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Sample records for cancer reveals loss

  1. An inducible mouse model for skin cancer reveals distinct roles for gain- and loss-of-function p53 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Caulin, Carlos; Nguyen, Thao; Lang, Gene A.; Goepfert, Thea M.; Brinkley, Bill R.; Cai, Wei-Wen; Lozano, Guillermina; Roop, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in ras and p53 are the most prevalent mutations found in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. Although some p53 mutations cause a loss of function, most result in expression of altered forms of p53, which may exhibit gain-of-function properties. Therefore, understanding the consequences of acquiring p53 gain-of-function versus loss-of-function mutations is critical for the generation of effective therapies for tumors harboring p53 mutations. Here we describe an inducible mouse model in which skin tumor formation is initiated by activation of an endogenous K-rasG12D allele. Using this model we compared the consequences of activating the p53 gain-of-function mutation p53R172H and of deleting the p53 gene. Activation of the p53R172H allele resulted in increased skin tumor formation, accelerated tumor progression, and induction of metastasis compared with deletion of p53. Consistent with these observations, the p53R172H tumors exhibited aneuploidy associated with centrosome amplification, which may underlie the mechanism by which p53R172H exerts its oncogenic properties. These results clearly demonstrate that p53 gain-of-function mutations confer poorer prognosis than loss of p53 during skin carcinogenesis and have important implications for the future design of therapies for tumors that exhibit p53 gain-of-function mutations. PMID:17607363

  2. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  3. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...

  4. Exploring Prostate Cancer Genome Reveals Simultaneous Losses of PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 in Patients with PSA Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ibeawuchi, Chinyere; Schmidt, Hartmut; Voss, Reinhard; Titze, Ulf; Abbas, Mahmoud; Neumann, Joerg; Eltze, Elke; Hoogland, Agnes Marije; Jenster, Guido; Brandt, Burkhard; Semjonow, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The multifocal nature of prostate cancer (PCa) creates a challenge to patients’ outcome prediction and their clinical management. An approach that scrutinizes every cancer focus is needed in order to generate a comprehensive evaluation of the disease, and by correlating to patients’ clinico-pathological information, specific prognostic biomarker can be identified. Our study utilized the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Genome-wide assay to investigate forty-three fresh frozen PCa tissue foci from twenty-three patients. With a long clinical follow-up period that ranged from 2.0–9.7 (mean 5.4) years, copy number variation (CNV) data was evaluated for association with patients’ PSA status during follow-up. From our results, the loss of unique genes on 10q23.31 and 10q23.2–10q23.31 were identified to be significantly associated to PSA recurrence (p < 0.05). The implication of PTEN and FAS loss (10q23.31) support previous reports due to their critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the PAPSS2 gene (10q23.2–10q23.31) may be functionally relevant in post-operative PSA recurrence because of its reported role in androgen biosynthesis. It is suggestive that the loss of the susceptible region on chromosome 10q, which implicates PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 may serve as genetic predictors of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. PMID:25679447

  5. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia ... after fast-growing cells. While chemo can cause hair loss all over your body, radiation only affects the ... Hair loss usually happens 1 to 3 weeks after the first chemo or radiation treatment. The hair on ...

  6. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence in the jigsaw of the benefits of losing weight, and how important weight loss is to ... Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. In general, losing weight reduces the risk of breast, colon and ...

  7. [Weight loss in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lordick, Florian; Hacker, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients are regularly affected by malnutrition which often leads to a worsened quality of life and activity in daily living, more side effects and complications during anticancer treatment and shorter survival times. The early diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition are therefore relevant components of oncological treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status and determination of the body-mass-index should be done in every patient with cancer. The clinical examination delivers important findings and indications for malnutrition. Bioimpedance analysis can deliver additional objective information. The treatment of malnutrition should start early and follows a step-wise escalation reaching from nutritional counseling to enteral nutritional support to parenteral nutrition. PMID:26886037

  8. Loss of SPARC in bladder cancer enhances carcinogenesis and progression

    PubMed Central

    Said, Neveen; Frierson, Henry F.; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Brekken, Rolf A.; Theodorescu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been implicated in multiple aspects of human cancer. However, its role in bladder carcinogenesis and metastasis are unclear,with some studies suggesting it may be a promoter and others arguing the opposite. Using a chemical carcinogenesis model in Sparc-deficient mice and their wild-type littermates, we found that loss of SPARC accelerated the development of urothelial preneoplasia (atypia and dysplasia), neoplasia, and metastasis and was associated with decreased survival. SPARC reduced carcinogen-induced inflammation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as urothelial cell proliferation. Loss of SPARC was associated with an inflammatory phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, with concomitant increased activation of urothelial and stromal NF-κB and AP1 in vivo and in vitro. Syngeneic spontaneous and experimental metastasis models revealed that tumor- and stroma-derived SPARC reduced tumor growth and metastasis through inhibition of cancer-associated inflammation and lung colonization. In human bladder tumor tissues, the frequency and intensity of SPARC expression were inversely correlated with disease-specific survival. These results indicate that SPARC is produced by benign and malignant compartments of bladder carcinomas where it functions to suppress bladder carcinogenesis, progression, and metastasis. PMID:23321672

  9. Assemblage time series reveal biodiversity change but not systematic loss.

    PubMed

    Dornelas, Maria; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian; Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Moyes, Faye; Sievers, Caya; Magurran, Anne E

    2014-04-18

    The extent to which biodiversity change in local assemblages contributes to global biodiversity loss is poorly understood. We analyzed 100 time series from biomes across Earth to ask how diversity within assemblages is changing through time. We quantified patterns of temporal α diversity, measured as change in local diversity, and temporal β diversity, measured as change in community composition. Contrary to our expectations, we did not detect systematic loss of α diversity. However, community composition changed systematically through time, in excess of predictions from null models. Heterogeneous rates of environmental change, species range shifts associated with climate change, and biotic homogenization may explain the different patterns of temporal α and β diversity. Monitoring and understanding change in species composition should be a conservation priority. PMID:24744374

  10. ZIP4 silencing improves bone loss in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxuan; Ding, Hao; LeBrun, Drake; Ding, Kai; Houchen, Courtney W.; Postier, Russell G.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Li, Zhaoshen; Bi, Xiaohong; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disorders are associated with several types of human cancers. Pancreatic cancer patients usually suffer from severe nutrition deficiency, muscle wasting, and loss of bone mass. We have previously found that silencing of a zinc transporter ZIP4 prolongs the survival and reduces the severity of the cachexia in vivo. However, the role of ZIP4 in the pancreatic cancer related bone loss remains unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of ZIP4 knockdown on the bone structure, composition and mechanical properties of femurs in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our data showed that silencing of ZIP4 resulted in increased bone tissue mineral density, decreased bone crystallinity and restoration of bone strength through the RANK/RANKL pathway. The results further support the impact of ZIP4 on the progression of pancreatic cancer, and suggest its potential significance as a therapeutic target for treating patients with such devastating disease and cancer related disorders. PMID:26305676

  11. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Suzanne E; Gross, Joshua B; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O'Quin, Kelly E; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M J; Stahl, Bethany A; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  12. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Gross, Joshua B.; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R.; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O’Quin, Kelly E.; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M. J.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  13. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required. PMID:25335699

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF A LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY CANCER HAZARD IDENTIFICATION ASSAY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tumor development generally requires the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at one or more loci. Thus, the ability to determine whether a chemical is capable of causing LOH is an important part of cancer hazard identification. The mouse lymphoma assay detects a broad spectrum of geneti...

  15. Loss of JUNB/AP-1 promotes invasive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, M K; Bakiri, L; Hasenfuss, S C; Wu, H; Morente, M; Wagner, E F

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequent cause of male death in the Western world. Relatively few genetic alterations have been identified, likely owing to disease heterogeneity. Here, we show that the transcription factor JUNB/AP-1 limits prostate cancer progression. JUNB expression is increased in low-grade prostate cancer compared with normal human prostate, but downregulated in high-grade samples and further decreased in all metastatic samples. To model the hypothesis that this downregulation is functionally significant, we genetically inactivated Junb in the prostate epithelium of mice. When combined with Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue) loss, double-mutant mice were prone to invasive cancer development. Importantly, invasive tumours also developed when Junb and Pten were inactivated in a small cell population of the adult anterior prostate by topical Cre recombinase delivery. The resulting tumours displayed strong histological similarity with human prostate cancer. Loss of JunB expression led to increased proliferation and decreased senescence, likely owing to decreased p16Ink4a and p21CIP1 in epithelial cells. Furthermore, the tumour stroma was altered with increased osteopontin and S100 calcium-binding protein A8/9 expression, which correlated with poor prognoses in patients. These data demonstrate that JUNB/AP-1 cooperates with PTEN signalling as barriers to invasive prostate cancer, whose concomitant genetic or epigenetic suppression induce malignant progression. PMID:25526087

  16. Loss of JUNB/AP-1 promotes invasive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, M K; Bakiri, L; Hasenfuss, S C; Wu, H; Morente, M; Wagner, E F

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequent cause of male death in the Western world. Relatively few genetic alterations have been identified, likely owing to disease heterogeneity. Here, we show that the transcription factor JUNB/AP-1 limits prostate cancer progression. JUNB expression is increased in low-grade prostate cancer compared with normal human prostate, but downregulated in high-grade samples and further decreased in all metastatic samples. To model the hypothesis that this downregulation is functionally significant, we genetically inactivated Junb in the prostate epithelium of mice. When combined with Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue) loss, double-mutant mice were prone to invasive cancer development. Importantly, invasive tumours also developed when Junb and Pten were inactivated in a small cell population of the adult anterior prostate by topical Cre recombinase delivery. The resulting tumours displayed strong histological similarity with human prostate cancer. Loss of JunB expression led to increased proliferation and decreased senescence, likely owing to decreased p16(Ink4a) and p21(CIP1) in epithelial cells. Furthermore, the tumour stroma was altered with increased osteopontin and S100 calcium-binding protein A8/9 expression, which correlated with poor prognoses in patients. These data demonstrate that JUNB/AP-1 cooperates with PTEN signalling as barriers to invasive prostate cancer, whose concomitant genetic or epigenetic suppression induce malignant progression. PMID:25526087

  17. Osteopontin as a marker of weight loss in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Fisun; Gulen, Sule T; Karul, Aslihan B; Kilicarslan, Naciye; Ceylan, Emel; Kuman, Nilgun K; Cildag, Orhan

    2011-12-01

    Although the role of osteopontin (OPN) in tumorigenesis and invasiveness is well-known, its role in systemic consequences of lung cancer has not been studied yet. The objective of the current study was to assess the value of osteopontin as a marker of weight loss in relation to systemic inflammation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 63 male NSCLC patients (stage III and IV) and 25 age and sex-matched controls were included. The NSCLC patients were further divided into subgroups depending on whether they had > 5% weight loss in the last 6 months or not. Serum OPN and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA using commercially available kits. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by the turbidimetric method. OPN (p = 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) concentrations were significantly higher in lung cancer patients compared to controls whereas TNF-α concentrations were similar in cancer and control groups (p = 0.063). There were 33 NSCLC patients (52.4%) with weight loss. Serum OPN concentration was found to be higher in this weight-losing group (p = 0.042). CRP concentration was also higher in the weight-losing group but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.246). TNF-α concentrations were similar in both subgroups (p = 0.094). In correlation tests, there was a positive correlation between OPN and CRP (r = 0.299, p = 0.044), but no correlation was detected between OPN and TNF-α (r = − 0.009, p = 0.930). A negative correlation was detected between OPN and BMI (r = − 0.246, p = 0.048). In addition to being an indicator of systemic inflammation in lung cancer patients, osteopontin may also be an indicator of weight loss. PMID:22017168

  18. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood loss during head and neck cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Atul P; Chaukar, Devendra A; Patil, Vijaya P; Metgudmath, Rajendra B; Hawaldar, Rohini W; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transfusion of blood and blood products poses several hazards. Antifibrinolytic agents are used to reduce perioperative blood loss. We decided to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TA) on blood loss and the need for transfusion in head and neck cancer surgery. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 240 patients undergoing supramajor head and neck cancer surgeries were prospectively randomised to either TA (10 mg/kg) group or placebo (P) group. After induction, the drug was infused by the anaesthesiologist, who was blinded to allocation, over 20 min. The dose was repeated every 3 h. Perioperative (up to 24 h) blood loss, need for transfusion and fluid therapy was recorded. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed at fixed intervals in the first 100 patients. Patients were watched for post-operative complications. Results: Two hundred and nineteen records were evaluable. We found no difference in intraoperative blood loss (TA - 750 [600–1000] ml vs. P - 780 [150–2600] ml, P = 0.22). Post-operative blood loss was significantly more in the placebo group at 24 h (P - 200 [120–250] ml vs. TA - 250 [50–1050] ml, P = 0.009), but this did not result in higher number of patients needing transfusions (TA - 22/108 and P - 27/111 patients, P = 0.51). TEG revealed faster clot formation and minimal fibrinolysis. Two patients died of causes unrelated to study drug. Incidence of wound complications and deep venous thrombosis was similar. Conclusion: In head and neck cancer surgery, TA did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or need for transfusions. Perioperative TEG variables were similar. This may be attributed to pre-existing hypercoagulable state and minimal fibrinolysis in cancer patients. PMID:26962250

  19. Coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 promotes aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lindsey Ulkus; Rider, Leah; Nieto, Cera; Romero, Lina; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Loda, Massimo; Lucia, M Scott; Wu, Min; Shi, Lihong; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Nolley, Rosalie; Pac, Colton; Chen, Haitao; Peehl, Donna M; Xu, Jianfeng; Liu, Wennuan; Costello, James C; Cramer, Scott D

    2015-03-15

    Prostate cancer subtypes are poorly defined and functional validation of drivers of ETS rearrangement-negative prostate cancer has not been conducted. Here, we identified an ETS(-) subtype of aggressive prostate cancer (ERG(-)MAP3K7(del)CHD1(del)) and used a novel developmental model and a cell line xenograft model to show that cosuppression of MAP3K7 and CHD1 expression promotes aggressive disease. Analyses of publicly available prostate cancer datasets revealed that MAP3K7 and CHD1 were significantly codeleted in 10% to 20% of localized tumors and combined loss correlated with poor disease-free survival. To evaluate the functional impact of dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss, we suppressed Map3k7 and/or Chd1 expression in mouse prostate epithelial progenitor/stem cells (PrP/SC) and performed tissue recombination experiments in vivo. Dual shMap3k7-shChd1 PrP/SC recombinants displayed massive glandular atypia with regions of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma apparent. Combined Map3k7-Chd1 suppression greatly disrupted normal prostatic lineage differentiation; dual recombinants displayed significant androgen receptor loss, increased neuroendocrine differentiation, and increased neural differentiation. Clinical samples with dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss also displayed neuroendocrine and neural characteristics. In addition, dual Map3k7-Chd1 suppression promoted E-cadherin loss and mucin production in recombinants. MAP3K7 and CHD1 protein loss also correlated with Gleason grade and E-cadherin loss in clinical samples. To further validate the phenotype observed in the PrP/SC model, we suppressed MAP3K7 and/or CHD1 expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Dual shMAP3K7-shCHD1 LNCaP xenografts displayed increased tumor growth and decreased survival compared with shControl, shMAP3K7, and shCHD1 xenografts. Collectively, these data identify coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 as a unique driver of aggressive prostate cancer development. PMID:25770290

  20. Frequent loss of sequences from the long arm of chromosome 10 in endometrial cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Peiffer, S.; Tribune, D.; Goodfellow, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the United States, with an estimated 33,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Cancers develop as the result of the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Mutations in KRAS and TP53 in endometrial cancer have been reported, but for the most part the genetic events underlying endometrial tumorigenesis have not been defined. Previous loss of heterozygosity studies (LOH) in endometrial cancers revealed frequent loss of sequences from 3p, 10q, 17p and 18q, suggesting a role for tumor suppressor genes that lie within these regions of loss. We have undertaken a series of experiments to identify tumor suppressor genes involved in endometrial tumorigenesis, focusing on a region of chromosome 10 that is likely to include a novel tumor suppressor gene. We have allelotyped 40 normal/tumor DNA pairs with 5 microsatellite repeat markers from 10q and one from 10p. LOH for at least one 10q marker was seen in 45% of informative samples. Chromosome 10 LOH was seen most frequently in Grade 1 adenocarcinoma (5/8; 60%). Grade 3 adenocarcinomas were also characterized by LOH of 10q sequences. Grade 2 tumors, on the other hand, did not reveal chromosome 10 LOH but were instead characterized by frequent microsatellite instability (RER). Other tumor types did not show the same patterns of genetic alteration seen in adenocarcinoma. We are currently defining the smallest region(s) of loss on 10q by typing 75 tumor/normal pairs using a set of ordered microsatellite repeat markers from distal 10q. A candidate tumorigenesis gene within what is the common region of deletion is being characterized in detail in a series of tumors.

  1. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, B.G.; Pulitzer, D.R.; Moehlmann, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    In order to detect regions of DNA containing tumor suppressor genes involved in the development of gastric cancer, we evaluated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 78 gastric adenocarcinomas. A total of 46 microsatellite markers were employed, which detected at least one site per arm of each autosome in the human genome, including several markers linked to known tumor suppressor genes (TP53, APC, DCC, RB1, and BRCA1). We detected elevated rates of LOH at D3S1478 on chromosome 3p21 (44%, or 22 of 50 cases), at D12S78 at 12q14q24.33 (39%), and 37% at D9S157 on 9p, three sites not previously known to be affected in gastric cancer. Another locus on chromosome 12q, D12S97, showed LOH in 40% of informative cases. LOH was detected on chromosome 17p near TP53 in 66% of informative cases (23 of 35). Microsatellite instability (MI) was observed in 22% of the cancers. Tumors varied greatly in percentage of sites exhibiting MI, from 0% to 77% of sites tested. These findings expand the description of the genetic lesions occurring in gastric cancer.

  2. Specific loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas revealed by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Speicher, M R; Schoell, B; du Manoir, S; Schröck, E; Ried, T; Cremer, T; Störkel, S; Kovacs, A; Kovacs, G

    1994-08-01

    We analyzed 19 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas by means of comparative genomic hybridization. Two tumors revealed no numerical abnormalities. In the remaining 17 cases we found loss of entire chromosomes with underrepresentation of chromosome 1 occurring in all 17 cases; loss of chromosomes 2, 10, and 13 in 16 cases; loss of chromosomes 6 and 21 in 15 tumors; and loss of chromosome 17 in 13 cases. The loss of the Y chromosome was observed in 6 of 13 tumors from male patients, whereas 1 X chromosome was lost in 3 of 4 tumors obtained from females. Comparative genomic hybridization results were verified by interphase cytogenetics. We conclude that a specific combination of multiple chromosomal losses characterizes chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and may help to differentiate them unequivocally from other types of kidney cancer. PMID:7519827

  3. Specific loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas revealed by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, M. R.; Schoell, B.; du Manoir, S.; Schröck, E.; Ried, T.; Cremer, T.; Störkel, S.; Kovacs, A.; Kovacs, G.

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed 19 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas by means of comparative genomic hybridization. Two tumors revealed no numerical abnormalities. In the remaining 17 cases we found loss of entire chromosomes with underrepresentation of chromosome 1 occurring in all 17 cases; loss of chromosomes 2, 10, and 13 in 16 cases; loss of chromosomes 6 and 21 in 15 tumors; and loss of chromosome 17 in 13 cases. The loss of the Y chromosome was observed in 6 of 13 tumors from male patients, whereas 1 X chromosome was lost in 3 of 4 tumors obtained from females. Comparative genomic hybridization results were verified by interphase cytogenetics. We conclude that a specific combination of multiple chromosomal losses characterizes chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and may help to differentiate them unequivocally from other types of kidney cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7519827

  4. Phosphoproteome Integration Reveals Patient-Specific Networks in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Drake, Justin M; Paull, Evan O; Graham, Nicholas A; Lee, John K; Smith, Bryan A; Titz, Bjoern; Stoyanova, Tanya; Faltermeier, Claire M; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Carlin, Daniel E; Fleming, Daniel Teo; Wong, Christopher K; Newton, Yulia; Sudha, Sud; Vashisht, Ajay A; Huang, Jiaoti; Wohlschlegel, James A; Graeber, Thomas G; Witte, Owen N; Stuart, Joshua M

    2016-08-11

    We used clinical tissue from lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients obtained at rapid autopsy to evaluate diverse genomic, transcriptomic, and phosphoproteomic datasets for pathway analysis. Using Tied Diffusion through Interacting Events (TieDIE), we integrated differentially expressed master transcriptional regulators, functionally mutated genes, and differentially activated kinases in CRPC tissues to synthesize a robust signaling network consisting of druggable kinase pathways. Using MSigDB hallmark gene sets, six major signaling pathways with phosphorylation of several key residues were significantly enriched in CRPC tumors after incorporation of phosphoproteomic data. Individual autopsy profiles developed using these hallmarks revealed clinically relevant pathway information potentially suitable for patient stratification and targeted therapies in late stage prostate cancer. Here, we describe phosphorylation-based cancer hallmarks using integrated personalized signatures (pCHIPS) that shed light on the diversity of activated signaling pathways in metastatic CRPC while providing an integrative, pathway-based reference for drug prioritization in individual patients. PMID:27499020

  5. Latest Updates on Antiretinal Autoantibodies Associated With Vision Loss and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adamus, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is an uncommon paraneoplastic disorder of the retina that is frequently associated with breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women older than 50 years. In this review, we will give an update on the current knowledge regarding the association of antiretinal autoantibodies with the breast-CAR syndrome. Women with breast cancer and visual indications of CAR have a significantly increased incidence of autoantibodies (AAbs) against retinal proteins when compared to healthy women. The onset of visual loss in association with antiretinal AAbs peaks 2 to 3 years after the clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. Differences in severity of symptoms between women with or without antiretinal AAbs are evident, revealing more unfavorable presentation in seropositive women. The incidence of CAR in breast cancer is likely to rise as the survival time of patients with breast cancer increases; consequently, a prediction of breast-CAR based on autoimmunity to individual retinal antigens, or to panels of antigens (signatures), is clinically important. PMID:25754855

  6. The snooze of lose: Rapid reaching reveals that losses are processed more slowly than gains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Craig S; Gallivan, Jason P; Wong, Jeremy D; Wispinski, Nathan J; Enns, James T

    2015-08-01

    Decision making revolves around weighing potential gains and losses. Research in economic decision making has emphasized that humans exercise disproportionate caution when making explicit choices involving loss. By comparison, research in perceptual decision making has revealed a processing advantage for targets associated with potential gain, though the effects of loss have been explored less systematically. Here, we use a rapid reaching task to measure the relative sensitivity (Experiment 1) and the time course (Experiments 2 and 3) of rapid actions with regard to the reward valence and probability of targets. We show that targets linked to a high probability of gain influence actions about 100 ms earlier than targets associated with equivalent probability and value of loss. These findings are well accounted for by a model of stimulus response in which reward modulates the late, postpeak phase of the activity. We interpret our results within a neural framework of biased competition that is resolved in spatial maps of behavioral relevance. As implied by our model, all visual stimuli initially receive positive activation. Gain stimuli can build off of this initial activation when selected as a target, whereas loss stimuli have to overcome this initial activation in order to be avoided, accounting for the observed delay between valences. Our results bring clarity to the perceptual effects of losses versus gains and highlight the importance of considering the timeline of different biasing factors that influence decisions. PMID:26097977

  7. The loss of genetic diversity in Sichuan taimen as revealed by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Chang

    2006-06-01

    Species endangerment often derives from the "endangerment" of genetic diversity, thus loss of genetic diversity is an important cause of species extinction. Since historical specimens were unavailable, previous studies mainly described the genetic diversity status in the current population rather than the loss of genetic variation over time. In this study, we collected samples during 1998-1999 and obtained historical specimens from 1957 to 1958. Based on the two sets of fish, we determined the changes in genetic diversity of Sichuan taimen using DNA fingerprinting. The differences in genetic parameters between the present samples and historical taimens revealed their loss of genetic variation. As a result, the existing populations have lower viability, and proper management has to be implemented to preserve genetic diversity. PMID:16944294

  8. Progressive Loss of the Orexin Neurons Reveals Dual Effects on Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Abigail F.; Navidi, William; Tabuchi, Sawako; Terao, Akira; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Scammell, Thomas E.; Diniz Behn, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Narcolepsy is caused by loss of the orexin (also known as hypocretin) neurons. In addition to the orexin peptides, these neurons release additional neurotransmitters, which may produce complex effects on sleep/wake behavior. Currently, it remains unknown whether the orexin neurons promote the initiation as well as the maintenance of wakefulness, and whether the orexin neurons influence initiation or maintenance of sleep. To determine the effects of the orexin neurons on the dynamics of sleep/wake behavior, we analyzed sleep/wake architecture in a novel mouse model of acute orexin neuron loss. Methods: We used survival analysis and other statistical methods to analyze sleep/wake architecture in orexin-tTA ; TetO diphtheria toxin A mice at different stages of orexin neuron degeneration. Results: Progressive loss of the orexin neurons dramatically reduced survival of long wake bouts, but it also improved survival of brief wake bouts. In addition, with loss of the orexin neurons, mice were more likely to wake during the first 30 sec of nonrapid eye movement sleep and then less likely to return to sleep during the first 60 sec of wakefulness. Conclusions: These findings help explain the sleepiness and fragmented sleep that are characteristic of narcolepsy. Orexin neuron loss impairs survival of long wake bouts resulting in poor maintenance of wakefulness, but this neuronal loss also fragments sleep by increasing the risk of awakening at the beginning of sleep and then reducing the likelihood of quickly returning to sleep. Citation: Branch AF, Navidi W, Tabuchi S, Terao A, Yamanaka A, Scammell TE, Diniz Behn C. Progressive loss of the orexin neurons reveals dual effects on wakefulness. SLEEP 2016;39(2):369–377. PMID:26446125

  9. Loss of CSL Unlocks a Hypoxic Response and Enhanced Tumor Growth Potential in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eike-Benjamin; Tsoi, Yat Long; Phoon, Yee Peng; Landor, Sebastian; Silva Cascales, Helena; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Lindqvist, Arne; Lian, Xiaojun; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Jin, Shao-Bo; Lendahl, Urban

    2016-05-10

    Notch signaling is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation. All canonical Notch signaling is transmitted through the DNA-binding protein CSL, and hyperactivated Notch signaling is associated with tumor development; thus it may be anticipated that CSL deficiency should reduce tumor growth. In contrast, we report that genetic removal of CSL in breast tumor cells caused accelerated growth of xenografted tumors. Loss of CSL unleashed a hypoxic response during normoxic conditions, manifested by stabilization of the HIF1α protein and acquisition of a polyploid giant-cell, cancer stem cell-like, phenotype. At the transcriptome level, loss of CSL upregulated more than 1,750 genes and less than 3% of those genes were part of the Notch transcriptional signature. Collectively, this suggests that CSL exerts functions beyond serving as the central node in the Notch signaling cascade and reveals a role for CSL in tumorigenesis and regulation of the cellular hypoxic response. PMID:27066863

  10. Comparative analysis reveals loss of the appetite-regulating peptide hormone ghrelin in falcons.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2015-05-15

    Ghrelin and leptin are key peripherally secreted appetite-regulating hormones in vertebrates. Here we consider the ghrelin gene (GHRL) of birds (class Aves), where it has been reported that ghrelin inhibits rather than augments feeding. Thirty-one bird species were compared, revealing that most species harbour a functional copy of GHRL and the coding region for its derived peptides ghrelin and obestatin. We provide evidence for loss of GHRL in saker and peregrine falcons, and this is likely to result from the insertion of an ERVK retrotransposon in intron 0. We hypothesise that the loss of anorexigenic ghrelin is a predatory adaptation that results in increased food-seeking behaviour and feeding in falcons. PMID:25500363

  11. Most small bowel cancers are revealed by a complication

    PubMed Central

    Negoi, Ionut; Paun, Sorin; Hostiuc, Sorin; Stoica, Bodgan; Tanase, Ioan; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Beuran, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the pattern of primary small bowel cancers in a tertiary East-European hospital. Methods A retrospective study of patients with small bowel cancers admitted to a tertiary emergency center, over the past 15 years. Results There were 57 patients with small bowel cancer, representing 0.039% of admissions and 0.059% of laparotomies. There were 37 (64.9%) men, mean age of 58 years; and 72 years for females. Out of 57 patients, 48 (84.2%) were admitted due to an emergency situation: obstruction in 21 (38.9%), perforation in 17 (31.5%), upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 8 (14.8%), and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in 2 (3.7%). There were 10 (17.5%) duodenal tumors, 21 (36.8%) jejunal tumors and 26 (45.6%) ileal tumors. The most frequent neoplasms were gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 24 patients (42.1%), adenocarcinoma in 19 (33.3%), lymphoma in 8 (14%), and carcinoids in 2 (3.5%). The prevalence of duodenal adenocarcinoma was 14.55 times greater than that of the small bowel, and the prevalence of duodenal stromal tumors was 1.818 time greater than that of the small bowel. Obstruction was the complication in adenocarcinoma in 57.9% of cases, and perforation was the major local complication (47.8%) in stromal tumors. Conclusion Primary small bowel cancers are usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and revealed by a local complication of the tumor. Their surgical management in emergency setting is associated to significant morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:26676271

  12. Weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of overweight and obese US women.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Goodman, Michael; Patel, Alpa V; Diver, W Ryan; Flanders, W Dana; Feigelson, Heather Spencer

    2011-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk; however, it is unclear whether losing excess weight will lower risk. Therefore, we examined the relationship between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer among 13,055 overweight and obese, cancer-free women who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort in 1992. During the 15 year follow-up, 816 postmenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Self-reported weight was collected before diagnosis at baseline and 10 years prior to baseline. The median weight loss was 11 lbs, but only 58% of the women maintained this weight loss through the first 5 year follow-up interval (1992-1997). Using both restricted cubic splines and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, we observed no association between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio for 30+ pounds of weight loss compared to stable weight was 0.95 (95%: CI 0.47-1.95). An inverse association was, however, suggested among women who maintained ten or more pounds of weight loss through the next interval. There was no evidence of effect modification by postmenopausal hormone use, initial BMI, or other factors examined. In summary, weight loss was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in this study. Future studies should focus on sustained weight loss and whether the timing of weight loss is important. PMID:21327461

  13. Loss of CLCA4 Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Walia, Vijay; Elble, Randolph C.

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program in which epithelial cells downregulate their cell-cell junctions, acquire spindle cell morphology and exhibit cellular motility. In breast cancer, EMT facilitates invasion of surrounding tissues and correlates closely with cancer metastasis and relapse. We found previously that the candidate tumor suppressor CLCA2 is expressed in differentiated, growth-arrested mammary epithelial cells but is downregulated during tumor progression and EMT. We further demonstrated that CLCA2 is a p53-inducible proliferation-inhibitor whose loss indicates an increased risk of metastasis. We show here that another member of the CLCA gene family, CLCA4, is expressed in mammary epithelial cells and is similarly downregulated in breast tumors and in breast cancer cell lines. Like CLCA2, the gene is stress-inducible, and ectopic expression inhibits colony formation. Transcriptional profiling studies revealed that CLCA4 and CLCA2 together are markers for mammary epithelial differentiation, and both are downregulated by TGF beta. Moreover, knockdown of CLCA4 in immortalized cells by shRNAs caused downregulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and CLCA2, while mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin were upregulated. Double knockdown of CLCA2 and CLCA4 enhanced the mesenchymal profile. These findings suggest that CLCA4 and CLCA2 play complementary but distinct roles in epithelial differentiation. Clinically, low expression of CLCA4 signaled lower relapse-free survival in basal and luminal B breast cancers. PMID:24386311

  14. Evolutionary loss of cone photoreception in balaenid whales reveals circuit stability in the mammalian retina.

    PubMed

    Schweikert, Lorian E; Fasick, Jeffry I; Grace, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    The classical understanding of mammalian vision is that it occurs through "duplex" retinae containing both rod and cone photoreceptors, the signals from which are processed through rod- and/or cone-specific signaling pathways. The recent discovery of rod monochromacy in some cetacean lineages provides a novel opportunity to investigate the effects of an evolutionary loss of cone photoreception on retinal organization. Sequence analysis of right whale (Eubalaena glacialis; family Balaenidae) cDNA derived from long-wavelength sensitive (LWS) cone opsin mRNA identified several mutations in the opsin coding sequence, suggesting the loss of cone cell function, but maintenance of non-photosensitive, cone opsin mRNA-expressing cells in the retina. Subsequently, we investigated the retina of the closely related bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus; family Balaenidae) to determine how the loss of cone-mediated photoreception affects light signaling pathways in the retina. Anti-opsin immunofluorescence demonstrated the total loss of cone opsin expression in B. mysticetus, whereas light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and bipolar cell (protein kinase C-α [PKC-α] and recoverin) immunofluorescence revealed the maintenance of cone soma, putative cone pedicles, and both rod and cone bipolar cell types. These findings represent the first immunological and anatomical evidence of a naturally occurring rod-monochromatic mammalian retina, and suggest that despite the loss of cone-mediated photoreception, the associated cone signaling structures (i.e., cone synapses and cone bipolar cells) may be maintained for multichannel rod-based signaling in balaenid whales. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2873-2885, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26972896

  15. A negative genetic interaction map in isogenic cancer cell lines reveals cancer cell vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Arnold, Roland; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Chandrashekhar, Megha; Buzina, Alla; Young, Jordan T F; Kwan, Julian H M; Sayad, Azin; Mero, Patricia; Lawo, Steffen; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Brown, Kevin R; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Mak, Anthony B; Fedyshyn, Yaroslav; Wang, Yadong; Brito, Glauber C; Kasimer, Dahlia; Makhnevych, Taras; Ketela, Troy; Datti, Alessandro; Babu, Mohan; Emili, Andrew; Pelletier, Laurence; Wrana, Jeff; Wainberg, Zev; Kim, Philip M; Rottapel, Robert; O'Brien, Catherine A; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Moffat, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Improved efforts are necessary to define the functional product of cancer mutations currently being revealed through large-scale sequencing efforts. Using genome-scale pooled shRNA screening technology, we mapped negative genetic interactions across a set of isogenic cancer cell lines and confirmed hundreds of these interactions in orthogonal co-culture competition assays to generate a high-confidence genetic interaction network of differentially essential or differential essentiality (DiE) genes. The network uncovered examples of conserved genetic interactions, densely connected functional modules derived from comparative genomics with model systems data, functions for uncharacterized genes in the human genome and targetable vulnerabilities. Finally, we demonstrate a general applicability of DiE gene signatures in determining genetic dependencies of other non-isogenic cancer cell lines. For example, the PTEN−/− DiE genes reveal a signature that can preferentially classify PTEN-dependent genotypes across a series of non-isogenic cell lines derived from the breast, pancreas and ovarian cancers. Our reference network suggests that many cancer vulnerabilities remain to be discovered through systematic derivation of a network of differentially essential genes in an isogenic cancer cell model. PMID:24104479

  16. [Prostate cancer and Cancer Treatment-Induced Bone Loss(CTIBL)].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Osteopenia and osteoporosis often become the long term complications in cancer treatment and is defined as cancer treatment-induced bone loss(CTIBL). Hormonal therapy is the main factor for CTIBL in both men and women. Androgen deprivation therapy(ADT)is a mainstay in the systemic therapy for prostate cancer(PC)and often persists for a long term. ADT induces bone loss and increases the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures, which reduces QOL of the patients, results in the need of nursing care state and a serious adverse event to be connected for shortening of the overall survival. It is important that we prevent a fracture above all in the bone management of patients with PC. According to the results of overseas large-scale clinical trials, denosumab is a drug having the highest evidence level. And it is necessary to set a clear treatment objective depending on the clinical condition of the PC patients, and to use it. In the non-bone metastatic, castration-sensitive PC patients, we do it with a dose for the purpose of the prevention of osteoporosis and bone fractures, and it is demanded what a dose for the purpose of prevention and in bone metastatic, castration resistant PC patients, the reduction of symptomatic skeletal events. However, There is no benefit in prolongation of overall survival by addition of denosumab or zoledronic acid. Care for oral hygiene should be considered to avoid osteonecrosis of the jaw, oral infection and hypocalcemia. PMID:27346316

  17. PTEN loss is a context-dependent outcome determinant in obese and non-obese endometrioid endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Westin, Shannon N; Ju, Zhenlin; Broaddus, Russell R; Krakstad, Camilla; Li, Jane; Pal, Navdeep; Lu, Karen H; Coleman, Robert L; Hennessy, Bryan T; Klempner, Samuel J; Werner, Henrica M J; Salvesen, Helga B; Cantley, Lewis C; Mills, Gordon B; Myers, Andrea P

    2015-10-01

    Endometrial cancer incidence is increasing, due in part to a strong association with obesity. Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, the central relay pathway of insulin signals, occur in the majority of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, the most common form of endometrial cancer. We sought to determine the impact of PI3K pathway alterations on progression free survival in a cohort of endometrioid endometrial cancers. Prognostic utility of PIK3CA, PIK3R1, and PTEN mutations, as well as PTEN protein loss by immunohistochemistry, was explored in the context of patient body mass index. Reverse-phase protein arrays were utilized to assess protein expression based on PTEN status. Among 187 endometrioid endometrial cancers, there were no statistically significant associations between PFS and PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN mutation or loss. When stratified by body mass index, PTEN loss was associated with improved progression free survival (P < 0.006) in obese (body mass index ≥ 30) patients. PTEN loss resulted in distinct protein changes: Canonical PI3K pathway activation was observed only in the non-obese population while decreased expression of β-CATENIN and phosphorylated FOXO3A was observed in obese patients. These data suggest the impact of PTEN loss on tumor biology and clinical outcomes must be interpreted in the context of body mass index, and provide a potential explanation for discrepant reports on the effect of PTEN status and obesity on prognosis in endometrial cancer. This reveals a clinically important interaction between metabolic state and tumor genetics that may unveil the biologic underpinning of obesity-related cancers and impact ongoing clinical trials with PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:26045339

  18. Cooperation between Dmp1 Loss and Cyclin D1 Overexpression in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Sinan; Mott, Ryan T.; Fry, Elizabeth A.; Taneja, Pankaj; Kulik, George; Sui, Guangchao; Inoue, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a component of the core cell-cycle machinery and is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. It physically interacts with the tumor suppressor Dmp1 that attenuates the oncogenic signals from Ras and HER2 by inducing Arf/p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest. Currently, the biological significance of Dmp1–cyclin D1 interplay in breast cancer has not been determined. Here, we show that cyclin D1 bound to Dmp1 to activate both Arf and Ink4a promoters and, consequently, induced apoptosis or G2/M cell-cycle delay in normal cells to protect them from neoplastic transformation. The cyclin D1–induced Ink4a/Arf gene expression was dependent on Dmp1 because the induction was not detected in Dmp1-deficient or DMP1-depleted cells. Arf/Ink4a expression was increased in pre-malignant mammary glands from Dmp1+/+;MMTV-cyclin D1 and Dmp1+/+;MMTV-D1T286A mice but significantly down-regulated in those from Dmp1-deficient mice. Selective Dmp1 deletion was found in 21% of the MMTV-D1 and D1T286A mammary carcinomas, and the Dmp1 heterozygous status significantly accelerated mouse mammary tumorigenesis with reduced apoptosis and increased metastasis. Overall, our study reveals a pivotal role of combined Dmp1 loss and cyclin D1 overexpression in breast cancer. PMID:23938323

  19. Loss of photoreceptorness and gain of genomic alterations in retinoblastoma reveal tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Kooi, Irsan E.; Mol, Berber M.; Moll, Annette C.; van der Valk, Paul; de Jong, Marcus C.; de Graaf, Pim; van Mil, Saskia E.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Kaspers, Gertjan L.; te Riele, Hein; Cloos, Jacqueline; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is a pediatric eye cancer associated with RB1 loss or MYCN amplification (RB1+/+MYCNA). There are controversies concerning the existence of molecular subtypes within RB1−/− retinoblastoma. To test whether these molecular subtypes exist, we performed molecular profiling. Methods Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed on 76 primary human retinoblastomas. Expression profiling was complemented by genome-wide DNA profiling and clinical, histopathological, and ex vivo drug sensitivity data. Findings RNA and DNA profiling identified major variability between retinoblastomas. While gene expression differences between RB1+/+MYCNA and RB1−/− tumors seemed more dichotomous, differences within the RB1−/− tumors were gradual. Tumors with high expression of a photoreceptor gene signature were highly differentiated, smaller in volume and diagnosed at younger age compared with tumors with low photoreceptor signature expression. Tumors with lower photoreceptor expression showed increased expression of genes involved in M-phase and mRNA and ribosome synthesis and increased frequencies of somatic copy number alterations. Interpretation Molecular, clinical and histopathological differences between RB1−/− tumors are best explained by tumor progression, reflected by a gradual loss of differentiation and photoreceptor expression signature. Since copy number alterations were more frequent in tumors with less photoreceptorness, genomic alterations might be drivers of tumor progression. Research in context Retinoblastoma is an ocular childhood cancer commonly caused by mutations in the RB1 gene. In order to determine optimal treatment, tumor subtyping is considered critically important. However, except for very rare retinoblastomas without an RB1 mutation, there are controversies as to whether subtypes of retinoblastoma do exist. Our study shows that retinoblastomas are highly diverse but rather than reflecting distinct tumor types with

  20. Gain and Loss of Phototrophic Genes Revealed by Comparison of Two Citromicrobium Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Fogg, Paul C. M.; Beatty, J. Thomas; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Proteobacteria are thought to have diverged from a phototrophic ancestor, according to the scattered distribution of phototrophy throughout the proteobacterial clade, and so the occurrence of numerous closely related phototrophic and chemotrophic microorganisms may be the result of the loss of genes for phototrophy. A widespread form of bacterial phototrophy is based on the photochemical reaction center, encoded by puf and puh operons that typically are in a ‘photosynthesis gene cluster’ (abbreviated as the PGC) with pigment biosynthesis genes. Comparison of two closely related Citromicrobial genomes (98.1% sequence identity of complete 16S rRNA genes), Citromicrobium sp. JL354, which contains two copies of reaction center genes, and Citromicrobium strain JLT1363, which is chemotrophic, revealed evidence for the loss of phototrophic genes. However, evidence of horizontal gene transfer was found in these two bacterial genomes. An incomplete PGC (pufLMC-puhCBA) in strain JL354 was located within an integrating conjugative element, which indicates a potential mechanism for the horizontal transfer of genes for phototrophy. PMID:22558224

  1. Loss of Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Induces Radioresistance in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Woods Ignatoski, Kathleen M.; Grewal, Navdeep K.; Markwart, Sonja M.; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Yeung, Kam; Ray, Michael E.; Keller, Evan T.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy (RT) is often used in an attempt to cure localized prostate cancer (PCa), but it is only palliative against disseminated disease. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a metastasis suppressor whose expression is reduced in approximately 50% of localized PCa tissues and is absent in metastases. Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce tumor apoptosis through induction of RKIP expression. Our goal was to test whether RT similarly induces apoptosis through induction of RKIP expression. Methods and Materials: The C4-2B PCa cell line was engineered to overexpress or underexpress RKIP. The engineered cells were tested for apoptosis in cell culture and tumor regression in mice after RT. Results: RT induced both RKIP expression and apoptosis of PCa cells. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PCa cells to radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, short-hairpin targeting of RKIP, so that RT could not induce RKIP expression, protected cells from radiation-induced apoptosis. In a murine model, knockdown of RKIP in PCa cells diminished radiation-induced apoptosis. Molecular concept mapping of genes altered on manipulation of RKIP expression revealed an inverse correlation with the concept of genes altered by RT. Conclusion: The data presented in this report indicate that the loss of RKIP, as seen in primary PCa tumors and metastases, confers protection against radiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, it is conceivable that the loss of RKIP confers a growth advantage on PCa cells at distant sites, because the loss of RKIP would decrease apoptosis, favoring proliferation.

  2. Exome sequencing of a colorectal cancer family reveals shared mutation pattern and predisposition circuitry along tumor pathways

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Suleiman H.; Koko, Mahmoud E.; Nasir, Wafaa H.; Elfateh, Ommnyiah; Elgizouli, Ubai K.; Abdallah, Mohammed O. E.; Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Hussain, Ayman; Faisal, Shima; Ibrahim, Fathelrahamn M. A.; Romano, Maurizio; Sultan, Ali; Banks, Lawrence; Newport, Melanie; Baralle, Francesco; Elhassan, Ahmed M.; Mohamed, Hiba S.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular basis of cancer and cancer multiple phenotypes are not yet fully understood. Next Generation Sequencing promises new insight into the role of genetic interactions in shaping the complexity of cancer. Aiming to outline the differences in mutation patterns between familial colorectal cancer cases and controls we analyzed whole exomes of cancer tissues and control samples from an extended colorectal cancer pedigree, providing one of the first data sets of exome sequencing of cancer in an African population against a background of large effective size typically with excess of variants. Tumors showed hMSH2 loss of function SNV consistent with Lynch syndrome. Sets of genes harboring insertions–deletions in tumor tissues revealed, however, significant GO enrichment, a feature that was not seen in control samples, suggesting that ordered insertions–deletions are central to tumorigenesis in this type of cancer. Network analysis identified multiple hub genes of centrality. ELAVL1/HuR showed remarkable centrality, interacting specially with genes harboring non-synonymous SNVs thus reinforcing the proposition of targeted mutagenesis in cancer pathways. A likely explanation to such mutation pattern is DNA/RNA editing, suggested here by nucleotide transition-to-transversion ratio that significantly departed from expected values (p-value 5e-6). NFKB1 also showed significant centrality along with ELAVL1, raising the suspicion of viral etiology given the known interaction between oncogenic viruses and these proteins. PMID:26442106

  3. Analysis of cancer genomes reveals basic features of human aging and its role in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Podolskiy, Dmitriy I.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations have long been implicated in aging and disease, but their impact on fitness and function is difficult to assess. Here by analysing human cancer genomes we identify mutational patterns associated with aging. Our analyses suggest that age-associated mutation load and burden double approximately every 8 years, similar to the all-cause mortality doubling time. This analysis further reveals variance in the rate of aging among different human tissues, for example, slightly accelerated aging of the reproductive system. Age-adjusted mutation load and burden correlate with the corresponding cancer incidence and precede it on average by 15 years, pointing to pre-clinical cancer development times. Behaviour of mutation load also exhibits gender differences and late-life reversals, explaining some gender-specific and late-life patterns in cancer incidence rates. Overall, this study characterizes some features of human aging and offers a mechanism for age being a risk factor for the onset of cancer. PMID:27515585

  4. Analysis of cancer genomes reveals basic features of human aging and its role in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Podolskiy, Dmitriy I; Lobanov, Alexei V; Kryukov, Gregory V; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations have long been implicated in aging and disease, but their impact on fitness and function is difficult to assess. Here by analysing human cancer genomes we identify mutational patterns associated with aging. Our analyses suggest that age-associated mutation load and burden double approximately every 8 years, similar to the all-cause mortality doubling time. This analysis further reveals variance in the rate of aging among different human tissues, for example, slightly accelerated aging of the reproductive system. Age-adjusted mutation load and burden correlate with the corresponding cancer incidence and precede it on average by 15 years, pointing to pre-clinical cancer development times. Behaviour of mutation load also exhibits gender differences and late-life reversals, explaining some gender-specific and late-life patterns in cancer incidence rates. Overall, this study characterizes some features of human aging and offers a mechanism for age being a risk factor for the onset of cancer. PMID:27515585

  5. Loss of nuclear localization of TET2 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuji; Wang, Guanghui; Liang, Zhonglin; Yang, Yili; Cui, Long; Liu, Chen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is lost in multiple human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Decreased ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) messenger RNA (mRNA), but not other two TET family members, has been observed in the colorectal cancer and is crucial for colorectal cancer initiation. Here, we show that nuclear localization of TET2 was lost in a significant portion of CRC tissues, in association with metastasis. In CRC cells, nuclear expression of TET2 were absent but not TET3. Nuclear export inhibitor can increase the 5hmC level in CRC cells, probably through regulating TET2. Our results indicate a new mechanism of TET2 dysregulation in colorectal cancer. PMID:26816554

  6. Hierarchical Clustering of Breast Cancer Methylomes Revealed Differentially Methylated and Expressed Breast Cancer Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Dow-Tien; Chang, Yi-Feng; Lee, Yu-Ling; Su, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ching; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Ng, Swee-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Tan; Lee, Mei-Chen; Chen, Hong-Wei; Suen, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation. PMID:25706888

  7. Quetiapine inhibits osteoclastogenesis and prevents human breast cancer-induced bone loss through suppression of the RANKL-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongkai; Shen, Weiwei; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Zhuo, Yunyun; Li, Tao; Mei, Feng; Li, Xinmin; Xiao, Lan; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-02-01

    Bone loss is one of the major complications of advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. Extensive research has revealed that the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), which is considered to be a key factor in osteoclast differentiation, plays an important role in cancer-associated bone resorption. Therefore, agents that can suppress this bone loss have therapeutic potential. In this study, we detected whether quetiapine (QUE), a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug, can inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and prevent human breast cancer-induced bone loss in vivo. RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were used to detect inhibitory effect of QUE on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to bone was used to test suppressive effect of QUE on breast cancer-induced bone loss in vivo. Our results show that QUE can inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from RAW 264.7 cells and BMMs without signs of cytotoxicity. Moreover, QUE reduced the occurrence of MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic bone loss by suppressing the differentiation of osteoclasts. Finally, molecular analysis revealed that it is by inhibiting RANKL-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways that QUE suppressed the osteoclast differentiation. We demonstrate, for the first time, the novel suppressive effects of QUE on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and human breast cancer-induced bone loss in vivo, suggesting that QUE may be a potential therapeutic drug for osteolysis treatment. PMID:25667102

  8. Prostate Cancer Induced by Loss of Apc Is Restrained by TGFβ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bjerke, Glen A.; Pietrzak, Karolina; Melhuish, Tiffany A.; Frierson Jr., Henry F.; Paschal, Bryce M.; Wotton, David

    2014-01-01

    Recent work with mouse models of prostate cancer (CaP) has shown that inactivation of TGFβ signaling in prostate epithelium can cooperate with deletion of the Pten tumor suppressor to drive locally aggressive cancer and metastatic disease. Here, we show that inactivating the TGFβ pathway by deleting the gene encoding the TGFβ type II receptor (Tgfbr2) in combination with a deletion of the Apc tumor suppressor gene specifically in mouse prostate epithelium, results in the rapid onset of invasive CaP. Micro-metastases were observed in the lymph nodes and lungs of a proportion of the double mutant mice, whereas no metastases were observed in Apc single mutant mice. Prostate-specific Apc;Tgfbr2 mutants had a lower frequency of metastasis and survived significantly longer than Pten;Tgfbr2 double mutants. However, all Apc;Tgfbr2 mutants developed invasive cancer by 30 weeks of age, whereas invasive cancer was rarely observed in Apc single mutant animals, even by one year of age. Further comparison of the Pten and Apc models of CaP revealed additional differences, including adenosquamous carcinoma in the Apc;Tgfbr2 mutants that was not seen in the Pten model, and a lack of robust induction of the TGFβ pathway in Apc null prostate. In addition to causing high-grade prostate intra-epithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), deletion of either Pten or Apc induced senescence in affected prostate ducts, and this restraint was overcome by loss of Tgfbr2. In summary, this work demonstrates that TGFβ signaling restrains the progression of CaP induced by different tumor suppressor mutations, suggesting that TGFβ signaling exerts a general tumor suppressive effect in prostate. PMID:24651496

  9. Prognostic value of PTEN loss in men with conservatively managed localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, J; Yang, Z H; Fisher, G; Tikishvili, E; Stone, S; Lanchbury, J S; Camacho, N; Merson, S; Brewer, D; Cooper, C S; Clark, J; Berney, D M; Møller, H; Scardino, P; Sangale, Z

    2013-01-01

    Background: The natural history of prostate cancer is highly variable and difficult to predict. We report on the prognostic value of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) loss in a cohort of 675 men with conservatively managed prostate cancer diagnosed by transurethral resection of the prostate. Methods: The PTEN status was assayed by immunohistochemistry (PTEN IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (PTEN FISH). The primary end point was death from prostate cancer. Results: The PTEN IHC loss was observed in 18% cases. This was significantly associated with prostate cancer death in univariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR)=3.51; 95% CI 2.60–4.73; P=3.1 × 10−14). It was highly predictive of prostate cancer death in the 50% of patients with a low risk score based on Gleason score, PSA, Ki-67 and extent of disease (HR=7.4; 95% CI 2.2–24.6; P=0.012) ), but had no prognostic value in the higher risk patients. The PTEN FISH loss was only weakly associated with PTEN IHC loss (κ=0.5). Both PTEN FISH loss and amplification were univariately predictive of death from prostate cancer, but this was not maintained in the multivariate analyses. Conclusion: In low-risk patients, PTEN IHC loss adds prognostic value to Gleason score, PSA, Ki-67 and extent of disease. PMID:23695019

  10. Illustrating the (in)visible: Understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required. PMID:25148936

  11. Loss of CADM1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and brain metastasis in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Felicitas; Pollari, Sirkku; Kropidlowski, Jolanthe; Sielaff-Frimpong, Bettina; Glatzel, Markus; Matschke, Jakob; Westphal, Manfred; Iljin, Kristiina; Huhtala, Heini; Terracciano, Luigi; Kallioniemi, Anne; Sauter, Guido; Müller, Volkmar; Witzel, Isabell; Lamszus, Katrin; Kemming, Dirk; Pantel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) are detected with increasing incidence. In order to detect potential genes involved in BCBM, we first screened for genes down-regulated by methylation in cell lines with site-specific metastatic ability. The expression of five genes, CADM1, SPARC, RECK, TNFAIP3 and CXCL14, which were also found down-regulated in gene expression profiling analyses of BCBM tissue samples, was verified by qRT-PCR in a larger patient cohort. CADM1 was chosen for further down-stream analyses. A higher incidence of CADM1 methylation, correlating with lower expression levels, was found in BCBM as compared to primary BC. Loss of CADM1 protein expression was detected most commonly among BCBM samples as well as among primary tumors with subsequent brain relapse. The prognostic role of CADM1 expression was finally verified in four large independent breast cancer cohorts (n=2136). Loss of CADM1 protein expression was associated with disease stage, lymph node status, and tumor size in primary BC. Furthermore, all analyses revealed a significant association between loss of CADM1 and shorter survival. In multivariate analyses, survival was significantly shorter among patients with CADM1-negative tumors. Loss of CADM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor especially associated with the development of brain metastases in breast cancer patients. PMID:24833255

  12. Keeping It in the Family: ATRX Loss Promotes Persistent Sister Telomere Cohesion in ALT Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Roake, Caitlin M; Artandi, Steven E

    2015-09-14

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ramamoorthy and Smith report that cancer cells that maintain their chromosome ends through alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) display persistent sister telomere cohesion. This delayed resolution of sister telomere cohesion depends upon the loss of ATRX and its histone-sequestering function and is associated with increased recombination between sister telomeres. PMID:26373274

  13. Cancer of Unknown Primary Finally Revealed to Be a Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Yeon; Shim, Eun Jin; Kim, In Seon; Nam, Eun Mi; Choi, Moon Young; Lee, Kyung Eun; Mun, Yeung Chul; Seoung, Chu Myoung; Song, Dong Eun; Han, Woon Sup

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer present with bone metastases and high prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. Rarely, prostate cancer can develop in patients with normal PSA level. Here, we report a patient who presented with a periureteral tumor of unknown primary site that was confirmed as prostate adenocarcinoma after three years with using specific immunohistochemical examination. A 64-year old man was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain associated with masses on the left pelvic cavity with left hydronephrosis. All tumor markers including CEA, CA19-9, and PSA were within the normal range. After an exploratory mass excision and left nephrectomy, the pelvic mass was diagnosed as poorly differentiated carcinoma without specific positive immunohistochemical markers. At that time, we treated him as having a cancer of unknown primary site. After approximately three years later, he revisited the hospital with a complaint of right shoulder pain. A right scapular mass was newly detected with a high serum PSA level (101.7 ng/ml). Tissues from the scapular mass and prostate revealed prostate cancer with positive immunoreactivity for P504S, a new prostate cancer-specific gene. The histological findings were the same as the previous pelvic mass; however, positive staining for PSA was observed only in the prostate mass. This case demonstrates a patient with prostate cancer and negative serological test and tissue staining that turned out to be positive during progression. We suggest the usefulness of newly developed immunohistochemical markers such as P504S to determine the specific primary site of metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in men. PMID:19688071

  14. SNP Array Analysis Reveals Novel Genomic Abnormalities Including Copy Neutral Loss of Heterozygosity in Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas

    PubMed Central

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Dehais, Caroline; Courdy, Célia; Carpentier, Catherine; de Bernard, Simon; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Mokhtari, Karima; Jouvet, Anne; Honnorat, Jérôme; Chinot, Olivier; Ramirez, Carole; Beauchesne, Patrick; Benouaich-Amiel, Alexandra; Godard, Joël; Eimer, Sandrine; Parker, Fabrice; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Colin, Philippe; Loussouarn, Delphine; Faillot, Thierry; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Elouadhani-Hamdi, Selma; Bauchet, Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Fontaine, Denys; Vauleon, Elodie; Menei, Philippe; Fotso, Marie Janette Motsuo; Desenclos, Christine; Verelle, Pierre; Ghiringhelli, François; Noel, Georges; Labrousse, François; Carpentier, Antoine; Dhermain, Frédéric; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD) are rare glial tumors in adults with relative homogeneous clinical, radiological and histological features at the time of diagnosis but dramatically various clinical courses. Studies have identified several molecular abnormalities with clinical or biological relevance to AOD (e.g. t(1;19)(q10;p10), IDH1, IDH2, CIC and FUBP1 mutations). To better characterize the clinical and biological behavior of this tumor type, the creation of a national multicentric network, named “Prise en charge des OLigodendrogliomes Anaplasiques (POLA),” has been supported by the Institut National du Cancer (InCA). Newly diagnosed and centrally validated AOD patients and their related biological material (tumor and blood samples) were prospectively included in the POLA clinical database and tissue bank, respectively. At the molecular level, we have conducted a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, which included 83 patients. Despite a careful central pathological review, AOD have been found to exhibit heterogeneous genomic features. A total of 82% of the tumors exhibited a 1p/19q-co-deletion, while 18% harbor a distinct chromosome pattern. Novel focal abnormalities, including homozygously deleted, amplified and disrupted regions, have been identified. Recurring copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (CNLOH) inducing the modulation of gene expression have also been discovered. CNLOH in the CDKN2A locus was associated with protein silencing in 1/3 of the cases. In addition, FUBP1 homozygous deletion was detected in one case suggesting a putative tumor suppressor role of FUBP1 in AOD. Our study showed that the genomic and pathological analyses of AOD are synergistic in detecting relevant clinical and biological subgroups of AOD. PMID:23071531

  15. Genomic Analysis Reveals the Molecular Basis for Capsule Loss in the Group B Streptococcus Population

    PubMed Central

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B. Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl trasferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity. PMID:25946017

  16. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    PubMed

    Rosini, Roberto; Campisi, Edmondo; De Chiara, Matteo; Tettelin, Hervé; Rinaudo, Daniela; Toniolo, Chiara; Metruccio, Matteo; Guidotti, Silvia; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens; Ramirez, Mario; Janulczyk, Robert; Donati, Claudio; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity. PMID:25946017

  17. Clonal dynamics following p53 loss of heterozygosity in Kras-driven cancers.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Mandar Deepak; Dorans, Kimberly Judith; Chung, Katherine Minjee; Robbins, Rebecca; Tammela, Tuomas; Gocheva, Vasilena; Li, Carman Man-Chung; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Although it has become increasingly clear that cancers display extensive cellular heterogeneity, the spatial growth dynamics of genetically distinct clones within developing solid tumours remain poorly understood. Here we leverage mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) to trace subclonal populations retaining or lacking p53 within oncogenic Kras-initiated lung and pancreatic tumours. In both models, p53 constrains progression to advanced adenocarcinomas. Comparison of lineage-related p53 knockout and wild-type clones reveals a minor role of p53 in suppressing cell expansion in lung adenomas. In contrast, p53 loss promotes both the initiation and expansion of low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs), likely through differential expression of the p53 regulator p19ARF. Strikingly, lineage-related cells are often dispersed in lung adenomas and PanINs, contrasting with more contiguous growth of advanced subclones. Together, these results support cancer type-specific suppressive roles of p53 in early tumour progression and offer insights into clonal growth patterns during tumour development. PMID:27585860

  18. Antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ashwani; Leitzel, Kim; Ali, Suhail; Lipton, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Cancer treatment-induced bone loss treatment has an important role to prevent bone loss-related events like fracture, significant morbidity, mortality, disfigurement and loss of self-esteem, and health-care expenditure. Numerous factors, including treatment regimens and bone metastasis, increase the risk of osteoporosis or local bone destruction in most breast and prostate cancer patients. Cytotoxic chemotherapies, radiation, and hormonal therapies can lead to premature menopause and decrease bone mineral density. Over 60 % of breast cancer patients within 1 year of beginning postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy experience ovarian failure. Also, ovarian ablation and aromatase inhibitors used to treat breast cancer and orchiectomy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; to treat prostate cancer) cause substantial bone loss. In this article, we will focus mainly on antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). An understanding of CTIBL is critical for determining how to assess the risk and identify which patients may benefit from preventive therapy. PMID:25575469

  19. Association between Tooth Loss and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong; Zhao, Ke; Huang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Si-Yang; Peng, Ju-Xiang; Song, Ju-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies showed that tooth loss is associated with gastric cancer, but the findings are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between tooth loss and gastric cancer. Relevant studies were screened in PubMed and Embase databases, and nine observational studies were considered eligible for the analysis. The combined relative risks for the highest versus the lowest categories of tooth loss were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.08–3.21) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.12–1.53) in case control and cohort studies, respectively. However, unstable results were observed in the stratified and sensitivity analysis. The current evidence, based solely on four case-control studies and five cohort studies, suggested that tooth loss is a potential marker of gastric cancer. However, we can not concluded at this time that tooth loss may be a risk factor for gastric cancer due to significant heterogeneity among studies and mixed results between case-control studies and cohort studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are required to evaluate the association between tooth loss and risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26934048

  20. Tissue components of weight loss in cancer patients. A new method of study and preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; McManus, C B

    1985-01-01

    A new approach using anthropometric, radiographic, biochemical, and ultrasonic methods allowed partition of body weight into fat, fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, and volume of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and tumor. These methods were used to evaluate body composition longitudinally in a pilot group of nine cancer patients, seven of whom lost weight (greater than 2.5 kg) during the study period. Two control groups also underwent the protocol: (1) healthy subjects (+/- 10% IBW) of similar age, sex, and height; and (2) patients with weight loss due to anorexia nervosa. Weight loss in both the cancer and anorexia nervosa groups could be accounted for primarily by loss in fat and skeletal muscle; although the relative magnitude of these tissue losses were approximately the same in both groups, cancer patients lost relatively less body weight. This was because (1) overt or occult ascites (detected radiographically) was present in cancer patients (3 of 9); (2) tumor bulk increased fat-free mass by up to 1 to 2 kg; and (3) the proportional loss in visceral organ volume was less in cancer patients than in anorexia nervosa patients. In the latter group, heart, liver, kidneys, and spleen were reduced in proportion to body weight, whereas in the cancer group as a whole, these organs (when uninvolved with tumor) lost little (heart and kidneys) or no volume (liver and spleen). This initial study suggests that the principal endogenous energy and nitrogen sources during evolution of weight loss in cancer are primarily adipose tissue triglycerides and skeletal muscle proteins. In some cancer patients, fluid accumulation, a large tumor burden, and the slow rate of visceral organ atrophy make body weight an unreliable index of available energy-nitrogen reserves. PMID:3965090

  1. [(Neurological CPC-59). A 65-year-old man with a history of gastric cancer who presented progressive loss of vision, memory loss and consciousness disturbance].

    PubMed

    Nohara, C; Matsumine, H; Suzuki, K; Saito, A; Ohtaka, M; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Hayakawa, M; Kanai, J; Mizuno, Y

    1997-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old man with progressive loss of vision and consciousness disturbance. The patient was well until his age of 63 when he was found to have a gastric cancer. He was treated by the tumor resection and chemotherapy; he was apparently well, but hepatic metastases were found in the next year (1996). In June, 1996, he noted an onset of blurred vision more on the left. He was admitted to the ophthalmology service of our hospital on July 14, 1996. His vision was 0.8 on the right and 0.15 on the left. He was treated with oral prednisolone with slight improvement. He was also found to have IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy; Bence-Jones protein was positive and a bone marrow aspiration revealed that approximately 10% of bone marrow cells were atypical plasma cells. His vision had progressively got worse and he became blind by the end of October 1996. A chest X-ray and cranial CT scan revealed multiple abnormal nodular densities. In the middle of November 1996, he became confused, disoriented and agitated. His mental symptoms had progressively became worse, and a neurologic consultation was asked on December 10, 1996. Neurologic examination revealed that he was somnolent with decreased attention to his surroundings. He showed marked disorientation and memory loss. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. He was able to recognize only light and dark. Pupils were moderately dilated with very sluggish light reflex remained. Vertical gaze was moderately restricted and horizontal nystagmus was noted upon left and right lateral gaze. The remaining of the neurologic examination were unremarkable. General physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly; the liver was palpable by 3 cm below the right costal margin. Laboratory examination revealed anemia (Hb10.1 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (43,000/microliter). A cranial CT scan and MRI revealed a mass lesion in involving the chiasmatic and bilateral hypothalamic areas. The tumor showed intense homogeneous

  2. Breast Cancer and Osteoporosis – Management of Cancer Treatment-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalder, Matthias; Hadji, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Summary The incidence of breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal women is continuously rising. Due to early diagnosis and various treatment designs, the long-term clinical outcome has improved. Frequent settings are chemotherapy as well as endocrine treatment. Both have proven to interfere with bone health resulting in cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). Whereas chemotherapy is associated with increased bone resorption, aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy reduces residual estrogen and is associated with decreased bone mineral density. Independent of the AI administered, the loss of bone mineral density is twice as high compared to healthy postmenopausal women. As a consequence of CTIBL, both chemotherapy and AI treatment can lead to a significantly increased fracture risk. Therefore, several guidelines have emerged for the management of CTIBL in women with BC, including strategies to identify and treat those at high risk for fractures. Further research on tracking guideline adherence examining the feasibility and practicability of guideline implementation to bridge the gap between determined scientific best evidence and applied best practice is needed to adjust these guidelines in the future. PMID:25759610

  3. The Effects of Revealed Information on Catastrophe Loss Projection Models' Characterization of Risk: Damage Vulnerability Evidence from Florida.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Bradley; Medders, Lorilee A; Maroney, Patrick F

    2016-06-01

    We examine whether the risk characterization estimated by catastrophic loss projection models is sensitive to the revelation of new information regarding risk type. We use commercial loss projection models from two widely employed modeling firms to estimate the expected hurricane losses of Florida Atlantic University's building stock, both including and excluding secondary information regarding hurricane mitigation features that influence damage vulnerability. We then compare the results of the models without and with this revealed information and find that the revelation of additional, secondary information influences modeled losses for the windstorm-exposed university building stock, primarily evidenced by meaningful percent differences in the loss exceedance output indicated after secondary modifiers are incorporated in the analysis. Secondary risk characteristics for the data set studied appear to have substantially greater impact on probable maximum loss estimates than on average annual loss estimates. While it may be intuitively expected for catastrophe models to indicate that secondary risk characteristics hold value for reducing modeled losses, the finding that the primary value of secondary risk characteristics is in reduction of losses in the "tail" (low probability, high severity) events is less intuitive, and therefore especially interesting. Further, we address the benefit-cost tradeoffs that commercial entities must consider when deciding whether to undergo the data collection necessary to include secondary information in modeling. Although we assert the long-term benefit-cost tradeoff is positive for virtually every entity, we acknowledge short-term disincentives to such an effort. PMID:26720056

  4. Expression and Functional Significance of HtrA1 Loss in Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Sally A.; Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi; Rattan, Ramandeep; Khurana, Ashwani; Clayton, Amy; Ota, Takayo; Mariani, Andrea; Podratz, Karl C.; Chien, Jeremy; Shridhar, Viji

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if loss of serine protease HtrA1 in endometrial cancer will promote the invasive potential of EC cell lines. Experimental design Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine HtrA1 expression in EC cell lines and primary tumors, respectively. Migration, invasion assays and in vivo xenograft experiment were performed to compare the extent of metastasis between HtrA1 expressing and HtrA-1 knocked down clones. Results Western blot analysis of HtrA1 in 13 EC cell lines revealed complete loss of HtrA1 expression in all 7 papillary serous EC cell lines. Downregulation of HtrA1 in Hec1A and Hec1B cell lines resulted in a 3-4 fold increase in the invasive potential. Exogenous expression of HtrA1 in Ark 1 and Ark 2 cells resulted in 3-4 fold decrease in both invasive and migration potential of these cells. There was an increased rate of metastasis to the lungs associated with HtrA1 downregulation in Hec1B cells compared to control cells with endogenous HtrA1 expression. Enhanced expression of HtrA1 in Ark 2 cells resulted in significantly less tumor nodules metastasizing to the lungs compared to parental or protease deficient (SA mutant) Ark 2 cells. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed 57% (105/184) of primary EC tumors had low HtrA1 expression. The association of low HtrA1 expression with high-grade endometrioid tumors was statistically significant (p=0.016). Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate loss of HtrA1 may contribute to the aggressiveness and metastatic ability of endometrial tumors. PMID:21098697

  5. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  6. Revealing the Complexity of Breast Cancer by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Verigos, John; Magklara, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years the increasing usage of “-omic” platforms, supported by next-generation sequencing, in the analysis of breast cancer samples has tremendously advanced our understanding of the disease. New driver and passenger mutations, rare chromosomal rearrangements and other genomic aberrations identified by whole genome and exome sequencing are providing missing pieces of the genomic architecture of breast cancer. High resolution maps of breast cancer methylomes and sequencing of the miRNA microworld are beginning to paint the epigenomic landscape of the disease. Transcriptomic profiling is giving us a glimpse into the gene regulatory networks that govern the fate of the breast cancer cell. At the same time, integrative analysis of sequencing data confirms an extensive intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity and plasticity in breast cancer arguing for a new approach to the problem. In this review, we report on the latest findings on the molecular characterization of breast cancer using NGS technologies, and we discuss their potential implications for the improvement of existing therapies. PMID:26561834

  7. Biomolecular Events in Cancer Revealed by Attractor Metagenes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei-Yi; Yang, Tai-Hsien Ou; Anastassiou, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Mining gene expression profiles has proven valuable for identifying signatures serving as surrogates of cancer phenotypes. However, the similarities of such signatures across different cancer types have not been strong enough to conclude that they represent a universal biological mechanism shared among multiple cancer types. Here we present a computational method for generating signatures using an iterative process that converges to one of several precise attractors defining signatures representing biomolecular events, such as cell transdifferentiation or the presence of an amplicon. By analyzing rich gene expression datasets from different cancer types, we identified several such biomolecular events, some of which are universally present in all tested cancer types in nearly identical form. Although the method is unsupervised, we show that it often leads to attractors with strong phenotypic associations. We present several such multi-cancer attractors, focusing on three that are prominent and sharply defined in all cases: a mesenchymal transition attractor strongly associated with tumor stage, a mitotic chromosomal instability attractor strongly associated with tumor grade, and a lymphocyte-specific attractor. PMID:23468608

  8. Loss of antigenicity with tissue age in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Combs, Susan E; Han, Gang; Mani, Nikita; Beruti, Susan; Nerenberg, Michael; Rimm, David L

    2016-03-01

    Archived tumor specimens, particularly those collected by large cooperative groups and trials, provide a wealth of material for post hoc clinical investigation. As these tissues are rigorously collected and preserved for many decades, subsequent use of the specimens to answer clinical questions must rely on the assumption that expression and detection of target biomarkers are not degraded with time. To test this assumption, we measured the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 in human breast carcinoma using quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in a series of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from 1295 individual patients preserved for 7 to 53 years in four cohorts on tissue microarrays. Protein expression was measured using the automated quantitative analysis method for QIF. Change in quantitative protein expression over time was estimated in positive cases using both Pearson's correlation and a polynomial regression analysis with a random effects model. The average signal decreased with preservation time for all biomarkers measured. For ER and HER2, there was an average of 10% signal loss after 9.9 years and 8.5 years, respectively, compared with the most recent tissue. Detection of Ki67 expression was lost more rapidly, with 10% signal loss in just 4.5 years. Overall, these results demonstrate the need for adjustment of tissue age when studying FFPE biospecimens. The rate of antigenicity loss is biomarker specific and should be considered as an important variable for studies using archived tissues. PMID:26568292

  9. Genomic Interaction Profiles in Breast Cancer Reveal Altered Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Zeitz, Michael J.; Ay, Ferhat; Heidmann, Julia D.; Lerner, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Gene transcription can be regulated by remote enhancer regions through chromosome looping either in cis or in trans. Cancer cells are characterized by wholesale changes in long-range gene interactions, but the role that these long-range interactions play in cancer progression and metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we used IGFBP3, a gene involved in breast cancer pathogenesis, as bait in a 4C-seq experiment comparing normal breast cells (HMEC) with two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, an ER positive cell line, and MDA-MB-231, a triple negative cell line). The IGFBP3 long-range interaction profile was substantially altered in breast cancer. Many interactions seen in normal breast cells are lost and novel interactions appear in cancer lines. We found that in HMEC, the breast carcinoma amplified sequence gene family (BCAS) 1–4 were among the top 10 most significantly enriched regions of interaction with IGFBP3. 3D-FISH analysis indicated that the translocation-prone BCAS genes, which are located on chromosomes 1, 17, and 20, are in close physical proximity with IGFBP3 and each other in normal breast cells. We also found that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a gene implicated in tumorigenesis, interacts significantly with IGFBP3 and that this interaction may play a role in their regulation. Breakpoint analysis suggests that when an IGFBP3 interacting region undergoes a translocation an additional interaction detectable by 4C is gained. Overall, our data from multiple lines of evidence suggest an important role for long-range chromosomal interactions in the pathogenesis of cancer. PMID:24019942

  10. Loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes and chromosome 9 karyotypic abnormalities in human bladder cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, J.; Proffitt, J.; Roberts, P.; Smith, B.; Selby, P.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of cell cycle control through the structural or functional aberration of checkpoint genes and their products is a potentially important process in carcinogenesis. In this study, a panel of well-characterised established human bladder cancer cell lines was screened by the polymerase chain reaction for homozygous loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes p15, p16 and p27. The results demonstrate that, whereas there was no genetic loss of p27, homozygous deletion of both p15 and p16 genes occurred in seven of 13 (54%) independent bladder cell lines tested. Differential loss of either the p15 or p16 gene was not seen. The p15 and p16 genes are known to be juxtaposed on chromosome 9p21 at the locus of a putative tumour-suppressor gene involved in the initiation of bladder cancer. Cytogenetic analysis of the cell lines revealed karyotypes ranging from near diploid to near pentaploid with complex rearrangements of some chromosomes and a high prevalence of chromosome 9p rearrangements, although all cell lines contained at least one cytogenetically normal 9p21 region. These observations support a role for p15/p16 gene inactivation in bladder carcinogenesis and/or the promotion of cell growth in vitro and lend support to the hypothesis that homozygous deletion centred on 9p21 is a mechanism by which both p15 and p16 genes are co-inactivated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7577470

  11. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; et al

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and latemore » in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.« less

  12. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; Li, Yilong; Ju, Young Seok; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Lilleng, Peer Kaare; Nik-Zainal, Serena; McLaren, Stuart; Butler, Adam; Martin, Sancha; Glodzik, Dominic; Menzies, Andrew; Raine, Keiran; Hinton, Jonathan; Jones, David; Mudie, Laura J.; Jiang, Bing; Vincent, Delphine; Greene-Colozzi, April; Adnet, Pierre -Yves; Fatima, Aquila; Maetens, Marion; Ignatiadis, Michail; Stratton, Michael R.; Sotiriou, Christos; Richardson, Andrea L.; Lønning, Per Eystein; Wedge, David C.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and late in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.

  13. Plasma growth differentiation factor 15 is associated with weight loss and mortality in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Lorena; Hayes, Teresa G; Tao, Nianjun; Krieger, Brian; Feng, Bin; Wu, Zhenhua; Nicoletti, Richard; Chiu, M Isabel; Gyuris, Jeno; Garcia, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer-related weight loss is associated with increased inflammation and decreased survival. The novel inflammatory mediator growth differentiation factor (GDF)15 is associated with poor prognosis in cancer but its role in cancer-related weight loss (C-WL) remains unclear. Our objective was to measure GDF15 in plasma samples of cancer subjects and controls and establish its association with other inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes. Methods We measured body weight, appetite, plasma GDF15, and other inflammatory markers in men with cancer-related weight loss (C-WL, n = 58), weight stable patients with cancer (C-WS, n = 72), and non-cancer controls (Co, n = 59) matched by age and pre-illness body mass index. In a subset of patients we also measured handgrip strength, appendicular lean body mass (aLBM), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), and Karnofsky performance scores. Results GDF15, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were increased in C-WL versus other groups. IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, interferon–gamma, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor A were increased in C-WL versus C-WS, and Activin A was significantly downregulated in Co versus other groups. C-WL patients had lower handgrip strength, aLBM, and fat mass, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and Karnofsky performance scores were lower in both cancer groups. GDF15, IL-6, and IL-8 significantly correlated with weight loss; GDF15 negatively correlated with aLBM, handgrip strength, and fat mass. IL-8 and Activin A negatively correlated with aLBM and fat mass. GDF15 and IL-8 predicted survival adjusting for stage and weight change (Cox regression P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion GDF15 and other inflammatory markers are associated with weight loss, decreased aLBM and strength, and poor survival in patients with cancer. GDF15 may serve as a prognostic indicator in cancer patients and is being evaluated as a potential therapeutic target for

  14. Loss of tumor suppressor Merlin results in aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Bailey, Sarah K.; Metge, Brandon J.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Samant, Rajeev S.; Shevde, Lalita A.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of the tumor suppressor Merlin is compromised in nervous system malignancies due to genomic aberrations. We demonstrated for the first time, that in breast cancer, Merlin protein expression is lost due to proteasome-mediated elimination. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from patients with metastatic breast cancer revealed characteristically reduced Merlin expression. Importantly, we identified a functional role for Merlin in impeding breast tumor xenograft growth and reducing invasive characteristics. We sought to determine a possible mechanism by which Merlin accomplishes this reduction in malignant activity. We observed that breast and pancreatic cancer cells with loss of Merlin show an aberrant increase in the activity of β-catenin concomitant with nuclear localization of β-catenin. We discovered that Merlin physically interacts with β-catenin, alters the sub-cellular localization of β-catenin, and significantly reduces the protein levels of β-catenin by targeting it for degradation through the upregulation of Axin1. Consequently, restoration of Merlin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. We also present evidence that loss of Merlin sensitizes tumor cells to inhibition by compounds that target β-catenin-mediated activity. Thus, this study provides compelling evidence that Merlin reduces the malignant activity of pancreatic and breast cancer, in part by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Given the potent role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast and pancreatic cancer and the flurry of activity to test β-catenin inhibitors in the clinic, our findings are opportune and provide evidence for Merlin in restraining aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:26908451

  15. Novel tumor suppressor candidates on chromosome 3 revealed by NotI-microarrays in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Senchenko, Vera N.; Kisseljova, Natalia P.; Ivanova, Tatyana A.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krasnov, George S.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Panasenko, Grigory V.; Tsitrin, Evgeny B.; Lerman, Michael I.; Kisseljov, Fyodor L.; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations in cervical carcinomas were investigated using NotI-microarrays containing 180 cloned sequences flanking all NotI-sites associated with genes on chromosome 3. In total, 48 paired normal/tumor DNA samples, specifically enriched in NotI-sites, were hybridized to NotI-microarrays. Thirty genes, including tumor suppressors or candidates (for example, VHL, RBSP3/CTDSPL, ITGA9, LRRC3B, ALDH1L1, EPHB1) and genes previously unknown as cancer-associated (ABHD5, C3orf77, PRL32, LOC285375, FGD5 and others), showed methylation/deletion in 21–44% of tumors. The genes were more frequently altered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) than in adenocarcinomas (ADC, p < 0.01). A set of seven potential markers (LRRN1, PRICKLE2, VHL, BHLHE40, RBSP3, CGGBP1 and SOX14) is promising for discrimination of ADC and SCC. Alterations of more than 20 genes simultaneously were revealed in 23% of SCC. Bisulfite sequencing analysis confirmed methylation as a frequent event in SCC. High down-regulation frequency was shown for RBSP3, ITGA9, VILL, APRG1/C3orf35 and RASSF1 (isoform A) genes (3p21.3 locus) in SCC. Both frequency and extent of RASSF1A and RBSP3 mRNA level decrease were more pronounced in tumors with lymph node metastases compared with non-metastatic ones (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed by bisulfite sequencing that RASSF1 promoter methylation was a rare event in SCC and, for the first time, demonstrated RASSF1A down-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels without promoter methylation in tumors of this histological type. Thus, our data revealed novel tumor suppressor candidates located on chromosome 3 and a frequent loss of epigenetic stability of 3p21.3 locus in combination with down-regulation of genes in cervical cancer. PMID:23478628

  16. Sudden hearing loss due to oxaliplatin use in a patient with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, M Güven; Dizdar, Denizhan; Dizdar, Senem Kurt; Okutur, Sadi Kerem; Demir, Gökhan

    2016-08-01

    Oxaliplatin is used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. Platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents are known to be ototoxic. However, ototoxicity is rare with newer generation platinum-derived agents, such as oxaliplatin. This case report presents a rare case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss following intravenous (IV) infusion of oxaliplatin in a 64-year-old woman with advanced colon cancer. The hearing loss was severe and did not respond to treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of oxaliplatin ototoxicity. Although oxaliplatin ototoxicity is rare, physicians must be aware of this important adverse effect, and an audiometric evaluation must be performed when necessary. Patients treated with oxaliplatin should be followed closely for early signs and symptoms of hearing loss, and if hearing loss is detected, treatment should be stopped immediately. PMID:25872564

  17. Smad4 loss promotes lung cancer formation but increases sensitivity to DNA topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Haeger, S M; Thompson, J J; Kalra, S; Cleaver, T G; Merrick, D; Wang, X-J; Malkoski, S P

    2016-02-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common malignancy with a poor prognosis. Despite progress targeting oncogenic drivers, there are no therapies targeting tumor-suppressor loss. Smad4 is an established tumor suppressor in pancreatic and colon cancer; however, the consequences of Smad4 loss in lung cancer are largely unknown. We evaluated Smad4 expression in human NSCLC samples and examined Smad4 alterations in large NSCLC data sets and found that reduced Smad4 expression is common in human NSCLC and occurs through a variety of mechanisms, including mutation, homozygous deletion and heterozygous loss. We modeled Smad4 loss in lung cancer by deleting Smad4 in airway epithelial cells and found that Smad4 deletion both initiates and promotes lung tumor development. Interestingly, both Smad4(-/-) mouse tumors and human NSCLC samples with reduced Smad4 expression demonstrated increased DNA damage, whereas Smad4 knockdown in lung cancer cells reduced DNA repair and increased apoptosis after DNA damage. In addition, Smad4-deficient NSCLC cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to both chemotherapeutics that inhibit DNA topoisomerase and drugs that block double-strand DNA break repair by non-homologous end joining. In sum, these studies establish Smad4 as a lung tumor suppressor and suggest that the defective DNA repair phenotype of Smad4-deficient tumors can be exploited by specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:25893305

  18. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T.; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R.; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss. PMID:26434764

  19. Unsuspected early neuronal loss in scrapie-infected mice revealed by morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Scott, J R; Jeffrey, M; Halliday, W G

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine to what extent neuronal loss is a feature of scrapie pathology, using an experimental model in which infectivity and subsequent vacuolar lesions are well characterized but in which neuronal loss has not been previously identified. Intraocular infection with ME7 scrapie directs infection through the major projections of the optic nerve, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the contralateral side to the infected eye. Infectivity can be detected in the dLGN at 77 days post-infection and vacuolar lesions are first seen around halfway through the incubation period of 240 days. Morphometric assessment of neuron number in the dLGN was made on gallocyanin stained semi-serial sections from 5 infected and 5 normal brain-injected controls at 4 fifty-day intervals during the incubation period, and on clinically terminal mice. The number of neurons in the dLGN of the infected mice decreased steadily from around 20,000 at 50 days post-infection to under 2,000 in the terminal group. The loss was delayed in the ipsilateral dLGN, although terminal counts were the same for both sides. The onset of neuronal loss was coincident with initial vacuolar changes, and neuronal numbers were inversely proportional to the severity of vacuolation. It is concluded that scrapie infection causes a progressive neuronal loss that can be identified some 30-80 days after infectivity can be detected in the dLGN, long before the onset of clinical disease. PMID:8030955

  20. Citrus unshiu peel extract alleviates cancer-induced weight loss in mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical feature of cancer-induced cachexia, caused by pro-cachectic factors secreted by host cells and tumor cells. Therefore, blockade of these factors has considered a reasonable target for pharmacological and nutritional interventions to prevent skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia. Citrus unshiu peel (CUP) has been used for treating the common cold, dyspepsia, and bronchial discomfort and reported to have pharmacological activities against inflammation, allergy, diabetes, and viral infection. In the present study, we observed that daily oral administration of water extract of CUP (WCUP) to male BALB/c mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma remarkably reduced the losses in final body weight, carcass weight, gastrocnemius muscle, epididymal adipose tissue, and hemoglobin (Hb), compared with saline treatment. The levels of serum IL-6 and muscle-specific E3 ligases elevated by tumor burden were also considerably reduced by WCUP administration. In an in vitro experiment, WCUP efficiently suppressed the production of pro-cachectic cytokines in immune cells as well as cancer cells. In addition, WCUP treatment attenuated C2C12 skeletal muscle cell atrophy caused by cancer cells. These findings collectively suggest that WCUP is beneficial as a nutritional supplement for the management of cancer patients with severe weight loss. PMID:27064118

  1. Citrus unshiu peel extract alleviates cancer-induced weight loss in mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical feature of cancer-induced cachexia, caused by pro-cachectic factors secreted by host cells and tumor cells. Therefore, blockade of these factors has considered a reasonable target for pharmacological and nutritional interventions to prevent skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia. Citrus unshiu peel (CUP) has been used for treating the common cold, dyspepsia, and bronchial discomfort and reported to have pharmacological activities against inflammation, allergy, diabetes, and viral infection. In the present study, we observed that daily oral administration of water extract of CUP (WCUP) to male BALB/c mice bearing CT-26 adenocarcinoma remarkably reduced the losses in final body weight, carcass weight, gastrocnemius muscle, epididymal adipose tissue, and hemoglobin (Hb), compared with saline treatment. The levels of serum IL-6 and muscle-specific E3 ligases elevated by tumor burden were also considerably reduced by WCUP administration. In an in vitro experiment, WCUP efficiently suppressed the production of pro-cachectic cytokines in immune cells as well as cancer cells. In addition, WCUP treatment attenuated C2C12 skeletal muscle cell atrophy caused by cancer cells. These findings collectively suggest that WCUP is beneficial as a nutritional supplement for the management of cancer patients with severe weight loss. PMID:27064118

  2. PTEN Protein Loss and Clinical Outcome from Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Abiraterone Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Riisnaes, Ruth; Miranda, Susana; Figueiredo, Ines; Rescigno, Pasquale; Ravi, Praful; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Lorente, David; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Mateo, Joaquin; Altavilla, Amelia; Sideris, Spyridon; Bianchini, Diletta; Grist, Emily; Thway, Khin; Perez Lopez, Raquel; Tunariu, Nina; Parker, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Reid, Alison; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) occurs frequently in prostate cancers. Preclinical evidence suggests that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling through loss of PTEN can result in resistance to hormonal treatment in prostate cancer. Objective To explore the antitumor activity of abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with and without loss of PTEN protein expression. Design, setting, and participants We retrospectively identified patients who had received abiraterone and had hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and/or CRPC tissue available for PTEN immunohistochemical analysis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary end point was overall survival from initiation of abiraterone treatment. Relationship with outcome was analyzed using multivariate Cox regression and log-rank analyses. Results and limitations A total of 144 patients were identified who had received abiraterone post-docetaxel and had available tumor tissue. Overall, loss of PTEN expression was observed in 40% of patients. Matched HSPC and CRPC tumor biopsies were available for 41 patients. PTEN status in CRPC correlated with HSPC in 86% of cases. Loss of PTEN expression was associated with shorter median overall survival (14 vs 21 mo; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–2.55; p = 0.004) and shorter median duration of abiraterone treatment (24 vs 28 wk; HR: 1.6; 95% CI, 1.12–2.28; p = 0.009). PTEN protein loss, high lactate dehydrogenase, and the presence of visceral metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results indicate that loss of PTEN expression was associated with worse survival and shorter time on abiraterone treatment. Further studies in larger and prospective cohorts are warranted. Patient summary PTEN is a protein often lost in prostate cancer cells. In this study we evaluated if prostate

  3. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  4. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  5. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G.; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J.; Adams, David J.; Leung, Hing Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  6. Loss, adaptation and new directions: The impact of arm morbidity on leisure activities following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roanne; Hack, Thomas F; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Tatemichi, Sue; Towers, Anna; Kwan, Winkle; Miedema, Baukje; Tilley, Andrea; Hamoline, Rita; Morrison, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    The impact of arm morbidity on leisure and quality of life is an understudied area in cancer survivorship. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively describe the impact of breast cancer-related arm morbidity on leisure participation in Canadian women. A grounded theory approach was used to generate thematic categories and a model. Drawing on participants from a larger cohort study (n = 740), 40 women with arm morbidity symptoms were purposively sampled and interviewed. Three themes emerged: a sense of loss, adapting participation, and new directions. Women with arm morbidity may experience an abrupt loss of previously enjoyed leisure activities and engage in a process of adapting to discover new meanings and directions. Comprehensive, person-centred cancer survivorship programs may assist with adaptation to arm morbidity. PMID:26642494

  7. Loss of P53 facilitates invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Y X; Kong, C Z; Zhang, Z; Zhu, Y Y

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a lethal cancer for the invasion and metastasis in its earlier period. P53 is a tumor suppressor gene which plays a critical role on safeguarding the integrity of genome. However, loss of P53 facilitates or inhibits the invasion and metastasis of tumor is still suspended. In this study, we are going to explain whether loss of P53 affect the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. To explore whether loss of P53 influences the invasion and metastasis ability of prostate cancer cells, we first compared the invasion ability of si-P53 treated cells and control cells by wound healing, transwell assay, and adhesion assay. We next tested the activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14 by western blot and gelatin zymography. Moreover, we employed WB and IF to identify the EMT containing E-cad, N-cad, vimentin, etc. We also examined the expression of cortactin, cytoskeleton, and paxillin by immunofluorescence, and tested the expression of ERK and JNK by WB. Finally, we applied WB to detect the expression of FAK, Src, and the phosphorylation of them to elucidate the mechanism of si-P53 influencing invasion and metastasis. According to the inhibition rate of si-P53, we choose the optimized volume of si-P53. With the volume, we compare the invasion and metastasis ability of Du145 and si-P53 treated cells. We find si-P53 promotes the invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer cells, increases the expression and activity of MMP-2/9 and MMP-14. Also, si-P53 promotes EMT and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Further analyses explain that this effect is associated with FAK-Src signaling pathway. Loss of P53 promotes the invasion and metastasis ability of prostate cancer cells and the mechanism is correlated with FAK-Src signaling pathway. P53 is involved in the context of invasion and metastasis. PMID:23982184

  8. Odor-Specific Loss of Smell Sensitivity with Age as Revealed by the Specific Sensitivity Test.

    PubMed

    Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Huang, Dejian

    2016-07-01

    The perception of odor mixtures plays an important role in human food intake, behavior, and emotions. Decline of smell acuity with normal aging could impact food perception and preferences at various ages. However, since the landmark Smell Survey by National Geographic, little has been elucidated on differences in the onset and extent of loss in olfactory sensitivity toward single odorants. Here, using the Specific Sensitivity test, we show the onset and extent of loss in both identification and detection thresholds of odorants with age are odorant-specific. Subjects of Chinese descent in Singapore (186 women, 95 men), aged 21-80 years, were assessed for olfactory sensitivity of 10 odorants from various odor groups. Notably, subjects in their 70s required 179 times concentration of rose-like odorant (2-phenylethanol) than subjects in the 20s, while thresholds for onion-like 2-methyloxolane-3-thiol only differed by 3 times between the age groups. In addition, identification rate for 2-phenylethanol was negatively correlated with age throughout adult life whereas mushroom-like oct-1-en-3-ol was equally identified by subjects across all ages. Our results demonstrated the girth of differentiated olfactory loss due to normal ageing, which potentially affect overall perception and preferences of odor mixtures with age. PMID:27001718

  9. Stable metal isotopes reveal copper accumulation and loss dynamics in the freshwater bivalve Corbucula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Topping, B.R.; Lopez, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of uptake and loss dynamics is critical to understanding risks associated with contaminant exposure in aquatic animals. Dynamics are especially important in addressing questions such as why coexisting species in nature accumulate different levels of a contaminant. Here we manipulated copper (Cu) stable isotopic ratios (as an alternative to radioisotopes) to describe for the first time Cu dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate, the bivalve Corbicula fluminea. In the laboratory, Corbicula uptake and loss rate constants were determined from an environmentally realistic waterborne exposure to 65Cu (5.7 ??g L-1). That is, we spiked deionized water with Cu that was 99.4% 65Cu. Net tracer uptake was detectable after 1 day and strongly evident after 4 days. Thus, short-term exposures necessary to determine uptake dynamics are feasible with stable isotopes of Cu. In Corbicula, 65Cu depuration was biphasic. An unusually low rate constant of loss (0.0038 d-1) characterized the slow component of efflux, explaining why Corbicula strongly accumulates copper in nature. We incorporated our estimates of rate constants for dissolved 65Cu uptake and physiological efflux into a bioaccumulation model and showed that dietary exposure to Cu is likely an important bioaccumulation pathway for Corbicula.

  10. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Vennin, Claire; Herrmann, David; Lucas, Morghan C; Timpson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression. PMID:27239290

  11. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Morghan C.; Timpson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression. PMID:27239290

  12. Loss of the oligosaccharyl transferase subunit TUSC3 promotes proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vaňhara, Petr; Horak, Peter; Pils, Dietmar; Anees, Mariam; Petz, Michaela; Gregor, Wolfgang; Zeillinger, Robert; Krainer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Consequences of deregulated protein N-glycosylation on cancer pathogenesis are poorly understood. TUSC3 is a gene with a putative function in N-glycosylation, located on the short arm of chromosome 8. This is a chromosomal region of frequent genetic loss in ovarian cancer. We established recently that the expression of TUSC3 is epigenetically decreased in epithelial ovarian cancer compared to benign controls and provides prognostic information on patient survival. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of silenced TUSC3 expression on proliferation, invasion and migration of ovarian cell lines. In addition, we performed subcellular fractionation, co-immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments to establish the molecular localization of TUSC3 in ovarian cancer cells. We demonstrated that TUSC3 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum as a subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex and is capable of modulation of glycosylation patterning of ovarian cancer cells. Most importantly, silencing of TUSC3 enhances proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Our observations suggest a role for N-glycosylating events in ovarian cancer pathogenesis in general, and identify TUSC3 as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer in particular. PMID:23404293

  13. What can digital transcript profiling reveal about human cancers?

    PubMed

    Cerutti, J M; Riggins, G J; de Souza, S J

    2003-08-01

    Important biological and clinical features of malignancy are reflected in its transcript pattern. Recent advances in gene expression technology and informatics have provided a powerful new means to obtain and interpret these expression patterns. A comprehensive approach to expression profiling is serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), which provides digital information on transcript levels. SAGE works by counting transcripts and storing these digital values electronically, providing absolute gene expression levels that make historical comparisons possible. SAGE produces a comprehensive profile of gene expression and can be used to search for candidate tumor markers or antigens in a limited number of samples. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project has created a SAGE database of human gene expression levels for many different tumors and normal reference tissues and provides online tools for viewing, comparing, and downloading expression profiles. Digital expression profiling using SAGE and informatics have been useful for identifying genes that have a role in tumor invasion and other aspects of tumor progression. PMID:12886451

  14. Genomic Profiling of Advanced-Stage Oral Cancers Reveals Chromosome 11q Alterations as Markers of Poor Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Srikant; Gerstung, Moritz; Gowda, Ravindra; Pai, Prathamesh; Borges, Anita M.; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Mahimkar, Manoj B.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying oral cancer lesions associated with high risk of relapse and predicting clinical outcome remain challenging questions in clinical practice. Genomic alterations may add prognostic information and indicate biological aggressiveness thereby emphasizing the need for genome-wide profiling of oral cancers. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization was performed to delineate the genomic alterations in clinically annotated primary gingivo-buccal complex and tongue cancers (n = 60). The specific genomic alterations so identified were evaluated for their potential clinical relevance. Copy-number changes were observed on chromosomal arms with most frequent gains on 3q (60%), 5p (50%), 7p (50%), 8q (73%), 11q13 (47%), 14q11.2 (47%), and 19p13.3 (58%) and losses on 3p14.2 (55%) and 8p (83%). Univariate statistical analysis with correction for multiple testing revealed chromosomal gain of region 11q22.1–q22.2 and losses of 17p13.3 and 11q23–q25 to be associated with loco-regional recurrence (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, and P = 0.0003) and shorter survival (P = 0.009, P = 0.003, and P 0.0001) respectively. The gain of 11q22 and loss of 11q23-q25 were validated by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (I-FISH). This study identifies a tractable number of genomic alterations with few underlying genes that may potentially be utilized as biological markers for prognosis and treatment decisions in oral cancers. PMID:21386901

  15. TUSC3 Loss Alters the ER Stress Response and Accelerates Prostate Cancer Growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Peter; Tomasich, Erwin; Vaňhara, Petr; Kratochvílová, Kateřina; Anees, Mariam; Marhold, Maximilian; Lemberger, Christof E.; Gerschpacher, Marion; Horvat, Reinhard; Sibilia, Maria; Pils, Dietmar; Krainer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in developed countries. Tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3) has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer, though its function has not been characterized. TUSC3 shares homologies with the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex subunit Ost3p, suggesting a role in protein glycosylation. We provide evidence that TUSC3 is part of the OST complex and affects N-linked glycosylation in mammalian cells. Loss of TUSC3 expression in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines leads to increased proliferation, migration and invasion as well as accelerated xenograft growth in a PTEN negative background. TUSC3 downregulation also affects endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure and stress response, which results in increased Akt signaling. Together, our findings provide first mechanistic insight in TUSC3 function in prostate carcinogenesis in general and N-glycosylation in particular.

  16. Exome sequencing reveals novel BCS1L mutations in siblings with hearing loss and hypotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Duo, Lina; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yin, Jinghua; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Jiahui; Dai, Lanlan; Liu, Xuanzhu; Zhang, Jianguo; Yang, Yong; Tang, Zhanli

    2015-07-15

    As a powerful tool to identify the molecular pathogenesis of Mendelian disorders, exome sequencing was used to identify the genetic basis of two siblings with hearing loss and hypotrichosis and clarify the diagnosis. No pathogenic mutations in GJB2, GJB3 and GJB6 genes were found in the siblings. By analysis of exome of the proband, we identified a novel missense (p.R306C) mutation and a nonsense (p.R186*) mutation in the BCS1L gene. Mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The siblings were compound heterozygotes, and the inheritance mode of autosomal recessive was postulated. BCS1L is the causative gene of Björnstad syndrome, which is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pili torti. The longitudinal gutters along the hair shaft were found by scanning electron microscopy in our patient. Therefore the diagnosis of Björnstad syndrome was eventually made for the patients. Our study extends the phenotypic spectrum of Björnstad syndrome and highlights the clinical applicability of exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool for atypical Mendelian disorders. PMID:25895478

  17. Targeted cancer exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tenedini, E; Bernardis, I; Artusi, V; Artuso, L; Roncaglia, E; Guglielmelli, P; Pieri, L; Bogani, C; Biamonte, F; Rotunno, G; Mannarelli, C; Bianchi, E; Pancrazzi, A; Fanelli, T; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, G; Ferrari, S; Manfredini, R; Vannucchi, A M; Tagliafico, E

    2014-05-01

    With the intent of dissecting the molecular complexity of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we designed a target enrichment panel to explore, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the mutational status of an extensive list of 2000 cancer-associated genes and microRNAs. The genomic DNA of granulocytes and in vitro-expanded CD3+T-lymphocytes, as a germline control, was target-enriched and sequenced in a learning cohort of 20 MPN patients using Roche 454 technology. We identified 141 genuine somatic mutations, most of which were not previously described. To test the frequency of the identified variants, a larger validation cohort of 189 MPN patients was additionally screened for these mutations using Ion Torrent AmpliSeq NGS. Excluding the genes already described in MPN, for 8 genes (SCRIB, MIR662, BARD1, TCF12, FAT4, DAP3, POLG and NRAS), we demonstrated a mutation frequency between 3 and 8%. We also found that mutations at codon 12 of NRAS (NRASG12V and NRASG12D) were significantly associated, for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), with highest dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS)-plus score categories. This association was then confirmed in 66 additional PMF patients composing a final dataset of 168 PMF showing a NRAS mutation frequency of 4.7%, which was associated with a worse outcome, as defined by the DIPSS plus score. PMID:24150215

  18. Integrative analyses reveal signaling pathways underlying familial breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Stephen R; Hoffman, Laura M; Conner, Thomas; Shrestha, Gajendra; Cohen, Adam L; Marks, Jeffrey R; Neumayer, Leigh A; Agarwal, Cori A; Beckerle, Mary C; Andrulis, Irene L; Spira, Avrum E; Moos, Philip J; Buys, Saundra S; Johnson, William Evan; Bild, Andrea H

    2016-03-01

    The signaling events that drive familial breast cancer (FBC) risk remain poorly understood. While the majority of genomic studies have focused on genetic risk variants, known risk variants account for at most 30% of FBC cases. Considering that multiple genes may influence FBC risk, we hypothesized that a pathway-based strategy examining different data types from multiple tissues could elucidate the biological basis for FBC. In this study, we performed integrated analyses of gene expression and exome-sequencing data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and showed that cell adhesion pathways are significantly and consistently dysregulated in women who develop FBC. The dysregulation of cell adhesion pathways in high-risk women was also identified by pathway-based profiling applied to normal breast tissue data from two independent cohorts. The results of our genomic analyses were validated in normal primary mammary epithelial cells from high-risk and control women, using cell-based functional assays, drug-response assays, fluorescence microscopy, and Western blotting assays. Both genomic and cell-based experiments indicate that cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion processes seem to be disrupted in non-malignant cells of women at high risk for FBC and suggest a potential role for these processes in FBC development. PMID:26969729

  19. Coping Styles of Female Adolescent Cancer Patients with Potential Fertility Loss

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403

  20. Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in human prostate cancer through loss of ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byron H.; Taylor, Margaret G.; Robinet, Peggy; Smith, Jonathan D.; Schweitzer, Jessica; Sehayek, Ephraim; Falzarano, Sara M.; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Klein, Eric A.; Ting, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic data show that low serum cholesterol level as well as statin use is associated with a decreased risk of developing aggressive or advanced prostate cancer, suggesting a role for cholesterol in aggressive prostate cancer development. Intracellular cholesterol promotes prostate cancer progression as a substrate for de novo androgen synthesis and through regulation of AKT signaling. By performing next-generation sequencing-based DNA methylome analysis, we have discovered marked hypermethylation at the promoter of the major cellular cholesterol efflux transporter, ABCA1, in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. ABCA1 promoter hypermethylation renders the promoter unresponsive to trans-activation and leads to elevated cholesterol levels in LNCaP. ABCA1 promoter hypermethylation is enriched in intermediate to high grade prostate cancers and not detectable in benign prostate. Remarkably, ABCA1 down-regulation is evident in all prostate cancers examined, and expression levels are inversely correlated with Gleason grade. Our results suggest cancer-specific ABCA1 hypermethylation and loss of protein expression direct high intracellular cholesterol levels and hence contribute to an environment conducive to tumor progression. PMID:23233737

  1. Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 Associates with Weight Loss and Poor Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Peter; Henjes, Frauke; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Darmanis, Spyros; Dahlman, Ingrid; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Naredi, Peter; Agustsson, Thorhallur; Lundholm, Kent; Nilsson, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC. PMID:25898255

  2. Weight Loss Interventions for Breast Cancer Survivors: Impact of Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J.; Sedlacek, Scot M.; Playdon, Mary C.; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N.; Paul, Devchand; Lakoski, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Body weight management is not emphasized in clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, reflecting the lack of evidence that weight loss improves prognosis. Even if this situation changes, the optimal design for weight loss interventions is unclear. We conducted a 6-month non-randomized, controlled weight loss intervention in 249 post-menopausal breast cancer survivors. This paper reports effects on two secondary endpoints, change in body weight and composition. Participants were predominantly non-Hispanic whites (89%) with a mean age of 54.9 ± 9.2 years, a mean BMI of 29.0 ± 2.6 kg/m: 2 and an average of 43 ± 5% body fat. Two dietary interventions, low fat or low carbohydrate, were investigated and consisted of a 42 day cycle of menus and recipes. Weight loss counseling and anthropometric assessment were provided at monthly clinic visits. One hundred ninety-two women completed the trial (77% retention). In comparison to the nonintervention control, both intervention arms achieved significant decreases in body weight (12.5%), body fat (27.5%), waist circumference (9.5%), and hip circumference (7.8%) (all p < 0.001) with minimal effects on lean mass (1.3% decrease). Median time to 5 and 10% weight loss was 2 (95% confidence interval = 1 to 3) and 4 (95% confidence interval = 3 to 5) months, respectively, and 23% of participants experienced ≥ 15% weight loss. Loss of body weight and fat mass was rapid and substantial irrespective of dietary approach when a structured program was provided with monthly anthropometric assessment and weight loss counseling. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01315483 PMID:26010254

  3. Imprinted survival genes preclude loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 7 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Boot, Arnoud; Oosting, Jan; de Miranda, Noel Fcc; Zhang, Yinghui; Corver, Willem E; van de Water, Bob; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The genomes of a wide range of cancers, including colon, breast, and thyroid cancers, frequently show copy number gains of chromosome 7 and rarely show loss of heterozygosity. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Strikingly, oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinomas can display an extreme genomic profile, with homozygosity of all chromosomes except for chromosome 7. The observation that homozygosity of chromosome 7 is never observed suggests that retention of heterozygosity is essential for cells. We hypothesized that cell survival genes are genetically imprinted on either of two copies of chromosome 7, which thwarts loss of heterozygosity at this chromosome in cancer cells. By employing a DNA methylation screen and gene expression analysis, we identified six imprinted genes that force retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7. Subsequent knockdown of gene expression showed that CALCR, COPG2, GRB10, KLF14, MEST, and PEG10 were essential for cancer cell survival, resulting in reduced cell proliferation, G1 -phase arrest, and increased apoptosis. We propose that imprinted cell survival genes provide a genetic basis for retention of chromosome 7 heterozygosity in cancer cells. The monoallelically expressed cell survival genes identified in this study, and the cellular pathways that they are involved in, offer new therapeutic targets for the treatment of tumours showing retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27265324

  4. LKB1 loss promotes endometrial cancer progression via CCL2-dependent macrophage recruitment.

    PubMed

    Peña, Christopher G; Nakada, Yuji; Saatcioglu, Hatice D; Aloisio, Gina M; Cuevas, Ileana; Zhang, Song; Miller, David S; Lea, Jayanthi S; Wong, Kwok-Kin; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Amelio, Antonio L; Brekken, Rolf A; Castrillon, Diego H

    2015-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women. For most patients in whom the disease is confined to the uterus, treatment results in successful remission; however, there are no curative treatments for tumors that have progressed beyond the uterus. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 has been identified as a potent suppressor of uterine cancer, but the biological modes of action of LKB1 in this context remain incompletely understood. Here, we have shown that LKB1 suppresses tumor progression by altering gene expression in the tumor microenvironment. We determined that LKB1 inactivation results in abnormal, cell-autonomous production of the inflammatory cytokine chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) within tumors, which leads to increased recruitment of macrophages with prominent tumor-promoting activities. Inactivation of Ccl2 in an Lkb1-driven mouse model of endometrial cancer slowed tumor progression and increased survival. In human primary endometrial cancers, loss of LKB1 protein was strongly associated with increased CCL2 expression by tumor cells as well as increased macrophage density in the tumor microenvironment. These data demonstrate that CCL2 is a potent effector of LKB1 loss in endometrial cancer, creating potential avenues for therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26413869

  5. LKB1 loss promotes endometrial cancer progression via CCL2-dependent macrophage recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Christopher G.; Nakada, Yuji; Saatcioglu, Hatice D.; Aloisio, Gina M.; Cuevas, Ileana; Zhang, Song; Miller, David S.; Lea, Jayanthi S.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Amelio, Antonio L.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Castrillon, Diego H.

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women. For most patients in whom the disease is confined to the uterus, treatment results in successful remission; however, there are no curative treatments for tumors that have progressed beyond the uterus. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 has been identified as a potent suppressor of uterine cancer, but the biological modes of action of LKB1 in this context remain incompletely understood. Here, we have shown that LKB1 suppresses tumor progression by altering gene expression in the tumor microenvironment. We determined that LKB1 inactivation results in abnormal, cell-autonomous production of the inflammatory cytokine chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) within tumors, which leads to increased recruitment of macrophages with prominent tumor-promoting activities. Inactivation of Ccl2 in an Lkb1-driven mouse model of endometrial cancer slowed tumor progression and increased survival. In human primary endometrial cancers, loss of LKB1 protein was strongly associated with increased CCL2 expression by tumor cells as well as increased macrophage density in the tumor microenvironment. These data demonstrate that CCL2 is a potent effector of LKB1 loss in endometrial cancer, creating potential avenues for therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26413869

  6. Copy neutral loss of heterozygosity is more frequent in older ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Brent; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A.; Spillman, Monique A.; De, Subhajyoti

    2013-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a common type of genomic alterations in ovarian cancer. Analyzing 74,415 copy neutral LOH events in 513 serous ovarian adenocarcinomas samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas, we report that the frequency of LOH events increases with age. Similar trend is observed for chromosome 17, which is frequently implicated in ovarian cancer. The results are consistent when we analyze data from the Boston High-grade serous cancer (HGSC) cohort. We further show that germ line and somatic mutations in BRCA1 (in chromosome 17) and BRCA2 (in chromosome 13) loci are not necessary to establish the pattern. We also report significant age-related changes in expression patterns for several genes in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway such as BRCA1, RAD50, RAD52, XRCC2, XRCC3, and MRE11A in these patient samples. Furthermore, we develop a metric for pathway-level imbalance, and show that increased imbalance in the HR pathway i.e. increase in expression of some HR genes and decrease in expression of others - is common, and correlates significantly with the frequency of LOH events in the patient samples. Taken together, it is highly likely that aging and deregulation of HR pathway contribute to the increased incidence of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:23716468

  7. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. The relationship between weight loss and interleukin 6 in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Scott, H R; McMillan, D C; Crilly, A; McArdle, C S; Milroy, R

    1996-06-01

    Markers of the inflammatory response, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, albumin and full blood count, were measured in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (n = 21) with and without weight loss ( > 5%). There were significant increases in circulating C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), interleukin 6 (P < 0.01) and platelets (P < 0.01) in the weight-losing group. Moreover, there was a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.785, P < 0.001) between interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein concentrations. These results are consistent with interleukin 6 and the acute phase response promoting weight loss in NSCLC. PMID:8664130

  9. Integrative analysis reveals disease-associated genes and biomarkers for prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is one of the most common complex diseases with high leading cause of death in men. Identifications of prostate cancer associated genes and biomarkers are thus essential as they can gain insights into the mechanisms underlying disease progression and advancing for early diagnosis and developing effective therapies. Methods In this study, we presented an integrative analysis of gene expression profiling and protein interaction network at a systematic level to reveal candidate disease-associated genes and biomarkers for prostate cancer progression. At first, we reconstructed the human prostate cancer protein-protein interaction network (HPC-PPIN) and the network was then integrated with the prostate cancer gene expression data to identify modules related to different phases in prostate cancer. At last, the candidate module biomarkers were validated by its predictive ability of prostate cancer progression. Results Different phases-specific modules were identified for prostate cancer. Among these modules, transcription Androgen Receptor (AR) nuclear signaling and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway were shown to be the pathway targets for prostate cancer progression. The identified candidate disease-associated genes showed better predictive ability of prostate cancer progression than those of published biomarkers. In context of functional enrichment analysis, interestingly candidate disease-associated genes were enriched in the nucleus and different functions were encoded for potential transcription factors, for examples key players as AR, Myc, ESR1 and hidden player as Sp1 which was considered as a potential novel biomarker for prostate cancer. Conclusions The successful results on prostate cancer samples demonstrated that the integrative analysis is powerful and useful approach to detect candidate disease-associate genes and modules which can be used as the potential biomarkers for prostate cancer progression. The

  10. Radio Observations Reveal the Mass Loss History of Type Ibc Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellons, Sarah; Soderberg, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present extensive radio observations of the nearby Type Ibc supernovae 2004cc, 2004gq, and 2004dk spanning Δ t≈ 8-1800 days after explosion. Using a dynamical model developed for synchrotron emission from a slightly decelerated blastwave, we estimate the velocity and energy of the fastest ejecta and the density profile of the circumstellar medium. The blastwaves for all three supernovae are characterized by non-relativistic velocities of v≈ (0.1-25)c and associated energies of E≈ (2-10)× 1047 erg, in line with the expectations for a typical homologous explosion. Smooth, stellar wind density profiles are indicated by the early radio data and we estimate the progenitor mass loss rates to be ∘ M≈ (8-40)× 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 (wind velocity, vw=103 km s-1). These properties are consistent with those of Wolf-Rayet stars, the favored progenitors of SNe Ibc including those associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts. However, at late time, each of these SNe show evidence for abrupt radio variability which we attribute to significant circumstellar density modulations (factor of 5-100) at radii of R≈ (1-50)× 1016 cm. For SN 2004gq, the density modulations are marginally consistent with the expectations for a variable and/or clumpy Wolf-Rayet line-driven wind. However, in the case of SNe 2004cc and 2004dk, the density modulations are more intense, ∘ M>/ 10-4M⊙ yr-1, and possibly attributed to continuum-driven winds or hydrodynamic eruptions. We compare the circumstellar environments for these three SNe with those of other Type Ibc supernovae and nearby gamma-ray bursts and find that they are characterized by a more violent progenitor mass loss history in the decades leading up to explosion. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  11. Genome sequence of Thermofilum pendens reveals an exceptional loss of biosynthetic pathways without genome reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Anderson, Iain; Rodriguez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S.; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Detter, Chris; Zhulin, Igor B.; Olsen, Gary J.; Whitman, William; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching, hyperthermophilic member of the order Thermoproteales within the archaeal kingdom Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It is an extracellular commensal, requiring an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. In fact T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than obligate intracellular parasites, although it does not display other features common among obligate parasites and thus does not appear to be in the process of becoming a parasite. It appears that T. pendens has adapted to life in an environment rich in nutrients. T. pendens was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have a transporter of the phosphotransferase system. In addition to fermentation, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein. Predicted highly expressed proteins do not include housekeeping genes, and instead include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins.

  12. Genome Sequence of Thermofilum pendens Reveals an Exceptional Loss of Biosynthetic Pathways without Genome Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Rodriquez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke; Elkins, James G; Mavromatis, K; Lykidis, A; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Detter, J C; Zhulin, Igor B; Olsen, Gary; Whitman, W. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching member of class Thermoproteales of Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first Crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have transporters of the phosphotransferase system. T. pendens is known to require an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than any other free-living organism. In addition to heterotrophy, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein from a new subfamily. Predicted highly expressed proteins include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins, suggesting that defense against viruses is a high priority.

  13. Revealing the electronic structure of the iron pnictides with electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, J. C.; Zhou, W.; Chisholm, M. F.; Prange, M. P.; Sefat, A. S.; McGuire, M. A.; Sales, B. C.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2011-03-01

    We report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies of the parent compounds (LnFeAsO, Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd) using scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find that all the studied LnFeAsO present a Fe L-edge fine structure closer to that of metallic iron than iron oxides. We observe a direct correlation between the Fe valence state (obtained from EELS) and TC , i.e. the smaller the calculated Fe valence state, the larger is the TC for that compound. We also find an anomalous crystallographic orientation-dependence of the Ln M45 edge fine structure. In particular, we find difference in the apparent crystal field splitting of Ce and Gd f- bands when the spectra are collected parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. This research was partially supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-0938330 (JCI, WZ), by ORNL's Shared Research Equipment (SHaRE) User Facility, which is sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (JCI) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. Department of Energy (MC, ASS, MAM, BCS & SJP), DOE grant DE- F002-09ER46554 (MP, STP), and by the McMinn Endowment (STP) at Vanderbilt University.

  14. Loss of Modifier of Cell Adhesion Reveals a Pathway Leading to Axonal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Peto, Charles A.; Shelton, G. Diane; Mizisin, Andrew; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Schubert, David

    2009-01-01

    Axonal dysfunction is the major phenotypic change in many neurodegenerative diseases, but the processes underlying this impairment are not clear. Modifier of cell adhesion (MOCA) is a presenilin binding protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1. The loss of MOCA in mice leads to axonal degeneration and causes sensorimotor impairments by decreasing cofilin phosphorylation and altering its upstream signaling partners LIM kinase and p21-activated kinase, an enzyme directly downstream of Rac1. The dystrophic axons found in MOCA-deficient mice are associated with abnormal aggregates of neurofilament protein, the disorganization of the axonal cytoskeleton, and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and polyubiquitinated proteins. Furthermore, MOCA deficiency causes an alteration in the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of cofilin-containing rod-like structures. The dystrophic axons show functional abnormalities, including impaired axonal transport. These findings demonstrate that MOCA is required for maintaining the functional integrity of axons and define a model for the steps leading to axonal degeneration. PMID:19129390

  15. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  16. An international survey of physician attitudes and practice in regard to revealing the diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Holland, J C; Geary, N; Marchini, A; Tross, S

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, questionnaires were sent to members of the International Psycho-Oncology Society concerning the practice in their country with regard to revealing the diagnosis of cancer to patients, their opinion about the effect of their policy, and their impression of local trends and attitudes toward cancer. Data from 90 respondents from 20 countries revealed that use of the word "cancer" was often avoided in discussions with the patient. Words commonly substituted for cancer were those that implied a "swelling" (e.g., tumor, growth, lump), and "inflammation," or a pathophysiologic change (blood disease, precancerous, unclean tissue). Oncologists estimated that a low percentage (less than 40%) of their colleagues revealed the word cancer in Africa, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Panama, Portugal, and Spain. Oncologists from Austria, Denmark Finland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, estimated the percentage to be high (greater than 80%). However, in all countries, the majority of physicians tell the family the diagnosis. The majority (90%) reported a trend toward increased telling of the diagnosis, due to greater patient information and expectations, and increased physician openess in using the word cancer. Most (68%) felt that the overall effect of revealing the diagnosis was positive. While emotional distress was transiently greater when patients were told, there were positive effects concerning coping, compliance, tolerance of treatment, planning for future, communication with physicians and others, and improved prognosis. The transient negative effects were depression, anxiety, and anger. It is important to recognize that efforts to find the "correct" position about revealing or concealing cancer diagnosis must recognize that the language between doctor and patient is constrained by cultural norms. Communication is likely to be far less dependent upon the specific words used then upon the meaning that is conveyed by the doctor. PMID

  17. Mutational Strand Asymmetries in Cancer Genomes Reveal Mechanisms of DNA Damage and Repair.

    PubMed

    Haradhvala, Nicholas J; Polak, Paz; Stojanov, Petar; Covington, Kyle R; Shinbrot, Eve; Hess, Julian M; Rheinbay, Esther; Kim, Jaegil; Maruvka, Yosef E; Braunstein, Lior Z; Kamburov, Atanas; Hanawalt, Philip C; Wheeler, David A; Koren, Amnon; Lawrence, Michael S; Getz, Gad

    2016-01-28

    Mutational processes constantly shape the somatic genome, leading to immunity, aging, cancer, and other diseases. When cancer is the outcome, we are afforded a glimpse into these processes by the clonal expansion of the malignant cell. Here, we characterize a less explored layer of the mutational landscape of cancer: mutational asymmetries between the two DNA strands. Analyzing whole-genome sequences of 590 tumors from 14 different cancer types, we reveal widespread asymmetries across mutagenic processes, with transcriptional ("T-class") asymmetry dominating UV-, smoking-, and liver-cancer-associated mutations and replicative ("R-class") asymmetry dominating POLE-, APOBEC-, and MSI-associated mutations. We report a striking phenomenon of transcription-coupled damage (TCD) on the non-transcribed DNA strand and provide evidence that APOBEC mutagenesis occurs on the lagging-strand template during DNA replication. As more genomes are sequenced, studying and classifying their asymmetries will illuminate the underlying biological mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. PMID:26806129

  18. A Balanced Tissue Composition Reveals New Metabolic and Gene Expression Markers in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tessem, May-Britt; Bertilsson, Helena; Angelsen, Anders; Bathen, Tone F.; Drabløs, Finn; Rye, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis of patient tissue samples is essential to characterize the in vivo variability in human cancers which are not accessible in cell-lines or animal models. This applies particularly to studies of tumor metabolism. The challenge is, however, the complex mixture of various tissue types within each sample, such as benign epithelium, stroma and cancer tissue, which can introduce systematic biases when cancers are compared to normal samples. In this study we apply a simple strategy to remove such biases using sample selections where the average content of stroma tissue is balanced between the sample groups. The strategy is applied to a prostate cancer patient cohort where data from MR spectroscopy and gene expression have been collected from and integrated on the exact same tissue samples. We reveal in vivo changes in cancer-relevant metabolic pathways which are otherwise hidden in the data due to tissue confounding. In particular, lowered levels of putrescine are connected to increased expression of SRM, reduced levels of citrate are attributed to upregulation of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis, and increased succinate levels coincide with reduced expression of SUCLA2 and SDHD. In addition, the strategy also highlights important metabolic differences between the stroma, epithelium and prostate cancer. These results show that important in vivo metabolic features of cancer can be revealed from patient data only if the heterogeneous tissue composition is properly accounted for in the analysis. PMID:27100877

  19. A Balanced Tissue Composition Reveals New Metabolic and Gene Expression Markers in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tessem, May-Britt; Bertilsson, Helena; Angelsen, Anders; Bathen, Tone F; Drabløs, Finn; Rye, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis of patient tissue samples is essential to characterize the in vivo variability in human cancers which are not accessible in cell-lines or animal models. This applies particularly to studies of tumor metabolism. The challenge is, however, the complex mixture of various tissue types within each sample, such as benign epithelium, stroma and cancer tissue, which can introduce systematic biases when cancers are compared to normal samples. In this study we apply a simple strategy to remove such biases using sample selections where the average content of stroma tissue is balanced between the sample groups. The strategy is applied to a prostate cancer patient cohort where data from MR spectroscopy and gene expression have been collected from and integrated on the exact same tissue samples. We reveal in vivo changes in cancer-relevant metabolic pathways which are otherwise hidden in the data due to tissue confounding. In particular, lowered levels of putrescine are connected to increased expression of SRM, reduced levels of citrate are attributed to upregulation of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis, and increased succinate levels coincide with reduced expression of SUCLA2 and SDHD. In addition, the strategy also highlights important metabolic differences between the stroma, epithelium and prostate cancer. These results show that important in vivo metabolic features of cancer can be revealed from patient data only if the heterogeneous tissue composition is properly accounted for in the analysis. PMID:27100877

  20. Loss of PTEN stabilizes the lipid modifying enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2α via AKT in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vignarajan, Soma; Xie, Chanlu; Yao, Mu; Sun, Yuting; Simanainen, Ulla; Sved, Paul; Liu, Tao; Dong, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant increase in pAKT, due to a gain-of-function mutation of PI3K or loss-of-function mutation or deletion of PTEN, occurs in prostate cancer and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is a lipid modifying enzyme by catalyzing the hydrolysis of membrane arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites contribute to survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We examined whether AKT plays a role in promoting cPLA2α action in prostate cancer cells. We found a concordant increase in pAKT and cPLA2α levels in prostate tissue of prostate epithelial-specific PTEN-knockout but not PTEN-wide type mice. Restoration of PTEN expression or inhibition of PI3K action decreased cPLA2α expression in PTEN-mutated or deleted prostate cancer cells. An increase in AKT by Myr-AKT elevated cPLA2α protein levels, which could be diminished by inhibition of AKT phosphorylation without noticeable change in total AKT levels. pAKT levels had no influence on cPLA2α at mRNA levels but reduced cPLA2α protein degradation. Anti-AKT antibody co-immunoprecipitated cPLA2α and vice versa. Hence, AKT plays a role in enhancing cPLA2α protein stability in PTEN-null prostate cancer cells, revealing a link between oncogenic pathway and lipid metabolism. PMID:25026288

  1. Gain- and Loss-of-Function Mutations in the Breast Cancer Gene GATA3 Result in Differential Drug Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mair, Barbara; Konopka, Tomasz; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Sleiman, Katia; Salic, Sejla; Serra, Violeta; Muellner, Markus K; Theodorou, Vasiliki; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of somatic mutations in cancer genes provide information about their functional role in tumourigenesis, and thus indicate their potential for therapeutic exploitation. Yet, the classical distinction between oncogene and tumour suppressor may not always apply. For instance, TP53 has been simultaneously associated with tumour suppressing and promoting activities. Here, we uncover a similar phenomenon for GATA3, a frequently mutated, yet poorly understood, breast cancer gene. We identify two functional classes of frameshift mutations that are associated with distinct expression profiles in tumours, differential disease-free patient survival and gain- and loss-of-function activities in a cell line model. Furthermore, we find an estrogen receptor-independent synthetic lethal interaction between a GATA3 frameshift mutant with an extended C-terminus and the histone methyltransferases G9A and GLP, indicating perturbed epigenetic regulation. Our findings reveal important insights into mutant GATA3 function and breast cancer, provide the first potential therapeutic strategy and suggest that dual tumour suppressive and oncogenic activities are more widespread than previously appreciated. PMID:27588951

  2. Whole-exome sequencing combined with functional genomics reveals novel candidate driver cancer genes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Han; Cheung, Lydia W T; Li, Jie; Ju, Zhenlin; Yu, Shuangxing; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Dogruluk, Turgut; Lu, Yiling; Liu, Xiuping; Gu, Chao; Guo, Wei; Scherer, Steven E; Carter, Hannah; Westin, Shannon N; Dyer, Mary D; Verhaak, Roeland G W; Zhang, Fan; Karchin, Rachel; Liu, Chang-Gong; Lu, Karen H; Broaddus, Russell R; Scott, Kenneth L; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B

    2012-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, with more than 280,000 cases occurring annually worldwide. Although previous studies have identified important common somatic mutations in endometrial cancer, they have primarily focused on a small set of known cancer genes and have thus provided a limited view of the molecular basis underlying this disease. Here we have developed an integrated systems-biology approach to identifying novel cancer genes contributing to endometrial tumorigenesis. We first performed whole-exome sequencing on 13 endometrial cancers and matched normal samples, systematically identifying somatic alterations with high precision and sensitivity. We then combined bioinformatics prioritization with high-throughput screening (including both shRNA-mediated knockdown and expression of wild-type and mutant constructs) in a highly sensitive cell viability assay. Our results revealed 12 potential driver cancer genes including 10 tumor-suppressor candidates (ARID1A, INHBA, KMO, TTLL5, GRM8, IGFBP3, AKTIP, PHKA2, TRPS1, and WNT11) and two oncogene candidates (ERBB3 and RPS6KC1). The results in the "sensor" cell line were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines. Focusing on ARID1A, we integrated mutation profiles with functional proteomics in 222 endometrial cancer samples, demonstrating that ARID1A mutations frequently co-occur with mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and are associated with PI3K pathway activation. siRNA knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines increased AKT phosphorylation supporting ARID1A as a novel regulator of PI3K pathway activity. Our study presents the first unbiased view of somatic coding mutations in endometrial cancer and provides functional evidence for diverse driver genes and mutations in this disease. PMID:23028188

  3. Loss of FOXA1 Drives Sexually Dimorphic Changes in Urothelial Differentiation and Is an Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Opal L; Cates, Justin M; Gellert, Lan L; Crist, Henry S; Yang, Zhaohai; Yamashita, Hironobu; Taylor, John A; Smith, Joseph A; Chang, Sam S; Cookson, Michael S; You, Chaochen; Barocas, Daniel A; Grabowska, Magdalena M; Ye, Fei; Wu, Xue-Ru; Yi, Yajun; Matusik, Robert J; Kaestner, Klaus H; Clark, Peter E; DeGraff, David J

    2015-05-01

    We previously found loss of forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) expression to be associated with aggressive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, as well as increased tumor proliferation and invasion. These initial findings were substantiated by The Cancer Genome Atlas, which identified FOXA1 mutations in a subset of bladder cancers. However, the prognostic significance of FOXA1 inactivation and the effect of FOXA1 loss on urothelial differentiation remain unknown. Application of a univariate analysis (log-rank) and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that loss of FOXA1 expression is an independent predictor of decreased overall survival. An ubiquitin Cre-driven system ablating Foxa1 expression in urothelium of adult mice resulted in sex-specific histologic alterations, with male mice developing urothelial hyperplasia and female mice developing keratinizing squamous metaplasia. Microarray analysis confirmed these findings and revealed a significant increase in cytokeratin 14 expression in the urothelium of the female Foxa1 knockout mouse and an increase in the expression of a number of genes normally associated with keratinocyte differentiation. IHC confirmed increased cytokeratin 14 expression in female bladders and additionally revealed enrichment of cytokeratin 14-positive basal cells in the hyperplastic urothelial mucosa in male Foxa1 knockout mice. Analysis of human tumor specimens confirmed a significant relationship between loss of FOXA1 and increased cytokeratin 14 expression. PMID:25907831

  4. Loss of FOXA1 Drives Sexually Dimorphic Changes in Urothelial Differentiation and Is an Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Opal L.; Cates, Justin M.; Gellert, Lan L.; Crist, Henry S.; Yang, Zhaohai; Yamashita, Hironobu; Taylor, John A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Chang, Sam S.; Cookson, Michael S.; You, Chaochen; Barocas, Daniel A.; Grabowska, Magdalena M.; Ye, Fei; Wu, Xue-Ru; Yi, Yajun; Matusik, Robert J.; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Clark, Peter E.; DeGraff, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously found loss of forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) expression to be associated with aggressive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, as well as increased tumor proliferation and invasion. These initial findings were substantiated by The Cancer Genome Atlas, which identified FOXA1 mutations in a subset of bladder cancers. However, the prognostic significance of FOXA1 inactivation and the effect of FOXA1 loss on urothelial differentiation remain unknown. Application of a univariate analysis (log-rank) and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that loss of FOXA1 expression is an independent predictor of decreased overall survival. An ubiquitin Cre-driven system ablating Foxa1 expression in urothelium of adult mice resulted in sex-specific histologic alterations, with male mice developing urothelial hyperplasia and female mice developing keratinizing squamous metaplasia. Microarray analysis confirmed these findings and revealed a significant increase in cytokeratin 14 expression in the urothelium of the female Foxa1 knockout mouse and an increase in the expression of a number of genes normally associated with keratinocyte differentiation. IHC confirmed increased cytokeratin 14 expression in female bladders and additionally revealed enrichment of cytokeratin 14–positive basal cells in the hyperplastic urothelial mucosa in male Foxa1 knockout mice. Analysis of human tumor specimens confirmed a significant relationship between loss of FOXA1 and increased cytokeratin 14 expression. PMID:25907831

  5. Weight loss in patients receiving radical radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C A; Keane, T J; Prudo, S M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for localized cancer of the head and neck areas were systematically assessed before, during, and after treatment. The pathogenesis of weight loss and its association with treatment morbidity and other determinants were sought. The serial data collected consisted of a food frequency questionnaire based on Canada's Food Guide, anthropometric measurements, 10 Linear Analogue Self Assessment questions on morbidity, and biochemical and hematological indices. Twenty of 31 patients (68%) lost over 5% of their presenting weight within one month after completing treatment. The mean weight loss was 10% and the range of weight loss in this group was 5.4 to 18.9%. Pretreatment dietary habits, serum albumin, absolute lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, creatinine height index, and anthropometric measurements did not predict for weight loss. However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss. The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population. PMID:6891412

  6. Terminal differentiation and loss of tumorigenicity of human cancers via pluripotency based reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Cruz, Filemon Dela; Terry, Melissa; Remotti, Fabrizio; Matushansky, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cells can be derived from various types of somatic cells by nuclear reprogramming using defined transcription factors. It is however unclear whether human cancer cells can be similarly reprogrammed and subsequently terminally differentiated with abrogation of tumorigenicity. Here, using sarcomas we show that human derived complex karyotype solid tumors: (1) can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent-like state as defined by all in vitro criteria used to define pluripotent stem cells generated from somatic cells; (2) can be terminally differentiated into mature connective tissue and red blood cells; and (3) terminal differentiation is accompanied with loss of both proliferation and tumorigenicity. We go on to perform the first global DNA promoter methylation and gene expression analyses comparing human cancers to their reprogrammed counterparts and report that reprogramming/differentiation results in significant epigenetic remodeling of oncogenes and tumor suppressors; while not significantly altering the differentiation status of the reprogrammed cancer cells, in essence de-differentiating them to a state slightly before the mesenchymal stem cell differentiation stage. Our data demonstrates that direct nuclear reprogramming can restore terminal differentiation potential to human derived cancer cells, with simultaneous loss of tumorigenicity, without the need to revert to an embryonic state. We anticipate that our models would serve as a starting point to more fully assess how nuclear reprogramming overcomes the multitude of genetic and epigenetic aberrancies inherent in human cancers to restore normal terminal differentiation pathways. Finally, these findings suggest that nuclear reprogramming may be a broadly applicable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22777357

  7. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arm 16q in breast cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Driouch, K; Dorion-Bonnet, F; Briffod, M; Champéme, M H; Longy, M; Lidereau, R

    1997-07-01

    One of the main genetic abnormalities associated with breast carcinogenesis is the loss of genetic material from chromosome arm 16q. Different groups have identified two regions (16q22.1 and 16q24-ter) that are frequently deleted in primary tumors, suggesting the presence of tumor suppressor genes in these regions. Little is known about the late stages of tumor progression in this respect, and we, therefore, analyzed biopsy specimens of breast cancer metastases for deletions in these critical regions of 16q. We examined fine needle cytopunctures from 24 metastases, each with lymphocyte DNA, for allelic imbalance on 16q by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 15 highly polymorphic markers. All the metastatic samples showed deletion of at least one informative locus on 16q. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) pattern often indicated the loss of a complete long arm of chromosome 16 (13 cases); nevertheless, in the remaining 11 samples, partial LOH patterns were observed. A small region of overlap (SR02) in 16q22.1 was frequently involved, whereas another (SR01) in 16q24-ter was affected in only two cases. A third region of LOH in 16q22.2-q23.2 was found in 6/11 samples. These results suggest that at least three different regions are involved in allelic imbalance on chromosome arm 16q in breast cancer. Loss of material from the third region could be a major event in the genesis of metastases. PMID:9219000

  8. Clinical next-generation sequencing reveals aggressive cancer biology in adolescent and young adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kato, Shumei; Livingston, Andrew; Slopis, John; Anderson, Pete M.; Hong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aggressive biology of cancers arising in adolescent and young adult (AYA; ages 15–39 years) patients is thought to contribute to poor survival outcomes. Methods We used clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) results to examine the molecular alterations and diverse biology of cancer in AYA patients referred to the Phase 1 program at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results Among the 28 patients analyzed (14 female and 14 male), 12 had pediatric-type cancers, six had adult-type cancers, and ten had orphan cancers. Unique, hitherto unreported aberrations were identified in all types of cancers. Aberrations in TP53, NKX2-1, KRAS, CDKN2A, MDM4, MCL1, MYC, BCL2L2, and RB1 were demonstrated across all tumor types. Five patients harbored TP53 aberrations; three patients harbored MYC, MCL1, and CDKN2A aberrations; and two patients harbored NKX2-1, KRAS, MDM4, BCL2L2, and RB1 alterations. Several patients had multiple aberrations; a patient with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor harbored five alterations (MDM4, MCL1, KIT, AKT3, and PDGRFA). Conclusions This preliminary report of NGS of cancer in AYA patients reveals diverse and unique aberrations. Further molecular profiling and a deeper understanding of the biology of these unique aberrations are warranted and may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26328274

  9. Loss of HSulf-1 promotes altered lipid metabolism in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss of the endosulfatase HSulf-1 is common in ovarian cancer, upregulates heparin binding growth factor signaling and potentiates tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. However, metabolic differences between isogenic cells with and without HSulf-1 have not been characterized upon HSulf-1 suppression in vitro. Since growth factor signaling is closely tied to metabolic alterations, we determined the extent to which HSulf-1 loss affects cancer cell metabolism. Results Ingenuity pathway analysis of gene expression in HSulf-1 shRNA-silenced cells (Sh1 and Sh2 cells) compared to non-targeted control shRNA cells (NTC cells) and subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) database analysis showed altered metabolic pathways with changes in the lipid metabolism as one of the major pathways altered inSh1 and 2 cells. Untargeted global metabolomic profiling in these isogenic cell lines identified approximately 338 metabolites using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms. Knockdown of HSulf-1 in OV202 cells induced significant changes in 156 metabolites associated with several metabolic pathways including amino acid, lipids, and nucleotides. Loss of HSulf-1 promoted overall fatty acid synthesis leading to enhance the metabolite levels of long chain, branched, and essential fatty acids along with sphingolipids. Furthermore, HSulf-1 loss induced the expression of lipogenic genes including FASN, SREBF1, PPARγ, and PLA2G3 stimulated lipid droplet accumulation. Conversely, re-expression of HSulf-1 in Sh1 cells reduced the lipid droplet formation. Additionally, HSulf-1 also enhanced CPT1A and fatty acid oxidation and augmented the protein expression of key lipolytic enzymes such as MAGL, DAGLA, HSL, and ASCL1. Overall, these findings suggest that loss of HSulf-1 by concomitantly enhancing fatty acid synthesis and oxidation confers a lipogenic phenotype leading to the metabolic alterations associated with the progression of ovarian cancer. Conclusions Taken together, these

  10. Recurrent Loss of NFE2L2 Exon 2 Is a Mechanism for Nrf2 Pathway Activation in Human Cancers.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Leonard D; Lee, James; Gnad, Florian; Klijn, Christiaan; Schaub, Annalisa; Reeder, Jens; Daemen, Anneleen; Bakalarski, Corey E; Holcomb, Thomas; Shames, David S; Hartmaier, Ryan J; Chmielecki, Juliann; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Gentleman, Robert; Stokoe, David

    2016-09-01

    The Nrf2 pathway is frequently activated in human cancers through mutations in Nrf2 or its negative regulator KEAP1. Using a cell-line-derived gene signature for Nrf2 pathway activation, we found that some tumors show high Nrf2 activity in the absence of known mutations in the pathway. An analysis of splice variants in oncogenes revealed that such tumors express abnormal transcript variants from the NFE2L2 gene (encoding Nrf2) that lack exon 2, or exons 2 and 3, and encode Nrf2 protein isoforms missing the KEAP1 interaction domain. The Nrf2 alterations result in the loss of interaction with KEAP1, Nrf2 stabilization, induction of a Nrf2 transcriptional response, and Nrf2 pathway dependence. In all analyzed cases, transcript variants were the result of heterozygous genomic microdeletions. Thus, we identify an alternative mechanism for Nrf2 pathway activation in human tumors and elucidate its functional consequences. PMID:27568559

  11. Impact of ArcA loss in Shewanella oneidensis revealed by comparative proteomics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jie; Wei, Buyun; Lipton, Mary S.; Gao, Haichun

    2012-06-01

    Shewanella inhabit a wide variety of niches in nature and can utilize a broad spectrum of electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. How they modulate their gene expression to adapt is poorly understood. ArcA, homologue of a global regulator controlling hundreds of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in E. coli, was shown to be important in aerobiosis/anaerobiosis of S. oneidensis as well. Loss of ArcA, in addition to altering transcription of many genes, resulted in impaired growth under aerobic condition, which was not observed in E. coli. To further characterize the impact of ArcA loss on gene expression on the level of proteome under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomic approach was employed. Results show that ArcA loss led to globally altered gene expression, generally consistent with that observed with transcripts. Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data permitted identification of 17 high-confidence ArcA targets. Moreover, our data indicate that ArcA is required for regulation of cytochrome c proteins, and the menaquinone level may play a role in regulating ArcA as in E. coli. Proteomic-data-guided growth assay revealed that the aerobic growth defect of ArcA mutant is presumably due to impaired peptide utilization.

  12. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Human Malignant Gliomas Reveals Multiple Amplification Sites and Nonrandom Chromosomal Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Schròck, Evelin; Thiel, Gundula; Lozanova, Tanka; du Manoir, Stanislas; Meffert, Marie-Christine; Jauch, Anna; Speicher, Michael R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Vogel, Siegfried; Janisch, Werner; Donis-Keller, Helen; Ried, Thomas; Witkowski, Regine; Cremer, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Nine human malignant gliomas (2 astrocytomas grade III and 7 glioblastomas) were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition to the amplification of the EGFR gene at 7p12 in 4 of 9 cases, six new amplification sites were mapped to 1q32, 4q12, 7q21.1, 7q21.2-3, 12p, and 22q12. Nonrandom chromosomal gains and losses were identified with overrepresentation of chromosome 7 and underrepresentation of chromosome 10 as the most frequent events (1 of 2 astrocytomas, 7 of 7 glioblastomas). Gain of a part or the whole chromosome 19 and losses of chromosome bands 9pter-23 and 22q13 were detected each in five cases. Loss of chromosome band 17p13 and gain of chromosome 20 were revealed each in three cases. The validity of the CGH data was confirmed using interphase cytogenetics with YAC clones, chromosome painting in tumor metaphase spreads, and DNA fingerprinting. A comparison of CGH data with the results of chromosome banding analyses indicates that metaphase spreads accessible in primary tumor cell cultures may not represent the clones predominant in the tumor tissue ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:8203461

  13. Mechanical phenotype of cancer cells: cell softening and loss of stiffness sensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Hui; Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Lin, I-Hsuan; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Chen, Horn-Wei; Liu, Ching-Yi; Harn, Hans I-Chen; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Wang, Yang-Kao; Shen, Meng-Ru; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2015-08-28

    The stiffness sensing ability is required to respond to the stiffness of the matrix. Here we determined whether normal cells and cancer cells display distinct mechanical phenotypes. Cancer cells were softer than their normal counterparts, regardless of the type of cancer (breast, bladder, cervix, pancreas, or Ha-RasV12-transformed cells). When cultured on matrices of varying stiffness, low stiffness decreased proliferation in normal cells, while cancer cells and transformed cells lost this response. Thus, cancer cells undergo a change in their mechanical phenotype that includes cell softening and loss of stiffness sensing. Caveolin-1, which is suppressed in many tumor cells and in oncogene-transformed cells, regulates the mechanical phenotype. Caveolin-1-upregulated RhoA activity and Y397FAK phosphorylation directed actin cap formation, which was positively correlated with cell elasticity and stiffness sensing in fibroblasts. Ha-RasV12-induced transformation and changes in the mechanical phenotypes were reversed by re-expression of caveolin-1 and mimicked by the suppression of caveolin-1 in normal fibroblasts. This is the first study to describe this novel role for caveolin-1, linking mechanical phenotype to cell transformation. Furthermore, mechanical characteristics may serve as biomarkers for cell transformation. PMID:26189182

  14. A novel p53 mutant in human breast cancer revealed by multiple SSCP analysis.

    PubMed

    Nigro, V; Napolitano, M; Abbondanza, C; Medici, N; Puca, A A; Schiavulli, M; Armetta, I; Moncharmont, B; Puca, G A; Molinari, A M

    1994-04-29

    DNA from tumor tissue and peripheral blood lymphocytes of primary breast cancer patients was screened for the presence of p53 mutations. In DNA from one tumor we found that the histidine codon 193 (CAT) was somatically converted to arginine (CGT). This amino acid residue is highly conserved in many species, thus suggesting that such mutation plays an important role in the loss of wt-p53 function. PMID:8187056

  15. Deletions linked to TP53 loss drive cancer through p53–independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengmin; Scuoppo, Claudio; Rillahan, Cory D.; Gao, Jianjiong; Spitzer, Barbara; Bosbach, Benedikt; Kastenhuber, Edward R.; Baslan, Timour; Ackermann, Sarah; Cheng, Lihua; Wang, Qingguo; Niu, Ting; Schultz, Nikolaus; Levine, Ross L.; Mills, Alea A.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations disabling the TP53 tumour suppressor gene represent the most frequent events in human cancer and typically occur through a two-hit mechanism involving a missense mutation in one allele and a ‘loss of heterozygosity’ deletion encompassing the other. While TP53 missense mutations can also contribute gain-of-function activities that impact tumour progression, it remains unclear whether the deletion event, which frequently includes many genes, impacts tumorigenesis beyond TP53 loss alone. Here we show that somatic heterozygous deletion of mouse chromosome 11B3, a 4-megabase region syntenic to human 17p13.1, produces a greater effect on lymphoma and leukaemia development than Trp53 deletion. Mechanistically, the effect of 11B3 loss on tumorigenesis involves co-deleted genes such as Eif5a and Alox15b (also known as Alox8), the suppression of which cooperates with Trp53 loss to produce more aggressive disease. Our results imply that the selective advantage produced by human chromosome 17p deletion reflects the combined impact of TP53 loss and the reduced dosage of linked tumour suppressor genes. PMID:26982726

  16. Deletions linked to TP53 loss drive cancer through p53-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Chong; Xu, Zhengmin; Scuoppo, Claudio; Rillahan, Cory D; Gao, Jianjiong; Spitzer, Barbara; Bosbach, Benedikt; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Baslan, Timour; Ackermann, Sarah; Cheng, Lihua; Wang, Qingguo; Niu, Ting; Schultz, Nikolaus; Levine, Ross L; Mills, Alea A; Lowe, Scott W

    2016-03-24

    Mutations disabling the TP53 tumour suppressor gene represent the most frequent events in human cancer and typically occur through a two-hit mechanism involving a missense mutation in one allele and a 'loss of heterozygosity' deletion encompassing the other. While TP53 missense mutations can also contribute gain-of-function activities that impact tumour progression, it remains unclear whether the deletion event, which frequently includes many genes, impacts tumorigenesis beyond TP53 loss alone. Here we show that somatic heterozygous deletion of mouse chromosome 11B3, a 4-megabase region syntenic to human 17p13.1, produces a greater effect on lymphoma and leukaemia development than Trp53 deletion. Mechanistically, the effect of 11B3 loss on tumorigenesis involves co-deleted genes such as Eif5a and Alox15b (also known as Alox8), the suppression of which cooperates with Trp53 loss to produce more aggressive disease. Our results imply that the selective advantage produced by human chromosome 17p deletion reflects the combined impact of TP53 loss and the reduced dosage of linked tumour suppressor genes. PMID:26982726

  17. Quantitative proteomics reveals middle infrared radiation-interfered networks in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Li, Ming-Hua; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Lee, Si-Chen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death worldwide. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is complex and challenging, especially when metastasis has developed. In this study, we applied infrared radiation as an alternative approach for the treatment of TNBC. We used middle infrared (MIR) with a wavelength range of 3-5 μm to irradiate breast cancer cells. MIR significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells. We performed iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the MIR-triggered molecular mechanisms in breast cancer cells. A total of 1749 proteins were identified, quantified, and subjected to functional enrichment analysis. From the constructed functionally enriched network, we confirmed that MIR caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability. Our results reveal the coordinative effects of MIR-regulated physiological responses in concentrated networks, demonstrating the potential implementation of infrared radiation in breast cancer therapy. PMID:25556991

  18. Exome Analysis Reveals Differentially Mutated Gene Signatures of Stage, Grade and Subtype in Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Xiaosheng; Vural, Suleyman; Mishra, Nitish K.; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Guda, Chittibabu

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers exhibit highly heterogeneous molecular profiles. Although gene expression profiles have been used to predict the risks and prognostic outcomes of breast cancers, the high variability of gene expression limits its clinical application. In contrast, genetic mutation profiles would be more advantageous than gene expression profiles because genetic mutations can be stably detected and the mutational heterogeneity widely exists in breast cancer genomes. We analyzed 98 breast cancer whole exome samples that were sorted into three subtypes, two grades and two stages. The sum deleterious effect of all mutations in each gene was scored to identify differentially mutated genes (DMGs) for this case-control study. DMGs were corroborated using extensive published knowledge. Functional consequences of deleterious SNVs on protein structure and function were also investigated. Genes such as ERBB2, ESP8, PPP2R4, KIAA0922, SP4, CENPJ, PRCP and SELP that have been experimentally or clinically verified to be tightly associated with breast cancer prognosis are among the DMGs identified in this study. We also identified some genes such as ARL6IP5, RAET1E, and ANO7 that could be crucial for breast cancer development and prognosis. Further, SNVs such as rs1058808, rs2480452, rs61751507, rs79167802, rs11540666, and rs2229437 that potentially influence protein functions are observed at significantly different frequencies in different comparison groups. Protein structure modeling revealed that many non-synonymous SNVs have a deleterious effect on protein stability, structure and function. Mutational profiling at gene- and SNV-level revealed differential patterns within each breast cancer comparison group, and the gene signatures correlate with expected prognostic characteristics of breast cancer classes. Some of the genes and SNVs identified in this study show high promise and are worthy of further investigation by experimental studies. PMID:25803781

  19. Loss of TINCR expression promotes proliferation, metastasis through activating EpCAM cleavage in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe-ying; Chang, Ya-ya; Zheng, Lin; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Yu-han; Zhang, Wen-juan; Li, Xue-nong

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in kinds of human diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). TINCR, a 3.7 kb long non coding RNA, was associated with cell differentiation in keratinocyte and gastric cancer cells. However, little is known about the role of TINCR in regulation CRC progression. Here, we showed that lncRNA TINCR was associated with CRC proliferation and metastasis. TINCR was statistically downregulated in CRC tissues and metastatic CRC cell lines compared with their counterparts. TINCR was reversely correlated with CRC progression and promoted tumor cells growth, metastasis in vivo and in vitro. While overexpression of TINCR had opposite effect. In addition, we also found that TINCR specifically bound to EpCAM through RNA IP and RNA pull down assays. Loss of TINCR promoted hydrolysis of EpCAM and then released EpICD, subsequently, activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Further studies shown that c-Myc repressed the expression of TINCR through repressing sp1 transcriptive activity, which established a positive feedback loop controlling c-Myc and TINCR expression. These findings elucidate that loss of TINCR expression promotes proliferation and metastasis in CRC and it could be considered as a potential cancer suppressor gene. PMID:27009809

  20. Having pancreatic cancer with tumoral loss of ATM and normal TP53 protein expression is associated with a poorer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haeryoung; Saka, Burcu; Knight, Spencer; Borges, Michael; Childs, Erica; Klein, Alison; Wolfgang, Christopher; Herman, Joseph; Adsay, Volkan N.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Goggins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine how often loss of ATM protein expression occurs in primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and to determine its prognostic significance. Experimental Design The expression of ATM and TP53 was determined by immunohistochemistry in 397 surgically-resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (Hopkins), a second set of 159 cases (Emory) and 21 cancers after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Expression was correlated with the clinicopathologic parameters, including survival. Results Tumoral ATM loss was observed in one cancer known to have bi-allelic inactivation of ATM and 50 of the first 396 (12.8%) cases, significantly more often in patients with a family history of pancreatic cancer (12/49; 24.5%) than in those without (38/347; 11.0%) (p=0.019). In the Hopkins series, ATM loss was associated with a significantly decreased overall survival in patients whose cancers had normal TP53 expression (p=0.019) and was a significant independent predictor of decreased overall survival (p=0.014). Seventeen (10.7%) of 159 Emory cases had tumoral ATM loss and tumoral ATM loss/normal TP53 was associated with poorer overall survival (p=0.1). Multivariate analysis of the combined Hopkins/Emory cases found tumoral ATM loss/normal TP53 was an independent predictor of decreased overall survival (HR 2.61, CI1.27–5.37, p=0.009). Of 21 cancers examined after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy one had tumoral loss of ATM; it had no histological evidence of tumor response. Conclusions Tumoral loss of ATM protein was detected more often in patients with a family history of pancreatic cancer than in those without. Patients whose pancreatic cancers had loss of ATM but normal TP53 had worse overall survival after pancreatic resection. PMID:24486587

  1. Androgen-deprivation therapy and bone loss in prostate cancer patients: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Bienz, Marc; Saad, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has become a standard of care in the management of advanced prostate cancer or as an adjunct therapy. However, ADT is associated with a well-known deleterious effect on bone health, resulting in a decrease in bone-mass density (BMD) and increased risk for fracture. With the longer life expectancy of prostate cancer patients, improvement of the quality of life has become increasingly important. Therefore, adequate screening, prevention and treatment of BMD loss is paramount. Zoledronic acid and denosumab have shown promising results in recent studies, which has led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of these treatment options in various settings throughout the course of the disease, including the prevention of ADT-associated bone loss. This review focuses on the various parameters that impact BMD loss in men initiating ADT, on the specific effect of ADT on bone health and on various lifestyle modifications and treatment options such as bisphosphonates, osteoclast-targeted therapy and selective estrogen-receptor modulators that have shown promising results in recent studies. PMID:26131363

  2. Tooth Loss and Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Wei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Quan; Guo, Yi; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud Epidemiological studies have shown that tooth loss is associated with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC); however, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between tooth loss and HNC. Methods We searched for relevant observational studies that tested the association between tooth loss and risk of HNC from PubMed and were conducted up to January 30, 2013. Data from the eligible studies were independently extracted by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.2 software. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of various inclusions. Publication bias was also detected. Results Ten articles involving one cohort and ten case-control studies were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, an association between tooth loss and HNC risk was identified [increased risk of 29% for 1 to 6 teeth loss (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.52–3.20, p = 0.59), 58% for 6 to 15 teeth loss (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08–2.32, p = 0.02), 63% for 11+ teeth loss (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.23–2.14, p<0.001), 72% for 15+ teeth loss (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.26–2.36, p<0.001), and 89% for 20+ teeth loss (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.27–2.80, p<0.001)]. The sensitivity analysis shows that the result was robust, and publication bias was not detected. Conclusions Based on the current evidence, tooth loss is probably a significant and dependent risk factor of HNC, which may have a dose-response effect. People who lost six or more teeth should pay attention to symptoms of HNC, and losing 11 teeth or 15 teeth may be the threshold. PMID:24260154

  3. Inhibition of autophagy induced by PTEN loss promotes intrinsic breast cancer resistance to trastuzumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liao; Guo-Chun, Zhang; Sheng-Li, An; Xue-Rui, Li; Kun, Wang; Jian, Zu; Chong-Yang, Ren; Ling-Zhu, Wen; Hai-Tong, Lv

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of the phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) expression level on autophagic status and on the resistance of breast cancer to trastuzumab treatment. PTEN and LC3I/II were knocked down with shRNA expression vectors, which were transfected into estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines. After trastuzumab treatment, the changes in the autophagy signal transduction pathways and autophagic proteins (LC3I/II, p62, LAMP, and cathepsin B) in these stably transfected cells were detected using western blot. The cells were also orthotopically implanted into nude mice to explore the influence of PTEN knockdown on tumor size, cell viability, and autophagic proteins after trastuzumab treatment. Similar determinations were performed using the LC3I/II overexpressed shPTEN breast cancer cells (LC3I/II-shPTEN). Downregulation of PTEN and autophagic proteins LC3-I and LC3-II was observed in resistant human breast cancer samples. Knockdown of PTEN and PTEN+ LC3I/II with shRNA in breast cancer cells resulted in increased resistance to trastuzumab. Consistently, trastuzumab treatment could not effectively reduce tumor size. Significant decreases in the levels of autophagic proteins LC3I/II, LAMP, p62, cathepsin B, and PI3K-Akt-mTOR and the signaling pathway protein Akt were found in PTEN knockdown cells, compared to the PTEN normal group, after trastuzumab administration, both in vitro and in vivo. However, these findings were reversed with the LC3I/II-shPTEN treatment. Therefore, the loss of PTEN may promote the development of primary resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer via autophagy defects. PMID:26563373

  4. Base changes in tumour DNA have the power to reveal the causes and evolution of cancer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hollstein, M.; Alexandrov, L. B.; Wild, C. P.; Ardin, M.; Zavadil, J.

    2016-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has demonstrated that the cancer genomes are peppered with mutations. Although most somatic tumour mutations are unlikely to have any role in the cancer process per se, the spectra of DNA sequence changes in tumour mutation catalogues have the potential to identify the mutagens, and to reveal the mutagenic processes responsible for human cancer. Very recently, a novel approach for data mining of the vast compilations of tumour NGS data succeeded in separating and precisely defining at least 30 distinct patterns of sequence change hidden in mutation databases. At least half of these mutational signatures canmore » be readily assigned to known human carcinogenic exposures or endogenous mechanisms of mutagenesis. A quantum leap in our knowledge of mutagenesis in human cancers has resulted, stimulating a flurry of research activity. We trace here the major findings leading first to the hypothesis that carcinogenic insults leave characteristic imprints on the DNA sequence of tumours, and culminating in empirical evidence from NGS data that well-defined carcinogen mutational signatures are indeed present in tumour genomic DNA from a variety of cancer types. The notion that tumour DNAs can divulge environmental sources of mutation is now a well-accepted fact. This approach to cancer aetiology has also incriminated various endogenous, enzyme-driven processes that increase the somatic mutation load in sporadic cancers. The tasks now confronting the field of molecular epidemiology are to assign mutagenic processes to orphan and newly discovered tumour mutation patterns, and to determine whether avoidable cancer risk factors influence signatures produced by endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. As a result, innovative research with experimental models and exploitation of the geographical heterogeneity in cancer incidence can address these challenges.« less

  5. The distinctive gastric fluid proteome in gastric cancer reveals a multi-biomarker diagnostic profile

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Oi Lian; Yip, Tai-Tung; Ho, Meng Fatt; Chan, Weng Hoong; Wong, Wai Keong; Tan, Soo Yong; Ng, Wai Har; Kam, Siok Yuen; Eng, Alvin KH; Ho, Patrick; Viner, Rosa; Ong, Hock Soo; Kumarasinghe, M Priyanthi

    2008-01-01

    Background Overall gastric cancer survival remains poor mainly because there are no reliable methods for identifying highly curable early stage disease. Multi-protein profiling of gastric fluids, obtained from the anatomic site of pathology, could reveal diagnostic proteomic fingerprints. Methods Protein profiles were generated from gastric fluid samples of 19 gastric cancer and 36 benign gastritides patients undergoing elective, clinically-indicated gastroscopy using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on multiple ProteinChip arrays. Proteomic features were compared by significance analysis of microarray algorithm and two-way hierarchical clustering. A second blinded sample set (24 gastric cancers and 29 clinically benign gastritides) was used for validation. Results By significance analysyis of microarray, 60 proteomic features were up-regulated and 46 were down-regulated in gastric cancer samples (p < 0.01). Multimarker clustering showed two distinctive proteomic profiles independent of age and ethnicity. Eighteen of 19 cancer samples clustered together (sensitivity 95%) while 27/36 of non-cancer samples clustered in a second group. Nine non-cancer samples that clustered with cancer samples included 5 pre-malignant lesions (1 adenomatous polyp and 4 intestinal metaplasia). Validation using a second sample set showed the sensitivity and specificity to be 88% and 93%, respectively. Positive predictive value of the combined data was 0.80. Selected peptide sequencing identified pepsinogen C and pepsin A activation peptide as significantly down-regulated and alpha-defensin as significantly up-regulated. Conclusion This simple and reproducible multimarker proteomic assay could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions. PMID:18950519

  6. Rapamycin inhibits FBXW7 loss-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like characteristics in colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuli; Liu, Yueyong; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Pengju; Wang, Yunshan; Xu, Yangyang; Wang, Zeran; Mao, Jian-Hua; Wei, Guangwei

    2013-01-01

    Increased cell migration and invasion lead to cancer metastasis and are crucial to cancer prognosis. In this study, we explore whether FBXW7 plays any role in metastatic process. We show that depletion of FBXW7 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human colon cancer cells along with the increase in cell migration and invasion. Moreover, FBXW7 deficiency promotes the generation of colon cancer stem-like cells in tumor-sphere culture. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin suppresses FBXW7 loss-driven EMT, invasion and stemness. Our results define the FBXW7/mTOR axis as a novel EMT pathway that mediates cancer invasion. PMID:23558291

  7. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan . E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive

  8. Loss of heterozygosity at the BRCA1 locus in Tunisian women with sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Charef-Hamza, Sameh; Trimeche, Mounir; Ziadi, Sonia; Amara, Khaled; Gaddas, Naim; Mokni, Moncef; Sriha, Badreddine; Yacoubi, Tahar; Korbi, Sadok

    2005-06-28

    Breast cancer in Tunisia is characterized by a much higher incidence of aggressiveness compared with Western countries. The pattern of allelic loss at the BRCA1 locus in Tunisian women with breast carcinoma has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this present preliminary study was mainly focused on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of the BRCA1 gene to determine if this tumor suppressor gene is involved in sporadic breast carcinoma among Tunisian women. We investigate allelic losses by analyzing three microsatellite markers in the BRCA1 region, in a panel of 21 human breast tumors. D17S1322 marker had the highest frequency of LOH (59%), followed by the D17S1323 (35%), and EDH-17B (20%). Collectively out of 21 informative cases 13 (62%) showed LOH at at least one BRCA1 locus. This data provides evidence that allelic loss at BRCA1 is a frequent event in sporadic breast tumorigenesis among Tunisian women, and suggests that the BRCA1 gene might play an important role as a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:15914269

  9. Suicide Gene-Engineered Stromal Cells Reveal a Dynamic Regulation of Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Keyue; Luk, Samantha; Elman, Jessica; Murray, Ryan; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Parekkadan, Biju

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cancer-promoting component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The dynamic role of human CAFs in cancer progression has been ill-defined because human CAFs lack a unique marker needed for a cell-specific, promoter-driven knockout model. Here, we developed an engineered human CAF cell line with an inducible suicide gene to enable selective in vivo elimination of human CAFs at different stages of xenograft tumor development, effectively circumventing the challenge of targeting a cell-specific marker. Suicide-engineered CAFs were highly sensitive to apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo by the addition of a simple small molecule inducer. Selection of timepoints for targeted CAF apoptosis in vivo during the progression of a human breast cancer xenograft model was guided by a bi-phasic host cytokine response that peaked at early timepoints after tumor implantation. Remarkably, we observed that the selective apoptosis of CAFs at these early timepoints did not affect primary tumor growth, but instead increased the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells to the lung and bone. The study revealed a dynamic relationship between CAFs and cancer metastasis that has counter-intuitive ramifications for CAF-targeted therapy.

  10. Suicide Gene-Engineered Stromal Cells Reveal a Dynamic Regulation of Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Keyue; Luk, Samantha; Elman, Jessica; Murray, Ryan; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Parekkadan, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cancer-promoting component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The dynamic role of human CAFs in cancer progression has been ill-defined because human CAFs lack a unique marker needed for a cell-specific, promoter-driven knockout model. Here, we developed an engineered human CAF cell line with an inducible suicide gene to enable selective in vivo elimination of human CAFs at different stages of xenograft tumor development, effectively circumventing the challenge of targeting a cell-specific marker. Suicide-engineered CAFs were highly sensitive to apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo by the addition of a simple small molecule inducer. Selection of timepoints for targeted CAF apoptosis in vivo during the progression of a human breast cancer xenograft model was guided by a bi-phasic host cytokine response that peaked at early timepoints after tumor implantation. Remarkably, we observed that the selective apoptosis of CAFs at these early timepoints did not affect primary tumor growth, but instead increased the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells to the lung and bone. The study revealed a dynamic relationship between CAFs and cancer metastasis that has counter-intuitive ramifications for CAF-targeted therapy. PMID:26893143

  11. Loss of Y Chromosome in Peripheral Blood of Colorectal and Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Noveski, Predrag; Madjunkova, Svetlana; Sukarova Stefanovska, Emilija; Matevska Geshkovska, Nadica; Kuzmanovska, Maja; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Background Although age-related loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in normal hematopoietic cells is a well-known phenomenon, the phenotypic consequences of LOY have been elusive. However, LOY has been found in association with smoking, shorter survival and higher risk of cancer. It was suggested that LOY in blood cells could become a predictive biomarker of male carcinogenesis. Aims, Methods & Findings To investigate the association of LOY in blood cells with the risk for development of colorectal (CC) and prostate cancers (PC), we have analyzed DNA samples from peripheral blood of 101 CC male patients (mean age 60.5±11.9 yrs), 70 PC patients (mean age 68.8±8.0 yrs) and 93 healthy control males (mean age 65.8±16.6 yrs). The methodology included co-amplification of homologous sequences on chromosome Y and other chromosomes using multiplex quantitative fluorescent (QF) PCR followed by automatic detection and analysis on ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer. The mean Y/X ratio was significantly lower in the whole group of cancer patients (0.907±0.12; p = 1.17x10-9) in comparison to the controls (1.015±0.15), as well as in CC (0.884±0.15; p = 3.76x10-9) and PC patients (0.941±0.06; p = 0.00012), when analyzed separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for LOY and age showed that LOY is a more significant predictor of cancer presence than age, and that age probably does not contribute to the increased number of subjects with detectable LOY in cancer patients cohort. Conclusion In conclusion, our results support the recent findings of association of LOY in blood cells with carcinogenesis in males. PMID:26745889

  12. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  13. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles.

    PubMed

    Varn, Frederick S; Andrews, Erik H; Mullins, David W; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  14. Loss of intercellular adhesion leads to differential accumulation of hypericin in bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucky, S. Sasidharan; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Chin, William W. L.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Olivo, Malini C. D.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) exploits the photoactive nature of certain compounds, namely photosensitizers, in order to enhance the visual demarcation between normal and neoplastic tissue. Hypericin is one such potent photosensitizer that preferentially accumulate in neoplastic tissue, and fluoresce in the visible spectrum when illuminated with light of an appropriate wavelength. In our study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in the selective permeation of hypericin in bladder cancer tissues. Clinical studies were done on a series of 43 histologically graded bladder cancer biopsy specimens, obtained from 28 patients who received intravesical instillations with 8μM hypericin solution for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of E-cadherin, in the cryosectioned tissues. Hypericin uptake was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining showed a clear expression of E-cadherin along the urothelial lining of the normal and pre-malignant tissues. Partial expression of these cell adhesion molecules were still observed in malignant tissues, however there was a loss of expression to variable extends along the urothelium. Thus, loss of intercellular adhesion can be associated with enhanced hypericin permeation through paracellular diffusion.

  15. Proteome–Metabolome Profiling of Ovarian Cancer Ascites Reveals Novel Components Involved in Intercellular Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Shender, Victoria O.; Pavlyukov, Marat S.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Arapidi, Georgij P.; Kovalchuk, Sergey I.; Anikanov, Nikolay A.; Altukhov, Ilya A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Butenko, Ivan O.; Shavarda, Alexey L.; Khomyakova, Elena B.; Evtushenko, Evgeniy; Ashrafyan, Lev A.; Antonova, Irina B.; Kuznetcov, Igor N.; Gorbachev, Alexey Yu.; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ascites is a native medium for cancer cells that allows investigation of their secretome in a natural environment. This medium is of interest as a promising source of potential biomarkers, and also as a medium for cell–cell communication. The aim of this study was to elucidate specific features of the malignant ascites metabolome and proteome. In order to omit components of the systemic response to ascites formation, we compared malignant ascites with cirrhosis ascites. Metabolome analysis revealed 41 components that differed significantly between malignant and cirrhosis ascites. Most of the identified cancer-specific metabolites are known to be important signaling molecules. Proteomic analysis identified 2096 and 1855 proteins in the ovarian cancer and cirrhosis ascites, respectively; 424 proteins were specific for the malignant ascites. Functional analysis of the proteome demonstrated that the major differences between cirrhosis and malignant ascites were observed for the cluster of spliceosomal proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate that several splicing RNAs were exclusively detected in malignant ascites, where they probably existed within protein complexes. This result was confirmed in vitro using an ovarian cancer cell line. Identification of spliceosomal proteins and RNAs in an extracellular medium is of particular interest; the finding suggests that they might play a role in the communication between cancer cells. In addition, malignant ascites contains a high number of exosomes that are known to play an important role in signal transduction. Thus our study reveals the specific features of malignant ascites that are associated with its function as a medium of intercellular communication. PMID:25271300

  16. Loss of Myoferlin Redirects Breast Cancer Cell Motility towards Collective Migration

    PubMed Central

    Volakis, Leonithas I.; Li, Ruth; Ackerman, William E.; Mihai, Cosmin; Bechel, Meagan; Summerfield, Taryn L.; Ahn, Christopher S.; Powell, Heather M.; Zielinski, Rachel; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays a central role in the invasion and metastasis of tumors. As cells leave the primary tumor, they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate as single cells. Epithelial tumor cells may also migrate in a highly directional manner as a collective group in some settings. We previously discovered that myoferlin (MYOF) is overexpressed in breast cancer cells and depletion of MYOF results in a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and reduced invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the biomechanical mechanisms governing cell motility during MYOF depletion are poorly understood. We first demonstrated that lentivirus-driven shRNA-induced MYOF loss in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (MDA-231MYOF-KD) leads to an epithelial morphology compared to the mesenchymal morphology observed in control (MDA- 231LTVC) and wild-type cells. Knockdown of MYOF led to significant reductions in cell migration velocity and MDA- 231MYOF-KD cells migrated directionally and collectively, while MDA-231LTVC cells exhibited single cell migration. Decreased migration velocity and collective migration were accompanied by significant changes in cell mechanics. MDA-231MYOF-KD cells exhibited a 2-fold decrease in cell stiffness, a 2-fold increase in cell-substrate adhesion and a 1.5-fold decrease in traction force generation. In vivo studies demonstrated that when immunocompromised mice were implanted with MDA- 231MYOF-KD cells, tumors were smaller and demonstrated lower tumor burden. Moreover, MDA- 231MYOF-KD tumors were highly circularized and did not invade locally into the adventia in contrast to MDA- 231LTVC-injected animals. Thus MYOF loss is associated with a change in tumor formation in xenografts and leads to smaller, less invasive tumors. These data indicate that MYOF, a previously unrecognized protein in cancer, is involved in MDA-MB-231 cell migration and contributes to biomechanical alterations. Our results indicate that changes in

  17. Revealing Glycoproteins in the Secretome of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Aik-Aun; Phang, Wai-Mei; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hashim, Onn H.; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chen, Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major issues in the field of oncology, reported with a higher prevalence rate in women worldwide. In attempt to reveal the potential biomarkers for breast cancer, the findings of differentially glycosylated haptoglobin and osteonectin in previous study have drawn our attention towards glycoproteins of secretome from the MCF-7 cancer cell line. In the present study, further analyses were performed on the medium of MCF-7 cells by subjecting it to two-dimensional analyses followed by image analysis in contrast to the medium of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEpC) as a negative control. Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), haptoglobin (HP), and HSC70 were detected in the medium of MCF-7, while only CPA4 and osteonectin (ON) were detected in HMEpC medium. In addition, CPA4 was detected as upregulated in the MCF-7 medium. Further analysis by lectin showed that CPA4, AAT, HP, and HSC70 were secreted as N-glycan in the medium of MCF-7, with HP also showing differentially N-glycosylated isoforms. For the HMEpC, only CPA4 was detected as N-glycan. No O-glycan was detected in the medium of HMEpC but MCF-7 expressed O-glycosylated CPA4 and HSC70. All these revealed that glycoproteins could be used as glycan-based biomarkers for the prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:26167486

  18. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells function as novel osteoclast progenitors enhancing bone loss in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anandi; Deshane, Jessy; Jules, Joel; Lee, Carnella M.; Harris, Brittney A.; Feng, Xu; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced bone destruction is a hallmark of various carcinomas such as breast cancer, where osteolytic bone metastasis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Immune cells contribute to osteolysis in cancer growth but the factors contributing to aggressive bone destruction are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in this process at bone metastatic sites. Since MDSC originate from the same myeloid lineage as macrophages, which are osteoclast precursors, we hypothesized that MDSC may undergo osteoclast differentiation and contribute to enhanced bone destruction and tumor growth. Using an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis, we confirmed that MDSC isolated from the tumor-bone microenvironment differentiated into functional osteoclasts both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that nitric oxide signaling was critical for differentiation of MDSC into osteoclasts. Remarkably, osteoclast differentiation did not occur in MDSC isolated from control or tumor-bearing mice that lacked bone metastasis, signifying the essential cross-talk between tumor cells and myeloid progenitors in the bone microenvironment as a requirement for osteoclast differentiation of MDSC. Overall, our results identify a wholly new facet to the multifunctionality of MDSC in driving tumor progression, in this case as a novel osteoclast progenitor that specifically drives bone metastasis during cancer progression. PMID:23243021

  19. Effect of oral eicosapentaenoic acid on weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wigmore, S J; Barber, M D; Ross, J A; Tisdale, M J; Fearon, K C

    2000-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been shown to modulate aspects of the inflammatory response that may contribute to weight loss in cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effects of oral supplementation with high-purity EPA in weight-losing patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Twenty-six patients were entered into the study. EPA (95% pure) was administered as free acid starting at 1 g/day; the dose was increased to 6 g/day over four weeks, and then a maintenance dose of 6 g/day was administered. Patients were assessed before EPA and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks while receiving EPA, for weight, body composition, hematologic and clinical chemistry variables, acute-phase protein response, and performance status. Overall survival was noted. Supplementation was well tolerated, with only five patients experiencing side effects possibly attributable to the EPA. Before starting EPA, all patients had been losing weight at a median rate of 2 kg/mo. In general, after EPA supplementation, weight was stable. After four weeks of EPA supplementation, patients had a median weight gain of 0.5 kg (p = 0.0009 vs. rate of weight loss at baseline), and this stabilization of weight persisted over the 12-week study period. Total body water as a percentage of body weight remained stable, as did the proportion of patients with an acute-phase protein response, patients' nutritional intake, and performance status. Overall median survival from diagnosis in this study was 203 days. This study suggests that EPA is well tolerated, may stabilize weight in cachectic pancreatic cancer patients, and should be tested as an anticachectic agent in controlled trials. PMID:10890028

  20. Prevention of Bone Loss with Risedronate in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Susan L.; Vujevich, Karen T.; Brufsky, Adam; Lembersky, Barry C.; van Londen, G.J.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Rastogi, Priya; Perera, Subashan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, are associated with bone loss and fractures. Our objectives were to determine if 1) oral bisphosphonate therapy can prevent bone loss in women on an AI and, 2) early changes in bone turnover markers (BTM) can predict later changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We conducted a 2 year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 109 postmenopausal women with low bone mass on an aromatase inhibitor (AI-anastrozole, letrozole, or exemestane) for hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Participants were randomized to once weekly risedronate 35 mg or placebo and all received calcium plus vitamin D. The main outcome measures included BMD, BTM [carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] and safety. Results Eighty-seven percent completed 24 months. BMD increased more in the active treatment group compared to placebo with an adjusted difference at 24 months of 3.9 ± 0.7 percentage points at the spine and 3.2 ± 0.5 percentage points at the hip (both p<0.05). The adjusted difference between the active treatment and placebo groups were 0.09 ± 0.04 nmol/LBCE for CTX and 23.3 ± 4.8 µg/mL for P1NP (both p<0.05). Women with greater 12-month decreases in CTX and P1NP in the active treatment group had a greater 24-month increase in spinal BMD (p<0.05). The oral therapy was safe and well tolerated. Conclusion In postmenopausal women with low bone mass and breast cancer on an AI, the oral bisphosphonate risedronate maintained skeletal health. PMID:25792492

  1. Loss of Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) associates with the progression of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Na; Liu, Stephanie S; Leung, Thomas HY; Tam, Kar F; Liao, Xiao Y; Cheung, Annie NY; Chan, Karen KL; Ngan, Hextan YS

    2009-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is a novel tumour suppressor and originally identified as a neoplastic transformation inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, prognostic significance and potential function of Pdcd4 in ovarian cancer. Results The expression of Pdcd4 was examined in 30 normal ovarian tissues, 16 borderline and 93 malignant ovarian tissues. A continuous down regulation of Pdcd4 expression in the sequence of normal, borderline and malignant tissues was observed. The expressions of Pdcd4 in both ovarian borderline tissues and carcinomas were significantly lower than the expression in normal ovarian tissues (p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with lower Pdcd4 expressions were found to have shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.037). The expression of Pdcd4 was also assessed by immunohistochemical analysis in 13 ovarian normal tissues and 44 carcinomas. Different subcellular localization of Pdcd4 was observed in normal compared to malignant cells. Predominant nuclear localization of Pdcd4 was found in normal ovarian tissues while ovarian carcinomas showed mainly cytoplasmic localization of Pdcd4. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the loss of Pdcd4 was a common abnormality at molecular level in ovarian cancer and it might be a potential prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:19728867

  2. Failure of dietetic referral in patients with gastrointestinal cancer and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C; McGough, C; Norman, A R; Frost, G S; Cunningham, D C; Andreyev, H J N

    2006-10-01

    This study examined whether staff working within a cancer centre treating patients with gastrointestinal malignancy routinely identified individuals from outpatients for referral to a dietitian. A nutrition screening tool is employed only for in-patient admissions. Height, current and usual weight were recorded prospectively in all patients referred for consideration of treatment. First appointment with the dietitian, first hospital admission, demographic and clinical details were obtained from hospital records. Time from first appointment to referral to a dietitian was examined. Between September 2002 and March 2004, 920 patients were included. Five hundred and seventeen patients had lost weight, of whom 223 patients had lost between 5% and 10% and 294 patients had lost more than 10% of their pre-morbid weight. Three hundred and twenty-seven patients (36%) were referred to dietitians. Twenty eight (9%) of referrals were made by staff in outpatients. Two hundred and ninety-nine were referred during or after an inpatient admission but only 39% of these occurred within the first seven days following admission. One third of patients with more than 10% weight loss were not referred for dietary assessment, even following admission. The likelihood of referral was significantly associated with the degree of weight loss (univariate analysis hazard ratio (HR) 1.75, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.4-2.19, multivariate HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.23) and was independent of factors such as performance status and clinical setting. Few patients were identified early in their treatment for referral to a dietitian. Since most chemotherapy is now given on an outpatient basis, patients are unlikely to be referred if they do not require admission. This study suggests that an out-patient dietetic screening tool is urgently required. Such screening is likely to result in considerable improvements to the clinical care of cancer patients with weight loss. PMID:16930990

  3. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Caulin, Aleah F; Graham, Trevor A; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C

    2015-07-19

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans. PMID:26056366

  4. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C.

    2015-01-01

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans. PMID:26056366

  5. Methylome sequencing in triple-negative breast cancer reveals distinct methylation clusters with prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Stirzaker, Clare; Zotenko, Elena; Song, Jenny Z; Qu, Wenjia; Nair, Shalima S; Locke, Warwick J; Stone, Andrew; Armstong, Nicola J; Robinson, Mark D; Dobrovic, Alexander; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Peters, Kate M; French, Juliet D; Stein, Sandra; Korbie, Darren J; Trau, Matt; Forbes, John F; Scott, Rodney J; Brown, Melissa A; Francis, Glenn D; Clark, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations in the cancer methylome are common in breast cancer and provide novel options for tumour stratification. Here, we perform whole-genome methylation capture sequencing on small amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and matched normal samples. We identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) enriched with promoters associated with transcription factor binding sites and DNA hypersensitive sites. Importantly, we stratify TNBCs into three distinct methylation clusters associated with better or worse prognosis and identify 17 DMRs that show a strong association with overall survival, including DMRs located in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, bi-directional-promoter and antisense WT1-AS. Our data reveal that coordinated hypermethylation can occur in oestrogen receptor-negative disease, and that characterizing the epigenetic framework provides a potential signature to stratify TNBCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of profiling the cancer methylome with limited archival tissue to identify regulatory regions associated with cancer. PMID:25641231

  6. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M; Cherniack, Andrew D; Tamborero, David; Ng, Sam; Leiserson, Max D M; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael D; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Zhang, Jiashan; Kandoth, Cyriac; Akbani, Rehan; Shen, Hui; Omberg, Larsson; Chu, Andy; Margolin, Adam A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Laird, Peter W; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ding, Li; Robertson, A Gordon; Byers, Lauren A; Mills, Gordon B; Weinstein, John N; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Collisson, Eric A; Benz, Christopher C; Perou, Charles M; Stuart, Joshua M

    2014-08-14

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25109877

  7. DAPK loss in colon cancer tumor buds: implications for migration capacity of disseminating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Karamitopoulou, Eva; Dawson, Heather; Koelzer, Viktor Hendrik; Agaimy, Abbas; Garreis, Fabian; Söder, Stephan; Laqua, William; Lugli, Alessandro; Hartmann, Arndt; Rau, Tilman T.; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Defining new therapeutic strategies to overcome therapy resistance due to tumor heterogeneity in colon cancer is challenging. One option is to explore the molecular profile of aggressive disseminating tumor cells. The cytoskeleton-associated Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is involved in the cross talk between tumor and immune cells at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. Here dedifferentiated tumor cells histologically defined as tumor budding are associated with a high risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. Analyzing samples from 144 colorectal cancer patients we investigated immunhistochemical DAPK expression in different tumor regions such as center, invasion front, and buds. Functional consequences for tumor aggressiveness were studied in a panel of colon tumor cell lines using different migration, wound healing, and invasion assays. DAPK levels were experimentally modified by siRNA transfection and overexpression as well as inhibitor treatments. We found that DAPK expression was reduced towards the invasion front and was nearly absent in tumor buds. Applying the ECIS system with HCT116 and HCT116 stable lentiviral DAPK knock down cells (HCTshDAPK) we identified an important role for DAPK in decreasing the migratory capacity whereas proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, the migration pattern differed with HCTshDAPK cells showing a cluster-like migration of tumor cell groups. DAPK inhibitor treatment revealed that the migration rate was independent of DAPK's catalytic activity. Modulation of DAPK expression level in SW480 and DLD1 colorectal cancer cells significantly influenced wound closure rate. DAPK seems to be a major player that influences the migratory capability of disseminating tumor cells and possibly affects the dynamic interface between pro- and anti-survival factors at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. This interesting and new finding requires further evaluation. PMID:26405175

  8. Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis with dose-response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Lin; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Zhi-Xiao; Duan, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jie; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed the association between tooth loss and the risk of esophageal cancer (EC); however, consistent results were not obtained from different single studies. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to evaluate the association between tooth loss and EC. We conducted electronic searches of PubMed until to February 10, 2015 to identify relevant observational studies that examined the association between tooth loss and the risk of EC. Study selection and data extraction from eligible studies were independently performed by two authors. The meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 software. Finally eight eligible publications with ten studies involving 3 cohort studies, 5 case-control studies, and 1 cross-sectional study were yielded. Meta-analysis identified tooth loss increased risk of EC 1.30 times (Relative risk = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.06–1.60, I2 = 13.5%). Dose-response analysis showed linear relationship between tooth loss and risk of EC (RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00–1.03; P for non-linearity test was 0.45). Subgroup analysis proved similar results and publication bias was not detected. In conclusion, tooth loss could be considered to be a significant and dependent risk factor for EC based on the current evidence. PMID:26742493

  9. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Commercial Diet and Exercise Weight Loss Program in Minority Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather A.; Crew, Katherine D.; Mata, Jennie M.; McKinley, Paula S.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Zhang, Wenfei; Liao, Yuyan; Tsai, Wei Y.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with poorer breast cancer outcomes and losing weight postdiagnosis may improve survival. As Hispanic and black women have poorer breast cancer prognosis than non-Hispanic whites diagnosed at similar age and stage, and have higher rates of obesity, effective weight loss strategies are needed. We piloted a randomized, waitlist-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects and feasibility of the commercial Curves weight loss program among Hispanic, African American and Afro-Caribbean breast cancer survivors. Design and Methods Women with stage 0– IIIa breast cancer ≥6 months posttreatment, sedentary, and BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were randomized to the immediate arm (IA): 6 months of the Curves program followed by 6 months of observation; or the waitlist control arm (WCA): 6 months of observation followed by 6 months of the Curves program. The Curves program uses a 30-min exercise circuit and a high-vegetable/low-fat/calorie-restricted diet. Results A total of 42 women enrolled (79% Hispanic, 21% black), mean age 51 (range 32–69) and mean BMI 33.2(±5.9) kg/m2; 91% were retained at month 12. At month 6, women in the IA lost an average 3.3% (±3.5%) of body weight (range: 1.7% gain to 10.6% loss), as compared with 1.8% (±2.9%) weight loss in the WCA (P = 0.04). At month 12, on average women in the IA regained some but not all of the weight lost during the first 6 months (P = 0.02). Conclusions Minority breast cancer survivors were recruited and retained in a weight loss study. Six months of the Curves program resulted in moderate weight loss, but weight loss was not maintained postintervention. Future interventions should identify methods to increase uptake and maintenance of weight loss behaviors. PMID:23505170

  10. The First Chameleon Transcriptome: Comparative Genomic Analysis of the OXPHOS System Reveals Loss of COX8 in Iguanian Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yaacov, Dan; Bouskila, Amos; Mishmar, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we found dramatic mitochondrial DNA divergence of Israeli Chamaeleo chamaeleon populations into two geographically distinct groups. We aimed to examine whether the same pattern of divergence could be found in nuclear genes. However, no genomic resource is available for any chameleon species. Here we present the first chameleon transcriptome, obtained using deep sequencing (SOLiD). Our analysis identified 164,000 sequence contigs of which 19,000 yielded unique BlastX hits. To test the efficacy of our sequencing effort, we examined whether the chameleon and other available reptilian transcriptomes harbored complete sets of genes comprising known biochemical pathways, focusing on the nDNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes as a model. As a reference for the screen, we used the human 86 (including isoforms) known structural nDNA-encoded OXPHOS subunits. Analysis of 34 publicly available vertebrate transcriptomes revealed orthologs for most human OXPHOS genes. However, OXPHOS subunit COX8 (Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 8), including all its known isoforms, was consistently absent in transcriptomes of iguanian lizards, implying loss of this subunit during the radiation of this suborder. The lack of COX8 in the suborder Iguania is intriguing, since it is important for cellular respiration and ATP production. Our sequencing effort added a new resource for comparative genomic studies, and shed new light on the evolutionary dynamics of the OXPHOS system. PMID:24009133

  11. Genome sequencing and mapping reveal loss of heterozygosity as a mechanism for rapid adaptation in the vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Lamour, Kurt H; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A; Rice, Brandon J; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M; Bharti, Arvind K; Donahoo, Ryan S; Finley, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Storey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R; Affourtit, Jason P; Han, Cliff S; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F

    2012-10-01

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30% of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici. PMID:22712506

  12. Genome Sequencing and Mapping Reveal Loss of Heterozygosity as a Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation in the Vegetable Pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finely, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Sotrey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2012-02-07

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30percent of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.

  13. Genome sequencing and mapping reveal loss of heterozygosity as a mechanism for rapid adaptation in the vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finley, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Storey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually-recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic/genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and higher levels of SNVs than those reported for humans, plants, and P. infestans. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30% of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici. PMID:22712506

  14. Quantitative measures to reveal coordinated cytoskeleton-nucleus reorganization during in vitro invasion of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Liron; Nissim, Ronen; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B.; Weihs, Daphne

    2015-04-01

    Metastasis formation is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients and includes tumor cell relocation to distant organs. A metastatic cell invades through other cells and extracellular matrix by biochemical attachment and mechanical force application. Force is used to move on or through a 2- or 3-dimensional (3D) environment, respectively, or to penetrate a 2D substrate. We have previously shown that even when a gel substrate is impenetrable, metastatic breast cancer cells can still indent it by applying force. Cells typically apply force through the acto-myosin network, which is mechanically connected to the nucleus. We develop a 3D image-analysis to reveal relative locations of the cell elements, and show that as cells apply force to the gel, a coordinated process occurs that involves cytoskeletal remodeling and repositioning of the nucleus. Our approach shows that the actin and microtubules reorganize in the cell, bringing the actin to the leading edge of the cell. In parallel, the nucleus is transported behind the actin, likely by the cytoskeleton, into the indentation dimple formed in the gel. The nucleus volume below the gel surface correlates with indentation depth, when metastatic breast cancer cells indent gels deeply. However, the nucleus always remains above the gel in benign cells, even when small indentations are observed. Determining mechanical processes during metastatic cell invasion can reveal how cells disseminate in the body and can uncover targets for diagnosis and treatment.

  15. SILAC-Based Mass Spectrometry Analysis Reveals That Epibrassinolide Induces Apoptosis via Activating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epibrassinolide (EBR) is a polyhydroxylated sterol derivative and biologically active compound of the brassinosteroids. In addition to well-described roles in plant growth, EBR induces apoptosis in the LNCaP prostate cancer cells expressing functional androgen receptor (AR). Therefore, it is suggested that EBR might have an inhibitory potential on androgen receptor signaling pathway. However, the mechanism by which EBR exerts its effects on LNCaP is poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge, we used an unbiased global proteomics approach, i.e., stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). In total, 964 unique proteins were identified, 160 of which were differentially expressed after 12 h of EBR treatment. The quantification of the differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) chaperone protein, calreticulin (CALR), was dramatically downregulated. The decrease in CALR expression was also validated by immunoblotting. Because our data revealed the involvement of the UPR in response to EBR exposure, we evaluated the expression of the other UPR proteins. We demonstrated that EBR treatment downregulated calnexin and upregulated BiP and IRE1α expression levels and induced CHOP translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus. The translocation of CHOP was associated with caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation after a 12 h EBR treatment. Co-treatment of EBR with rapamycin, an upstream mTOR pathway inhibitor, prevented EBR-induced cell viability loss and PARP cleavage in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, suggesting that EBR could induce ER stress in these cells. In addition, we observed similar results in DU145 cells with nonfunctional androgen receptor. When proteasomal degradation of proteins was blocked by MG132 co-treatment, EBR treatment further induced PARP cleavage relative to drug treatment alone. EBR also induced Ca2+ sequestration, which confirmed the alteration of the ER pathway due to drug

  16. SILAC-Based Mass Spectrometry Analysis Reveals That Epibrassinolide Induces Apoptosis via Activating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Obakan, Pinar; Barrero, Carlos; Coker-Gurkan, Ajda; Arisan, Elif Damla; Merali, Salim; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin

    2015-01-01

    Epibrassinolide (EBR) is a polyhydroxylated sterol derivative and biologically active compound of the brassinosteroids. In addition to well-described roles in plant growth, EBR induces apoptosis in the LNCaP prostate cancer cells expressing functional androgen receptor (AR). Therefore, it is suggested that EBR might have an inhibitory potential on androgen receptor signaling pathway. However, the mechanism by which EBR exerts its effects on LNCaP is poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge, we used an unbiased global proteomics approach, i.e., stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). In total, 964 unique proteins were identified, 160 of which were differentially expressed after 12 h of EBR treatment. The quantification of the differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) chaperone protein, calreticulin (CALR), was dramatically downregulated. The decrease in CALR expression was also validated by immunoblotting. Because our data revealed the involvement of the UPR in response to EBR exposure, we evaluated the expression of the other UPR proteins. We demonstrated that EBR treatment downregulated calnexin and upregulated BiP and IRE1α expression levels and induced CHOP translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus. The translocation of CHOP was associated with caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation after a 12 h EBR treatment. Co-treatment of EBR with rapamycin, an upstream mTOR pathway inhibitor, prevented EBR-induced cell viability loss and PARP cleavage in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, suggesting that EBR could induce ER stress in these cells. In addition, we observed similar results in DU145 cells with nonfunctional androgen receptor. When proteasomal degradation of proteins was blocked by MG132 co-treatment, EBR treatment further induced PARP cleavage relative to drug treatment alone. EBR also induced Ca2+ sequestration, which confirmed the alteration of the ER pathway due to drug

  17. Population analysis of microsatellite genotypes reveals a signature associated with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fonville, Natalie C; Vaksman, Zalman; McIver, Lauren J; Garner, Harold R

    2015-05-10

    Ovarian cancer (OV) ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, yet there remain few informative biomarkers for this disease. Microsatellites are repetitive genomic regions which we hypothesize could be a source of novel biomarkers for OV and have traditionally been under-appreciated relative to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we explore microsatellite variation as a potential novel source of genomic variation associated with OV. Exomes from 305 OV patient germline samples and 54 tumors, sequenced as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, were analyzed for microsatellite variation and compared to healthy females sequenced as part of the 1,000 Genomes Project. We identified a subset of 60 microsatellite loci with genotypes that varied significantly between the OV and healthy female populations. Using these loci as a signature set, we classified germline genomes as 'at risk' for OV with a sensitivity of 90.1% and a specificity of 87.6%. Cross-analysis with a similar set of breast cancer associated loci identified individuals 'at risk' for both diseases. This study revealed a genotype-based microsatellite signature present in the germlines of individuals diagnosed with OV, and provides the basis for a potential novel risk assessment diagnostic for OV and new personal genomics targets in tumors. PMID:25779658

  18. Loss of ATRX Suppresses Resolution of Telomere Cohesion to Control Recombination in ALT Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Smith, Susan

    2015-09-14

    The chromatin-remodeler ATRX is frequently lost in cancer cells that use ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) for telomere maintenance, but its function in telomere recombination is unknown. Here we show that loss of ATRX suppresses the timely resolution of sister telomere cohesion that normally occurs prior to mitosis. In the absence of ATRX, the histone variant macroH2A1.1 binds to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase tankyrase 1, preventing it from localizing to telomeres and resolving cohesion. The resulting persistent telomere cohesion promotes recombination between sister telomeres, while it suppresses inappropriate recombination between non-sisters. Forced resolution of sister telomere cohesion induces excessive recombination between non-homologs, genomic instability, and impaired cell growth, indicating the ATRX-macroH2A1.1-tankyrase axis as a potential therapeutic target in ALT tumors. PMID:26373281

  19. Recruitment strategies, design, and participant characteristics in a trial of weight-loss and metformin in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ruth E; Marinac, Catherine R; Natarajan, Loki; Hartman, Sheri J; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa; Flatt, Shirley W; Li, Hongying; Parker, Barbara; Oratowski-Coleman, Jesica; Villaseñor, Adriana; Godbole, Suneeta; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss and metformin are hypothesized to improve breast cancer outcomes; however the joint impacts of these treatments have not been investigated. Reach for Health is a randomized trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design to investigate the effects of weight loss and metformin on biomarkers associated with breast cancer prognosis among overweight/obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. This paper describes the trial recruitment strategies, design, and baseline sample characteristics. Participants were randomized in equal numbers to (1) placebo, (2) metformin, (3) weight loss intervention and placebo, or (4) weight-loss intervention and metformin. The lifestyle intervention was a personalized, telephone-based program targeting a 7% weight-loss in the intervention arm. The metformin dose was 1500 mg/day. The duration of the intervention was 6 months. Main outcomes were biomarkers representing 3 metabolic systems putatively related to breast cancer mortality: glucoregulation, inflammation, and sex hormones. Between August 2011 and May 2015, we randomized 333 breast cancer survivors. Mass mailings from the California Cancer Registry were the most successful recruitment strategy with over 25,000 letters sent at a cost of $191 per randomized participant. At baseline, higher levels of obesity were significantly associated with worse sleep disturbance and impairment scores, lower levels of physical activity and higher levels of sedentary behavior, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and lower quality of life (p<0.05 for all). These results illustrate the health burden of obesity. Results of this trial will provide mechanistic data on biological pathways and circulating biomarkers associated with lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions to improve breast cancer prognosis. PMID:26706665

  20. Network modelling reveals the mechanism underlying colitis-associated colon cancer and identifies novel combinatorial anti-cancer targets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junyan; Zeng, Hanlin; Liang, Zhongjie; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Liyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Huang, Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Spiegel, Sarah; Luo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumourigenesis has been well established. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-associated tumourigenesis remains unknown because this process involves a complex interplay between immune microenvironments and epithelial cells. To obtain a more systematic understanding of inflammation-associated tumourigenesis as well as to identify novel therapeutic approaches, we constructed a knowledge-based network describing the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by integrating the extracellular microenvironment and intracellular signalling pathways. Dynamic simulations of the CAC network revealed a core network module, including P53, MDM2, and AKT, that may govern the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells in a pro-tumor inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, in silico mutation studies and experimental validations led to a novel finding that concurrently targeting ceramide and PI3K/AKT pathway by chemical probes or marketed drugs achieves synergistic anti-cancer effects. Overall, our network model can guide further mechanistic studies on CAC and provide new insights into the design of combinatorial cancer therapies in a rational manner. PMID:26446703

  1. Network modelling reveals the mechanism underlying colitis-associated colon cancer and identifies novel combinatorial anti-cancer targets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junyan; Zeng, Hanlin; Liang, Zhongjie; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Liyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Huang, Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Spiegel, Sarah; Luo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumourigenesis has been well established. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-associated tumourigenesis remains unknown because this process involves a complex interplay between immune microenvironments and epithelial cells. To obtain a more systematic understanding of inflammation-associated tumourigenesis as well as to identify novel therapeutic approaches, we constructed a knowledge-based network describing the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by integrating the extracellular microenvironment and intracellular signalling pathways. Dynamic simulations of the CAC network revealed a core network module, including P53, MDM2, and AKT, that may govern the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells in a pro-tumor inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, in silico mutation studies and experimental validations led to a novel finding that concurrently targeting ceramide and PI3K/AKT pathway by chemical probes or marketed drugs achieves synergistic anti-cancer effects. Overall, our network model can guide further mechanistic studies on CAC and provide new insights into the design of combinatorial cancer therapies in a rational manner. PMID:26446703

  2. Functional loss of E-cadherin and cadherin-11 alleles on chromosome 16q22 in colonic cancer.

    PubMed

    Braungart, E; Schumacher, C; Hartmann, E; Nekarda, H; Becker, K F; Höfler, H; Atkinson, M J

    1999-04-01

    Proteins of the cadherin family regulate cellular adhesion and motility and are believed to act as tumour suppressors. Previous studies have identified frequent mutation and allelic inactivation of the E-cadherin (cadherin-1) locus in diffuse gastric cancer. At least two other cadherin genes, P-cadherin (cadherin-3) and OB-cadherin (cadherin-11), have been mapped close to the E-cadherin gene on chromosome 16q22. As this region of the genome is frequently deleted in malignancy, multiple cadherin loci may be affected by losses of chromosome 16q22. The expression of mRNA transcripts from polymorphic alleles of the E-cadherin and cadherin-11 genes was examined in 30 cases of colonic, gastric, and renal carcinoma. In gastric cancer, loss of expression of one allele was restricted to the E-cadherin locus, whilst in renal carcinoma neither locus was affected. In colonic cancers, loss of expression of one E-cadherin allele was detected in 5 of 22 cases, whilst loss of a cadherin-11 allele was seen in 5 of 23 cases. This functional loss of cadherin gene expression may be due to gene deletion, inactivation or recombination. As no evidence of cadherin gene mutation was observed in the remaining transcripts, we can conclude that these two genes are only indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. PMID:10398117

  3. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Engin, H Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10-4) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10-3). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10-8). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer genes

  4. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Engin, H. Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10−4) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10−3). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10−8). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  5. Loss of TIMP-1 immune expression and tumor recurrence in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Sabrina Thalita; Viana, Nayara Izabel; Iscaife, Alexandre; Pontes, José; Dip, Nelson; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Guimarães, Vanessa Ribeiro; Santana, Isaque; Nahas, William Carlos; Srougi, Miguel; Leite, Katia Ramos Moreira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Overexpression of MMPs has been related to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. TIMP1 and TIMP2 are controllers of MMPs and the aim of this study is to evaluate the expression levels of MMPs and their regulators using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray of localized prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods: Immune-expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP1, TIMP-2, MMP-14 and IL8, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in radical prostatectomy specimens of 40 patients with localized PC who underwent surgery between September 1997 and February 2000. Protein expression was considered as categorical variables, negative or positive. The results of the immune-expression were correlated to Gleason score (GS), pathological stage (TNM), pre-operatory PSA serum levels and biochemical recurrence in a mean follow up period of 92.5 months. Results: The loss of TIMP1 immune-expression was related to biochemical recurrence. When TIMP1 was negative, 56.3% patients recurred versus 22.2% of those whose TIMP1 was positive (p=0.042). MMP-9, MMP-2, IL8 and MMP-14 were positive in the majority of PC. TIMP-2 was negative in all cases. Conclusion: Negative immune-expression of TIMP1 is correlated with biochemical recurrence in patients with PC possibly by failing to control MMP-9, an important MMP related to cancer progression. PMID:26742965

  6. Loss of integrin alpha1beta1 ameliorates Kras-induced lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Macias-Perez, Ines; Borza, Corina; Chen, Xiwu; Yan, Xuexian; Ibanez, Raquel; Mernaugh, Glenda; Matrisian, Lynn M; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-08-01

    The collagen IV binding receptor integrin alpha1beta1 has been shown to regulate lung cancer due to its proangiogenic properties; however, it is unclear whether this receptor also plays a direct role in promoting primary lung tumors. To investigate this possibility, integrin alpha1-null mice were crossed with KrasLA2 mice that carry an oncogenic mutation of the Kras gene (G12D) and develop spontaneous primary tumors with features of non-small cell lung cancer. We provide evidence that KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice have a decreased incidence of primary lung tumors and longer survival compared with KrasLA2/alpha1 wild-type controls. Tumors from KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice were also smaller, less vascularized, and exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end staining, respectively. Moreover, tumors from the KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice showed diminished extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Primary lung tumor epithelial cells isolated from KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice showed a significant decrease in anchorage-independent colony formation, collagen-mediated cell proliferation, ERK activation, and, most importantly, tumorigenicity when injected into nude mice compared with KrasLA2/alpha1 wild-type tumor cells. These results indicate that loss of the integrin alpha1 subunit decreases the incidence and growth of lung epithelial tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras, suggesting that both Kras and integrin alpha1beta1 cooperate to drive the growth of non-small cell lung cancer in vivo. PMID:18676835

  7. From elasticity to inelasticity in cancer cell mechanics: A loss of scale-invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laperrousaz, B.; Drillon, G.; Berguiga, L.; Nicolini, F.; Audit, B.; Satta, V. Maguer; Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F.

    2016-08-01

    Soft materials such as polymer gels, synthetic biomaterials and living biological tissues are generally classified as viscoelastic or viscoplastic materials, because they behave neither as pure elastic solids, nor as pure viscous fluids. When stressed beyond their linear viscoelastic regime, cross-linked biopolymer gels can behave nonlinearly (inelastically) up to failure. In living cells, this type of behavior is more frequent because their cytoskeleton is basically made of cross-linked biopolymer chains with very different structural and flexibility properties. These networks have high sensitivity to stress and great propensity to local failure. But in contrast to synthetic passive gels, they can "afford" these failures because they have ATP driven reparation mechanisms which often allow the recovery of the original texture. A cell pressed in between two plates for a long period of time may recover its original shape if the culture medium brings all the nutrients for keeping it alive. When the failure events are too frequent or too strong, the reparation mechanisms may abort, leading to an irreversible loss of mechanical homeostasis and paving the way for chronic diseases such as cancer. To illustrate this discussion, we consider a model of immature cell transformation during cancer progression, the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), where the formation of the BCR-ABL oncogene results from a single chromosomal translocation t(9; 22). Within the assumption that the cell response to stress is scale invariant, we show that the power-law exponent that characterizes their mechanosensitivity can be retrieved from AFM force indentation curves. Comparing control and BCR-ABL transduced cells, we observe that in the later case, one month after transduction, a small percentage the cancer cells no longer follows the control cell power law, as an indication of disruption of the initial cytoskeleton network structure.

  8. Integrated analysis of the prostate cancer small-nucleolar transcriptome reveals SNORA55 as a driver of prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Quagliata, Luca; Michael, Agnieszka; Liu, Hui Hsuan; Frumento, Paolo; Azad, Arun A; Xue, Hui; Pikor, Larissa; Watahiki, Akira; Morant, Rudolf; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Wang, Yuwei; Parolia, Abhijit; Lennox, Kim A; Lam, Wan L; Gleave, Martin; Chi, Kim N; Pandha, Hardev; Wang, Yuzhuo; Helgason, Cheryl D

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have long been considered "housekeeping" genes with no relevance for cancer biology. Emerging evidence has challenged this assumption, suggesting that snoRNA expression is frequently modulated during cancer progression. Despite this, no study has systematically addressed the prognostic and functional significance of snoRNAs in PCa. We performed RNA Sequencing on paired metastatic/non-metastatic PCa xenografts derived from clinical specimens. The clinical significance of differentially expressed snoRNAs was further investigated in two independent primary PCa cohorts (131 and 43 patients, respectively). The snoRNA demonstrating the strongest association with clinical outcome was quantified in PCa patient-derived serum samples and its functional relevance was investigated in PCa cells via gene expression profiling, pathway analysis and gene silencing. Our comparison revealed 21 differentially expressed snoRNAs in the metastatic vs. non-metastatic xenografts. Of those, 12 were represented in clinical databases and were further analyzed. SNORA55 emerged as a predictor of shorter relapse-free survival (results confirmed in two independent databases). SNORA55 was reproducibly detectable in serum samples from PCa patients. SNORA55 silencing in PCa cell lines significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Pathway analysis revealed that SNORA55 expression is significantly associated with growth factor signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in PCa. Our results demonstrate that SNORA55 up-regulation predicts PCa progression and that silencing this non-coding gene affects PCa cell proliferation and metastatic potential, thus positioning it as both a novel biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:26809501

  9. Simultaneous loss of the DLC1 and PTEN tumor suppressors enhances breast cancer cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Heering, Johanna; Erlmann, Patrik; Olayioye, Monilola A.

    2009-09-10

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene is a tumor suppressor frequently deleted or mutated in sporadic tumors of the breast, prostate, endometrium and brain. The protein acts as a dual specificity phosphatase for lipids and proteins. PTEN loss confers a growth advantage to cells, protects from apoptosis and favors cell migration. The deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene has emerged as a novel tumor suppressor downregulated in a variety of tumor types including those of the breast. DLC1 contains a Rho GTPase activating domain that is involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. To investigate how simultaneous loss of PTEN and DLC1 contributes to cell transformation, we downregulated both proteins by RNA interference in the non-invasive MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. Joint depletion of PTEN and DLC1 resulted in enhanced cell migration in wounding and chemotactic transwell assays. Interestingly, both proteins were found to colocalize at the plasma membrane and interacted physically in biochemical pulldowns and coimmunoprecipitations. We therefore postulate that the concerted local inactivation of signaling pathways downstream of PTEN and DLC1, respectively, is required for the tight control of cell migration.

  10. COE loss-of-function analysis reveals a genetic program underlying maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system in planarians.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Martis W; Omuro, Kerilyn C; Stanley, Brianna N; Quintanilla, Carlo G; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2014-10-01

    Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals. PMID:25356635

  11. COE Loss-of-Function Analysis Reveals a Genetic Program Underlying Maintenance and Regeneration of the Nervous System in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    Cowles, Martis W.; Omuro, Kerilyn C.; Stanley, Brianna N.; Quintanilla, Carlo G.; Zayas, Ricardo M.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals. PMID:25356635

  12. Erbin loss promotes cancer cell proliferation through feedback activation of Akt-Skp2-p27 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Song, Yuhua; Wu, Yan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Qian, Lu

    2015-07-31

    Erbin localizes at the basolateral membrane to regulate cell junctions and polarity in epithelial cells. Dysregulation of Erbin has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and yet it is still unclear if and how disrupted Erbin regulates the biological behavior of cancer cells. We report here that depletion of Erbin leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Erbin deficiency accelerates S-phase entry by down-regulating CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 via two independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, Erbin loss promotes p27 degradation by enhancing E3 ligase Skp2 activity though augmenting Akt signaling. Interestingly, we also show that Erbin is an unstable protein when the Akt-Skp2 signaling is aberrantly activated, which can be specifically destructed by SCF-Skp2 ligase. Erbin loss facilitates cell proliferation and migration in Skp2-dependent manner. Thus, our finding illustrates a novel negative feedback loop between Erbin and Akt-Skp2 signaling. It suggests disrupted Erbin links polarity loss, hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • Erbin loss leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Erbin loss accelerates cell cycle though down-regulating p21 and p27 expression. • Erbin is a novel negative modulator of Akt1-Skp2-p27 signaling pathway. • Our study suggests that Erbin loss contributes to Skp2 oncogenic function.

  13. The role of osteocyte apoptosis in cancer chemotherapy-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Shandala, Tetyana; Shen Ng, Yeap; Hopwood, Blair; Yip, Yuen-Ching; Foster, Bruce K; Xian, Cory J

    2012-07-01

    Intensive cancer chemotherapy leads to significant bone loss, the underlying mechanism of which remains unclear. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms for effect of the commonly used anti-metabolite methotrexate (MTX) on osteocytes and on general bone homeostasis. The current study in juvenile rats showed that MTX chemotherapy caused a 4.3-fold increase in the number of apoptotic osteocytes in tibial metaphysis, which was accompanied by a 1.8-fold increase in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive bone resorbing osteoclasts, and a 35% loss of trabecular bone. This was associated with an increase in transcription of the osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-6 (10-fold) and IL-11 (2-fold). Moreover, the metaphyseal bone of MTX-treated animals exhibited a 37.6% increase in the total number of osteocytes, along with 4.9-fold higher expression of the DMP-1 transcript. In cultured osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, MTX treatment significantly increased caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, which was accompanied by the formation of plasma membrane-born apoptotic bodies and an increase in IL-6 (24-fold) and IL-11 (29-fold) mRNA expression. Conditioned media derived from MTX-treated MLO-Y4 cells was twice as strong as untreated media in its capacity to induce osteoclast formation in primary bone marrow osteoclast precursors. Thus, our in vivo and in vitro data suggested that MTX-induced apoptosis of osteocytes caused higher recruitment of DMP-1 positive osteocytes and increased osteoclast formation, which could contribute towards the loss of bone homeostasis in vivo. PMID:21938727

  14. Association of osteoprotegerin and bone loss after adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Drew R.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Reinbolt, Raquel E.; Pan, Xueliang; Wesolowski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure (CIOF) results in rapid bone loss. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANK-L) signaling balances bone resorption and formation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for RANK, interrupting osteoclast activation and bone resorption. This study examined the relationship between OPG and bone loss in women with CIOF. Methods Premenopausal women with stage I/II breast cancers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated at chemotherapy initiation, 6 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ionized calcium, osteocalcin, and OPG were serially measured. CIOF was defined as a negative pregnancy test, FSH levels >30 MIU/mL, and ≥3 months of amenorrhea. Results Forty women were enrolled; 31 (77.5%) met CIOF criteria. BMD significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the CIOF group at both time points: LS BMD decreased from a median of 0.993 g/cm2 to 0.976 g/cm2 and 0.937 g/cm2 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. OPG was significantly elevated at 6 months (median increase 0.30 pmol/L, p = 0.015) and then decreased at 12 months to levels still above baseline (median difference 0.2 pmol/L, p = 0.70). Conclusions In what was likely a compensatory response to rapid bone loss, CIOF patients’ OPG levels increased at 6 months and then decreased at 12 months to values greater than baseline assessments. This phenomenon is described in other diseases, but never before in CIOF. PMID:25575458

  15. Heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer metastases in a single patient revealed by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Sik; Zhong, Yi; Yachida, Shinichi; Rajeshkumar, N V; Abel, Melissa L; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Mudgal, Keshav; Hruban, Ralph H; Poling, Justin S; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-11-01

    Many patients with pancreatic cancer have metastases to distant organs at the time of initial presentation. Recent studies examining the evolution of pancreatic cancer at the genetic level have shown that clonal complexity of metastatic pancreatic cancer is already initiated within primary tumors, and organ-specific metastases are derived from different subclones. However, we do not yet understand to what extent the evolution of pancreatic cancer contributes to proteomic and signaling alterations. We hypothesized that genetic heterogeneity of metastatic pancreatic cancer results in heterogeneity at the proteome level. To address this, we employed a model system in which cells isolated from three sites of metastasis (liver, lung, and peritoneum) from a single patient were compared. We used a SILAC-based accurate quantitative proteomic strategy combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze the total proteome and tyrosine phosphoproteome of each of the distal metastases. Our data revealed distinct patterns of both overall proteome expression and tyrosine kinase activities across the three different metastatic lesions. This heterogeneity was significant because it led to differential sensitivity of the neoplastic cells to small molecule inhibitors targeting various kinases and other pathways. For example, R428, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets Axl receptor tyrosine kinase, was able to inhibit cells derived from lung and liver metastases much more effectively than cells from the peritoneal metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that administration of R428 in mice bearing xenografts of cells derived from the three different metastatic sites significantly diminished tumors formed from liver- and lung-metastasis-derived cell lines as compared with tumors derived from the peritoneal metastasis cell line. Overall, our data provide proof-of-principle support that personalized therapy of multiple organ metastases in a single patient should involve the

  16. A spontaneous metastasis model reveals the significance of claudin-9 overexpression in lung cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh K; Chheda, Zinal S; Das Purkayastha, Biswa Pratim; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Haribabu, Bodduluri

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis causes most cancer related mortality but the mechanisms governing metastatic dissemination are poorly defined. Metastasis involves egression of cancer cells from the primary tumors, their survival in circulation and colonization at the secondary sites. Cancer cell egression from the primary tumor is the least defined process of metastasis as experimental metastasis models directly seed cancer cells in circulation, thus bypassing this crucial step. Here, we developed a spontaneous metastasis model that retains the egression step of metastasis. By repeated in vivo passaging of the poorly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells, we generated a cell line (p-3LL) that readily metastasizes to lungs and liver from subcutaneous (s.c.) tumors. Interestingly, when injected intravenously, 3LL and p-3LL cells showed a similar frequency of metastasis. This suggests enhanced egression of p-3LL cells may underlie the enhanced metastatic spread from primary tumors. Microarray analysis of 3LL and p-3LL cells as well as the primary tumors derived from these cells revealed altered expression of several genes including significant upregulation of a tight junction protein, claudin-9. Increased expression of claudin-9 was confirmed in both p-3LL cells and tumors derived from these cells. Knockdown of claudin-9 expression in p-3LL cells by si-RNA significantly reduced their motility, invasiveness in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Conversely, transient overexpression of claudin-9 in 3LL cells enhanced their motility. These results suggest an essential role for claudin-9 in promoting lung cancer metastasis. PMID:26669782

  17. Loss of heterozygosis on chromosome 18q21-23 and muscle-invasive bladder cancer natural history

    PubMed Central

    CAI, TOMMASO; MONDAINI, NICOLA; TISCIONE, DANIELE; DAL CANTO, MAURIZIO; SANTI, RAFFAELLA; BARTOLETTI, RICCARDO; NESI, GABRIELLA

    2015-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosis (LOH) on chromosome (Chr) 18q21-23 was reported to be one of the most common genetic alterations identified in bladder cancer. The current study aimed to determine the prognostic role of LOH on Chr 18q21-23 in patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (MIBC). A total of 34 consecutive patients were enrolled in the present prospective study. LOH on Chr 18 was assessed by performing multiplex polymerase chain reaction on paired blood and tumour tissue samples from each patient. The following primers were used in the present study: D18S51, MBP LW and MBP H. These data were then compared with follow-up information. The main outcome measure was patient status at the end of the follow-up. Cox regression was used to evaluate the impact of each parameter on cancer-specific survival and the Kaplan Meier test for disease-free survival was plotted in order to estimate survival. Out of 34 patients, 18 (52.9%) exhibited ≥1 alteration in one of the loci analysed on chromosome 18, while 16 (47.1%) revealed no alterations. No correlation was identified with stage (P=0.18) or grade (P=0.06); however, LOH on Chr 18q21-23 was significantly associated with a lower recurrence-free probability (P<0.0001). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated a significant association between patient status at follow-up and LOH on Chr 18 (P<0.001). In addition, multivariate analysis identified LOH on Chr 18 (P<0.001) and stage (P=0.01) as independent survival predictors. Furthermore, artificial neural network analysis was consistent with the results of the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of LOH on Chr 18q21-23 in predicting the clinical outcome of patients with MIBC. PMID:26622891

  18. Loss of the NKX3.1 tumorsuppressor promotes the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In normal prostate epithelium the TMPRSS2 gene encoding a type II serine protease is directly regulated by male hormones through the androgen receptor. In prostate cancer ERG protooncogene frequently gains hormonal control by seizing gene regulatory elements of TMPRSS2 through genomic fusion events. Although, the androgenic activation of TMPRSS2 gene has been established, little is known about other elements that may interact with TMPRSS2 promoter sequences to modulate ERG expression in TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion context. Methods Comparative genomic analyses of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences and pathway analyses were performed by the Genomatix Software. NKX3.1 and ERG genes expressions were evaluated by immunoblot or by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in response to siRNA knockdown or heterologous expression. QRT-PCR assay was used for monitoring the gene expression levels of NKX3.1-regulated genes. Transcriptional regulatory function of NKX3.1 was assessed by luciferase assay. Recruitment of NKX3.1 to its cognate elements was monitored by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay. Results Comparative analysis of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences among different species revealed the conservation of binding sites for the androgen inducible NKX3.1 tumor suppressor. Defects of NKX3.1, such as, allelic loss, haploinsufficiency, attenuated expression or decreased protein stability represent established pathways in prostate tumorigenesis. We found that NKX3.1 directly binds to TMPRSS2 upstream sequences and negatively regulates the expression of the ERG protooncogene through the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Conclusions These observations imply that the frequently noted loss-of-function of NKX3.1 cooperates with the activation of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions in prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:24418414

  19. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  20. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  1. The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Josee, Lavoie; Dolling, Jo-Anna; Mitchel, Ron E.J.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2004-09-28

    The Trp53 gene is clearly associated with increased cancer risk. This, coupled with the broad understanding of its mode of action at the molecular level, makes this gene a good candidate for investigating the relationship between genetic risk factors and spontaneous cancer occurring in a mouse model exposed to low dose radiation. We have shown that adaptive response to chronic low dose radiation could increase cancer latency, as well as overall lifespan. To better understand the molecular processes that influence cellular risk, modern tools in molecular biology were used to evaluate the loss of heterozigozity (LOH) at the Trp53 locus, and chromosomal instability in the cells from mice exposed to chronic low dose radiation. Female mice carrying a single defective copy of the Trp53 gene were irradiated with doses of gamma-radiation delivered at a low dose rate of about 0.7 mGy/hr. Groups of mice (5 irradiated and 5 unexposed) were exposed to 0.33 mGy per day for 15, 30, 45, 60, 67 and 75 weeks equaling total body doses of 2.4, 4.7, 7.2, 9.7, 10.9 and 12.1 cGy, respectively. The presence of a single defective copy of the Trp53 gene increases cancer risk in these mice. However, in vivo exposure to low dose radiation increased cancer latency. We hypothesized that: (1) These mice might have spontaneous chromosome instability, and (2) that this low dose adaptive exposure would reduce the chromosomal instability. This instability was investigated using spectral karyotyping (SKY). Bone marrow cells from 5 irradiated mice (doses of 10.9 and 12.1 cGy) and 5 control mice were collected for metaphase harvest. Briefly, the cells were incubated at 37 C for 4 hours in RPMI containing 25% heat-inactivated FBS and 0.1 mg/ml colcemid, and then given a hypotonic treatment of 0.075M KCl for 20 minutes at 37 C. An average of 100 metaphases per mouse were karyotyped. The Trp53 heterozygous mice do not show apparent structural chromosome instability. From both unexposed and irradiated

  2. Integrative Molecular Profiling Reveals Asparagine Synthetase Is a Target in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanishka; Huang, Heng; Hu, Limei; Cogdell, David; Dhillon, Jasreman; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Efstathiou, Eleni; Koumakpayi, Ismaël H.; Saad, Fred; Luo, Dijun; Bismar, Tarek A.; Aparicio, Ana; Troncoso, Patricia; Navone, Nora; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The identification of new and effective therapeutic targets for the lethal, castration-resistant stage of prostate cancer (CRPC) has been challenging because of both the paucity of adequate frozen tissues and a lack of integrated molecular analysis. Therefore, in this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number alterations from 34 unique surgical CRPC specimens and 5 xenografts, with matched transcriptomic profiling of 25 specimens. An integrated analysis of these data revealed that the asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene showed a gain in copy number and was overexpressed at the transcript level. The overexpression of ASNS was validated by analyzing other public CRPC data sets. ASNS protein expression, as detected by reverse-phase protein lysate array, was tightly correlated with gene copy number. In addition, ASNS protein expression, as determined by IHC analysis, was associated with progression to a therapy-resistant disease state in TMAs that included 77 castration-resistant and 40 untreated prostate cancer patient samples. Knockdown of ASNS by small-interfering RNAs in asparagine-deprived media led to growth inhibition in both androgen-responsive (ie, LNCaP) and castration-resistant (ie, C4-2B) prostate cancer cell lines and in cells isolated from a CRPC xenograft (ie, MDA PCa 180-30). Together, our results suggest that ASNS is up-regulated in cases of CRPC and that depletion of asparagine using ASNS inhibitors will be a novel strategy for targeting CRPC cells. PMID:22245216

  3. Microbial genomic analysis reveals the essential role of inflammation in bacteria-induced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Janelle C.; Gharaibeh, Raad Z.; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Uronis, Joshua M.; McCafferty, Jonathan; Fodor, Anthony A.; Jobin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteria, especially Escherichia coli, are abundant in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether cancer is promoted by inflammation-induced expansion of E. coli and/or changes in expression of specific microbial genes. Here we use longitudinal (2, 12 and 20 weeks) 16S rRNA sequencing of luminal microbiota from ex-germ free mice to show that inflamed Il10−/− mice maintain a higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae than healthy wild-type mice. Experiments with mono-colonized Il10−/− mice reveal that host inflammation is necessary for E. coli cancer-promoting activity. RNA-sequence analysis indicates significant changes in E. coli gene catalogue in Il10−/− mice, with changes mostly driven by adaptation to the intestinal environment. Expression of specific genes present in the tumor-promoting E. coli pks island are modulated by inflammation/CRC development. Thus, progression of inflammation in Il10−/− mice supports Enterobacteriaceae and alters a small subset of microbial genes important for tumor development. PMID:25182170

  4. Singularity analysis of the AKT signaling pathway reveals connections between cancer and metabolic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyu

    2010-12-01

    Connections between cancer and metabolic diseases may consist in the complex network of interactions among a common set of biomolecules. By applying singularity and bifurcation analysis, the phenotypes constrained by the AKT signaling pathway are identified and mapped onto the parameter space, which include cancer and certain metabolic diseases. By considering physiologic properties (sensitivity, robustness and adaptivity) the AKT pathway must possess in order to efficiently sense growth factors and nutrients, the region of normal responses is located. To optimize these properties, the intracellular concentration of the AKT protein must be sufficiently high to saturate its enzymes; the strength of the positive feedback must be stronger than that of the negative feedback. The analysis illuminates the parameter space and reveals system-level mechanisms in regulating biological functions (cell growth, survival, proliferation and metabolism) and how their deregulation may lead to the development of diseases. The analytical expressions summarize the synergistic interactions among many molecules, which provides valuable insights into therapeutic interventions. In particular, a strategy for overcoming the limitations of mTOR inhibition is proposed for cancer therapy.

  5. Endogenous molecular network reveals two mechanisms of heterogeneity within gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Site; Zhu, Xiaomei; Liu, Bingya; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity is a common phenomenon and impedes cancer therapy and research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells have generally been classified into two heterogeneous cellular phenotypes, the gastric and intestinal types, yet the mechanisms of maintaining two phenotypes and controlling phenotypic transition are largely unknown. A qualitative systematic framework, the endogenous molecular network hypothesis, has recently been proposed to understand cancer genesis and progression. Here, a minimal network corresponding to such framework was found for GC and was quantified via a stochastic nonlinear dynamical system. We then further extended the framework to address the important question of intratumor heterogeneity quantitatively. The working network characterized main known features of normal gastric epithelial and GC cell phenotypes. Our results demonstrated that four positive feedback loops in the network are critical for GC cell phenotypes. Moreover, two mechanisms that contribute to GC cell heterogeneity were identified: particular positive feedback loops are responsible for the maintenance of intestinal and gastric phenotypes; GC cell progression routes that were revealed by the dynamical behaviors of individual key components are heterogeneous. In this work, we constructed an endogenous molecular network of GC that can be expanded in the future and would broaden the known mechanisms of intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:25962957

  6. Allele-Specific Amplification in Cancer Revealed by SNP Array Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Amplification, deletion, and loss of heterozygosity of genomic DNA are hallmarks of cancer. In recent years a variety of studies have emerged measuring total chromosomal copy number at increasingly high resolution. Similarly, loss-of-heterozygosity events have been finely mapped using high-throughput genotyping technologies. We have developed a probe-level allele-specific quantitation procedure that extracts both copy number and allelotype information from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to arrive at allele-specific copy number across the genome. Our approach applies an expectation-maximization algorithm to a model derived from a novel classification of SNP array probes. This method is the first to our knowledge that is able to (a) determine the generalized genotype of aberrant samples at each SNP site (e.g., CCCCT at an amplified site), and (b) infer the copy number of each parental chromosome across the genome. With this method, we are able to determine not just where amplifications and deletions occur, but also the haplotype of the region being amplified or deleted. The merit of our model and general approach is demonstrated by very precise genotyping of normal samples, and our allele-specific copy number inferences are validated using PCR experiments. Applying our method to a collection of lung cancer samples, we are able to conclude that amplification is essentially monoallelic, as would be expected under the mechanisms currently believed responsible for gene amplification. This suggests that a specific parental chromosome may be targeted for amplification, whether because of germ line or somatic variation. An R software package containing the methods described in this paper is freely available at http://genome.dfci.harvard.edu/~tlaframb/PLASQ. PMID:16322765

  7. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model's components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  8. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model’s components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  9. Breast cancer revealed by a paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome: about one case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Adama, Dembélé; Moussa, Bambara; Emmanuel, Macoumi; Dennis, Ullmann

    2015-01-01

    To describe a case of breast cancer manifested by cerebellar syndrome and to establish a relationship between breast cancer and Paraneoplastic syndromes through the presence of anti- yo antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient. Our patient was 52 years old, Multipara with 5 children alive. She had been 3 years post-menopausal under Hormonal Replacement Therapy. Weight: 46.7 Kg; Height: 1.60 m; Body Surface Area: 1.59 m2. Nil history of alcohol or tobacco smoking. Nilhistory suggestive of malignancies or autoimmune diseases. Her Blood group was oRhpositive, nil presence of irregular agglutinins. She was admitted to the neurology service for vertigo and it was determined an isolated cerebellar syndrome. All tests were negative including tumor markers and radiological imaging. The clinical gynecological examination was perfectly normal. The diagnosis hypothesis was “meningo-encephalocerebellitis of viral origin” but with persistence and aggravation of the cerebellar syndrome, despite treatment. We decided to search, antibodies, anti-Hu, anti-Yo, anti-Ri, and anti Ta. Anti Yo was positive + + + in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of the patient. The search for a gynecological cancer included a mammography which revealed micro calcifications in the left breast + + +. A lumpectomy of the left breast accompanied with x-ray identification of the micro calcifications was done and the histology showed a High Grade Intraductal carcinoma of the left breast with two homes of 3mm and 1 mm, corresponding to an infiltrating carcinoma of the left breast, grade II tumor of Scarff and Bloom (SBRII, 21 N + / 26, RH +, low Ki 67) and Estrogen and progesterone receptor positive +: multifocal cancer. Following the lumpectomy, mastectomy withganglion clearing was done with adjuvant chemotherapy (FEC 6 Cycles): histology still showed Infiltrating Intraductal Carcinoma of the left breast, grade II tumor of Scarff and Bloom. Radiotherapy was followed and he patient was

  10. Genotyping of the polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and loss of heterozygosity in bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schnakenberg, E; Ehlers, C; Feyerabend, W; Werdin, R; Hübotter, R; Dreikorn, K; Schloot, W

    1998-05-01

    Acetylation is one of the major routes in metabolism and detoxification of a large number of drugs, chemicals and carcinogens. Slow acetylators are said to be more susceptible to developing bladder cancer and because of investigations about tumor risk based on phenotyping procedures, it was our aim to study the distribution of allelic constellations of the N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) by genotyping patients with bladder cancer. We analysed NAT2 gene of blood and tumor DNA from 60 patients with primary bladder cancer and DNA of blood samples from 154 healthy individuals. Using ASO-PCR/RFLP techniques we identified 70% of patients with bladder cancer (n = 42) to be slow acetylators while genotyping of controls resulted in 61% with slow acetylators (n = 94). In addition, dividing bladder cancer patients in males and females the genotype NAT2*5B/NAT2*6A occured with much higher frequencies in males (OR = 4, 95%); CI = 1.8-8.9). Furthermore, investigating bladder cancer tissues we could detect loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in slow and rapid acetylator genotypes. In eleven out of 60 tumor samples (18.3%) we observed allelic loss at the NAT2 locus while in control DNA of blood from the same patients both alleles were still detectable. PMID:9660060

  11. Loss of Stromal Caveolin-1 Expression: A Novel Tumor Microenvironment Biomarker That Can Predict Poor Clinical Outcomes for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tao; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Hong; Li, Yiming; Guo, Jian; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cancer development and progression is not only associated with the tumor cell proliferation but also depends on the interaction between tumor cells and the stromal microenvironment. A new understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment suggests that the loss of stromal caveolin-1 (Cav-1) as a key regulator may become a potential therapy target. This study aims to elucidate whether stromal Cav-1 expression in pancreatic cancer can be a strong prognosis biomarker. Methods Tissue samples from 45 pancreatic cancer patients were studied. Parenchyma and stroma were separated and purified using laser capture microdissection. Stromal Cav-1 expression was measured from pancreatic cancer, paraneoplastic, and normal tissue using immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the correlation of stromal Cav-1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognostic indicators, such as tumor marker HER-2/neu gene. Results Specimens from six patients (13.3%) showed high levels of stromal Cav-1 staining, those from eight patients (17.8%) showed a lower, intermediate level of staining, whereas those from 31 patients (68.9%) showed an absence of staining. Cav-1 expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts was lower than that in paracancer-associated and in normal fibroblasts. Stromal Cav-1 loss was associated with TNM stage (P = 0.018), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014), distant metastasis (P = 0.027), and HER-2/neu amplification (P = 0.007). The relationships of age, sex, histological grade, and tumor size with stromal Cav-1 expression were not significant (P>0.05). A negative correlation was found between circulating tumor cells and stromal Cav-1 expression (P<0.05). Conclusion The loss of stromal Cav-1 in pancreatic cancer was an independent prognostic indicator, thus suggesting that stromal Cav-1 may be an effective therapeutic target for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:24949874

  12. Loss of GFAT1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and predicts unfavorable prognosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fangfang; Jia, Dongwei; Zhao, Junjie; Wu, Weicheng; Min, Lingqiang; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Wang, Hongshan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-06-21

    Gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer represent the major reason for its poor prognosis. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Nevertheless, the role of GFAT1 in gastric cancer is little investigated. In this study, we found that the expression of GFAT1 was decreased in gastric cancer. Low expression of GFAT1 was positively associated with vessel invasion, late T stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that down-regulation of GFAT1 promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasive activities in gastric cancer cells through inducing the expression of TGF-β1. The GFAT1 expression also significantly correlated with EMT-related factors in gastric cancer patients. Together, these findings indicate that GFAT1 functions as a novel suppressor of EMT and tumor metastasis in gastric cancer. PMID:27509259

  13. Expression Proteomics Predicts Loss of RXR-γ during Progression of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Bapat, Sharmila A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of cellular transformation involves cascades of molecular changes that are modulated through altered epigenetic, transcription, post-translational and protein regulatory networks. Thus, identification of transformation-associated protein alterations can provide an insight into major regulatory pathways activated during disease progression. In the present protein expression profiling approach, we identified differential sets of proteins in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis screen of a serous ovarian adenocarcinoma progression model. Function-based categorization of the proteins exclusively associated with pre-transformed cells identified four cellular processes of which RXR-γ is known to modulate cellular differentiation and apoptosis. We thus probed the functional relevance of RXR-γ expression and signaling in these two pathways during tumor progression. RXR-γ expression was observed to modulate cellular differentiation and apoptosis in steady-state pre-transformed cells. Interestingly, retinoid treatment was found to enhance RXR-γ expression in transformed cells and sensitize them towards apoptosis in vitro, and also reduce growth of xenografts derived from transformed cells. Our findings emphasize that loss of RXR-γ levels appears to provide mechanistic benefits to transformed cells towards the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis hallmark of cancer, while effective retinoid treatment may present a viable approach towards sensitization of tumor cells to apoptosis through induction of RXR-γ expression. PMID:23936423

  14. PTEN loss in circulating tumour cells correlates with PTEN loss in fresh tumour tissue from castration-resistant prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Szafer-Glusman, Edith; Tucker, Eric K; Mohan, Sankar; Flohr, Penelope; Riisnaes, Ruth; Miranda, Susana; Figueiredo, Ines; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Omlin, Aurelius; Pezaro, Carmel; Zhu, Jin; Amler, Lukas; Patel, Premal; Yan, Yibing; Bales, Natalee; Werner, Shannon L; Louw, Jessica; Pandita, Ajay; Marrinucci, Dena; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Background: PTEN gene loss occurs frequently in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and may drive progression through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here, we developed a novel CTC-based assay to determine PTEN status and examined the correlation between PTEN status in CTCs and matched tumour tissue samples. Methods: PTEN gene status in CTCs was evaluated on an enrichment-free platform (Epic Sciences) by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). PTEN status in archival and fresh tumour tissue was evaluated by FISH and immunohistochemistry. Results: Peripheral blood was collected from 76 patients. Matched archival and fresh cancer tissue was available for 48 patients. PTEN gene status detected in CTCs was concordant with PTEN status in matched fresh tissues and archival tissue in 32 of 38 patients (84%) and 24 of 39 patients (62%), respectively. CTC counts were prognostic (continuous, P=0.001). PTEN loss in CTCs associated with worse survival in univariate analysis (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.17–3.62; P=0.01) and with high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic CRPC patients. Conclusions: Our results illustrate the potential use of CTCs as a non-invasive, real-time liquid biopsy to determine PTEN gene status. The prognostic and predictive value of PTEN in CTCs warrants investigation in CRPC clinical trials of PI3K/AKT-targeted therapies. PMID:26379078

  15. Endogenous Voltage Potentials and the Microenvironment: Bioelectric Signals that Reveal, Induce and Normalize Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chernet, Brook; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cancer may be a disease of geometry: a misregulation of the field of information that orchestrates individual cells’ activities towards normal anatomy. Recent work identified molecular mechanisms underlying a novel system of developmental control: bioelectric gradients. Endogenous spatio-temporal differences in resting potential of non-neural cells provide instructive cues for cell regulation and complex patterning during embryogenesis and regeneration. It is now appreciated that these cues are an important layer of the dysregulation of cell: cell interactions that leads to cancer. Abnormal depolarization of resting potential (Vmem) is a convenient marker for neoplasia and activates a metastatic phenotype in genetically-normal cells in vivo. Moreover, oncogene expression depolarizes cells that form tumor-like structures, but is unable to form tumors if this depolarization is artificially prevented by misexpression of hyperpolarizing ion channels. Vmem triggers metastatic behaviors at considerable distance, mediated by transcriptional and epigenetic effects of electrically-modulated flows of serotonin and butyrate. While in vivo data on voltages in carcinogenesis comes mainly from the amphibian model, unbiased genetic screens and network profiling in rodents and human tissues reveal several ion channel proteins as bona fide oncogene and promising targets for cancer drug development. However, we propose that a focus on specific channel genes is just the tip of the iceberg. Bioelectric state is determined by post-translational gating of ion channels, not only from genetically-specified complements of ion translocators. A better model is a statistical dynamics view of spatial Vmem gradients. Cancer may not originate at the single cell level, since gap junctional coupling results in multi-cellular physiological networks with multiple stable attractors in bioelectrical state space. New medical applications await a detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which organ

  16. Integrative Analysis of Metabolomic, Proteomic and Genomic Data to Reveal Functional Pathways and Candidate Genes for Drip Loss in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Welzenbach, Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Heidt, Hanna; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate multi omics data to characterize underlying functional pathways and candidate genes for drip loss in pigs. The consideration of different omics levels allows elucidating the black box of phenotype expression. Metabolite and protein profiling was applied in Musculus longissimus dorsi samples of 97 Duroc × Pietrain pigs. In total, 126 and 35 annotated metabolites and proteins were quantified, respectively. In addition, all animals were genotyped with the porcine 60 k Illumina beadchip. An enrichment analysis resulted in 10 pathways, amongst others, sphingolipid metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, with significant influence on drip loss. Drip loss and 22 metabolic components were analyzed as intermediate phenotypes within a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We detected significantly associated genetic markers and candidate genes for drip loss and for most of the metabolic components. On chromosome 18, a region with promising candidate genes was identified based on SNPs associated with drip loss, the protein "phosphoglycerate mutase 2" and the metabolite glycine. We hypothesize that association studies based on intermediate phenotypes are able to provide comprehensive insights in the genetic variation of genes directly involved in the metabolism of performance traits. In this way, the analyses contribute to identify reliable candidate genes. PMID:27589727

  17. Anti-Transforming Growth Factor ß Antibody Treatment Rescues Bone Loss and Prevents Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S.; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Mundy, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (p<0.01). In addition, treatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors. PMID:22096521

  18. Loss of Scribble Promotes Snail Translation through Translocation of HuR and Enhances Cancer Drug Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Chang, Renxu; Ji, Weiwei; Wang, Na; Qi, Meiyan; Xu, Yi; Guo, Jingyu; Zhan, Lixing

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance of cancer cells to various therapeutic agents and molecular targets is a major problem facing current cancer research. The tumor suppressor gene Scribble encodes a polarity protein that is conserved between Drosophila and mammals; loss of the locus disrupts cell polarity, inhibits apoptosis, and mediates cancer process. However, the role of Scribble in drug resistance remains unknown. We show here that knockdown of Scribble enhances drug resistance by permitting accumulation of Snail, which functions as a transcription factor during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Then, loss of Scribble activates the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) by facilitating translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate HuR can recognize AU-rich elements of the Snail-encoding mRNA, thereby regulating Snail translation. Moreover, loss of Scribble-induced HuR translocation mediates the accumulation of Snail via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Thus, this work clarifies the role of polarity protein Scribble, which is directly implicated in the regulation of developmental transcription factor Snail, and suggesting a mechanism for Scribble mediating cancer drug resistance. PMID:26527679

  19. Loss of Scribble Promotes Snail Translation through Translocation of HuR and Enhances Cancer Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Chang, Renxu; Ji, Weiwei; Wang, Na; Qi, Meiyan; Xu, Yi; Guo, Jingyu; Zhan, Lixing

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance of cancer cells to various therapeutic agents and molecular targets is a major problem facing current cancer research. The tumor suppressor gene Scribble encodes a polarity protein that is conserved between Drosophila and mammals; loss of the locus disrupts cell polarity, inhibits apoptosis, and mediates cancer process. However, the role of Scribble in drug resistance remains unknown. We show here that knockdown of Scribble enhances drug resistance by permitting accumulation of Snail, which functions as a transcription factor during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Then, loss of Scribble activates the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) by facilitating translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate HuR can recognize AU-rich elements of the Snail-encoding mRNA, thereby regulating Snail translation. Moreover, loss of Scribble-induced HuR translocation mediates the accumulation of Snail via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Thus, this work clarifies the role of polarity protein Scribble, which is directly implicated in the regulation of developmental transcription factor Snail, and suggesting a mechanism for Scribble mediating cancer drug resistance. PMID:26527679

  20. Scenarios for future biodiversity loss due to multiple drivers reveal conflict between mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Thomas W. R.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2013-06-01

    We assess the potential for future biodiversity loss due to three interacting factors: energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change. We develop four scenarios to 2050 with different combinations of high or low agricultural efficiency and high or low meat diets, and use species-energy and species-area relationships to estimate their effects on biodiversity. In our scenarios, natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the increasing dietary demands of the global population. Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is used as a means of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere (and offsetting fossil fuel emissions). BECCS is based on waste biomass, with the addition of bio-energy crops only when already managed land is no longer needed for food production. Forecast biodiversity loss from natural biomes increases by more than a factor of five in going from high to low agricultural efficiency scenarios, due to destruction of productive habitats by the expansion of pasture. Biodiversity loss from energy withdrawal on managed land varies by a factor of two across the scenarios. Biodiversity loss due to climate change varies only modestly across the scenarios. Climate change is lowest in the ‘low meat high efficiency’ scenario, in which by 2050 around 660 million hectares of pasture are converted to biomass plantation that is used for BECCS. However, the resulting withdrawal of energy from managed ecosystems has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Although the effects of energy withdrawal and climate change on biodiversity cannot be directly compared, this suggests that using bio-energy to tackle climate change in order to limit biodiversity loss could instead have the opposite effect.

  1. Gene expression profiles of prostate cancer reveal involvement of multiple molecular pathways in the metastatic process

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Uma R; Ma, Changqing; Dhir, Rajiv; Bisceglia, Michelle; Lyons-Weiler, Maureen; Liang, Wenjing; Michalopoulos, George; Becich, Michael; Monzon, Federico A

    2007-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is characterized by heterogeneity in the clinical course that often does not correlate with morphologic features of the tumor. Metastasis reflects the most adverse outcome of prostate cancer, and to date there are no reliable morphologic features or serum biomarkers that can reliably predict which patients are at higher risk of developing metastatic disease. Understanding the differences in the biology of metastatic and organ confined primary tumors is essential for developing new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Methods Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 24 androgen-ablation resistant metastatic samples obtained from 4 patients and a previously published dataset of 64 primary prostate tumor samples. Differential gene expression was analyzed after removing potentially uninformative stromal genes, addressing the differences in cellular content between primary and metastatic tumors. Results The metastatic samples are highly heterogenous in expression; however, differential expression analysis shows that 415 genes are upregulated and 364 genes are downregulated at least 2 fold in every patient with metastasis. The expression profile of metastatic samples reveals changes in expression of a unique set of genes representing both the androgen ablation related pathways and other metastasis related gene networks such as cell adhesion, bone remodelling and cell cycle. The differentially expressed genes include metabolic enzymes, transcription factors such as Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) and cell adhesion molecules such as Osteopontin (SPP1). Conclusion We hypothesize that these genes have a role in the biology of metastatic disease and that they represent potential therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. PMID:17430594

  2. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Mohamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Metastases of solid tumors to the pituitary gland are often asymptomatic or appereas as with diabetes insipid us. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The presentation with an acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare event. A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary opacity. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed a multiples tumors with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases. This case emphasizes the need for an etiological investigation of acute adrenal insufficiency after treatment of acute phase. PMID:27200139

  3. Transcriptomic profiling of urine extracellular vesicles reveals alterations of CDH3 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; González, Esperanza; Cortazar, Ana R.; Palomo, Laura; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Lacasa-Viscasillas, Isabel; Berdasco, Maria; Sutherland, James D.; Barrio, Rosa; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Martín-Martín, Natalia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Valcarcel-Jimenez, Lorea; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Tampan, Jorge; Cachi-Fuentes, Guido; Esteller, Manel; Aransay, Ana M.; Unda, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging structures with promising properties for intercellular communication. In addition, the characterization of EV in biofluids is an attractive source of non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Here we show that urinary EV (uEV) from prostate cancer (PCa) patients exhibit genuine and differential physical and biological properties compared to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Importantly, transcriptomics characterization of uEVs led us to define the decreased abundance of Cadherin 3, type 1 (CDH3) transcript in uEV from PCa patients. Tissue and cell line analysis strongly suggested that the status of CDH3 in uEVs is a distal reflection of changes in the expression of this cadherin in the prostate tumor. CDH3 was negatively regulated at the genomic, transcriptional, and epigenetic level in PCa. Our results reveal that uEVs could represent a non-invasive tool to inform about the molecular alterations in PCa. PMID:26771841

  4. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Mohamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Metastases of solid tumors to the pituitary gland are often asymptomatic or appereas as with diabetes insipid us. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The presentation with an acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare event. A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary opacity. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed a multiples tumors with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases. This case emphasizes the need for an etiological investigation of acute adrenal insufficiency after treatment of acute phase. PMID:27200139

  5. Model of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas reveals striking enrichment in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Wauthier, Eliane; Dinh, Timothy A; Selitsky, Sara R; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Carpino, Guido; Levine, Ronald; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Klimstra, David; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico; Carrasco, Nancy; Sethupathy, Praveen; Reid, Lola M

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of human fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas (hFL-HCCs), cancers occurring increasingly in children to young adults, is poorly understood. We present a transplantable tumour line, maintained in immune-compromised mice, and validate it as a bona fide model of hFL-HCCs by multiple methods. RNA-seq analysis confirms the presence of a fusion transcript (DNAJB1-PRKACA) characteristic of hFL-HCC tumours. The hFL-HCC tumour line is highly enriched for cancer stem cells as indicated by limited dilution tumourigenicity assays, spheroid formation and flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry on the hFL-HCC model, with parallel studies on 27 primary hFL-HCC tumours, provides robust evidence for expression of endodermal stem cell traits. Transcriptomic analyses of the tumour line and of multiple, normal hepatic lineage stages reveal a gene signature for hFL-HCCs closely resembling that of biliary tree stem cells--newly discovered precursors for liver and pancreas. This model offers unprecedented opportunities to investigate mechanisms underlying hFL-HCCs pathogenesis and potential therapies. PMID:26437858

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of intratumoral immune cells reveal the immune landscape in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Bindea, Gabriela; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Tosolini, Marie; Kirilovsky, Amos; Waldner, Maximilian; Obenauf, Anna C; Angell, Helen; Fredriksen, Tessa; Lafontaine, Lucie; Berger, Anne; Bruneval, Patrick; Fridman, Wolf Herman; Becker, Christoph; Pagès, Franck; Speicher, Michael R; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Galon, Jérôme

    2013-10-17

    The complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment remain to be elucidated. Combining large-scale approaches, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of 28 different immune cell types (immunome) infiltrating tumors. We found that the immune infiltrate composition changed at each tumor stage and that particular cells had a major impact on survival. Densities of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and innate cells increased, whereas most T cell densities decreased along with tumor progression. The number of B cells, which are key players in the core immune network and are associated with prolonged survival, increased at a late stage and showed a dual effect on recurrence and tumor progression. The immune control relevance was demonstrated in three endoscopic orthotopic colon-cancer mouse models. Genomic instability of the chemokine CXCL13 was a mechanism associated with Tfh and B cell infiltration. CXCL13 and IL21 were pivotal factors for the Tfh/B cell axis correlating with survival. This integrative study reveals the immune landscape in human colorectal cancer and the major hallmarks of the microenvironment associated with tumor progression and recurrence. PMID:24138885

  7. An Atlas of the Human Kinome Reveals the Mutational Landscape Underlying Dysregulated Phosphorylation Cascades in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Olow, Aleksandra; Chen, Zhongzhong; Niedner, R Hannes; Wolf, Denise M; Yau, Christina; Pankov, Aleksandr; Lee, Evelyn Pei Rong; Brown-Swigart, Lamorna; van 't Veer, Laura J; Coppé, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Kinase inhibitors are used widely to treat various cancers, but adaptive reprogramming of kinase cascades and activation of feedback loop mechanisms often contribute to therapeutic resistance. Determining comprehensive, accurate maps of kinase circuits may therefore help elucidate mechanisms of response and resistance to kinase inhibitor therapies. In this study, we identified and validated phosphorylatable target sites across human cell and tissue types to generate PhosphoAtlas, a map of 1,733 functionally interconnected proteins comprising the human phospho-reactome. A systematic curation approach was used to distill protein phosphorylation data cross-referenced from 38 public resources. We demonstrated how a catalog of 2,617 stringently verified heptameric peptide regions at the catalytic interface of kinases and substrates could expose mutations that recurrently perturb specific phospho-hubs. In silico mapping of 2,896 nonsynonymous tumor variants identified from thousands of tumor tissues also revealed that normal and aberrant catalytic interactions co-occur frequently, showing how tumors systematically hijack, as well as spare, particular subnetworks. Overall, our work provides an important new resource for interrogating the human tumor kinome to strategically identify therapeutically actionable kinase networks that drive tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1733-45. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921330

  8. Genomic Profiling of Thyroid Cancer Reveals a Role for Thyroglobulin in Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Abdul K; Masoodi, Tariq; Bu, Rong; Beg, Shaham; Al-Sobhi, Saif S; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Dawish, Mohammed; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-06-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has a wide geographic variation in incidence; it is most common in Saudi Arabia, where it is only second to breast cancer as the most common cancer among females. Genomic profiling of PTC from Saudi Arabia has not been attempted previously. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 101 PTC samples and the corresponding genomic DNA to identify genes with recurrent somatic mutations, then sequenced these genes by using a next-generation gene-panel approach in an additional 785 samples. In addition to BRAF, N-RAS, and H-RAS, which have previously been shown to be recurrently mutated in PTC, our analysis highlights additional genes, including thyroglobulin (TG), which harbored somatic mutations in 3% of the entire cohort. Surprisingly, although TG mutations were not exclusive to mutations in the RAS-MAP kinase pathway, their presence was associated with a significantly worse clinical outcome, which suggests a pathogenic role beyond driving initial oncogenesis. Analysis of metastatic PTC tissue revealed significant enrichment for TG mutations (p < 0.001), including events of apparent clonal expansion. Our results suggest a previously unknown role of TG somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of PTC and its malignant evolution. PMID:27236916

  9. An optimized isolation of biotinylated cell surface proteins reveals novel players in cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Karhemo, Piia-Riitta; Ravela, Suvi; Laakso, Marko; Ritamo, Ilja; Tatti, Olga; Mäkinen, Selina; Goodison, Steve; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Hölttä, Erkki; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Valmu, Leena; Lehti, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Details of metastasis, the deadliest aspect of cancer, are unclear. Cell surface proteins play central roles in adhesive contacts between the tumor cell and the stroma during metastasis. We optimized a fast, small-scale isolation of biotinylated cell surface proteins to reveal novel metastasis-associated players froman isogenic pair of human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells with opposite metastatic phenotypes. Isolated proteins were trypsin digested and analyzed using LC–MS/MS followed by quantitation with the Progenesis LC–MS software. Sixteen proteins displayed over twofold expression differences between the metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Interestingly, overexpression of most of them (14/16) in the metastatic cells indicates a gain of novel surface protein profile as compared to the non-metastatic one. All five validated, differentially expressed proteins showed higher expression in the metastatic cells in culture, and four of these were further validated in vivo. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of two of the identified proteins, CD109 and ITGA6 in 3-dimensional cultures of six melanoma cell lines. Both proteins marked the surface of cells derived from melanoma metastasis over cells derived from primary melanoma. These unbiased identification and validation of both known and novel metastasis-associated proteins indicate a reliable approach for the identification of differentially expressed surface proteins. PMID:22813880

  10. Revealing potential molecular targets bridging colitis and colorectal cancer based on multidimensional integration strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yongfei; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Xishan; Fan, Huihui; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms bridging ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Here, we integrated multidimensional interaction resources, including gene expression profiling, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation data, and virus-host interactions, to tentatively explore potential molecular targets that functionally link UC and CRC at a systematic level. In this work, by deciphering the overlapping genes, crosstalking genes and pivotal regulators of both UC- and CRC-associated functional module pairs, we revealed a variety of genes (including FOS and DUSP1, etc.), transcription factors (including SMAD3 and ETS1, etc.) and miRNAs (including miR-155 and miR-196b, etc.) that may have the potential to complete the connections between UC and CRC. Interestingly, further analyses of the virus-host interaction network demonstrated that several virus proteins (including EBNA-LP of EBV and protein E7 of HPV) frequently inter-connected to UC- and CRC-associated module pairs with their validated targets significantly enriched in both modules of the host. Together, our results suggested that multidimensional integration strategy provides a novel approach to discover potential molecular targets that bridge the connections between UC and CRC, which could also be extensively applied to studies on other inflammation-related cancers. PMID:26461477

  11. Model of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas reveals striking enrichment in cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Wauthier, Eliane; Dinh, Timothy A.; Selitsky, Sara R.; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Carpino, Guido; Levine, Ronald; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Klimstra, David; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico; Carrasco, Nancy; Sethupathy, Praveen; Reid, Lola M.

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of human fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas (hFL-HCCs), cancers occurring increasingly in children to young adults, is poorly understood. We present a transplantable tumour line, maintained in immune-compromised mice, and validate it as a bona fide model of hFL-HCCs by multiple methods. RNA-seq analysis confirms the presence of a fusion transcript (DNAJB1-PRKACA) characteristic of hFL-HCC tumours. The hFL-HCC tumour line is highly enriched for cancer stem cells as indicated by limited dilution tumourigenicity assays, spheroid formation and flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry on the hFL-HCC model, with parallel studies on 27 primary hFL-HCC tumours, provides robust evidence for expression of endodermal stem cell traits. Transcriptomic analyses of the tumour line and of multiple, normal hepatic lineage stages reveal a gene signature for hFL-HCCs closely resembling that of biliary tree stem cells—newly discovered precursors for liver and pancreas. This model offers unprecedented opportunities to investigate mechanisms underlying hFL-HCCs pathogenesis and potential therapies. PMID:26437858

  12. Evaluation and Management of Hearing Loss in Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Bass, Johnnie K; Knight, Kristin R; Yock, Torunn I; Chang, Kay W; Cipkala, Douglas; Grewal, Satkiran S

    2016-07-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is common in childhood cancer survivors exposed to platinum chemotherapy and/or cranial radiation and can severely impact quality of life. Early detection and appropriate management can mitigate academic, speech, language, social, and psychological morbidity resulting from hearing deficits. This review is targeted as a resource for providers involved in aftercare of childhood cancers. The goal is to promote early identification of survivors at-risk for HL, appropriate evaluation and interpretation of diagnostic tests, timely referral to an audiologist when indicated, and to increase knowledge of current therapeutic options. PMID:26928933

  13. Accelerated muscle and adipose tissue loss may predict survival in pancreatic cancer patients: the relationship with diabetes and anaemia.

    PubMed

    Di Sebastiano, Katie M; Yang, Lin; Zbuk, Kevin; Wong, Raimond K; Chow, Tom; Koff, David; Moran, Gerald R; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2013-01-28

    Weight loss leading to cachexia is associated with poor treatment response and reduced survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We aim to identify indicators that allow for early detection that will advance our understanding of cachexia and will support targeted anti-cachexia therapies. A total of fifty pancreatic cancer patients were analysed for skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes using computed tomography (CT) scans. These changes were related to physical characteristics, secondary disease states and treatment parameters. Overall, patients lost 1.72 (SD 3.29) kg of muscle and 1.04 (SD 1.08) kg of VAT during the disease trajectory (413 (SD 213) d). After sorting patients into tertiles by rate of VAT and muscle loss, patients losing VAT at > -0.40 kg/100 d had poorer survival outcomes compared with patients with < -0.10 kg/100 d of VAT loss (P= 0.020). Patients presenting with diabetes at diagnosis demonstrated significantly more and accelerated VAT loss compared with non-diabetic patients. In contrast, patients who were anaemic at the first CT scan lost significantly more muscle tissue and at accelerated rates compared with non-anaemic patients. Accelerated rates of VAT loss are associated with reduced survival. Identifying associated features of cachexia, such as diabetes and anaemia, is essential for the early detection of cachexia and may facilitate the attenuation of complications associated with cachexia. PMID:23021109

  14. Catabolism of Exogenous Lactate Reveals It as a Legitimate Metabolic Substrate in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kelly M.; Scarbrough, Peter M.; Ribeiro, Anthony; Richardson, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Sonveaux, Pierre; Landon, Chelsea D.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Pizzo, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Lactate accumulation in tumors has been associated with metastases and poor overall survival in cancer patients. Lactate promotes angiogenesis and metastasis, providing rationale for understanding how it is processed by cells. The concentration of lactate in tumors is a balance between the amount produced, amount carried away by vasculature and if/how it is catabolized by aerobic tumor or stromal cells. We examined lactate metabolism in human normal and breast tumor cell lines and rat breast cancer: 1. at relevant concentrations, 2. under aerobic vs. hypoxic conditions, 3. under conditions of normo vs. hypoglucosis. We also compared the avidity of tumors for lactate vs. glucose and identified key lactate catabolites to reveal how breast cancer cells process it. Lactate was non-toxic at clinically relevant concentrations. It was taken up and catabolized to alanine and glutamate by all cell lines. Kinetic uptake rates of lactate in vivo surpassed that of glucose in R3230Ac mammary carcinomas. The uptake appeared specific to aerobic tumor regions, consistent with the proposed “metabolic symbiont” model; here lactate produced by hypoxic cells is used by aerobic cells. We investigated whether treatment with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC), a MCT1 inhibitor, would kill cells in the presence of high lactate. Both 0.1 mM and 5 mM CHC prevented lactate uptake in R3230Ac cells at lactate concentrations at ≤20 mM but not at 40 mM. 0.1 mM CHC was well-tolerated by R3230Ac and MCF7 cells, but 5 mM CHC killed both cell lines ± lactate, indicating off-target effects. This study showed that breast cancer cells tolerate and use lactate at clinically relevant concentrations in vitro (± glucose) and in vivo. We provided additional support for the metabolic symbiont model and discovered that breast cells prevailingly take up and catabolize lactate, providing rationale for future studies on manipulation of lactate catabolism pathways for therapy. PMID:24069390

  15. The landscape of chromosomal aberrations in breast cancer mouse models reveals driver-specific routes to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Uri; Ha, Gavin; Khadka, Prasidda; Jin, Xin; Wong, Bang; Franke, Lude; Golub, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy and copy-number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of human cancer. Although genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are commonly used to model human cancer, their chromosomal landscapes remain underexplored. Here we use gene expression profiles to infer CNAs in 3,108 samples from 45 mouse models, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of chromosomal aberrations in cancer GEMMs. Mining this resource, we find that most chromosomal aberrations accumulate late during breast tumorigenesis, and observe marked differences in CNA prevalence between mouse mammary tumours initiated with distinct drivers. Some aberrations are recurrent and unique to specific GEMMs, suggesting distinct driver-dependent routes to tumorigenesis. Synteny-based comparison of mouse and human tumours narrows critical regions in CNAs, thereby identifying candidate driver genes. We experimentally validate that loss of Stratifin (SFN) promotes HER2-induced tumorigenesis in human cells. These results demonstrate the power of GEMM CNA analysis to inform the pathogenesis of human cancer. PMID:27374210

  16. The landscape of chromosomal aberrations in breast cancer mouse models reveals driver-specific routes to tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-David, Uri; Ha, Gavin; Khadka, Prasidda; Jin, Xin; Wong, Bang; Franke, Lude; Golub, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy and copy-number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of human cancer. Although genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are commonly used to model human cancer, their chromosomal landscapes remain underexplored. Here we use gene expression profiles to infer CNAs in 3,108 samples from 45 mouse models, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of chromosomal aberrations in cancer GEMMs. Mining this resource, we find that most chromosomal aberrations accumulate late during breast tumorigenesis, and observe marked differences in CNA prevalence between mouse mammary tumours initiated with distinct drivers. Some aberrations are recurrent and unique to specific GEMMs, suggesting distinct driver-dependent routes to tumorigenesis. Synteny-based comparison of mouse and human tumours narrows critical regions in CNAs, thereby identifying candidate driver genes. We experimentally validate that loss of Stratifin (SFN) promotes HER2-induced tumorigenesis in human cells. These results demonstrate the power of GEMM CNA analysis to inform the pathogenesis of human cancer. PMID:27374210

  17. Intraoperative Blood Loss Independently Predicts Survival and Recurrence after Resection of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Fu-Long; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Ding, Pei-Rong; Fan, Wen-Hua; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; De-Sen Wan

    2013-01-01

    Background Although numerous prognostic factors have been reported for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM), few studies have reported intraoperative blood loss (IBL) effects on clinical outcome after CRLM resection. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and histopathological characteristics of 139 patients who underwent liver resection for CRLM. The IBL cutoff volume was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression methods. Results All patients underwent curative resection. The median follow up period was 25.0 months (range, 2.1–88.8). Body mass index (BMI) and CRLM number and tumor size were associated with increased IBL. BMI (P=0.01; 95% CI = 1.3–8.5) and IBL (P<0.01; 95% CI = 1.6–12.5) were independent OSOs predictors. Five factors, including IBL (P=0.02; 95% CI = 1.1–4.1), were significantly related to RFS via multivariate Cox regression analysis. In addition, OSOs and RFS significantly decreased with increasing IBL volumes. The 5-year OSOs of patients with IBL≤250, 250–500, and >500mL were 71%, 33%, and 0%, respectively (P<0.01). RFS of patients within three IBL volumes at the end of the first year were 67%, 38%, and 18%, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions IBL during CRLM resection is an independent predictor of long term survival and tumor recurrence, and its prognostic value was confirmed by a dose–response relationship. PMID:24098431

  18. S100A8/A9 is associated with estrogen receptor loss in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    BAO, YI; WANG, ANTAO; MO, JUANFEN

    2016-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 are calcium-binding proteins that are secreted primarily by granulocytes and monocytes, and are upregulated during the inflammatory response. S100A8 and S100A9 have been identified to be expressed by epithelial cells involved in malignancy. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of S100A8 and S100A9 were investigated in various subtypes of breast cancer (BC), and the correlation with estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) gene expression was evaluated using microarray datasets. The expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in BC cells was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The regulation of ESR1 and GATA3 by administration of recombinant S100A8/A9 was examined in the BC MCF-7 cell line using quantitative (q)PCR. The association between S100A8 and S100A9 and overall survival (OS) was investigated in GeneChip® data of BC. The expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 were higher in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-amplified and basal-like BC. The messenger (m)RNA levels of S100A8 and S100A9 were inversely correlated with ESR1 and GATA3 expression. S100A8/A9 induced a 10-fold decrease in the mRNA levels of ESR1 in MCF-7 cells. Poor OS was associated with high expression levels of S100A9, but not with high expression levels of S100A8 in BC. In conclusion, strong expression and secretion of S100A8/A9 may be associated with the loss of estrogen receptor in BC, and may be involved in the poor prognosis of Her2+/basal-like subtypes of BC. PMID:26998104

  19. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability as predictive markers among Iranian esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Vahid, Elham Emami; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Gholamin, Mehran; Noghabi, Samaneh Broumand; Ghahraman, Martha; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Variation in microsatellite sequences that are dispersed in the genome has been linked to a deficiency in cellular mismatch repair system and defects in several genes of this system are involved in carcinogenesis. Our aim in this study was to illustrate microsatellite DNA alteration in esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from surgical and matched margin-normal samples. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were studied in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by amplifying six microsatellite markers: D13S260 (13q12.3), D13S267 (13q12.3), D9S171 (9p21), D2S123 (2p), D5S2501 (5q21) and TP53 (17p13.1) analyzed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Statistical analysis indicated a near significant reverse correlation between grade and LOH (P= 0.068, correlation coefficient= -0.272). Specifically, increased LOH in tumor DNA has a significant correlation with increased differentiation from poorly differentiated to well differentiated tumors (P= 0.002 and P= 0.016 respectively). In addition, higher number of chromosomal loci with LOH showed a reverse correlation with lymph node metastasis (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= -0.485). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between addiction and MSI (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= 0.465). Conclusion: Microsatellite DNA alterations may be a prognostic tool for detection and the evolution of prognosis in patients with SCC of esophagus. It can be concluded that regional lymph node metastasis would be less likely with increased heterozygote loci and addiction with any of opium, cigarette, water pipe or alcohol can be a susceptibility factor(s) for MSI.

  20. Partial Loss of Genomic Imprinting Reveals Important Roles for Kcnq1 and Peg10 Imprinted Domains in Placental Development

    PubMed Central

    Koppes, Erik; Himes, Katherine P.; Chaillet, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in imprinted genes or their imprint control regions (ICRs) produce changes in imprinted gene expression and distinct abnormalities in placental structure, indicating the importance of genomic imprinting to placental development. We have recently shown that a very broad spectrum of placental abnormalities associated with altered imprinted gene expression occurs in the absence of the oocyte–derived DNMT1o cytosine methyltransferase, which normally maintains parent-specific imprinted methylation during preimplantation. The absence of DNMT1o partially reduces inherited imprinted methylation while retaining the genetic integrity of imprinted genes and their ICRs. Using this novel system, we undertook a broad and inclusive approach to identifying key ICRs involved in placental development by correlating loss of imprinted DNA methylation with abnormal placental phenotypes in a mid-gestation window (E12.5-E15.5). To these ends we measured DNA CpG methylation at 15 imprinted gametic differentially methylated domains (gDMDs) that overlap known ICRs using EpiTYPER-mass array technology, and linked these epigenetic measurements to histomorphological defects. Methylation of some imprinted gDMDs, most notably Dlk1, was nearly normal in mid-gestation DNMT1o-deficient placentas, consistent with the notion that cells having lost methylation on these DMDs do not contribute significantly to placental development. Most imprinted gDMDs however showed a wide range of methylation loss among DNMT1o-deficient placentas. Two striking associations were observed. First, loss of DNA methylation at the Peg10 imprinted gDMD associated with decreased embryonic viability and decreased labyrinthine volume. Second, loss of methylation at the Kcnq1 imprinted gDMD was strongly associated with trophoblast giant cell (TGC) expansion. We conclude that the Peg10 and Kcnq1 ICRs are key regulators of mid-gestation placental function. PMID:26241757

  1. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in head and neck cancer associated with poor patient prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Timothy A; Brizel, David M; Killian, J Keith; Oka, Yoshihiko; Jang, Hong-Seok; Fu, Xiaolong; Clough, Robert W; Vollmer, Robin T; Anscher, Mitchell S; Jirtle, Randy L

    2003-01-01

    Background The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) encodes for a multifunctional receptor involved in lysosomal enzyme trafficking, fetal organogenesis, cytotoxic T cell-induced apoptosis and tumor suppression. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the M6P/IGF2R tumor suppressor gene is mutated in human head and neck cancer, and if allelic loss is associated with poor patient prognosis. Methods M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was assessed with six different gene-specific nucleotide polymorphisms. The patients studied were enrolled in a phase 3 trial of twice daily radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy; median follow-up for surviving patients is 76 months. Results M6P/IGF2R was polymorphic in 64% (56/87) of patients, and 54% (30/56) of the tumors in these informative patients had loss of heterozygosity. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity was associated with a significantly reduced 5 year relapse-free survival (23% vs. 69%, p = 0.02), locoregional control (34% vs. 75%, p = 0.03) and cause specific survival (29% vs. 75%, p = 0.02) in the patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant chemotherapy resulted in a better outcome when compared to radiotherapy alone only in those patients whose tumors had M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity predicts for poor therapeutic outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Our findings also indicate that head and neck cancer patients with M6P/IGF2R allelic loss benefit most from concurrent chemotherapy. PMID:12589712

  2. Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Jeroen; Reemer, Menno; van Kats, Ruud; Ozinga, Wim A; van der Linden, Giel T J; Schaminée, Joop H J; Siepel, Henk; Kleijn, David

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for declining populations of both wild and managed bees has raised concern about a potential global pollination crisis. Strategies to mitigate bee loss generally aim to enhance floral resources. However, we do not really know whether loss of preferred floral resources is the key driver of bee decline because accurate assessment of host plant preferences is difficult, particularly for species that have become rare. Here we examine whether population trends of wild bees in The Netherlands can be explained by trends in host plants, and how this relates to other factors such as climate change. We determined host plant preference of bee species using pollen loads on specimens in entomological collections that were collected before the onset of their decline, and used atlas data to quantify population trends of bee species and their host plants. We show that decline of preferred host plant species was one of two main factors associated with bee decline. Bee body size, the other main factor, was negatively related to population trend, which, because larger bee species have larger pollen requirements than smaller species, may also point toward food limitation as a key factor driving wild bee loss. Diet breadth and other potential factors such as length of flight period or climate change sensitivity were not important in explaining twentieth century bee population trends. These results highlight the species-specific nature of wild bee decline and indicate that mitigation strategies will only be effective if they target the specific host plants of declining species. PMID:25422416

  3. Inhibition of bone loss with surface-modulated, drug-loaded nanoparticles in an intraosseous model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Isaac M; Sharma, Blanka; Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2016-06-28

    Advanced-stage prostate cancer usually metastasizes to bone and is untreatable due to poor biodistribution of intravenously administered anticancer drugs to bone. In this study, we modulated the surface charge/composition of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) to sustain their blood circulation time and made them small enough to extravasate through the openings of the bone's sinusoidal capillaries and thus localize into marrow. NPs with a neutral surface charge, achieved by modulating the NP surface-associated emulsifier composition, were more effective at localizing to bone marrow than NPs with a cationic or anionic surface charge. These small neutral NPs (~150nm vs. the more usual ~320nm) were also ~7-fold more effective in localizing in bone marrow than large NPs. We hypothesized that NPs that effectively localize to marrow could improve NP-mediated anticancer drug delivery to sites of bone metastasis, thereby inhibiting cancer progression and preventing bone loss. In a PC-3M-luc cell-induced osteolytic intraosseous model of prostate cancer, these small neutral NPs demonstrated greater accumulation in bone within metastatic sites than in normal contralateral bone as well as co-localization with the tumor mass in marrow. Significantly, a single-dose intravenous administration of these small neutral NPs loaded with paclitaxel (PTX-NPs), but not anionic PTX-NPs, slowed the progression of bone metastasis. In addition, neutral PTX-NPs prevented bone loss, whereas animals treated with the rapid-release drug formulation Cremophor EL (PTX-CrEL) or saline (control) showed >50% bone loss. Neutral PTX-NPs did not cause acute toxicity, whereas animals treated with PTX-CrEL experienced weight loss. These results indicate that NPs with appropriate physical and sustained drug-release characteristics could be explored to treat bone metastasis, a significant clinical issue in prostate and other cancers. PMID:27090164

  4. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Dugo, Matteo; Callari, Maurizio; Sandri, Marco; De Cecco, Loris; Valeri, Barbara; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Xue, Jingyan; Bi, Rui; Veneroni, Silvia; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide. PMID:25787708

  5. Loss of the multifunctional RNA-binding protein RBM47 as a source of selectable metastatic traits in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vanharanta, Sakari; Marney, Christina B; Shu, Weiping; Valiente, Manuel; Zou, Yilong; Mele, Aldo; Darnell, Robert B; Massagué, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which cancer cells lock in altered transcriptional programs in support of metastasis remain largely unknown. Through integrative analysis of clinical breast cancer gene expression datasets, cell line models of breast cancer progression, and mutation data from cancer genome resequencing studies, we identified RNA binding motif protein 47 (RBM47) as a suppressor of breast cancer progression and metastasis. RBM47 inhibited breast cancer re-initiation and growth in experimental models. Transcriptome-wide HITS-CLIP analysis revealed widespread RBM47 binding to mRNAs, most prominently in introns and 3′UTRs. RBM47 altered splicing and abundance of a subset of its target mRNAs. Some of the mRNAs stabilized by RBM47, as exemplified by dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1, inhibit tumor progression downstream of RBM47. Our work identifies RBM47 as an RNA-binding protein that can suppress breast cancer progression and demonstrates how the inactivation of a broadly targeted RNA chaperone enables selection of a pro-metastatic state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02734.001 PMID:24898756

  6. FHIT loss confers cisplatin resistance in lung cancer via the AKT/NF-κB/Slug-mediated PUMA reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, D-W; Lee, M-C; Hsu, N-Y; Wu, T-C; Wu, J-Y; Wang, Y-C; Cheng, Y-W; Chen, C-Y; Lee, H

    2015-05-01

    Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) loss by the two-hit mechanism of loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation commonly occurrs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and may confer cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of FHIT loss in cisplatin resistance and the response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients have not yet been reported. In the present study, inhibition concentration of 50% cell viability induced by cisplatin (IC50) and soft agar growth and invasion capability were increased and decreased in FHIT-knockdown and -overexpressing cells, respectively. Mechanistically, Slug transcription is upregulated by AKT/NF-κB activation due to FHIT loss and, in turn, Slug suppresses PUMA expression; this decrease of PUMA by FHIT loss is responsible for cisplatin resistance. In addition, cisplatin resistance due to FHIT loss can be conquered by AKT inhibitor-perifosine in xenograft tumors. Among NSCLC patients, low FHIT, high p-AKT, high Slug and low PUMA were correlated with shorter overall survival, relapse-free survival and poorer response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Therefore, the AKT inhibitor perifosine might potentially overcome the resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients with low-FHIT tumors, and consequently improve the outcome. PMID:24998847

  7. CDA directs metabolism of epigenetic nucleosides revealing a therapeutic window in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zauri, Melania; Berridge, Georgina; Thézénas, Marie-Laëtitia; Pugh, Kathryn M.; Goldin, Robert; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cells require nucleotides to support DNA replication and to repair damaged DNA. In addition to de novo synthesis, cells recycle nucleotides from the DNA of dying cells or from cellular material ingested through the diet. Salvaged nucleosides come with the complication that they can contain epigenetic modifications. Since epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation mainly relies on copying of the modification pattern from parental strands1-3, random incorporation of pre-modified bases during replication could have profound implications for epigenome fidelity and yield adverse cellular phenotypes. Although the salvage mechanism of 5-methyl-2′deoxycytidine (5mdC) has been investigated before4-6, currently it remains unknown how cells deal with the recently identified oxidised forms of 5mdC – 5-hydroxymethyl-2′deoxycytidine (5hmdC), 5-formy-2′deoxycytidine (5fdC) and 5-carboxyl-2′deoxycytidine (5cadC)7-10. Here we demonstrate that enzymes of the nucleotide salvage pathway display substrate selectivity, effectively protecting newly synthesized DNA from the incorporation of epigenetically modified forms of cytosine. Thus cell lines and animals can tolerate high doses of these modified cytidines without any deleterious effects on physiology. Interestingly, by screening cancer cell lines for growth defects following exposure to 5hmdC, we unexpectedly identify a subset of cell lines where 5hmdC or 5fdC administration leads to cell lethality. Using genomic approaches we discover that the susceptible cell lines overexpress cytidine deaminase (CDA). CDA converts 5hmdC and 5fdC into variants of uridine that are incorporated into DNA, resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and ultimately, cell death. Our observations extend current knowledge of the nucleotide salvage pathway by revealing the metabolism of oxidised epigenetic bases, and suggest a therapeutic option for cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, that have CDA overexpression and are resistant to treatment

  8. Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Analysis of Lung, Ovary, Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Reveals Novel Pleiotropic Associations.

    PubMed

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D; Eeles, Rosalind A; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Lindström, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Berndt, Sonja I; Giovannucci, Edward L; Grönberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter C; Goode, Ellen L; Permuth, Jennifer B; Risch, Harvey A; Reid, Brett M; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J; Kocarnik, Jonathan K; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Slattery, Martha L; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A Heather; Figueroa, Jonine D; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Johnson, Nichola; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L; Rahman, Nazneen; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmutzler, Rita K; Southey, Melissa C; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth C; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S; Yang, Xiaohong R; Zheng, Wei; Buchanan, Daniel D; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V; Edlund, Christopher K; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Jenkins, Mark; Le Marchand, Loïc; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M; Schmit, Stephanie L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Woods, Michael O; Rafnar, Thorunn; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Chen, Y Ann; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Christiani, David C; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shiraishi, Kouya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Nickle, David; Timens, Wim; Freedman, Matthew L; Li, Qiyuan; Seminara, Daniela; Chanock, Stephen J; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Gruber, Stephen B; Amos, Christopher I; Sellers, Thomas A; Easton, Douglas F; Hunter, David J; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Hung, Rayjean J

    2016-09-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer, and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5103-14. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197191

  9. BRCA1 loss pre-existing in small subpopulations of prostate cancer is associated with advanced disease and metastatic spread to lymph nodes and peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarz, Natalia; Eltze, Elke; Semjonow, Axel; Rink, Michael; Andreas, Antje; Mulder, Lennart; Hannemann, Juliane; Fisch, Margit; Pantel, Klaus; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Brandt, Burkhard

    2010-03-19

    A recent study concluded that serum prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is beneficial for reducing the lethality of PCa, but was also associated with a high risk of 'overdiagnosis'. Nevertheless, also PCa patients who suffered from organ confined tumors and had negative bone scans succumb to distant metastases after complete tumor resection. It is reasonable to assume that those tumors spread to other organs long before the overt manifestation of metastases. Our current results confirm that prostate tumors are highly heterogeneous. Even a small subpopulation of cells bearing BRCA1 losses can initiate PCa cell regional and distant dissemination indicating those patients which might be at high risk of metastasis. A preliminary study performed on a small cohort of multifocal prostate cancer (PCa) detected BRCA1 allelic imbalances (AI) among circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The present analysis was aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical role of BRCA1 losses on metastatic spread and tumor progression in prostate cancer patients. Experimental Design: To map molecular progression in PCa outgrowth we used FISH analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA), lymph node sections and CTC from peripheral blood. We found that 14% of 133 tested patients carried monoallelic BRCA1 loss in at least one tumor focus. Extended molecular analysis of chr17q revealed that this aberration was often a part of larger cytogenetic rearrangement involving chr17q21 accompanied by AI of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and lack of the BRCA1 promoter methylation. The BRCA1 losses correlated with advanced T stage (p < 0.05), invasion to pelvic lymph nodes (LN, p < 0.05) as well as BR (p < 0.01). Their prevalence was twice as high within 62 LN metastases (LNMs) as in primary tumors (27%, p < 0.01). The analysis of 11 matched primary PCa-LNM pairs confirmed the suspected transmission of genetic abnormalities between those two sites. In 4 of 7 patients with metastatic disease, BRCA1 losses

  10. Circadian Disruption, Sleep Loss and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Fall, Katja; Rider, Jennifer R.; Lockley, Steven W.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system has been hypothesized to increase cancer risk, either due to direct disruption of the molecular machinery generating circadian rhythms or due to disruption of parameters controlled by the clock such as melatonin levels or sleep duration. This hypothesis has been studied in hormone-dependent cancers among women, but data are sparse regarding potential effects of circadian disruption on the risk of prostate cancer. This review systematically examines available data evaluating the effects of light at night, sleep patterns, and night shift work on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22564869