Your Cancer Risk ... By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia ...

  8. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  9. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhurst, Tim; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) plays a key role in the evaluation of undiagnosed lung nodules, when primary lung cancer is strongly suspected, or when it has already been diagnosed by other techniques. Although technical factors may compromise characterization of small or highly mobile lesions, lesions without apparent FDG uptake can generally be safely observed, whereas FDG-avid lung nodules almost always need further evaluation. FDG-PET/CT is now the primary staging imaging modality for patients with lung cancer who are being considered for curative therapy with either surgery or definitive radiation therapy. PMID:25829084

  10. Penile Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  11. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Koh, Wui-Jin; Greer, Benjamin E; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Apte, Sachin M; Campos, Susana M; Chan, John; Cho, Kathleen R; Cohn, David; Crispens, Marta Ann; DuPont, Nefertiti; Eifel, Patricia J; Gaffney, David K; Giuntoli, Robert L; Han, Ernest; Huh, Warner K; Lurain, John R; Martin, Lainie; Morgan, Mark A; Mutch, David; Remmenga, Steven W; Reynolds, R Kevin; Small, William; Teng, Nelson; Tillmanns, Todd; Valea, Fidel A; McMillian, Nicole R; Hughes, Miranda

    2013-03-01

    These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Cervical Cancer focus on early-stage disease, because it occurs more frequently in the United States. After careful clinical evaluation and staging, the primary treatment of early-stage cervical cancer is either surgery or radiotherapy. These guidelines include fertility-sparing and non-fertility-sparing treatment for those with early-stage disease, which is disease confined to the uterus. A new fertility-sparing algorithm was added for select patients with stage IA and IB1 disease.. PMID:23486458

  12. Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Benjamin R; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-09-01

    Esophageal cancer carries a poor prognosis among gastrointestinal malignancies. Although esophageal squamous cell carcinoma predominates worldwide, Western nations have seen a marked rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma that parallels the obesity epidemic. Efforts directed toward early detection have been difficult, given that dysplasia and early cancer are generally asymptomatic. However, significant advances have been made in the past 10 to 15 years that allow for endoscopic management and often cure in early stage esophageal malignancy. New diagnostic imaging technologies may provide a means by which cost-effective, early diagnosis of dysplasia allows for definitive therapy and ultimately improves the overall survival among patients. PMID:27546839

  13. Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  14. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  15. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially if found early. Treatment options include surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Regular exams after treatment are important. Treatments may also cause infertility. If you may want children later on, you should consider sperm banking before treatment. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  16. Cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients’ immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes. PMID:25904595

  17. Surviving Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch the video to learn more about these breast cancer survivors. To enlarge the video, click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner. To reduce the video, press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Age and Health May Affect Survival A person's age, and more importantly his or ...

  18. Cancer Biomarkers Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 26,370 % of All New Cancer Cases 1.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 10,730 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 79,843 people living with stomach cancer in ...

  20. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 10,090 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,330 % of All Cancer ... intestine cancer is rare. Common Types of Cancer Estimated New Cases 2016 Estimated Deaths 2016 1. Breast ...

  1. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Vulva

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 5,950 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.4% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,110 % of All Cancer ... vulvar cancer is rare. Common Types of Cancer Estimated New Cases 2016 Estimated Deaths 2016 1. Breast ...

  2. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venniyoor, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach. PMID:27051149

  3. The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer analysis

    Cancer.gov

    An analysis of genomic changes in ovarian cancer has provided the most comprehensive and integrated view of cancer genes for any cancer type to date. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tumors from 500 patients were examined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Re

  4. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24281178

  5. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  6. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use the sharing features on this page, ... with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some types ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

  8. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about stomach cancer? What is stomach cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  9. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  10. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  11. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  12. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  13. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  14. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head and neck cancer A ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  15. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  16. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  18. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  19. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in the gallbladder change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can ... Gallbladder Cancer - Statistics › f t k e P H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With ...

  20. Vulvar Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... begins when healthy cells change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can ... Vulvar Cancer - Statistics › f t k e P H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  2. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  3. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... artificial sweeteners and cancer? Saccharin Studies in laboratory rats during the early 1970s linked saccharin with the ... cause cancer in laboratory animals .” Subsequent studies in rats showed an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer ...

  4. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  5. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... done instead). Gallbladder cancers are sometimes found by accident after a person has a cholecystectomy for another ... Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gallbladder Cancer Talking With ...

  6. What Is Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... called metastasis (say: meh-TASS-tuh-sis). continue Causes of Cancer You probably know a kid who had chickenpox — ... kids think that a bump on the head causes brain cancer or that bad people get cancer. This isn' ...

  7. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  8. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... there harmful chemicals in cigar smoke? Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? What if I don’t ... to yourself and others, stop smoking. Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer ...

  9. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics about liver cancer What is liver cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  10. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  12. What Is Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may form growths called tumors. Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of ... blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors. Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they ...

  13. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... very important to distinguish between exocrine and endocrine cancers of the pancreas. They have distinct risk factors and causes, have ... are by far the most common type of pancreas cancer. If you are told you have pancreatic cancer, ...

  14. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ovarian Cancer Patient Education FAQs Ovarian Cancer Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Ovarian Cancer FAQ096, April 2015 PDF Format Ovarian ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... finasteride who did have prostate cancer had more aggressive tumors . The number of deaths from prostate cancer ... men that did not. The number of less aggressive prostate cancers was lower, but the number of ...

  16. Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecologic Cancer Foundation wins The 2001 Associations Advance America “Award of Excellence” Press Release: Gynecologic Cancer Foundation Named One of “America’s Best 100 Charities” Press Release: Gynecologic Cancer Foundation ...

  17. Cancer and Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecologic Cancer Foundation wins The 2001 Associations Advance America “Award of Excellence” Press Release: Gynecologic Cancer Foundation Named One of “America’s Best 100 Charities” Press Release: Gynecologic Cancer Foundation ...

  18. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  19. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  20. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  1. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  2. Cancer Information on the Internet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of online support groups. The Cancer Sur vivors Network ® The American Cancer Society’s Cancer Survivors Network (CSN) ... Health (NIH) www.cancer.gov National Comprehensive Cancer Network An alliance of 21 of the country's leading ...

  3. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  4. What if cancer comes back?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can move on with your life despite the uncertainty. Why Cancer Comes Back Cancer can come back ... Cancer-recurrence References American Cancer Society. Living With Uncertainty: The Fear of Cancer Recurrence. June 2013. Available ...

  5. Children's cancer centers

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... from getting the care your child needs. The Pediatric Oncology Resource Center has links and contact information ...

  6. Types of Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  7. What Is Gallbladder Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other types of cancer, such as adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas, and sarcomas, can ... Treatment What`s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research? Other Resources ...

  8. Cancer and lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 69. National Cancer Institute. The Immune System. www.cancer. ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 69.

  9. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  10. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  11. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Esophagectomy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, R B; Miller, J I

    1997-10-01

    We are faced with the challenge of treating, palliating, or curing esophageal cancer, considered by some to be the most insidious of cancers. This article acquaints the reader with historic milestones regarding resection of esophageal cancer, preoperative evaluation and preparation, and the various techniques currently being used to perform esophagectomy for cancer. PMID:9347836

  13. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  14. Cancer of the Testis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 8,720 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.5% Estimated Deaths in 2016 380 % of All Cancer Deaths ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 240,372 men living with testis cancer in ...

  15. Cancer of the Larynx

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 13,430 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.8% Estimated Deaths in 2016 3,620 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 89,081 people living with larynx cancer in ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 22,280 % of All New Cancer Cases 1.3% Estimated Deaths in 2016 14,240 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 195,767 women living with ovarian cancer in ...

  17. Cancer of the Anus

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 8,080 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.5% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,080 % of All Cancer ... anal cancer is rare. Common Types of Cancer Estimated New Cases 2016 Estimated Deaths 2016 1. Breast ...

  18. Cancer of the Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 180,890 % of All New Cancer Cases 10.7% Estimated Deaths in 2016 26,120 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 2,850,139 men living with prostate cancer ...

  19. Cancer of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 64,300 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.8% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,980 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 637,115 people living with thyroid cancer in ...

  20. Cancer of the Esophagus

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 16,910 % of All New Cancer Cases 1.0% Estimated Deaths in 2016 15,690 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 36,857 people living with esophageal cancer in ...

  1. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  2. Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer PMID:25398122

  4. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  5. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frödin, J E

    1996-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on radiotherapy for lung cancer is based on 80 scientific articles, including 2 meta-analyses, 29 randomized studies, 19 prospective studies, and 21 retrospective studies. These studies involve 28172 patients. Basic treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is chemotherapy. Addition of radiotherapy to the primary tumor and mediastinum reduces local recurrence, prolongs long-term survival, and is often indicated. Current, and future, studies can be expected to show successive improvements in results for SCLC by optimizing the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Should these treatments be given simultaneously or sequentially, and in which order? Which fractionation is best? Probably, no change in resource requirements for radiotherapy will be necessary, with the possible exception of changes in fractionation. Surgery constitutes primary treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stages I and II. Radiotherapy may provide an alternative for patients who are inoperable for medical reasons. The value of radiotherapy following radical surgery for NSCLC remains to be shown. It is not indicated based on current knowledge. For NSCLC stage III, radiotherapy shrinks tumors and prolongs survival at 2 and 3 years. Whether it influences long-term survival after 5 years has not been shown. Considering the side effects of treatment, one must question whether limited improvements in survival motivate routine radiotherapy in these patients. Earlier attempts to add chemotherapy to radiotherapy to improve treatment results of NSCLC have not yielded convincing results. Several studies are currently on-going. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) greatly reduces the risk for brain metastases from SCLC. However, it has little influence on survival. Many treatment centers give PCI to SCLC patients who have achieved complete remission. This practice may be questioned since PCI is associated with serious complications. PCI is

  6. Second cancers following radiotherapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.E.

    1997-03-01

    The study of second cancer risk after radiotherapy provides a unique opportunity to study carcinogenesis since large groups of humans are deliberately exposed to substantial doses of radiation in order to cure disease. Detailed radiotherapy records for cancer patients allow precise quantification of organ dose, and population-based cancer registries are frequently available to provide access to large groups of patients who are closely followed for long periods. Moreover, cancer patients treated with surgery alone (no radiation) are frequently available to serve as a non-irradiated comparison group. New information can be provided on relatively insensitive organs, and low dose exposures in the range of scientific interest are received by organs outside the radiation treatment fields. This paper will review several recently completed studies that characterize the risk of radiation-induced second cancers. Emphasis will be given to studies providing new information on the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced leukemia, breast cancer and lung cancer.

  7. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  8. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  9. Unveiling Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Burney, Ikram; Qureshi, Asim; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Al-Badi, Hamid; Al-Hajri, Shaikha

    2015-08-01

    This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled 'Unveiling Cancer', the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology. The presentation was based on the complexities of presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in the aftermath of a bone marrow transplantation. After describing the case, the student shared with the audience a spectrum of learning objectives, which included integration in the complex world of contemporary medicine, insight into the triumphs and travails of technology (immunohistochemistry) and peer collaboration, communication and mentorship. PMID:26355844

  10. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  12. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  13. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® ...

  14. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    MedlinePlus

    Childhood cancers are not the same as adult cancers. The type of cancer, how far it spreads, and how it is treated is often different than adult cancers. Children's bodies and the way they respond to ...

  15. How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is cervical cancer staged? How is cervical cancer diagnosed? The first step in finding cervical cancer ... systems. Tests for women with symptoms of cervical cancer or abnormal Pap results Medical history and physical ...

  16. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27101251

  17. Laparoscopic cancer surgery. Lessons from gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wade, T P; Comitalo, J B; Andrus, C H; Goodwin, M N; Kaminski, D L

    1994-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may inhibit the discovery of unsuspected gallbladder cancer, and the effect of LC on the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is unknown. We present two cases of unsuspected gallbladder cancer removed laparoscopically and report the discovery of peritoneal tumor implantation at the umbilical port site 21 days after LC. Although gallbladder carcinoma flow cytometry has been reported to be of prognostic value by Japanese investigators, this technique did not distinguish herein between an invasive adenocarcinoma and carcinoma in situ. A cellular doubling time of 56 h was calculated from one tumor. When unsuspected invasive gallbladder cancer is found after LC, laparoscopic port sites should be inspected at reoperation and, at a minimum, the port site through which the gallbladder was removed should be widely excised. This demonstration of cancer recurrence in laparoscopic port sites may limit the application of laparoscopy to elective cancer resection. PMID:8059312

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer from Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697

  19. Endometrial cancer: Not your grandmother's cancer.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Jessica N; Temkin, Sarah M; Mackay, Helen J

    2016-09-15

    Worldwide, the incidence of endometrial carcinoma (EC) is rapidly increasing, and the highest disease burden is reported in North America and Western Europe. Although the prognosis remains good for patients with are diagnosed with early stage EC, for those with recurrent or metastatic disease, the options are few, and the median overall survival is short. It is imperative to gain a greater understanding of all aspects of EC, limit its effect on scarce health care resources and, more importantly, prevent this cancer from significantly impacting future generations of women. An exciting new era of endometrial cancer research and clinical management has begun that incorporates biologically and clinically relevant genomic and clinicopathologic parameters. Continued collaborative research efforts and funding are essential if we are to advance our understanding of this disease and improve clinical outcomes. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2787-2798. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27308732

  20. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  1. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  2. [Cancer and health economics].

    PubMed

    Koinuma, N

    1996-01-01

    Health economics on cancer medicine is a supportive tool of cancer care and is becoming one of the essential weapons against cancer. Its principal roles are to enhance the quality and efficacy and to secure the finance necessary to the cancer care. The economic aspects of cancer medicine and the methods of economic evaluation are overviewed with emphasis on cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The operational and interpretational checkpoints are introduced, and the problems and prospects of the practical use of the methods on clinical settings such as cancer chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:8546457

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  4. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  5. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  6. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer This page lists cancer ... in bladder cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer Atezolizumab Cisplatin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride ...

  8. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer ... in pancreatic cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer This page lists cancer ... in testicular cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Cisplatin ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer This page lists cancer ... in vulvar cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Vulvar Cancer Gardasil (Recombinant HPV ...

  11. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer This page lists cancer ... in cervical cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Cervical Cancer Cervarix (Recombinant HPV ...

  12. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  13. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  14. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain types ...

  16. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  17. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  18. Cancers Selected for Study - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas researchers are mapping the genetic changes in 33 cancers. Find out which cancers have been selected for study, the criteria for selection and the scientific questions being asked about each cancer.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... not lung cancer. There is no standard staging process for parathyroid cancer. Parathyroid cancer is described as ... Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if ...

  20. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic How is bone cancer staged? How is bone cancer diagnosed? A patient’s symptoms, physical exam, and results ... and other imaging tests. Imaging tests to detect bone cancer X-rays Most bone cancers show up on ...

  1. Understanding Cancer: Survivability and Hope

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... More "Understanding Cancer" Articles Understanding Cancer / Cancer Today / Survivability and Hope / Sam Donaldson: Tips From a Cancer ...

  2. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  4. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  5. Endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Morice, Philippe; Leary, Alexandra; Creutzberg, Carien; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem; Darai, Emile

    2016-03-12

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological tumour in developed countries, and its incidence is increasing. The most frequently occurring histological subtype is endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Patients are often diagnosed when the disease is still confined to the uterus. Standard treatment consists of primary hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, often using minimally invasive approaches (laparoscopic or robotic). Lymph node surgical strategy is contingent on histological factors (subtype, tumour grade, involvement of lymphovascular space), disease stage (including myometrial invasion), patients' characteristics (age and comorbidities), and national and international guidelines. Adjuvant treatment is tailored according to histology and stage. Various classifications are used to assess the risks of recurrence and to determine optimum postoperative management. 5 year overall survival ranges from 74% to 91% in patients without metastatic disease. Trials are ongoing in patients at high risk of recurrence (including chemotherapy, chemoradiation therapy, and molecular targeted therapies) to assess the modalities that best balance optimisation of survival with the lowest adverse effects on quality of life. PMID:26354523

  6. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, John H

    2012-06-01

    Standard treatment for invasive cervical cancer involves either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Childbearing is therefore impossible after either of these treatments. A fertility-sparing option, however, by radical trachelectomy has been shown to be effective, provided that strict criteria for selection are followed. Fertility rates are high, whereas recurrence is low, indicating that a more conservative approach to dealing with early small cervical tumours is feasible. Careful preoperative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging scans allows accurate measurement of the tumour with precise definition to plan surgery. This will ensure an adequate clear margin by wide excision of the tumour excising the cervix by radical vaginal trachelectomy with surrounding para-cervical and upper vaginal tissues. An isthmic cerclage is inserted to provide competence at the level of the internal orifice. A primary vagino-isthmic anastomosis is conducted to restore continuity of the lower genital tract. Subsequent pregnancies require careful monitoring in view of the high risk of spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes. Delivery by classical caesarean section is necessary at the onset of labour or electively before term. Over 1100 such procedures have been carried out vaginally or abdominally, resulting in 240 live births. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with a laparoscopic pelvic-node dissection offers the least morbid and invasive route for surgery, provided that adequate surgical skills have been obtained. PMID:22353492

  7. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  9. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458

  10. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Cancer.gov

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  11. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  12. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  13. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  14. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... present it is not clear if screening for prostate cancer is helpful for most men. For this reason, ...

  15. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  16. Radiation Exposure and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... what we know about these types of high-energy radiation and how they affect cancer risk. Cancer Compensation Programs for People Exposed to Radiation as Part of Nuclear Weapons Testing Between 1945 and 1962, several countries ...

  17. Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacogenomics

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has an increasing focus on pharmacoepidemiology related to pharmaceutical use and cancer risk, recurrence and survival, as well as pharmacoepidemiology related to treatment response and adverse outcomes from chemotherapeutic agents and other medications used to treat cancer.

  18. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HPV HPV and Cancer HPV Cancer Screening HPV Vaccines HPV Vaccine Safety For Clinicians Know the Facts Continuing Education Provider Fact Sheets Schedules & Recommendations HPV Vaccine Coverage Data Commit to the Cause Tools for ...

  19. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  20. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  1. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  3. Cancer in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in the cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, new cells form ... can form a tumor. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Malignant tumor cells can ...

  4. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about ... are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People with cancer may use CAM to Help cope with the ...

  5. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  6. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  7. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ... Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ...

  8. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  9. Esophagus Cancer: Palliative Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor about cancer of the esophagus? Palliative therapy for cancer of the esophagus Palliative therapy is ... therapy Electrocoagulation Laser ablation Argon plasma coagulation Radiation therapy External-beam radiation can often help relieve some ...

  10. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  11. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  12. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood in the urine There are reports of secondary cancers arising from the radiation as well. Proton therapy ... Chemotherapy and immunotherapy (medicine that helps the body's immune system fight the cancer) may be used to ...

  13. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemo is an effective way to destroy any cancer cells that break off from the main tumor and travel to lymph nodes or distant organs. Chemo is often used to cure testicular cancer when it has spread outside the ...

  14. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  15. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... radiofrequency ablation . This procedure uses radio waves to heat and destroy abnormal cells, which may become cancer. ...

  16. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on staging, see “ Colorectal cancer stages ” The normal colon and rectum The colon and rectum are parts ... through the anus . Types of cancer in the colon and rectum Adenocarcinomas make up more than 95% ...

  17. Coping - Adjusting to Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Information that helps you and your family face life’s changes from cancer. Includes talking with your doctors, talking to children, changes for the family, and information on cancer support groups.

  18. Cancer Health Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    Basic information about cancer health disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  19. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  20. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  1. Stages of Oropharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjuvant therapy . New types of surgery, including transoral robotic surgery , are being studied for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Transoral robotic surgery may be used to remove cancer from ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  3. Stages of Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto ... cancer may include the following: Local resection . External-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy . If cancer ...

  4. Anal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto ... cancer may include the following: Local resection . External-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy . If cancer ...

  5. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... when cancer has spread to the bone. External beam radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays pointed ... radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. Proton beams target the tumor precisely, so there is less ...

  6. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... by helping your blood clot. Chemotherapy , radiation , and bone marrow transplants can destroy some of your platelets. If you ... Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow transplant - bleeding; Thrombocytopenia - cancer treatment References Doroshow JH. Approach ...

  7. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  8. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microscope). Some cases are found incidentally (by accident) when a testicular biopsy is done for another ... Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer Talking With ...

  9. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco? Does smokeless tobacco cause cancer? Does smokeless tobacco cause other diseases? Can a ... chemicals in smokeless tobacco have been found to cause cancer ( 1 ). The most harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco ...

  10. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  11. Prostate cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer (i.e., spread) and may include surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation or a combination of these treatments.

  12. Symptoms of Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links Uterine Cancer Basic Information What Are the Risk Factors? What ... What Should I Know About Screening? How Is Uterine Cancer Treated? Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates ...

  13. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... Don’t Miss the 2016 BCAN ... Click here for more details Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network 4915 St. Elmo Avenue, Suite 202 Bethesda, Maryland ...

  14. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Johnson KC, Olsson H, Casagrande JT, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: ... D, Ferlay J, Brinton LA, Cook MB. An international comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence ...

  15. What Is Endometrial Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... endometrial adenocarcinomas. These types tend to be more aggressive than most endometrial cancers. They tend to grow ... forming glands. Grade 3 cancers tend to be aggressive and have a poorer outlook than lower-grade ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  17. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. Get the Facts ...

  18. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... non-cancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  19. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  20. Occupational lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E

    1987-01-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed. PMID:3303381

  1. Urologic cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Guan, Youyan; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Wanqing; Zhu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern

  2. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  4. Second cancers following radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, R.A.; Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Flannery, J.T.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Incidence of second primary cancers was evaluated in 7,127 women with invasive cancer of the cervix uteri, diagnosed between 1935 and 1978, and followed up to 38 years (average, 8.9 yr) in Connecticut. Among 5,997 women treated with radiation, 449 developed second primary cancers compared with 313 expected (relative risk . 1.4) on the basis of rates from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Excess incidence was noticeable 15 years or more after radiotherapy and attributed mostly to cancers of sites in or near the radiation field, especially the bladder, kidneys, rectum, corpus uteri, and ovaries. No excess was found for these sites among the 1,130 nonirradiated women. The ratio of observed to expected cancers for these sites did not vary appreciably by age at irradiation. The data suggested that high-dose pelvic irradiation was associated with increase in cancers of the bladder, kidneys, rectum, ovaries, corpus uteri, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but, apparently, not leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, breast cancer, or colon cancer.

  5. Genital Cancers in Women: Uterine Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    There are two main types of uterine cancer. Endometrial carcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed genital cancer in women, accounts for most cases (more than 95%) and sarcoma comprises the remainder. Endometrial cancer primarily occurs in postmenopausal women. Risk factors include exposure to high levels of endogenous estrogen (eg, obesity, nulliparity, late menopause) or exogenous estrogen (eg, hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen) and pelvic radiation. Genetics are involved in a small percentage of cases, notably among women in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). More than 80% of patients with endometrial cancers present with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound are the first-line tests to evaluate bleeding. If the endometrial lining is thickened on ultrasound, endometrial biopsy is indicated. If symptoms persist after negative biopsy results, or if biopsy results are inadequate, hysteroscopy is performed for tissue sampling. Most patients with endometrial cancer are diagnosed early, when cancer is confined to the uterus. Hysterectomy is the treatment of choice in such cases. Treatment of advanced disease involves radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Perimenopausal women should be informed that abnormal bleeding could be a sign of cancer and should be evaluated. However, no routine screening is recommended except for women with HNPCC. PMID:26569046

  6. Genital Cancers in Women: Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuznia, Angela L; Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    More than 20,000 US women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. The average lifetime risk is 1.3%, but risk increases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations (40% and 18% risk, respectively, by age 70 years) or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (12% lifetime risk). Other risk factors include smoking, possibly past clomiphene use, and more years of ovulation. Symptoms are nonspecific. Abdominal pain is most common; others include pelvic pain, bloating, and early satiety. When ovarian cancer is suspected, evaluation should begin with transvaginal ultrasonography with Doppler studies. Cancer antigen 125 testing can be obtained, but levels are not elevated in all patients. Other biomarkers (eg, OVA1) and scoring systems can be used to help determine if cancer is present. When diagnosed early (stage I), the 5-year survival rate is 90% for epithelial ovarian cancer. However, most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer are diagnosed in stage III or later, with a 5-year survival rate of 17% to 39%. Treatment involves total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without chemotherapy. Fertility-preserving options can be considered in some early-stage cancers, followed by more definitive surgical procedures. There is no evidence that routine screening is beneficial and it is associated with significant harms from unnecessary procedures. Women with genetic syndromes that increase risk should be considered for prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. PMID:26569048

  7. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nevi Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the Experts Early Detection ... About Us | Store The Skin Cancer ... prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of the world’s most common cancer. Take your ...

  8. Cancer and the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Veath, J.M.; Meyer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book compiles the pages presented at the annual conference on the subject of cancer of elderly patients and radiotherapy and surgery. The topics discussed were: Diagnostic techniques of radiology for elderly patients; cancer of breasts and its management and monitoring. Hormonal dependence of cancer breast was also partly discussed.

  9. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  10. Rare lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers that do not happen very often and are considered 'rare'. PMID:27066129

  11. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  12. Cell phones and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of exposure ...

  13. Lung and Bronchus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 224,390 % of All New Cancer Cases 13.3% Estimated Deaths in 2016 158,080 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 415,707 people living with lung and bronchus ...

  14. Cancer Statistics: Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 60,140 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 24,400 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 333,975 people living with leukemia in the ...

  15. Cancer Detection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ratcom, Inc., has joined NASA Johnson Space Center in an active program to develop cytometry capabilities for space station freedom. This agreement results from a cooperative program that NASA entered into with the American Cancer Society to aid in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The flow cytometer is used by cancer researchers to make cellular measurements.

  16. Probability and Cancer Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton-Keene, Rachael; Lenard, Christoper T.; Mills, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently there have been several news items about possible cancer clusters in the Australian media. The term "cancer cluster" is used when an unusually large number of people in one geographic area, often a workplace, are diagnosed with cancer in a short space of time. In this paper the authors explore this important health issue using probability…

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  19. Curing Children's Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ALL is a cancer of the white blood cells, which fight infection. It is the most common cancer in children, representing 23 percent of all cancers among those 15 or younger. Forty years ago, ALL was incurable. Today, in the United States, its cure rate is a major success story—as many ...

  20. Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    From 2000 until 2010 with the support from the National Cancer Institute, the Mouse Models for Human Cancer Consortium, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute workshops and conferences to advance the understanding and use of animal models in colorectal cancer research have been organized .

  1. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  2. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  3. Overdiagnosis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Welch, H Gilbert; Black, William C

    2010-05-01

    This article summarizes the phenomenon of cancer overdiagnosis-the diagnosis of a "cancer" that would otherwise not go on to cause symptoms or death. We describe the two prerequisites for cancer overdiagnosis to occur: the existence of a silent disease reservoir and activities leading to its detection (particularly cancer screening). We estimated the magnitude of overdiagnosis from randomized trials: about 25% of mammographically detected breast cancers, 50% of chest x-ray and/or sputum-detected lung cancers, and 60% of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancers. We also review data from observational studies and population-based cancer statistics suggesting overdiagnosis in computed tomography-detected lung cancer, neuroblastoma, thyroid cancer, melanoma, and kidney cancer. To address the problem, patients must be adequately informed of the nature and the magnitude of the trade-off involved with early cancer detection. Equally important, researchers need to work to develop better estimates of the magnitude of overdiagnosis and develop clinical strategies to help minimize it. PMID:20413742

  4. THE CANCER PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cancer Progress Report 2001 is about our Nation's progress against cancer. The information was gathered through a collaborative effort with other key agencies and groups, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society. Data on this site...

  5. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  6. [Epidemiology of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer increased in France until the 2000s' then decreased. Time trends in incidence for this cancer varied according to its sublocation along the gut. Incidence increased for right and left colon cancers, whereas it remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males and decreased in females. Incidence decreased over time for rectal cancers. The proportion of colorectal cancer in the overall French cancer prevalence is 12%. In 2008, 121,000 patients had a colorectal cancer diagnosed in the 5 previous years. The cumulative risk of colorectal cancer increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased, being 4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females and was 2.9% for those born around 1950. The prognosis of colorectal cancer improved over time. Net 5-year survival increased in males from 53% for cancers diagnosed between 1989 and 1991 to 58% for those diagnosed between 2001 and 2004. The highest improvement of 10 year survival rates concerned left colon and rectosigmoid junction (+19% in a decade). The progressive set up of national colorectal screening since the early 2000's and the introduction of recent immunological tests in 2015 should decrease the mortality for this cancer and, at term, should decrease its incidence too. PMID:26298897

  7. Chromosomal development of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 30, describes the chromosomal development of cancer. It has been established through cytological research that the number of chromosomes in cancer cells often deviates greatly from the usual number in healthy cells of the host organism. This chapter includes discussions on chromosome studies in ascites tumors, stemline and tumor development, mitotic aberrations in cancer, and selection and tumor progression. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Cancer imaging archive available

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Cancer Imaging Program has inaugurated The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), a web-accessible and unique clinical imaging archive linked to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) tissue repository. It contains a large proportion of original, pre-surgical MRIs from cases that have been genomically characterized in TCGA.

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  10. Cell phones and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  11. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  12. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about kidney cancer? What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  13. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  14. Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Laryngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  16. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  17. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  18. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  19. Claudin and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Chinmoy K.; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2010-01-01

    Claudins are a family of proteins and the most important component of the tight junction. They constitute a paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space of an epithelium. Although it seems that claudin should be down regulated in cancer cell, some claudins are, in fact highly elevated in various human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Whereas the functional significance of claudin overexpression in ovarian carcinoma is unclear, these proteins are important for migration, invasion, and survival of ovarian cancer cells. They clearly represent a general pathway in tumorigenesis, are a novel marker for ovarian cancer and may become a target for therapy or diagnosis of this disease. PMID:24591894

  20. Claudin and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bose, Chinmoy K; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2010-01-01

    Claudins are a family of proteins and the most important component of the tight junction. They constitute a paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space of an epithelium. Although it seems that claudin should be down regulated in cancer cell, some claudins are, in fact highly elevated in various human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Whereas the functional significance of claudin overexpression in ovarian carcinoma is unclear, these proteins are important for migration, invasion, and survival of ovarian cancer cells. They clearly represent a general pathway in tumorigenesis, are a novel marker for ovarian cancer and may become a target for therapy or diagnosis of this disease. PMID:24591894

  1. Epigenetics and Cancer Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christelle; Warmoes, Marc O.; Shen, Xiling; Locasale, Jason W.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolism to support proliferation and survival. A hallmark of cancer, this alteration is characterized by dysfunctional metabolic enzymes, changes in nutrient availability, tumor microenvironment and oncogenic mutations. Metabolic rewiring in cancer is tightly connected to changes at the epigenetic level. Enzymes that mediate epigenetic status of cells catalyze posttranslational modifications of DNA and histones and influence metabolic gene expression. These enzymes require metabolites that are used as cofactors and substrates to carry out reactions. This interaction of epigenetics and metabolism constitutes a new avenue of cancer biology and could lead to new insights for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:24125862

  2. Mevalonate metabolism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gruenbacher, Georg; Thurnher, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Cancer cells are characterized by sustained proliferative signaling, insensitivity to growth suppressors and resistance to apoptosis as well as by replicative immortality, the capacity to induce angiogenesis and to perform invasive growth. Additional hallmarks of cancer cells include the reprogramming of energy metabolism as well as the ability to evade immune surveillance. The current review focuses on the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells and on the immune system's capacity to detect such changes in cancer cell metabolism. Specifically, we focus on mevalonate metabolism, which is a target for drug and immune based cancer treatment. PMID:24467965

  3. The cancer genome

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    All cancers arise as a result of changes that have occurred in the DNA sequence of the genomes of cancer cells. Over the past quarter of a century much has been learnt about these mutations and the abnormal genes that operate in human cancers. We are now, however, moving into an era in which it will be possible to obtain the complete DNA sequence of large numbers of cancer genomes. These studies will provide us with a detailed and comprehensive perspective on how individual cancers have developed. PMID:19360079

  4. Mitochondria and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom, functional mitochondria are essential for the cancer cell. Although mutations in mitochondrial genes are common in cancer cells, they do not inactivate mitochondrial energy metabolism but rather alter the mitochondrial bioenergetic and biosynthetic state. These states communicate with the nucleus through mitochondrial ‘retrograde signalling’ to modulate signal transduction pathways, transcriptional circuits and chromatin structure to meet the perceived mitochondrial and nuclear requirements of the cancer cell. Cancer cells then reprogramme adjacent stromal cells to optimize the cancer cell environment. These alterations activate out-of-context programmes that are important in development, stress response, wound healing and nutritional status. PMID:23001348

  5. Improving Goals of Care Discussion in Advanced Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Primary Stage IV Hepatobiliary; Esophageal; Colorectal Cancer; Glioblastoma; Cancer of Stomach; Cancer of Pancreas; Melanoma; Head or Neck Cancer; Stage III; Stage IV; Lung Cancers; Pancreatic Cancers

  6. Industries and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ward, E M; Burnett, C A; Ruder, A; Davis-King, K

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between selected industries and cancer is reviewed. This article will focus on several industries which have not been covered elsewhere in this volume, briefly describe current research on cancer in the agricultural and construction industries, and discuss surveillance data on cancer mortality in relation to industry listed on US death certificates. Employment in the rubber industry has been associated with bladder cancer, leukemia, stomach, and lung cancer and is considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to have 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.' Studies of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have reported excess mortality from gastrointestinal neoplasms, hematologic neoplasms, and skin cancer (specifically malignant melanoma); IARC considers that the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is 'limited.' Employment in the boot and shoe industry has been associated with nasal adenocarcinomas in England and Italy ('sufficient'). Hairdressers and barbers have been found to have excess bladder cancer and less consistent evidence for several other sites ('limited'). Workers exposed to wood dust have excess mortality from cancer of the nasal sinuses and paranasal cavities; there is less consistent evidence for excess laryngeal cancer ('sufficient'). Workers employed in the petroleum industry have limited evidence for excess leukemia and other lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms, and skin cancer (particularly malignant melanoma) ('limited'). PMID:9498899

  7. Statins and cancers.

    PubMed

    Stryjkowska-Góra, Aleksandra; Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Góra, Tomasz; Krawczak, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Statins (inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase) are a group of drugs used to treat lipid disorders. They inhibit cholesterol synthesis at an early stage of the biosynthesis pathway, thus eliminating numerous metabolites involved in the cycle. Numerous studies point to different possible effects of statins on cancer cells. Statins inhibit growth of a tumor, invasion and metastasis formation. They block the production of isoprenoids, which are necessary for post-translational modifications of many proteins, including those involved in normal cell signaling. They also contribute to the reduction in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, sensitize tumor cells to NK cell activity, and modify the body inflammatory response. Due to different pharmacokinetic properties of individual statins, they may have opposite effects on the risk of cancer. Currently, most information on the effects of statins on the risk of developing cancer is obtained from observational studies. The studies have different results depending on the location of cancer. The protective effect of statins was observed in the meta-analysis of numerous studies including prostate cancer, stomach cancer, esophagus cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, it has not yet been confirmed that statins influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or lung cancer. The protective effect of statins on the development of many kinds of cancer can be a valuable and easy way to reduce morbidity. However, further research is necessary to thoroughly determine the value of this group of drugs. PMID:26557755

  8. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  9. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  10. Cancer of the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Bark, Rusana; Mercke, Claes; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Wisniewski, Natalie Ann; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle

    2016-06-01

    Cancer of the gingiva is a rare disease in the Western World. It most commonly affects elderly population. Because of its rarity, the reporting on the disease is sparse and often grouped with other subsites of oral cancer, which makes conclusions difficult to interpret. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on gingival cancer as a specific subsite of oral cancer and report on published prognostic factors as well as treatment of local and regional disease. We also present differences between gingival cancer subgroups, mandibular and maxillary gingival cancer. In addition, both surgical and oncological treatments are reviewed. It seems that surgery is the preferred initial treatment approach for the majority of patients with gingival cancer, although adjuvant radiation, with or without chemotherapy, is commonly recommended to increase locoregional control. PMID:25649283

  11. Pain in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients’ quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available. PMID:26516548

  12. Genital Cancers in Women: Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Morris, Elise; Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 in the United States, it is estimated there will be approximately 12,900 new patients with cervical cancer and 4,100 will die of the disease. If diagnosed at a localized stage, the 5-year survival rate exceeds 90%. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer. Current recommendations for cervical cancer screening include Papanicolaou (Pap) testing every 3 years for women ages 21 to 29 years. For women ages 30 to 65 years, an alternative is screening with Pap and HPV testing every 5 years. If screening results are abnormal, further evaluation can be guided by an algorithm. For a diagnosis of carcinoma in situ or grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), treatment typically involves ablation or excision. Women with CIN 1 or CIN 2 that persists typically are treated with the same methods. For women diagnosed with early-stage invasive cancer, standard treatment is radical hysterectomy. More advanced cancers also are treated with surgery, but chemotherapy and/or radiation also may be used depending on cancer stage. Because most cervical cancer is caused by HPV, it is potentially preventable with HPV vaccination, which is recommended for females and males, ideally beginning at age 11 or 12 years. PMID:26569047

  13. Genital Cancers in Women: Vulvar Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hill-Daniel, Jamie; Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    Vulvar cancer is uncommon, accounting for 0.3% of all new US cancer diagnoses. The majority of cases are squamous cell carcinoma. Malignant melanoma is the second most common type. Other cases are related to chronic inflammatory skin disorders such as lichen sclerosus. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a precursor to squamous cell vulvar cancer. It may be the usual type associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, or the differentiated type often associated with chronic skin disorders. Risk factors for VIN are HPV infection, cigarette smoking, chronic skin disorders, and immunosuppression. Symptoms of vulvar cancer include pruritus, bleeding, skin color change, skin lesions, and dysuria. VIN and vulvar cancer are diagnosed by skin biopsy. Treatment of VIN includes wide local excision, via surgical removal or with laser or ultrasonic surgical aspiration procedures. Medical therapy with imiquimod also may be used. Prognosis is good with early detection; the 5-year survival rate for stage I cancer is greater than 85%. Advanced disease has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate in stage IV disease as low as 5%. Although screening for vulvar cancer is not recommended, clinicians should evaluate and biopsy any suspicious vulvar lesions. Current efforts at prevention are aimed at HPV vaccination. PMID:26569049

  14. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  15. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) seeks to improve the lives of cancer patients by finding better treatments, control mechanisms, and cures for cancer. CTEP funds a national program of cancer research, sponsoring clinical trials to evaluate new anti-cancer agents.

  16. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joji Kurian; Kim, Min-Sik; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Raju, Rajesh; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Sakamuri, Sruthi; Tankala, Shantal Gupta; Singal, Mukul; Nair, Bipin; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Chatterjee, Aditi; Prasad, T S Keshava; Maitra, Anirban; Gowda, Harsha; Hruban, Ralph H; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The etiology of pancreatic cancer is heterogeneous with a wide range of alterations that have already been reported at the level of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. The past decade has witnessed a large number of experimental studies using high-throughput technology platforms to identify genes whose expression at the transcript or protein levels is altered in pancreatic cancer. Based on expression studies, a number of molecules have also been proposed as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this deadly cancer. Currently, there are no repositories which provide an integrative view of multiple Omics data sets from published research on pancreatic cancer. Here, we describe the development of a web-based resource, Pancreatic Cancer Database (http://www.pancreaticcancerdatabase.org), as a unified platform for pancreatic cancer research. PCD contains manually curated information pertaining to quantitative alterations in miRNA, mRNA, and proteins obtained from small-scale as well as high-throughput studies of pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We believe that PCD will serve as an integrative platform for scientific community involved in pancreatic cancer research. PMID:24839966

  18. Urologic cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Kwang Suk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and prevalence of prostate and kidney cancers have been increasing in Korea during the last decade, and a marked improvement in survival rates has been noted. With a substantial proportion of the cancers diagnosed at an earlier stage of the disease, the landscape of urologic cancer treatment in Korea has been characterized by an exponential increase in the number of patients receiving surgical treatment. Throughout the last decade, an increasing proportion of surgeries have been performed using minimally invasive methods, with a notable increase in robot-assisted surgery.The evaluation and management strategies of urologic cancer in Korea are primarily based on an existing evidence-based framework provided by international guidelines. The adoption and clinical application of novel surgical techniques and systemic agents targeted at advanced stage cancer are promptly adopted; accordingly, multidisciplinary treatment options are often available for various cancers at different stages. At the same time, treatment decisions are greatly influenced by the availability of healthcare resources, which may be limited due to the National Health Insurance reimbursement policy.A racial disparity in cancer features appears to exist for certain urologic cancers among Korean patients, and the optimal management strategy specific for the Korean population has yet to be confirmed. A national comprehensive cancer database is needed for better insight into risk factors, selection of sequential strategies, tumor biology and survival outcome of Korean urologic cancer patients. PMID:26117494

  19. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  20. Are Cancer Registries Unconstitutional?

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Robert H; Clarke, Christina A; Crawley, LaVera M; Glaser, Sally L

    2010-01-01

    Population-based cancer registration, mandated throughout the United States, is central to quantifying the breadth and impact of cancer. It facilitates research to learn what causes cancer to develop and, in many cases, lead to death. However, as concerns about privacy increase, cancer registration has come under question. Recently, its constitutionality was challenged on the basis of 1) the vagueness of statutory aims to pursue public health versus the individual privacy interests of cancer patients, and 2) the alleged indignity of one's individual medical information being transmitted to government authorities. Examining cancer registry statutes in states covered by the US National Cancer Institute's SEER Program and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries, we found that cancer registration laws do state specific public health benefits, and offer reasonable limits and safeguards on the government's possession of private medical information. Thus, we argue that cancer registration would survive constitutional review, is compatible with the civil liberties protected by privacy rights in the U.S., satisfies the conditions that justify public health expenditures, and serves human rights to enjoy the highest attainable standards of health, the advances of science, and the benefits of government efforts to prevent and control disease. PMID:20199835

  1. Dietary control of cancer.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, K; Chung, F L; Richie, J; Reddy, B S; Cohen, L; Weisburger, J; Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    Many laboratory studies and human epidemiological data suggest that most cancer deaths are attributable to lifestyle, including nutritional factors and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Tobacco consumption is causally related to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Nutrients and non-nutrient dietary components probably account for cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach. This report is based on literature and our own data pertaining to the role of dietary fat, calories, and fiber in the development of colon and breast cancer. We also discuss the evidence from epidemiological, mechanistic, and preclinical efficacy studies indicating a protective effect of micronutrients, non-nutrients, and certain antioxidants in food against oral and lung cancers. Given the continuing cancer burden and the relatively slow impact of proven cancer treatment strategies in reducing cancer mortality, it is essential to evaluate promising nutrients and non-nutrients in foods as chemopreventive agents in persons at increased risk for cancer. Development of reliable intermediate biomarkers is valuable for clinical chemoprevention intervention trials. The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with plausible approaches to cancer control. PMID:9349690

  2. Cancer following medical irradiation.

    PubMed

    Boice, J D

    1981-03-01

    Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: 1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later: 2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is not unique radiogenic cancer; 3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; 4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; 5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; 6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; 7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; 8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancer of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low "relative risks" and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high "relative risks;" 9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for "two ionizing events" for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of "wasted" dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease. PMID:7237365

  3. Cancer following medical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: 1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later: 2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is not unique radiogenic cancer; 3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; 4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; 5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; 6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; 7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; 8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancer of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low ''relative risks'' and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high ''relative risks;'' 9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for ''two ionizing events'' for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of ''wasted'' dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease.

  4. Cancer following medical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: (1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later; (2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is no unique radiogenic cancer; (3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; (4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; (5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; (6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; (7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; (8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancers of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low relative risks and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high relative risks; (9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for two ionizing events for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of wasted dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease.

  5. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  6. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models. PMID:27011048

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian Past Issues / Spring 2007 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian NCI estimates that endometrial, ...

  8. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    MedlinePlus

    ... this country this year from cancers of the female reproductive system. To avoid these cancers, it's important to understand ... more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system and is the leading cause of death from ...

  10. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  11. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  12. Physical Activity Behavioral Intervention in Obese Endometrial Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-14

    Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  13. Splicing Programs and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Germann, Sophie; Gratadou, Lise; Dutertre, Martin; Auboeuf, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies report splicing alterations in a multitude of cancers by using gene-by-gene analysis. However, understanding of the role of alternative splicing in cancer is now reaching a new level, thanks to the use of novel technologies allowing the analysis of splicing at a large-scale level. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing indicate that splicing alterations can affect the products of gene networks involved in key cellular programs. In addition, many splicing variants identified as being misregulated in cancer are expressed in normal tissues. These observations suggest that splicing programs contribute to specific cellular programs that are altered during cancer initiation and progression. Supporting this model, recent studies have identified splicing factors controlling cancer-associated splicing programs. The characterization of splicing programs and their regulation by splicing factors will allow a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in cancer initiation and progression and the development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:22132318

  14. Biomarkers, genetics and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Anton-Guirgis, H.; Lynch, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    Biological markers can greatly facilitate identification of individuals at high cancer risk. This volume surveys the entire field of biological markers and how they promote early diagnosis of various hereditary cancer forms. Chapters written in down-to-earth style make the data relevant to practicing clinicians as well as research scientists. Markers for site-specific tumors are investigated from the standpoints of etiology and carcinogenesis. Particular attention is given to cancer genetic settings that could serve as models for further research. Methods of identifying both those at high cancer risk and those in a pre-cancerous state are clearly explained. Specific areas covered include polymorphic markers, multiple biological markers, hereditary adenomatosis, and carcino-embryonic antigens. Research findings from studies of twins, families, and first degree relatives offer valuable insights into heritable cancer syndromes.

  15. Multiscale Cancer Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Macklin, Paul; Cristini, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Simulating cancer behavior across multiple biological scales in space and time, i.e., multiscale cancer modeling, is increasingly being recognized as a powerful tool to refine hypotheses, focus experiments, and enable more accurate predictions. A growing number of examples illustrate the value of this approach in providing quantitative insight on the initiation, progression, and treatment of cancer. In this review, we introduce the most recent and important multiscale cancer modeling works that have successfully established a mechanistic link between different biological scales. Biophysical, biochemical, and biomechanical factors are considered in these models. We also discuss innovative, cutting-edge modeling methods that are moving predictive multiscale cancer modeling toward clinical application. Furthermore, because the development of multiscale cancer models requires a new level of collaboration among scientists from a variety of fields such as biology, medicine, physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science, an innovative Web-based infrastructure is needed to support this growing community. PMID:21529163

  16. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michaela; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has become one of the most prevalent malignant diseases for both men and women. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or certain inherited cancer syndromes are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer and have naturally the highest need for cancer prevention. In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, most of the underlying germline mutations can be detected by DNA sequencing, and medical counselling of affected individuals involves both surveillance tests and chemopreventive measures. However, as the mechanisms leading to colorectal cancer differ in these high-risk groups, the molecular action of chemopreventive drugs needs to be adjusted to the certain pathway of carcinogenesis. In the last decades, a number of drugs have been tested, including sulindac, aspirin, celecoxib, and mesalazine, but some of them are still controversially discussed. This review summarizes the advances and current standards of colorectal cancer prevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, FAP and Lynch syndrome. PMID:25531498

  17. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Leon, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a important public health problem: there are nearly one million new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide each year and half a million deaths. Recent reports show that, in the US, it was the most frequent form of cancer among persons aged 75 years and older. Given that the majority of cancers occur in elder people and with the ageing of the population in mind, this observation gives further impetus to investigating prevention and treatment strategies among this subgroup of the population. Screening research, recommendations and implementation is an obvious priority. While there are many questions to be resolved, it is apparent that many facets of colorectal cancer are becoming increasingly understood and prospects for prevention are becoming apparent. Achieving colorectal cancer control is the immediate challenge. PMID:12421722

  18. Preventability of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Wei, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas models of cancer disparities and variation in cancer burden within population groups now specify multiple levels of action from biologic processes to individual risk factors and social and physical contextual factors, approaches to estimating the preventable proportion of cancer use more traditional direct models often from single exposures to cancer at specific organ sites. These approaches are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations are presented. The need for additional multilevel data and approaches to estimation of preventability are identified. International or regional variation in cancer may offer the most integrated exposure assessment over the life course. For the four leading cancers, which account for 50% of incidence and mortality, biologic, social, and physical environments play differing roles in etiology and potential prevention. Better understanding of the interactions and contributions across these levels will help refine prevention strategies. PMID:22224878

  19. [The eye and cancer].

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, Ann; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-12-16

    Cancer involves so rarely the eye that it may be recognized late. The most frequent primary intra-ocular tumours are retinoblastoma in small children and uveal melanoma in adults. Vision loss in systemic cancer has a varied differential diagnosis. Uveal metastases are most often associated with breast cancer, but can herald lung carcinoma. Masquerade syndrome looks like inflammation but represents the ocular involvement of primary CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Systemic cancer drugs, as well as radiotherapy, can cause ocular toxicity, mostly at the retina. In the rare paraneoplastic syndromes, patient's cancer antibodies cross-react with retinal antigens, leading to severe vision loss. When cancer involves the eye, a fast referral into specialized care can significantly improve visual and vital prognosis. PMID:26852556

  20. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  1. Lamins as cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Clare R; Przyborski, Stefan A; Wilson, Robert G; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    Lamins are multifunctional proteins that are often aberrantly expressed or localized in tumours. Here, we endeavour to assess their uses as cancer biomarkers: to diagnose tumours, analyse cancer characteristics and predict patient survival. It appears that the nature of lamin function in cancer is very complex. Lamin expression can be variable between and even within cancer subtypes, which limits their uses as diagnostic biomarkers. Expression of A-type lamins is a marker of differentiated tumour cells and has been shown to be a marker of good or poor patient survival depending on tumour subtype. Further research into the functions of lamins in cancer cells and the mechanisms that determine its patterns of expression may provide more potential uses of lamins as cancer biomarkers. PMID:20074078

  2. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  3. Cryosurgery for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kecheng; Yang, Daming

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of pancreatic cryosurgery is performed with intraoperative or percutaneous approaches. Based on current data and our initial experience, cryoablation appears to be a feasible, potentially safe and promising option in patients with locally advanced and unresectable pancreatic cancer. It is suggested that there are almost no known contraindications to the use of cryosurgery for pancreatic cancer. For most patients with pancreatic cancer, cryosurgery can substitute conventional surgery. PMID:25083453

  4. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gmeiner, William H.; Ghosh, Supratim

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to increase the selectivity and potency of chemical, physical, and biological approaches for eliciting cancer cell death while minimizing collateral toxicity to nonmalignant cells. Materials on the nanoscale are increasingly being targeted to cancer cells with great specificity through both active and passive targeting. In this review, we summarize recent literature that has broken new ground in the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment with an emphasis on targeted drug delivery. PMID:26082884

  5. Cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Since the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy, cervical cancers can be diagnosed and treated easily in their preinvasive state. Although theoretically cancer of the cervix should be detected and treated before becoming invasive disease, there are still too many women who develop invasive cancer of the cervix and require radical surgery and/or radiation therapy. The management of patients with recurrent or advanced disease is difficult and challenging.36 references.

  6. Gut bacteria and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, Susan E.; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota on the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract greatly outnumber the cells in the human body. Effects of antibiotics indicate that GI tract bacteria may be determining the fate of distal cancers. Recent data implicate dysregulated host responses to enteric bacteria leading to cancers in extra-intestinal sites. Together these findings point to novel anti-cancer strategies aimed at promoting GI tract homeostasis. PMID:26050963

  7. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  8. Vaccine Therapy and Sargramostim With or Without Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-28

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  9. MedlinePlus: Cancer--Living with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Overview (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish Chemo Brain (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Chemotherapy Effects (American Cancer Society) Delirium ( ...

  10. Neutrophils in cancer.

    PubMed

    Treffers, Louise W; Hiemstra, Ida H; Kuijpers, Taco W; van den Berg, Timo K; Matlung, Hanke L

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in cancer. This does not only relate to the well-established prognostic value of the presence of neutrophils, either in the blood or in tumor tissue, in the context of cancer progression or for the monitoring of therapy, but also to their active role in the progression of cancer. In the current review, we describe what is known in general about the role of neutrophils in cancer. What is emerging is a complex, rather heterogeneous picture with both pro- and anti-tumorigenic roles, which apparently differs with cancer type and disease stage. Furthermore, we will discuss the well-known role of neutrophils as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and also on the role of neutrophils as important effector cells during antibody therapy in cancer. It is clear that neutrophils contribute substantially to cancer progression in multiple ways, and this includes both direct effects on the cancer cells and indirect effect on the tumor microenvironment. While in many cases neutrophils have been shown to promote tumor progression, for instance by acting as MDSC, there are also protective effects, particularly when antibody immunotherapy is performed. A better understanding of the role of neutrophils is likely to provide opportunities for immunomodulation and for improving the treatment of cancer patients. PMID:27558343

  11. Urologic cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Umbas, Rainy; Safriadi, Ferry; Mochtar, Chaidir A; Djatisoesanto, Wahjoe; Hamid, Agus Rizal A H

    2015-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, start to become more common in Indonesia. According to the government statement, incidence of malignant diseases increased annually up to 8% in the last decade and these diseases become the seventh leading cause of death in Indonesia. On the basis of the latest Globocan report on cancer incidence in Indonesia, prostate cancer ranks sixth; followed by bladder (12th) and kidney (18th). More than half of patients with kidney cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Besides renal cell carcinoma, there are significant number of people affected with squamous cell and transitional cell carcinoma because of kidney stones. Radical nephrectomy or cytoreductive nephrectomy was the primary treatment, mostly done as an open procedure. Transitional cell carcinoma is the commonest histology type in bladder cancer cases followed by squamous cell carcinoma, which almost always related to bladder stones. Unfortunately, >70% of our cases were diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancer, and ∼60% of these patients refused further radical treatment. Incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly and it becomes the third most common cancer in men. However, most of our patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in localized disease. Nearly 40% of the elderly patients are treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, it requires more research by the Indonesian urologists and other healthcare providers to diagnose these cancers in earlier stage as well as community education for prevention. PMID:26085688

  12. Exercise in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajarajeswaran, P.; Vishnupriya, R.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med), Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription. PMID:20596305

  13. Plasma for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  14. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice. PMID:23181529

  15. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  16. Obesity and cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached pandemic levels on a worldwide basis and are associated with increased risk and worse prognosis for many but not all malignancies. Pathophysiologic processes that affect this association are reviewed, with a focus on the relation of type 2 diabetes mellitus with cancer, lessons learned from the use of murine models to study the association, the impact of obesity on pancreatic cancer, the effect of dietary fats and cholesterol as cancer promoters, and the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects obesity and cancer. PMID:24725147

  17. [Cancer and Malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Norimasa; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Ito, Akihiro; Ohara, Hiroshi; Futamura, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    A Japanese proverb says that a balanced diet leads to a healthy body. However, the relation between healthy life and nutrition has not been established precisely and quantitatively. Cancer cachexia, which is malnutrition in cancer patients, has been studied extensively. Appropriate nutrition support can prevent the progression of malnutrition in cancer patients and advance the tolerance for anticancer therapy. In refractory cachexia (terminally cancer patients), we will judge the necessity of reduction of nutrition support, what it is called "gear-change", because the support is burden for the body. It is important to restrict the quantity of nutrition and to give medical treatment to retain bodily function in these patients. PMID:26197740

  18. Improving Palliative Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Del Ferraro, Catherine; Ferrell, Betty; Van Zyl, Carin; Freeman, Bonnie; Klein, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) presented Ensuring Quality Cancer Care in the United States, with recommendations for change (IOM, 1999). However, barriers to integrating palliative care (PC) to achieve high-quality care in cancer still remain. As novel therapeutic agents evolve, patients are living longer, and advanced cancer is now considered a chronic illness. In addition to complex symptom concerns, patients and family caregivers are burdened with psychological, social, and spiritual distress. Furthermore, data show that PC continues to be underutilized and inaccessible, and current innovative models of integrating PC into standard cancer care lack uniformity. The aim of this article is to address the existing barriers in implementing PC into our cancer care delivery system and discuss how the oncology advanced practice nurse plays an essential role in providing high-quality cancer care. We also review the IOM recommendations; highlight the work done by the National Consensus Project in promoting quality PC; and discuss a National Cancer Institute-funded program project currently conducted at a National Comprehensive Cancer Center, "Palliative Care for Quality of Life and Symptoms Concerns in Lung Cancer," which serves as a model to promote high-quality care for patients and their families. PMID:26114013

  19. Urologic cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Ou, Yen-Chuan

    2016-07-01

    For the past three decades, cancer is the number one cause of death in Taiwan. An increasing trend in the incidence of urologic cancers has also been noticed since 1979. In 2012, urologic cancer accounted for 10.0% of all the new malignant cases. Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers are the most common types. Metastatic prostate cancer still accounted for nearly 30% of new cases in Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. There are several specifically noticeable characteristics of urothelial carcinoma in Taiwan, associated with arseniasis and aristolochic acid. The diagnosis and treatment of urologic cancer mainly follows the current international guidelines. The development of minimal invasive surgery, especially DaVinci robotic surgical system, has made a marked change in the surgical treatment of urologic cancer. Meanwhile, newer systemic agents also commence and improve our standard of care. However, treatment decisions are greatly influenced by the National Health Insurance coverage. The current national cancer registry system should be renovated more comprehensively in order to gain better insight into specific features of urologic cancer in Taiwan. PMID:27052114

  20. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933