Sample records for cancer screening project

  1. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation Rates Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

  4. Understanding the role of embarrassment in gynaecological screening: a qualitative study from the ASPIRE cervical cancer screening project in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Flora F; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Steinberg, Malcolm; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define embarrassment and develop an understanding of the role of embarrassment in relation to cervical cancer screening and self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in Uganda. Design Cross-sectional, qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one interviews and focus groups. Participants 6 key-informant health workers and 16 local women, purposively sampled. Key informant inclusion criteria: Ugandan members of the project team. Focus group inclusion criteria: woman age 30–69?years, Luganda or Swahili speaking, living or working in the target Ugandan community. Exclusion criteria: unwillingness to sign informed consent. Setting Primary and tertiary low-resource setting in Kampala, Uganda. Results In Luganda, embarrassment relating to cervical cancer is described in two forms. ‘Community embarrassment’ describes discomfort based on how a person may be perceived by others. ‘Personal embarrassment’ relates to shyness or discomfort with her own genitalia. Community embarrassment was described in themes relating to place of study recruitment, amount of privacy in dwellings, personal relationship with health workers, handling of the vaginal swab and misunderstanding of HPV self-collection as HIV testing. Themes of personal embarrassment related to lack of knowledge, age and novelty of the self-collection swab. Overall, embarrassment was a barrier to screening at the outset and diminished over time through education and knowledge. Fatalism regarding cervical cancer diagnosis, worry about results and stigma associated with a cervical cancer diagnosis were other psychosocial barriers described. Overcoming psychosocial barriers to screening can include peer-to-peer education, drama and media campaigns. Conclusions Embarrassment and other psychosocial barriers may play a large role at the onset of a screening programme, but over time as education and knowledge increase, and the social norms around screening evolve, its role diminishes. The role of peer-to-peer education and community authorities on healthcare cannot be overlooked and can have a major impact in overcoming psychosocial and social barriers to screening. PMID:24727360

  5. Breast cancer beliefs of women participating in a television-promoted mammography screening project.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, S M; McDermott, R J; Roetzheim, R G; Marty, P J

    1992-01-01

    A survey of breast cancer and breast cancer screening beliefs was mailed to a random sample of 1,000 women who contacted a telephone bank in response to a television-promoted, reduced-cost mammography project. Beliefs and demographics of women in the sample who subsequently completed a mammogram were compared with those who did not. No statistically significant differences were found between participants (persons who completed a mammogram) and nonparticipants with respect to age, race, marital status, income, or educational preparation. Groups also did not differ significantly in the series of beliefs examined. Factor analysis revealed respondents' most salient beliefs about breast cancer and early detection of breast cancer. Evidence is presented to suggest a need for enhanced efforts to recruit minority group women to participate in mammography screening. PMID:1454981

  6. Breast Cancer Organization of Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

  7. Meetings of the International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Meetings of the International Cancer Screening

  8. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This Section Tests ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Skin exams are used to screen for skin cancer. ...

  9. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    Lung Cancer Screening Key Points for This Section Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer. ... if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening tests have been studied to ...

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... colonoscopy DNA stool test Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer. Some screening tests ... from the disease. Four tests are used to screen for colorectal cancer: Fecal occult blood test A ...

  11. International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

  12. Modeling Excess Lung Cancer Risk among Screened Arm Participants in the Mayo Lung Project

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP) was a randomized clinical trial designed to test whether periodic screening by chest Xray reduces lung cancer (LC) mortality in high-risk male smokers. Among MLP participants, more LC deaths were found in the screening arm both at the trial’s end and after long-term follow-up. Overdiagnosis is widely cited as an explanation for the MLP results whereas a role of excess LC risk attributable to undergoing numerous chest Xray screenings has been largely un-examined. We examine the consistency of the MLP data with a modified two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of excess LC risk. Methods Using a simulation model calibrated to the initial MLP data, we estimate the statistical variance of LC incidence and mortality between the screening and control arms. We derive and apply a Bayesian estimation framework using a modified version of the TSCE model to evaluate the role of excess LC risk attributable to chest Xray screening. Results Based on our simulations, we find that the overall difference in LC deaths and incidence between study and control arms is unlikely (p=0.0424, p=0.0104) assuming no LC excess risk. We estimate that the 10-year excess LC risk for a 60-year old male smoker having received 10 chest Xray screens is 0.574% (p=0.0021). Conclusions The excess LC risk observed among screening arm participants is statistically significant with respect to the TSCE model framework, due in part to the incorporation of key risk correlates of age and screen frequency into the estimation framework. PMID:19918924

  13. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    Risks of Breast Cancer Screening Key Points for This Section Screening tests have risks. The risks of breast cancer screening tests include ... risk of dying from cancer . The risks of breast cancer screening tests include the following: Finding breast cancer ...

  14. Lung Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Antonio; Suh, Robert; Abtin, Fereidoun; Genshaft, Scott; Brown, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Although smoking prevention and cessation programs have decreased lung cancer mortality, there remains a large at-risk population. Dismal long-term survival rates persist despite improvements in diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Early efforts to identify an effective screening test have been unsuccessful. Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography have allowed screening studies using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) to be performed. This set the stage for the National Lung Screening Trial that found that annual LDCT screening benefits individuals at high risk for lung cancer. An understanding of the harmful effects of lung cancer screening is required to help maximize the benefits and decrease the risks of a lung cancer screening program. Although many questions remain regarding LDCT screening, a comprehensive lung cancer screening program of high-risk individuals will increase detection of preclinical and potentially curable disease, creating a new model of lung cancer surveillance and management. PMID:24436526

  15. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find ...

  17. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials NCI Publications Español Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... your need for screening tests. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

  18. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiann-Hwa Chen; Hans Hsienhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the third-leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan in 2008. The natural history of CRC provides a chance for screening and prevention. Most CRC develops from adenomatous polyps. This progression takes at least 10 years in most people. About 90% of CRC develops after 50 years of age. Screening tests can identify cancers, usually at an

  19. Screening for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Joann G.; Armstrong, Katrina; Lehman, Constance D.; Fletcher, Suzanne W.

    2011-01-01

    Context Breast cancer screening in community practices may be different from that in randomized controlled trials. New screening modalities are becoming available. Objectives To review breast cancer screening, especially in the community and to examine evidence about new screening modalities. Data Sources and Study Selection English-language articles of randomized controlled trials assessing effectiveness of breast cancer screening were reviewed, as well as meta-analyses, systematic reviews, studies of breast cancer screening in the community, and guidelines. Also, studies of newer screening modalities were assessed. Data Synthesis All major US medical organizations recommend screening mammography for women aged 40 years and older. Screening mammography reduces breast cancer mortality by about 20% to 35% in women aged 50 to 69 years and slightly less in women aged 40 to 49 years at 14 years of follow-up. Approximately 95% of women with abnormalities on screening mammograms do not have breast cancer with variability based on such factors as age of the woman and assessment category assigned by the radiologist. Studies comparing full-field digital mammography to screen film have not shown statistically significant differences in cancer detection while the impact on recall rates (percentage of screening mammograms considered to have positive results) was unclear. One study suggested that computer-aided detection increases cancer detection rates and recall rates while a second larger study did not find any significant differences. Screening clinical breast examination detects some cancers missed by mammography, but the sensitivity reported in the community is lower (28% to 36%) than in randomized trials (about 54%). Breast self-examination has not been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality, but it does increase the number of breast biopsies performed because of false-positives. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are being studied for screening women at high risk for breast cancer but are not recommended for screening the general population. Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in high-risk women has been found to be much higher than that of mammography but specificity is generally lower. Effect of the magnetic resonance imaging on breast cancer mortality is not known. A balanced discussion of possible benefits and harms of screening should be undertaken with each woman. Conclusions In the community, mammography remains the main screening tool while the effectiveness of clinical breast examination and self-examination are less. New screening modalities are unlikely to replace mammography in the near future for screening the general population. PMID:15755947

  20. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations About the USPSTF Task Force 101 Resources Our Members Our Partners Reports to ... Professionals Recommendations from The Community Preventive Services Task Force on Promoting Cancer Screening Cancer Control P.L. ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the colon or rectum. Sometimes it is called colon cancer. The colon is the large intestine or large ... or older, start getting screened now. Who Gets Colorectal Cancer? • Both men and women can get it. • It ...

  2. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials NCI Publications Español Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... caused by the test itself. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

  3. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... A biopsy may cause scarring. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

  4. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials NCI Publications Español Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... testing Sigmoidoscopy Colonoscopy Virtual colonoscopy Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

  5. [Cancer prevention and screening].

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    We show that cancer mortality is decreasing with time for most sites of cancer, the most notable exception being lung cancer in women. Cancer incidence is a misleading indicator because it can depend on diagnostic procedures, as observed with prostate cancer in men and breast or thyroid cancer in women. Overall these data contradict the alarming information that cancer is on the increase, which is widespread by the media and some health professionals. To be efficient in the prevention of cancer one needs to identify its causes and measure their relative importance. The major causes of cancer in France today are tobacco and alcohol. The variations of the price of tobacco and their effects on sales show the importance of the taxation policy. Cancer screening is practised in a way defying logic : a screening procedure with a demonstrated high efficacy is not part of a national programme whereas a useless and even potentially harmful procedure is very widely used. PMID:23735684

  6. Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause ... of this project, colorectal cancer screening is defined as follows: Individuals who report that they have ever ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells will go away on their own. False-negative test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ... is present. A woman who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening (PSA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Prostate cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare ... covers: Digital rectal exam: Once every 12 months Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test: Once every 12 months ...

  9. Risks of Ovarian Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ... positive test results can occur. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

  10. Lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Lynn T; Tanner, Nichole T; Gould, Michael K; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. This recommendation is largely based on the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial. Both policy-level and clinical decision-making about LDCT screening must consider the potential benefits of screening (reduced mortality from lung cancer) and possible harms. Effective screening requires an appreciation that screening should be limited to individuals at high risk of death from lung cancer, and that the risk of harm related to false positive findings, overdiagnosis, and unnecessary invasive testing is real. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of screening will inform appropriate implementation, with the objective that an evidence-based and systematic approach to screening will help to reduce the enormous mortality burden of lung cancer. PMID:25369325

  11. Cancer screening decisions.

    PubMed

    McCaul, K D; Tulloch, H E

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on why people decide to obtain or to avoid screening for cancer. We discuss three topics: (a) physician prompts that may elicit compliant screening behavior, (b) the independent and joint effects of risk perceptions and worry, and (c) the costs and benefits of getting screened. Overall, the data suggest that each of these factors will influence screening. So, for example, people are more likely to seek screening if a physician recommends the behavior, if they feel personally vulnerable and worry a little about cancer, if insurance covers the screening, and if they believe that the test is an effective early detection procedure. Future research needs include studies comparing theories, longitudinal rather than cross-sectional studies, and true experiments. We also need to know more about why physicians are such powerful change agents and the trade-offs of increasing personal risk versus exacerbating worry. Practical recommendations for promoting cancer screening include encouraging physician interventions, explaining risk, and lowering the costs while emphasizing the benefits of screening. PMID:10854458

  12. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Austoker, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there are almost 31,000 new cases of colorectal cancer each year and nearly 20,000 deaths. It is the second most common cause of all deaths from cancer in the United Kingdom. The efficacy of screening with faecal occult blood tests to detect and treat tumours at an early stage, and thereby to reduce mortality, is currently being assessed in several randomised controlled trials. In general, faecal occult blood tests have a low sensitivity and only moderate levels of uptake among the population invited for screening. Until the studies in Denmark, Sweden, and Nottingham report their findings, there is no case for providing such screening routinely to an asymptomatic population. Detecting and removing premalignant adenomas by flexible sigmoidoscopy could be more effective than detecting early localised, asymptomatic cancers in reducing deaths from colorectal cancer. It is estimated that screening people at about the age of 60 by a single flexible sigmoidoscopy examination with appropriate colonoscopic surveillance could prevent 5500 cases of colorectal cancer and 3500 deaths in the United Kingdom each year. A randomised controlled trial to confirm these observations should be seen as a priority. PMID:8081142

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cdc.gov/vitalsigns www http://www.cdc.gov/cancer 36% Only 36% of uninsured adults aged 50– ... 74 are up-to-date with mammography screening. Cancer Screening Colorectal Cancer Breast Cancer 22M 22 million ...

  14. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®) [ patient ] [ health professional ] Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®) [ patient ] [ health professional ] Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®) [ patient ] [ health professional ] ...

  15. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  16. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCI Publications Español Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Key Points for ... by the screening test itself. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

  17. Lung cancer screening update

    PubMed Central

    Rampinelli, Cristiano; De Fiori, Elvio; Preda, Lorenzo; Veronesi, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Low-dose computed tomography (ld-CT) for lung cancer screening in high-risk subjects is performed within clinical trials and has started to be used in routine clinical practice. The technique is well defined, even if some methodological problems are still debated, such as the measurements of pulmonary nodules, the size to define them as clinically significant, the management of small or non-solid nodules and the best diagnostic work-up to optimize diagnostic accuracy. The data derived from an IEO observational study, started in 2000, shows a high prevalence and incidence of early stage lung cancer detected at ld-CT, demonstrating the need to prolong observation for a long period of time. The high survival rate of patients with screening-detected cancer has recently been debated in a number of papers using statistical models, but the advantage of the yearly ld-CT for the individuals is unquestionable; its benefit on the population base has still to be demonstrated by ongoing randomized trials. PMID:19965303

  18. Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Other Types of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Overview of cancer screening, and screening and detection methods for many types of cancer, including bladder, endometrial, esophageal, stomach (gastric), liver, neuroblastoma, oral, ovarian, skin, and testicular cancer.

  19. 77 FR 41791 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ...Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes...Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI)....

  20. 76 FR 22108 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes...Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI)....

  1. Overview of the International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) is a voluntary consortium of countries that have active population-based cancer screening programs and active efforts to evaluate and improve the processes and outcomes from cancer screening in practice. The ICSN includes efforts to evaluate cancer screening for a number of cancers where screening has been demonstrated to be effective, including breast, colorectal, cervical, and lung. These programs can be national or subnational in scope, and established or pilot-based.

  2. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may not improve health or help a man live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have cancer that has already ... if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and ...

  3. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  4. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Audit Feedback on Reading Performance of Screening Mammograms

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  5. Overdiagnosis in cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2014-08-28

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. PMID:25174786

  6. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NCI Web site . Tests that may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test ... lining of the uterus ). Follow-up tests may detect endometrial cancer. Transvaginal ultrasound No studies have shown ...

  7. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer: Toluidine blue stain: A procedure in which lesions in the mouth are coated with a blue dye. Areas that ... become cancer. Fluorescence staining: A procedure in which lesions in the mouth are viewed using a special light. After the ...

  8. Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... improve the person's health or help the person live longer. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become ... if treating the cancer would help the person live longer than if no treatment were given. In ...

  9. Cancer Screening Adherence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Gierisch; Lori A. Bastian

    \\u000a Cancer is a devastating and debilitating disease. Each year more than 1.4 million people are diagnosed with non-skin cancers\\u000a and 565,650 lives are lost in the United States [1]. Primary prevention of cancer through behavioral modifications in risk\\u000a factors such as tobacco use, sun exposure, obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and alcohol consumption can reduce\\u000a the burden of cancer tremendously

  10. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Colorectal Cancer Cost Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Implementation of a public health programme

    Cancer.gov

    Colorectal Cancer Screening Implementation of a public health programme An Expert Group on Colorectal Cancer Screening Cancer Society of Finland, Finnish Cancer Registry, Mass Screening Registry Aims of colorectal cancer screening • The main aim is

  12. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  13. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations About the USPSTF Task Force 101 Resources Our Members Our Partners Reports to ... Screening with PSA The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based ...

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screenings (Coverage)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're 50 or older. Multi-target stool DNA test (like Cologuard™): Medicare covers this test once ... you pay nothing for a multi-target stool DNA test (like Cologuard™). If a screening colonoscopy or ...

  15. Overview of the PLCO Cancer screening trial

    Cancer.gov

    It’s one of the pressing questions of cancer research: Does screening reduce mortality? In 1993, the National Cancer Institute launched one of the largest cancer screening trials ever planned in the United States, in an effort to answer the question of screening efficacy in four cancers: prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian.

  16. Uptake in cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Weller, David P; Patnick, Julietta; McIntosh, Heather M; Dietrich, Allen J

    2009-07-01

    For cancer screening programmes to bring about reductions in mortality, a substantial proportion of the population must participate. Programmes with low uptake can be ineffective and can promote inequalities in health-service provision. Strategies to promote uptake are multifaceted, reflecting differences in the cancers targeted, invitees, health-service contexts, and the tests themselves. Accordingly, there is no universal approach. Strategies should accommodate the many factors that can influence uptake and should incorporate the need to promote informed choice. Screening has the potential to cause harm, and there is an ethical imperative to seek out strategies that provide balanced information on cancer screening. Further research is needed to assess newer approaches to promoting uptake, such as IT-based programmes, and to identify strategies that are balanced, self-sustaining, and affordable. PMID:19573798

  17. Unique interactive projection display screen

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  18. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... were given, and treatments for cancer, such as surgery and radiation therapy , may have serious side effects . Some studies of patients with prostate cancer showed these patients had a higher risk of death from cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel ) disease or suicide . The ...

  19. Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers are working on developing effective methods to screen for prostate cancer. However, it has not yet been shown that screening for prostate cancer decreases the chances of dying from prostate cancer.

  20. Screening to Detect Cancer-Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Barry Kramer summaries the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dr. Christine Berg discuss the results of the colorectal cancer arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

  1. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NCI Web site . Tests that may detect (find) esophageal cancer are being studied: Esophagoscopy A ... of the lower part of the esophagus may detect early Barrett esophagus . This procedure may be used ...

  2. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the chance of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk ... the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). MRI does not use any ...

  3. Personalizing Age of Cancer Screening Cessation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How was the study done? The investigators created models with computer software that calculated the probable outcomes when mammography was used to screen for breast cancer, blood tests were used to screen for prostate cancer, ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with lower incomes and those without insurance. Federal law Coverage of cervical cancer screening tests is mandated ... says. They also are not covered by state laws, including those about cervical cancer screening. Women who ...

  5. Immigrant Women's Cancer Screening Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Louise Ivanov; Jie Hu; Ashley Leak

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Investigate the relationship between the dependent variable health outcome (perceived health status) and the independent variables population characteristics, (predisposing, which includes age, acculturation, months in the United States; enabling, which includes availability of medical insurance) and health behavior (personal health practices, which includes engaging in cancer screening of mammography, Pap smear, and breast self-exam) among immigrant women from the

  6. [Psychosocial aspects of cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Schraub, S; Arveux, P; Mercier, M

    1995-08-01

    Psychosocial reluctance is a major obstacle to the success of mass screening. In France, several opinion polls demonstrated that the fear of cancer as a disease, the fear of a positive result and the fear of the possible therapeutic consequences were the major determinants opposed to screening despite information often known to the public. The psychological obstacles appear less important in the US population, except for minorities. Age seems to be a discriminating factor, indeed after 50 years, reluctance to screening is increased probably due to a generation effect influencing the meaning of the disease and the interest of screening. Site specific constraints also exist, in colorectal cancer, 30% of the people feel as an embarrassment the manipulation of the stools. If false positives are responsible for a supplementary anxiety, it doesn't last long and it doesn't influence the observation of future campaign. These psychosocial obstacles as a whole justify the need of converging information that must take into account cultural problems. The favourable influence of the general practitioner explains his essential role for the success of mass screening. PMID:7492816

  7. ICSN - Designing Print Materials: A Communications Guide for Breast Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Publications: Search the Database | Communications

  8. Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers are working on developing effective methods to screen for lung cancer. Currently, however, there is no generally accepted screening test for lung cancer. Several lung cancer screening methods being studied include tests of sputum (mucus brought up from the lungs by coughing), chest x-rays, and spiral (helical) CT scans.

  9. Related Resources for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has comprehensive research-based information on cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, genetics and supportive care. Our information specialists can answer questions related to cancer, including cervical cancer screening and treatment. You can contact us by phone, online chat, or e-mail.

  10. Breast cancer screening: evidence for false reassurance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. de Gelder; E. van As; M. M. A. Tilanus-Linthorst; C. C. M. Bartels; R. Boer; G. Draisma; H. J. de Koning

    2008-01-01

    Tumour stage distribution at repeated mammography screening is, unexpectedly, often not more favourable than stage distribution at first screenings. False reassurance, i.e., delayed symptom presentation due to having participated in earlier screening rounds, might be associated with this, and unfavourably affect prognosis. To assess the role of false reassurance in mammography screening, a consecutive group of 155 breast cancer patients

  11. Interval cancers in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Fracheboud, J; Koning, H J de; Beemsterboer, P M M; Boer, R; Verbeek, A L M; Hendriks, J H C L; Ineveld, B M van; Broeders, M J M; Bruyn, A E de; Maas, P J van der

    1999-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme in The Netherlands for women aged 50–69 started in 1989. In our study we assessed the occurrence and stage distribution of interval cancers in women screened during 1990–1993. Records of 0.84 million screened women were linked to the regional cancer registries yielding a follow-up of at least 2.5 years. Age-adjusted incidence rates and relative (proportionate) incidences per tumour size including ductal carcinoma in-situ were calculated for screen-detected and interval cancers, and cancers in not (yet) screened women, comparing them with published data from the UK regions North West and East Anglia. In total 1527 interval cancers were identified: 0.95 and 0.99 per 1000 woman-years of follow-up in the 2-year interval after initial and subsequent screens respectively. In the first year after initial screening interval cancers amounted to 27% (26% after subsequent screens) of underlying incidence, and in the second year to 52% (55%). Generally, interval cancers had a more favourable tumour size distribution than breast cancer in not (yet) screened women. The Dutch programme detected relatively less (favourable) invasive cancers in initial screens than the UK programme, whereas the number of interval cancers confirms UK findings. Measures should be considered to improve the detection of small invasive cancers and to reduce false-negative rates, even if this will lead to increasing referral rates. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10555768

  12. Organizational Factors and the Cancer Screening Process

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Jane; Edwards, Heather; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer screening is a process of care consisting of several steps and interfaces. This article reviews what is known about the association between organizational factors and cancer screening rates and examines how organizational strategies can address the steps and interfaces of cancer screening in the context of both intraorganizational and interorganizational processes. We reviewed 79 studies assessing the relationship between organizational factors and cancer screening. Screening rates are largely driven by strategies to 1) limit the number of interfaces across organizational boundaries; 2) recruit patients, promote referrals, and facilitate appointment scheduling; and 3) promote continuous patient care. Optimal screening rates can be achieved when health-care organizations tailor strategies to the steps and interfaces in the cancer screening process that are most critical for their organizations, the providers who work within them, and the patients they serve. PMID:20386053

  13. Correlates of Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence Among Men Who have been Screened for Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ning Wong; Elliot J. Coups

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening rates are higher than colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, despite the established benefit of\\u000a screening in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. We used data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to\\u000a identify correlates of CRC screening among men who have undergone prostate cancer screening. Our sample included 41,781 men\\u000a aged 50 years and older who reported

  14. [Prostate cancer: the evidence weighs against screening].

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine; Laplanche, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    The risk of death from prostate cancer is very small before age 75: if one follows 1000 men from birth until age 75, one will observe 7 prostate cancer deaths. Prostate cancer is extremely frequent: if one were to autopsy 1000 men aged 75, one would find a cancer in the prostate of 800. Therefore, screening by systematic PSA measurement in the population induces an epidemic. The benefit associated with screening is not clearly established. The assertion that screening reduces prostate cancer mortality by 20% is based on the best result observed in the best subgroup (population aged 55 to 69) in the only trial that shows a benefit. Even if screening reduced prostate cancer mortality by 20%, its drawbacks: a doubling of the number of cancers diagnoses and the unwanted effects of treatments (50% of patients incontinent and/or impotent), weigh against systematic screening. Even if screening reduced prostate cancer mortality by 20%, the absolute benefit of screening in a population of 1000 men aged 55 to 69 followed 9 years will be the avoidance of one prostate cancer death, since the expected number of these deaths without screening is 4, a 20% reduction corresponds to less than 1 death. PMID:20494543

  15. Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The National Lung Screening Trial

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  16. Noninvasive test optimizes colon cancer screening rates

    Cancer.gov

    A study of nearly 6,000 North Texas patients suggests sweeping changes be made to the standard of care strategy for colorectal screenings, finding that participation rates soared depending on the screening method offered and how patient outreach was done. The results also suggest that a noninvasive colorectal screening approach, such as a fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) might be more effective in prompting participation in potentially lifesaving colon cancer screening among underserved populations than a colonoscopy, a more expensive and invasive procedure. Researchers from UT Southwestern (home of the Harold C. Simmons Cancer Center) and the University of California, San Diego (home of the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center) collaborated on the study.

  17. 70 FR 29747 - Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-05-24

    ...screening for fecal occult blood. Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study. N Engl...of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet 1996; 348...screening for colorectal cancer with faecal- occult-blood test. Lancet...

  18. New insights into cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Jonathan D.; Erickson, Britt K.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality. For over 50 years, cervical cytology has been the gold standard for cervical cancer screening. Because of its profound effect on cervical cancer mortality in nations that have adopted screening programs, the Pap smear is widely accepted as the model screening test. Since its introduction, many studies have analyzed the Pap smear and found that it is not without its shortcomings including low sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3. Additionally, the discovery of infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) as a necessary step in the development of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV testing as an adjunct to cytology screening. More recently, researchers have compared HPV testing and cytology in the primary screening of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss cytologic testing limitations, the role of HPV DNA testing as an alternative screening tool, the impact of the HPV vaccine on screening, and future directions in cervical cancer screening. PMID:23094132

  19. [Uterine cervical cancer screening in kitakyushu city: present and future].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Oka, Haruko; Yamagata, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Joji; Inoue, Isao; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Toki, Naoyuki; Kawagoe, Toshinori; Hachisuga, Toru; Kashimura, Masamichi

    2014-09-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the most common primary gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. Conventional cervical screening Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be extremely effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, but the consultation rate for cancer screening in Japan is markedly low, at 20% of prescribed subjects, in comparison with other developed countries. In 2001, 15,501 women (6.8%) received a Pap test in Kitakyushu City, and that was less than half of national average. From 2009, free coupons for uterine cervical cancer screening were distributed to Japanese woman who were 20, 25, 30, 35 or 40 years of age as part of the project for women-specific cancer screening. The rate of participation in Pap testing was 22.3% in 2012, with 31,970 women receiving cervical tests. It was almost as high as the national level. It's obvious that high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for cervical cancer incidence and HPV mainly infects through sexual practice. The rate of early cervical neoplasms and invasive cancers is currently increasing in young women. Abnormal Pap tests were detected in 2.3% of the women in 2008. To increase the population's participation in this screening process, a cost-effective and efficient system should be established. National and local governments, medical institutions, companies, and educational institutions must have an accurate understanding of the current situation, and take an assertive approach in order to decrease the mortality rate of uterine cervical cancer. PMID:25224713

  20. Cancer prevention and population-based screening.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Silvana; Vardy, Lianne; Paci, Eugenio; Adewole, Isaac; Sasco, Annie; Calvacante, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention, screening and early detection can provide some of the greatest public health benefits for cancer control. In low resource settings, where cancer control is challenged by limited human, financial and technical resources, cancer prevention and screening are of utmost importance and can provide significant impacts on the cancer burden. Public policies, social, environmental and individual level interventions which promote and support healthy eating and physical activity can lower cancer risks. Tobacco use, a significant cancer risk factor, can be reduced through the application of key mandates of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In addition, cancer screening programs, namely for cervical and breast cancers, can have a significant impact on reducing cancer mortality, including in low resource settings. Comprehensive cancer control programs require interventions for cancer prevention, screening and early detection, and involve sectors outside of health to create supportive environments for healthy ways of life. Sharing experiences in implementing cancer control programs in different settings can create opportunities for interchanging ideas and forming international alliances. PMID:19999950

  1. Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

  2. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  3. Stage-shift cancer screening model.

    PubMed

    Connor, R J; Chu, K C; Smart, C R

    1989-01-01

    A stage-shift cancer screening model is developed in the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of cancer screening. In the model, detection by screening causes the time of diagnosis of the cancer to be advanced so that either the stage at diagnosis is shifted from one stage to the next lower one or the stage of diagnosis is unchanged but the cancer is diagnosed earlier in the stage. These are called external and internal stage shifts, respectively. At each stage the extent of the external and internal shifts and any associated mortality benefits are estimated. Further, the model allows the interrelationships of these benefits within and between stages to be delineated. This then allows us to better understand the results of the RCT. Data from a completed breast cancer screening RCT are used to illustrate the application of the model and its value in improving our understanding of the trial's results. PMID:2681551

  4. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howayda S Abd El All; Amany Refaat; Khadiga Dandash

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. METHODS: The study

  5. Prostate Cancer Pathology, Screening, and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, E. David; Miller, Gary J; Labrie, Fernand; Hirano, Daisaku; Batuello, Joseph; Glodé, L Michael

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of prostate cancer pathology, screening methods, and epidemiology were discussed at the 11th International Prostate Cancer Update. Regarding pathology, Dr. Gary Miller enumerated several factors that lead to the perception of prostate cancer as “unpredictable.” These include the disease’s multifocal nature, variable progression rates, and the uncertainty regarding the point at which carcinomas metastasize. Screening methods have been the subject of research by the Laval University Prostate Cancer Screening Program since 1988. Dr. Fernand Labrie presented the results of this 10-year study. Dr. Daisaku Hirano presented data from his studies of prostate cancer epidemiology in Japan as compared to the United States. The role of environmental factors, particularly diet, in prostate cancer pathogenesis and development is supported by the increase of the disease in Japan, concurrent with the “westernization” of diet there. Finally, useful information was presented on new computer- and Internet-based diagnostic and research tools. PMID:16985996

  6. Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

  7. Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Screening methods to find colon or rectal changes that may lead to cancer include laboratory tests such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), and imaging tests such as sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Screening by the latter two tests can find precancerous polyps which can be removed during the test and may find cancer early when it is most treatable.

  8. Cancer screening trials: nuts and bolts. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    In the United States, new screening tests can become widely used often without valid scientific evidence of benefit or proper assessment of harm. Consequently, it is important for new tests to undergo rigorous trials as quickly as possible before widespread community use precludes establishment of a proper control arm. As exemplified by the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, it is possible to evaluate several screening tests and cancers in the same trial to preserve resources.

  9. Screening and self examination for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Austoker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer is the major form of cancer in women, with nearly 30,000 new cases and over 15,000 deaths in the United Kingdom each year. Breast screening by mammography has been shown in randomised trials to reduce mortality from breast cancer in women aged 50 and over. An NHS breast screening programme has been in operation in the United Kingdom since 1988. Its aim is to reduce mortality from breast cancer by 25% in the population of women invited to be screened. The uptake of mammography among the eligible population may be the single most important determinant if the programme is to be effective. Primary care teams have an important part to play in encouraging women to attend for screening and in providing information, advice, and reassurance at all stages of the screening process. To date, routine breast self examination has not been shown to be an effective method of screening for breast cancer and should not therefore be promoted as a primary screening procedure. There is, however, a case to be made for women to become more "breast aware." PMID:8044097

  10. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  11. Dysplasia and cancer screening in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khunger, Monica; Kumar, Ujjwal; Roy, Hemant K; Tiwari, Ashish K

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and is projected to overtake cardiovascular diseases as the number one cause of mortality in adults within a decade. Cancer screening offers an opportunity to detect cancer precursor lesions at early stages, and hence preemptively manage and prevent development of frank cancers. Despite tremendous technological advances over last decade, which allow us to study genomic/epigenomic and proteomic profile of cells with unprecedented details, it has been difficult to develop non-invasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity that can have clinical applications. Dysplasia, which requires histopathological examination of the tissue, remains the best marker of propensity to develop cancer, and hence the best available surrogate biomarker. However, procuring tissues for detection of dysplasia is highly invasive and economically unviable for most visceral malignancies. Therefore, there is emphasis on developing circulating biomarkers through a consortium approach where high-performing biomarkers in basic research are tested in large collaborative clinical settings to assess their clinical efficacy. In this review, we have discussed fundamental principles of cancer screening, difficulties in developing novel and effective biomarkers, continuing reliance on dysplasia as best available surrogate marker for cancer screening, as well as briefly highlighted newer screening modalities. PMID:24910362

  12. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Cancer Institute has launched the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to "achieve a comprehensive molecular characterization of normal, precancerous, and malignant cells." Sequenced genes are held as library entries in a database and are available for downloading (fasta format). Each cDNA library entry may include biological source, number of sequences, and library construction detail information. Thousands of gene sequences are available for over 15 cancers, including breast, colon, and prostrate. Contact information for donating or obtaining tissue samples for research purposes is provided.

  13. [Breast cancer screening in high risk populations].

    PubMed

    Alonso Roca, S; Jiménez Arranz, S; Delgado Laguna, A B; Quintana Checa, V; Grifol Clar, E

    2012-01-01

    We aim to define which patients make up the populations with high and intermediate risk of developing breast cancer, to review the studies of screening with magnetic resonance imaging in addition to mammography in high risk patients (describing the imaging characteristics of the cancers in this group), to review the studies of screening with magnetic resonance imaging in patients with intermediate risk, and to update the guidelines for screening in patients with high or intermediate risk (based on the recent recommendations of the main scientific societies/American and European guidelines). PMID:22579381

  14. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Abd El All, Howayda S; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

    2007-01-01

    Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS), followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB) for all epithelial abnormalities (EA). In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453), were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (34.4%), atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS) (15.3%), combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (41.0%), high grade SIL (5.2%) and invasive lesions (1%). CGB of EA (n = 281) showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%), atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM) (19.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN) (44.4%), CIN II (4.4%), CINIII (2.8%), endocervical lesions (5.2%), combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%), invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.02%) and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL) (0.02%). The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH revealed positivity for pan HPV in 65.9% of the studied biopsies (n = 217), with incorporation of the viral genome HPV 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33 in 11.1%, 33.3% and 17.1% respectively. Multiple HPVs infections were identified in 0.02%. Conclusion Pre-invasive high grade lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma represent 0.5% and 0.04% respectively in Egyptian women. HPV mostly 16/18 as a risk factor (p < 0.001), was frequently associated with mixed infections (p < 0.001) and bilharzial infestation (p < 0.001). PMID:17610742

  15. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Lydecker, Alison D.; Ireland, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate cervical cancer screening practices and barriers to screening in a sample of lesbians. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 225 self-identified lesbians who completed an online questionnaire. Results Of the respondents, 71% reported receiving a Pap screening test in the past 24 months (routine screeners), and 29% reported receiving a Pap screening test >24 months ago or never (nonroutine screeners). Routine screeners were more likely to be older (p?screening tests and were less knowledgeable about screening guidelines (p?cancer. Conclusions Many lesbians do not screen for cervical cancer at recommended rates. Nonroutine screeners perceive fewer benefits, more barriers, and more discrimination and are less knowledgeable about screening guidelines than routine screeners. PMID:20095905

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Randomized Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. By using screening tests for cancer, doctors may be able to discover and treat cancers that might otherwise kill a person.

  17. Potential biomarkers for lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Notwithstanding the encouraging results of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) the scientific community still debates on the cost-benefit profile of low dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening. Several major concerns regard how to identify subjects at high risk of developing lung cancer, the optimal diagnostic algorithm, the management of lung nodules and the high false positive rates. The use of complementary biomarkers would be a useful strategy for dealing with most of these issues. This short review will focus on candidates’ biomarkers circulating in serum or plasma that already reached an advanced validation phase also in LDCT lung cancer screening series. The biomarkers presented below are examples of the value of searching candidates by looking not only to the tumor itself but also to the interplay between the tumor and the host in order to identify early changes related to the biological reactivity of the host to a developing cancer. PMID:25806293

  18. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Sickles, E.A. (Breast Imaging Section, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco (Unites States))

    1991-10-01

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill.

  19. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  20. Age-specific sensitivities of mammographic screening for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petronella GM Peer; André LM Verbeek; Huub Straatman; Jan HCL Hendriks; Roland Holland

    1996-01-01

    Summary The sensitivity of the mammographic screening test in the biennial screening program of Nijmegen is assessed by analyzing the occurrence of interval cancers, i.e. cancers surfacing clinically in the interval between a negative screening examination and the subsequent scheduled examination. The difference between the observed number of interval cancers and the expected number of clinically manifest cancers in the

  1. The Wisconsin Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Screening Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Weiss; Christine E. Cronk; Sandra Mahkorn; Randall Glysch; Sara Zirbel

    2004-01-01

    Problem: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is preventa- ble, under-diagnosed, and under-reported. Wisconsin rates for alcohol use and binge drinking in childbear- ing-age women exceed the national average. FAS preva- lence in Wisconsin has not previously been systemati- cally evaluated. Methods: The Wisconsin Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Screening Project (WFASSP) used a multi-stage, multi- source prospective population-based screening meth- odology to identify

  2. Improving Colon Cancer Screening in Community Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry; Arnold, Connie; Rademaker, Alfred; Bennett, Charles; Bailey, Stacy; Platt, Daci; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Carias, Edson; Bass, Pat; Wolf, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two interventions designed to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in safety-net settings. Methods A three-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among 8 clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: 1) enhanced usual care, 2) literacy-informed education of patients, and 3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients, ages 50–85 were eligible for routine CRC screening and recruited. Outcomes included CRC screening completion and incremental cost-effectiveness the latter two approaches versus enhanced usual care. Results Baseline screening rates were < 3%. After the interventions, screening rates were 38.6% with enhanced usual care, 57.1% with education and 60.6% with additional nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving education were not more likely to complete screening than those receiving enhanced usual care; those additionally receiving nurse support were 1.60 fold more likely to complete screening than those receiving enhanced usual care (95% CI 1.06 – 2.42, p=0.024). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $1,337 for nurse over enhanced usual care. Conclusions FOBT rates were increased beyond enhanced usual care by providing brief education and nurse support but not education alone. More cost effective alternatives to nurse support need to be investigated. PMID:24037721

  3. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other federal laws. State efforts to ensure private health insurance coverage of mammography Many states require that private ... self-insured employer plans should check with their health insurance administrator to see what breast cancer early detection ...

  4. Lung cancer screening guidelines: common ground and differences

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for almost one-third of all cancer related deaths. Lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation and so many lung cancers now are diagnosed in former smokers. Five-year survival of lung cancer has marginally improved over decades and significantly lags behind that of colon, breast and prostate cancer. Over the past one decade, lung cancer screening trials have shown promising results. Results from National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), have shown a significant 20% reduction in mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Based on these results, annual LDCT testing has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high risk population. However, development and acceptance of lung cancer screening as a public health policy is still in the nascent stages. Major concerns relate to risk of radiation, overdiagnosis bias, proportion of false positives and cost benefit analysis. This article reviews the literature pertaining to lung cancer screening guidelines and above mentioned concerns.

  5. Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    In this audio clip, Drs. Lisa Schwartz and Steven Woloshin of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy discuss the benefits and harms of cancer screening and highlight popular misconceptions about cancer screening statistics.

  6. Screening for gastric cancer: the usefulness of endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina

    2014-11-01

    Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with radiographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-effectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25505713

  7. Screening for Gastric Cancer: The Usefulness of Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with radiographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-effectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25505713

  8. Screening for EGFR mutations in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Mayo, Clara; Rosell, Rafael

    2009-12-01

    Certain mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene confer hypersensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Large-scale screening for EGFR mutations in such patients is feasible for predicting response to TKIs and thus guiding treatment. PMID:20040267

  9. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  10. Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices - Primary Care Physician Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    Part 2. Attitudes Toward and Training In Colorectal Cancer Screening We are interested in your opinions about and training in colorectal cancer screening in this section. 12. In the U.S. today, many adults over the age of 50 are not screened for colorectal cancer.

  11. Improving cervical cancer screening attendance in Finland.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Anni; Anttila, Ahti; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Nieminen, Pekka

    2015-03-15

    High attendance is essential to cervical cancer screening results. Attendance in the Finnish program is currently at 70%, but extensive opportunistic screening occurs beside the organized. A shift from opportunistic to organized screening is imperative to optimize the costs and impact of screening and minimize potential harms. We evaluated the effect of reminder letters (1st reminder) and self-sampling test (2nd reminder) on program attendance. The study population consisted of 31,053 screening invitees in 31 Finnish municipalities. 8,284 non-attendees after one invitation received a reminder letter and 4,536 further non-attendees were offered a self-sampling option. Socioeconomic factors related to participation were clarified by combining screening data to data from Statistics Finland. Reminder letters increased participation from 72.6% (95% CI 72.1, 73.1) to 79.2% (95% CI 78.8, 79.7) and self-sampling further to 82.2% (95% CI 81.8, 82.7). Reminder letters with scheduled appointments resulted in higher increase than open invitations (10 vs. 6%). Screening of original non-attendees increased the yield of CIN3+ lesions by 24%. Non-attendance was associated with young age, immigrant background, lower education level and having never been married. We showed that a total attendance of well over 80% can be achieved within an organized program when the invitational protocol is carefully arranged. PMID:25178683

  12. Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei-Ping; Song, Liang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66 patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food, etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD). RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%. Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory. It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer. PMID:15655813

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Randomized Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    PLCO trial data showed that six rounds of annual screening for prostate cancer led to finding 22 percent more prostate cancers by seven years after the start of screening and 17 percent more prostate cancers by 10 years after the start of screening.

  14. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  15. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  16. Barriers to Cancer Screening by Rural Appalachian Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Renee; Tudiver, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Rural Appalachia has significantly higher overall cancer mortality compared with national rates, and lack of cancer screening is believed to be one of the contributing factors. Reducing the cancer disparity in this region must include strategies to address suboptimal cancer screening practices by rural Appalachian primary care providers (PCPs). To…

  17. Patient-Physician Colorectal Cancer Screening Discussion Content and Patients’ Use of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Cooper, Greg; Divine, George; Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Flocke, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends using the 5As (i.e., Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist and Arrange) when discussing preventive services. We evaluate the association of the 5As discussion during primary care office visits with patients’ subsequent colorectal cancer (CRC) screening use. Methods Audio-recordings of N=443 periodic health exams among insured patients aged 50-80 years and due for CRC screening were joined with pre-visit patient surveys and screening use data from an electronic medical record. Association of the 5As with CRC screening was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Results 93% of patients received a recommendation for screening (Advise) and 53% were screened in the following year. The likelihood of screening increased as the number of 5A steps increased: compared to patients whose visit contained no 5A step, those whose visit contained 1-2 steps (OR=2.96 [95% CI 1.16, 7.53]) and 3 or more steps (4.98 [95% CI 1.84, 13.44]) were significantly more likely to use screening. Conclusions Physician CRC screening recommendations that include recommended 5A steps are associated with increased patient adherence. Practice Implications A CRC screening recommendation (Advise) that also describes patient eligibility (Assess) and provides help to obtain screening (Assist) may lead to improved adherence to CRC screening. PMID:24094919

  18. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical procedure. Efforts to improve the practice of colonoscopy will be described. Another limitation of the current practice is the inability to detect polypoid neoplasia that is hidden from view under white light imaging by the natural folds that occur within the colon. A device to overcome this limitation will also be described. Efforts to improve colorectal cancer screening (and thereby decrease the death rate of this second leading cause of cancer death in the United States) are progressing in many arenas. The researcher, basic or clinical, should maintain an up to date overview of the field and how each new technological advance is likely to have a role in the screening and early detection of colorectal cancer.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  1. Breast cancer screening: The role of attachment.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Natalie L; Consedine, Nathan S

    2015-06-01

    Attachment style is the dispositional way in which a person relates to others, and differences in attachment characteristics may offer insight into why many women do not adhere to breast screening guidelines. While mammograms involve contact with medical professionals, breast self-examination (BSE) does not, and may be preferable for women who dislike interpersonal vulnerability. As such, differences in the attachment characteristics that predict mammography versus BSE utilisation may indicate whether attachment related motivations are relevant to both interpersonal examinations and independent self-care behaviours. The current report examined how attachment dimensions predicted the frequency of mammography and BSE in a sample of 1204 ethnically diverse women from Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed measures of mammography and BSE frequency, and attachment, together with demographic, health care context and emotional predictors of screening. Multiple regressions showed that attachment dimensions predicted both mammography and BSE screening even when controlling for established predictors and emotion relevant variables. As hypothesised, fearful avoidance predicted fewer mammograms and BSEs, while preoccupation predicted more frequent BSEs. Consistent with some prior work in male cancer screening, greater attachment security also predicted fewer mammograms while degree of dismissiveness was not associated with screening frequencies. Understanding the psychosocial predictors of screening may help identify low screeners, and guide the development of targeted interventions that are better suited to the interpersonal preferences of older women. PMID:25192017

  2. Clinical Cancer Care Full screening services and diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Clinical Cancer Care · Full screening services and diagnostics · Advanced treatments for all forms of cancer · Most frequent cancers at the Cancer Center: Breast 15% Gastrointestinal 13% Skin 17% Lung 13 treatment protocols that link the latest Cancer Center research to clinical care · Familial Cancer Program

  3. The Partnership for Cancer Prevention: Addressing Access to Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.; Fore, Elizabeth; Mayo, Rachel; Petry, Denyse; Das, Irene Prabhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and morality among Hispanics, the fastest growing population group in South Carolina (SC). The Partnership for Cancer Prevention (PCP) was established to build partnerships and community capacity to address cervical cancer early detection and control among the growing Latina population in SC. In this paper we report on the initial PCP community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods PCP members engaged in a multi-method, participatory research project to assess cervical cancer related resources and needs among Latinas and healthcare providers. To explore attitudes and behaviors related to women's health in general and more specifically, female cancer, PCP members conducted 8 focus group sessions with 38 Spanish-speaking women. To assess the availability and perceived importance of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, PCP members conducted a survey of providers (n=46) and support personnel (n=30) at 14 clinical sites that provide cancer screening services. Results Health care access issues were Latinas' main concerns. For information and assistance in accessing and navigating the health care system, they relied on informal social networks and community outreach workers. Latina participants voiced misunderstandings about cancer risk and most appeared to lack a prevention orientation. Practitioners’ concerns included the assessment and documentation of patients' language preference and ability, provision of language assistance for limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients, and bilingual staff. Conclusions Building on the findings of this participatory research initiative, PCP members identified the following action strategies to promote cervical cancer screening among Latinas in SC: culturally appropriate cervical cancer awareness messages and outreach strategies geared towards increasing participation in cervical cancer screening and follow-up; maintenance of active community partnerships for health promotion, cancer risk reduction, and improved access to care; and increasing the capacity of the health care systems in SC to address Hispanic health concerns. PMID:20108722

  4. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, K.; Fung, S.; Landry, C.; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V.

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning disparities in colorectal cancer screening. Although some disparities in screening utilization have been successfully reduced over time (for example, mammography and Pap test screening in rural and remote populations), screening utilization data for other populations (for example, low-income groups) clearly indicate that disparities have existed and continue to exist across Canada. Organized screening programs in Canada have been able to successfully engage 80% of women for regular cervical cancer screening and 70% of women for regular mammography screening, but of the women who remain to be reached or engaged in regular screening, those with the least resources, those who are the most isolated, and those who are least culturally integrated into Canadian society as a whole are over-represented. Population differences are also observed for utilization of colorectal cancer screening services. The research literature on interventions to promote screening utilization provides some evidence about what can be done to increase participation in organized screening by vulnerable populations. Adaption and adoption of evidence-based screening promotion interventions can increase the utilization of available screening services by populations that have experienced the greatest burden of disease with the least access to screening services.

  5. Impact of endoscopic screening on mortality reduction from gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato; Ogoshi, Kazuei; Narisawa, Rintarou; Kishi, Tomoki; Kato, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Kazutaka; Sano, Masatoshi; Tsukioka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate mortality reduction from gastric cancer based on the results of endoscopic screening. METHODS: The study population consisted of participants of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, regular radiography, and photofluorography at Niigata city in 2005. The observed numbers of cumulative deaths from gastric cancers and other cancers were accumulated by linkage with the Niigata Prefectural Cancer Registry. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of gastric cancer and other cancer deaths in each screening group was calculated by applying the mortality rate of the reference population. RESULTS: Based on the results calculated from the mortality rate of the population of Niigata city, the SMRs of gastric cancer death were 0.43 (95%CI: 0.30-0.57) for the endoscopic screening group, 0.68 (95%CI: 0.55-0.79) for the regular radiographic screening group, and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.71-0.94) for the photofluorography screening group. The mortality reduction from gastric cancer was higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the regular radiographic screening group despite the nearly equal mortality rates of all cancers except gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: The 57% mortality reduction from gastric cancer might indicate the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. Further studies and prudent interpretation of results are needed. PMID:25741155

  6. Effectively Communicating Colorectal Cancer Screening Information to Primary Care Providers: Application for State, Tribe or Territory Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Jennifer; Vanderpool, Robin; McClung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients are more likely to be screened for colorectal cancer if it is recommended by a health care provider. Therefore, it is imperative that providers have access to the latest screening guidelines. Purpose: This practice-based project sought to identify Kentucky primary care providers' preferred sources and methods of receiving…

  7. Colorectal Cancer Screening Activities in ICSN Countries

    Cancer.gov

    Targeted Prevention Programs Branch Canberra, ACT, Australia Following the successful pilot program that ran from 2002-2004, a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program which uses immunochemical FOBT, followed by colonoscopy if indicated, will be introduced. The first phase of the program (2006-2008) will target people turning 55 or 65 years of age between 1 May 2006 and 30 June 2008 and those who participated in the pilot program.

  8. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC. PMID:25320506

  9. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. The underlying rationale for the trial is that screening for cancer may enable doctors to discover and treat the disease earlier. Numerous epidemiologic and ancillary studies are included to answer related crucial questions.

  10. [Screening for cancer. International knowledge and Danish practice].

    PubMed

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2002-05-27

    Screening makes it possible to detect cancer before the disease gives rise to symptoms. A more effective treatment could thus be offered, and patients would then have a better prognosis. If screening works, mortality from a given cancer disease should decline in the screened population. At present three screening tests meet this requirement: 1) Pap smears for cervical dysplasia, with screening started at the latest at the age of 30 and not before the age of 20; 2) Mammography screening for breast cancer in women aged 50-69; and 3) faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer in men and women aged 50-74. But screening means the testing of healthy persons for cancer, and it therefore has a number of negative side effects, such as false positive and false negative tests. Whether or not screening is preferable in a given situation therefore depends on how the advantages are weighted against the disadvantages. PMID:12082817

  11. The UK colorectal cancer screening pilot: results of the second round of screening in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Weller; D Coleman; R Robertson; P Butler; J Melia; C Campbell; R Parker; J Patnick; S Moss

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of the second round of faecal occult blood (FOB) screening in the English site of the UK Colorectal Cancer Screening Pilot (comprising the Bowel Cancer Screening Pilot based in Rugby, general practices in four Primary Care Trusts, and their associated hospitals) was carried out. A total of 127 746 men and women aged 50–69 and registered in participating

  12. Fluorescence-guided OCT for Colon Cancer Screening

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Fluorescence-guided OCT for Colon Cancer Screening A Critical Review of "Fluorescence-guided Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging for Colon Cancer Screening: A Preliminary Mouse Study" - Iftimia et (aka Team Beard) #12;Background · What is the problem? · How do we currently find colon cancer

  13. Breast and cervical cancer screening behaviours among colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Corkum, M.; Urquhart, R.; Kephart, G.; Hayden, J.A.; Porter, G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed patterns and factors associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a cohort of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia between January 2001 and December 2005 were eligible for inclusion. Receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening was determined using administrative data. General-population age restrictions were used in the analysis (breast: 40–69 years; cervical: 21–75 years). Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to first screen. Results Of 318 and 443 colorectal cancer survivors eligible for the breast and cervical cancer screening analysis respectively, 30.1% [95% confidence interval (ci): 21.2% to 39.0%] never received screening mammography, and 47.9% (95% ci: 37.8% to 58.0%) never received cervical cancer screening during the study period. Receipt of screening before the colorectal cancer diagnosis was strongly associated with receipt of screening after diagnosis (hazard ratio for breast cancer screening: 4.71; 95% ci: 3.42 to 6.51; hazard ratio for cervical cancer screening: 6.83; 95% ci: 4.58 to 10.16). Conclusions Many colorectal cancer survivors within general-population screening age recommendations did not receive breast and cervical cancer screening. Future research should focus on survivors who meet age recommendations for population-based cancer screening. PMID:25302037

  14. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  15. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and "screen and treat" method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  16. Screening hospital patients for uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, E; Hewertson, S; Jansz, C; Gordon, H

    1983-01-01

    Women patients admitted to a district general hospital with non-gynaecological conditions were offered a cervical smear test. In three years 2296 women were tested. Serious uterine pathology was detected in 13 patients (5.7 per 1000) and significant cytological abnormalities (dyskaryosis of all grades) in 46 (20.0 per 1000). Of the women screened 963 (41.9%) had never had a smear test before and 1608 (70.0%) were over 39 yr. The results show that cervical screening of non-gynaecological patients in hospital reaches many of the women at risk for cervical cancer who do not otherwise have smears taken and reveals considerable uterine pathology. PMID:6853729

  17. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    PubMed

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible in combination with cytology. Various models and approaches are in the testing phase and appear promising. HPV testing is on the other hand well accepted and recommended as a triage test to select women with equivocal smear results (Pap group III, ASCUS) if a biopsy is required or can be followed up and also for follow-up of patients after cone biopsy. However, vaccination of young girls against oncogenic HPV types which has now become widespread still leaves many questions open for the future because the observation period is too short. There is justified hope that this will become a valuable tool in cervical cancer control and may lead to a substantial reduction in the burden of cervical cancer in the future. However, as the current vaccines on the market do not cover all oncogenic virus types and the effects of vaccination will only be observed after many years, the necessity of a cytological screening will remain unrestricted. Therefore, cervical cytology will remain as the trusted, simple to use, economic and proven, like no other method for early cancer detection, efficient procedure even in the foreseeable future. If carried out with the highest quality demands it will play a central role in the early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:19756616

  18. Selection of Rear Projection Screens for Learning Carrels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edgar A.

    The selection of a rear projection screen for a learning carrel should take into account the viewing angle involved. In some carrels, the viewer can be seated in front of the screen (i.e., on the normal axis) since the screen is used primarily to present information. In these cases, where the screen will be viewed only from a restricted range, a…

  19. [Virtual colonoscopy: a new hope for colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Hock, D

    2003-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death and the first one in non-smoking persons. None of the current colorectal caner screening options is ideal. As for mammography in breast cancer screening, virtual colonoscopy, although still in clinical evaluation, promises to become a primary screening method as it is performant, quick, non-invasive and cheaper than conventional colonoscopy. PMID:12940127

  20. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  1. Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlahos, Petro

    1961-01-01

    The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection

  2. Long term breast cancer screening in Nijmegen, The Netherlands: the nine rounds from 1975-92.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, J D; van Dijck, J A; Peer, P G; Straatman, H; Verbeek, A L; Mravunac, M; Hendriks, J H; Holland, R

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of breast cancer screening in different age categories over two decades. DESIGN: Important determinants of reduced breast cancer mortality such as attendance, mammography performance, cancer detection, and disease stage were recorded. SETTING: Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1975-92. SUBJECTS: Since 1975 more than 40,000 women aged 35 years and older have been invited biennially for breast screening in a population based project in Nijmegen. MAIN RESULTS: Rates of attendance, referral, detection, and disease stage were calculated, as well as the specificity of screening mammography and the predictive value of referral and biopsy. From round 3 onwards, the attendance rate of women younger than 50 years stabilised at 70%, in women of 50-69 years it was 62%, and in women aged 70 and over it was 22%. In these three age categories, the referral rates of a positive screening mammography per 1000 screened women were 4.9, 6.2, and 11.8, respectively. Specificity rates were between 99% and 100%. Current predictive values of referral were high: in the specific age categories 39%, 59%, and 68% of the referred women had cancer. Detection rates remained fairly stable over the rounds 4-9, at 1.9, 3.6, and 8.0 cancers per 1000 screened women. In the two year period between screening the numbers of interval cancers per 1000 screened women were 2.2, 2.2, and 2.9, for the three age categories respectively. With regard to invasive cancers detected during screening, the percentage of small tumours (< or = 20 mm on the mammogram) was 84% in each age category. For women younger than 50 years, the proportion of intraductal carcinoma in all the cancers detected at screening was 40%, while it was 15% in the other age categories. CONCLUSION: Throughout the nine rounds, the screening outcomes were found to be adequate, particularly considering the high specificity rate and the predictive value of referral without the interference of a low detection rate. Although the occurrence of interval cancers seemed high, it was similar to other screening programmes. Despite a relatively low referral rate, the ratios of screen detected versus interval cancer cases were favourable. Well organised screening programmes can achieve good mammography results without too many false positives. It is important that women continue to participate in a screening programme because cancer can still be detected even after several successive negative screening examinations. PMID:8935470

  3. Analysis of Senate Bill 1245: Cervical Cancer Screening Test

    E-print Network

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2006-01-01

    In California, the age-adjusted death rate for Hispanics inCalifornia, the age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer among HispanicsCalifornia Cervical Cancer Screening, Incidence, and Mortality Race All races White Black Hispanic

  4. Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices - Diagnostic Radiologist Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    Form approved: OMB No. 0925-xxxx Expires: ____/____/____ The Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Health Care Financing

  5. Colon and Rectal Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Crohn disease (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Ulcerative colitis (Beyond the Basics)" ). EFFECTIVENESS OF COLON CANCER SCREENING ... People with Crohn's disease of the colon or ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The ...

  6. Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927

  7. Ovarian cancer screening—Current status, future directions?

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Griffin, Michelle; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of a mortality benefit continues to elude ovarian cancer (OC) screening. Data from the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial which used a screening strategy incorporating CA125 cut-off and transvaginal ultrasound has not shown mortality benefit. The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer (ROC) time series algorithm to interpret CA125, which has shown an encouraging sensitivity and specificity however the mortality data will only be available in 2015. The article explores the impact of growing insights into disease aetiology and evolution and biomarker discovery on future screening strategies. A better understanding of the target lesion, improved design of biomarker discovery studies, a focus on detecting low volume disease using cancer specific markers, novel biospecimens such as cervical cytology and targeted imaging and use of time series algorithms for interpreting markers profile suggests that a new era in screening is underway. PMID:24316306

  8. Screening for cervical cancer and human papilloma virus: Indian context.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Kedar K

    2012-06-01

    Cervical cancer remains the most common fatal cancer in Indian women. The primary underlying cause of cervical cancer is persistent infection with human papilloma virus (HPV); HPV 16 and 18 account for nearly 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide. Cytology-based cervical screening programs have been very effective, but require establishing an infrastructure and quality control mechanisms, which can be a challenge. Cervical screening by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) are acceptable alternatives for low-resource settings. Primary screening for cervical cancer with HPV testing is attractive but cost could be the limiting factor. A less expensive HPV test holds promise. PMID:22726999

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationship of lesion size to likelihood of malignancy has been demonstrated previously, at least 99% of all nodules 4 mm or smaller are benign, while noncalcified nodules larger than 8 mm diameter bear a substantial risk of malignancy. In the recent years, the availability of high-performance gradient systems, in conjunction with phased-array receiver coils and optimized imaging sequences, has made MR imaging of the lung feasible. It can now be assumed a threshold size of 3-4 mm for detection of lung nodules with MRI under the optimal conditions of successful breath-holds with reliable gating or triggering. In these conditions, 90% of all 3-mm nodules can be correctly diagnosed and that nodules 5 mm and larger are detected with 100% sensitivity. Parallel imaging can significantly shorten the imaging acquisition time by utilizing the diversity of sensitivity profile of individual coil elements in multi-channel radiofrequency receive coil arrays or transmit/receive coil arrays to reduce the number of phase encoding steps required in imaging procedure. Compressed sensing technique accelerates imaging acquisition from dramatically undersampled data set by exploiting the sparsity of the images in an appropriate transform domain. With the combined imaging algorithm of parallel imaging and compressed sensing and advanced 32-channel or 64-channel RF hardware, overall imaging acceleration of 20 folds or higher can then be expected, ultimately achieve free-breathing and no ECG gating acquisitions in lung cancer MRI screening. Further development of protocols, more clinical trials and the use of advanced analysis tools will further evaluate the real significance of lung MRI. PMID:25276380

  10. Increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality due to screening

    PubMed Central

    van Schoor, G; Moss, S M; Otten, J D M; Donders, R; Paap, E; den Heeten, G J; Holland, R; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Favourable outcomes of breast cancer screening trials in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the launch of population-based service screening programmes in many Western countries. We investigated whether improvements in mammography and treatment modalities have had an influence on the effectiveness of breast cancer screening from 1975 to 2008. Methods: In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 55?529 women received an invitation for screening between 1975 and 2008. We designed a case–referent study to evaluate the impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality over time from 1975 to 2008. A total number of 282 breast cancer deaths were identified, and 1410 referents aged 50–69 were sampled from the population invited for screening. We estimated the effectiveness by calculating the odds ratio (OR) indicating the breast cancer death rate for screened vs unscreened women. Results: The breast cancer death rate in the screened group over the complete period was 35% lower than in the unscreened group (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.49–0.87). Analysis by calendar year showed an increasing effectiveness from a 28% reduction in breast cancer mortality in the period 1975–1991 (OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.47–1.09) to 65% in the period 1992–2008 (OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.19–0.64). Conclusion: Our results show an increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality over time because of mammographic screening. PMID:21343930

  11. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program. PMID:25581023

  12. Digital compared to screen-film mammography: breast cancer prognostic features in an organized screening program.

    PubMed

    Prummel, Maegan V; Done, Susan J; Muradali, Derek; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Shumak, Rene S; Yaffe, Martin J; Holloway, Claire M B; Chiarelli, Anna M

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study found cancer detection rates were equivalent for direct radiography compared to screen-film mammography, while rates for computed radiography were significantly lower. This study compares prognostic features of invasive breast cancers by type of mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified invasive breast cancers diagnosed among concurrent cohorts of women aged 50-74 screened by direct radiography, computed radiography, or screen-film mammography from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. During the study period, 816,232 mammograms were performed on 668,418 women, and 3,323 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Of 2,642 eligible women contacted, 2,041 participated (77.3 %). The final sample size for analysis included 1,405 screen-detected and 418 interval cancers (diagnosed within 24 months of a negative screening mammogram). Polytomous logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tumour characteristics and type of mammography, and between tumour characteristics and detection method. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were recorded. Cancers detected by computed radiography compared to screen-film mammography were significantly more likely to be lymph node positive (OR 1.94, 95 %CI 1.01-3.73) and have higher stage (II:I, OR 2.14, 95 %CI 1.11-4.13 and III/IV:I, OR 2.97, 95 %CI 1.02-8.59). Compared to screen-film mammography, significantly more cancers detected by direct radiography (OR 1.64, 95 %CI 1.12-2.38) were lymph node positive. Interval cancers had worse prognostic features compared to screen-detected cancers, irrespective of mammography type. Screening with computed radiography may lead to the detection of cancers with a less favourable stage distribution compared to screen-film mammography that may reflect a delayed diagnosis. Screening programs should re-evaluate their use of computed radiography for breast screening. PMID:25108740

  13. Breast Cancer Mortality After Screening Mammography in British Columbia Women

    Cancer.gov

    BC Cancer Agency CARE & RESEARCH Breast Cancer Mortality After Screening Mammography in British Columbia Women Andrew J. Coldman, Ph.D. Norm Phillips, M.Sc. Lisa Kan, M.Sc. Linda Warren, M.D. Population & Preventive Oncology BC Cancer Agency BC Cancer

  14. Colon Cancer Screening The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    EDITORIAL Colon Cancer Screening The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly T HIS YEAR, IT IS ESTIMATED THAT THERE WILL be 55 170 colorectal cancer (CRC)­ related deaths, making it the second lead- ing cause of cancer nature of CRC, only about one third of patients are diagnosed as having the cancer at the localized stage

  15. [Lung cancer screening and management of small pulmonary nodules].

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. Most lung cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage, so survival after lung cancer is generally poor. Diagnosis of lung cancer at earlier stages may be associated with an increased survival rate. This indicates that the implementation of lung cancer screening programs at the population level by means of low dose computed tomography might helpful to improve the outcome and mortality of lung cancer patients. By means of rapid advances in imaging technologies over the last decades it became possible to detect small lung nodules as small as a couple of millimeters. This recent developments require management algorithms to guide the clinical management of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules found in computer tomography during lung cancer screening or by incidental finding.This review will focus on both, the recent advances in lung cancer screening and the guidelines for the management of small pulmonary nodules. PMID:25734672

  16. Behavioral Economics: “Nudging” Underserved Populations to Be Screened for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; McBride, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

  17. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  18. Behavioral economics: "nudging" underserved populations to be screened for cancer.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

  19. Literacy and Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior About Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen E. Guerra; Francisco Dominguez; Judy A. Shea

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey explored the association between functional health literacy and knowledge of, beliefs and attitudes about, and reported usage of colorectal cancer screening tests. The results indicate that functional health literacy, as assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA), is not an independent predictor of colorectal cancer screening knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, or behavior. Latino

  20. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening

  1. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Dorothy Lane, of Stony Brook University, investigated whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  2. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

  3. Understanding Cancer Screening Service Utilization by Somali Men in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sewali, Barrett; Pratt, Rebekah; Abdiwahab, Ekland; Fahia, Saeed; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-05-11

    This study examined factors that influence use of cancer screening by Somali men residing in Minnesota, USA. To better understand why recent immigrants are disproportionately less likely to use screening services, we used the health belief model to explore knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes surrounding cancer screening. We conducted a qualitative study comprised of 20 key informant interviews with Somali community leaders and 8 focus groups with Somali men (n = 44). Somali men commonly believe they are protected from cancer by religious beliefs. This belief, along with a lack of knowledge about screening, increased the likelihood to refrain from screening. Identifying the association between religion and health behaviors may lead to more targeted interventions to address existing disparities in cancer screening in the growing US immigrant population. PMID:24817627

  4. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  5. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey H Sach; David K Whynes

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until

  6. Screening for cervical cancer, a priority in Zimbabwe?

    PubMed

    Rutgers, S; Verkuyl, D

    2000-03-01

    In several (first world) countries many cases of cancer of the cervix are prevented through regular screening of women at risk by means of a Pap (anicolao) smear. The adage "prevention is better than cure" suggests that mass screening should also take place in Zimbabwe. A critical public health viewpoint is presented which discusses the complexity of a national cervical cancer screening programme. PMID:14674218

  7. Furthering the prostate cancer screening debate (prostate cancer specific mortality and associated risks)

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Chetner, Michael P.; Donnelly, Bryan J.; Hagen, Neil A.; Ross, David; Ruether, J. Dean; Venner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Screening for prostate cancer remains a contentious issue. As with other cancer screening programs, a key feature of the debate is verification of cancer-specific mortality reductions. Unfortunately the present evidence, two systematic reviews and six randomized controlled trials, have reported conflicting results. Furthermore, half of the studies are poor quality and the evidence is clouded by key weaknesses, including poor adherence to screening in the intervention arm or high rates of screening in the control arm. In high quality studies of prostate cancer screening (particularly prostate-specific antigen), in which actual compliance was anticipated in the study design, there is good evidence that prostate cancer mortality is reduced. The numbers needed to screen are at least as good as those of mammography for breast cancer and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer. However, the risks associated with prostate cancer screening are considerable and must be weighed against the advantage of reduced cancer-specific mortality. Adverse events include 70% rate of false positives, important risks associated with prostate biopsy, and the serious consequences of prostate cancer treatment. The best evidence demonstrates prostate cancer screening will reduce prostate cancer mortality. It is time for the debate to move beyond this issue, and begin a well-informed discussion on the remaining complex issues associated with prostate cancer screening and appropriate management. PMID:22154638

  8. Furthering the prostate cancer screening debate (prostate cancer specific mortality and associated risks).

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Chetner, Michael P; Donnelly, Bryan J; Hagen, Neil A; Ross, David; Ruether, J Dean; Venner, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Screening for prostate cancer remains a contentious issue. As with other cancer screening programs, a key feature of the debate is verification of cancer-specific mortality reductions. Unfortunately the present evidence, two systematic reviews and six randomized controlled trials, have reported conflicting results. Furthermore, half of the studies are poor quality and the evidence is clouded by key weaknesses, including poor adherence to screening in the intervention arm or high rates of screening in the control arm. In high quality studies of prostate cancer screening (particularly prostate-specific antigen), in which actual compliance was anticipated in the study design, there is good evidence that prostate cancer mortality is reduced. The numbers needed to screen are at least as good as those of mammography for breast cancer and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer. However, the risks associated with prostate cancer screening are considerable and must be weighed against the advantage of reduced cancer-specific mortality. Adverse events include 70% rate of false positives, important risks associated with prostate biopsy, and the serious consequences of prostate cancer treatment. The best evidence demonstrates prostate cancer screening will reduce prostate cancer mortality. It is time for the debate to move beyond this issue, and begin a well-informed discussion on the remaining complex issues associated with prostate cancer screening and appropriate management. PMID:22154638

  9. Committee opinion no 609: colorectal cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Each year, more than 24,000 women die from colorectal cancer, which makes it the third leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer and breast cancer. However, screening tests are underused for many segments of the population and are ordered in a manner inconsistent with guidelines. The primary goal of colorectal cancer screening is to reduce mortality through the reduction of advanced disease. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening every 10 years for average-risk women beginning at age 50 years and at age 45 years for African American women.The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends colonoscopy every 10 years as the most effective screening modality. Every screening method has advantages and limitations, which ultimately depend on the quality of the screening test, patient adherence, screening guidelines, and access to timely and appropriate follow-up. Colorectal cancer screening methods should be discussed with patients to identify the method they are most likely to accept and complete. PMID:25244458

  10. Evaluating Progress in Cancer Screening | A Model for Screening and Risk Factor Surveillance

    Cancer.gov

    ARP sponsored the first Cancer Control Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS CCS) in 1987. Since 2000, the NHIS CCS has been co-sponsored by the NCI and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NHIS CCS was and remains the national gold standard for monitoring diffusion of and access to cancer screening. The CCS also covers diet, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco use and control, genetic testing, family history of cancer, cancer risk assessment, and cancer survivorship.

  11. 3-D breast cancer screening reduces recall rates

    Cancer.gov

    Tomosynthesis, or 3-dimensional (3-D) mammography, significantly reduced the number of patients being recalled for additional testing after receiving a mammogram, a Yale Cancer Center study found. The study appears in the journal Radiology. Digital mammography is considered the mainstay for breast cancer screening. However, it is not a perfect test, and many women are asked to come back for additional testing that often turns out not to show cancer. These additional screening tests increase patient anxiety.

  12. Estimating time and travel costs incurred in clinic based screening: flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Frew; Jane L Wolstenholme; Wendy Atkin; David K Whynes

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To identify the characteris- tics of mode of travel to screening clinics; to estimate the time and travel costs incurred in attending; to investigate whether such costs are likely to bias screening compliance. Setting—Twelve centres in the trial of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, drawn from across Great Britain. Method—Analysis of 3525 questionnaires completed by screening subjects while attending

  13. Mammographic Screening And Mortality From Breast Cancer: The Malmö Mammographic Screening Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingvar Andersson; Knut Aspegren; Lars Janzon; Torsten Landberg; Karin Lindholm; Folke Linell; Otto Ljungberg; Jonas Ranstam; Baldur Sigfússon

    1988-01-01

    Study objective—To determine whether mortality from breast cancer could be reduced by repeated mammographic screening. Design—Birth year cohorts of city population separately randomised into study and control groups. Setting—Screening clinic outside main hospital. Patients—Women aged over 45; 21 088 invited for screening and 21 195 in control group. Interventions—Women in the study group were invited to attend for mammographic screening

  14. Toxicoepigenomics and cancer: implications for screening.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have long considered genetics to be the key mechanism that alters gene expression because of exposure to the environment and toxic substances (toxicants). Recently, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as an alternative explanation for alterations in gene expression resulting from such exposure. The fact that certain toxic substances that contribute to tumor development do not induce mutations probably results from underlying epigenetic mechanisms. The field of toxicoepigenomics emerged from the combination of epigenetics and classical toxicology. High-throughput technologies now enable evaluation of altered epigenomic profiling in response to toxins and environmental pollutants. Furthermore, differences in the epigenomic backgrounds of individuals may explain why, although whole populations are exposed to toxicants, only a few people in a population develop cancer. Metals in the environment and toxic substances not only alter DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications but also affect enzymes involved in posttranslational modifications of proteins and epigenetic regulation, and thereby contribute to carcinogenesis. This article describes different toxic substances and environmental pollutants that alter epigenetic profiling and discusses how this information can be used in screening populations at high risk of developing cancer. Research opportunities and challengers in the field also are discussed. PMID:25421670

  15. Health Care Systems Redesign Project to Improve Dysphagia Screening.

    PubMed

    Daggett, Virginia S; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa M; Plue, Laurie; Russell, Scott; Allen, George; Williams, Linda S; Chumbler, Neale R; Bravata, Dawn M

    2014-11-28

    The purpose of this project was to improve dysphagia-screening processes in a tertiary Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The dysphagia-screening tool was redesigned on the basis of frontline clinician feedback, clinical guidelines, user satisfaction, and multidisciplinary expertise. The revised tool triggered a speech-language consult for positive screens and demonstrated higher scores in user satisfaction and task efficiency. Systems redesign processes were effective for redesigning the tool and implementing practice changes with clinicians involved in dysphagia screening. PMID:25463001

  16. A Personalized Automated Messaging System to Improve Adherence to Prostate Cancer Screening: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public adherence to cancer screening guidelines is poor. Patient confusion over multiple recommendations and modalities for cancer screening has been found to be a major barrier to screening adherence. Such problems will only increase as screening guidelines and timetables become individualized. Objective We propose to increase compliance with cancer screening through two-way rich media mobile messaging based on personalized risk assessment. Methods We propose to develop and test a product that will store algorithms required to personalize cancer screening in a central database managed by a rule-based workflow engine, and implemented via messaging to the patient’s mobile phone. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial focusing on prostate cancer screening to study the hypothesis that mobile reminders improve adherence to screening guidelines. We will also explore a secondary hypothesis that patients who reply to the messaging reminders are more engaged and at lower risk of non-adherence. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial in a sample of males between 40 and 75 years (eligible for prostate cancer screening) who are willing to receive text messages, email, or automated voice messages. Participants will be recruited from a primary care clinic and asked to schedule prostate cancer screening at the clinic within the next 3 weeks. The intervention group will receive reminders and confirmation communications for making an appointment, keeping the appointment, and reporting the test results back to the investigators. Three outcomes will be evaluated: (1) the proportion of participants who make an appointment with a physician following a mobile message reminder, (2) the proportion of participants who keep the appointment, and (3) the proportion of participants who report the results of the screening (via text or Web). Results This is an ongoing project, supported by by a small business commercialization grant from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. Conclusions We believe that the use of centralized databases and text messaging could improve adherence with screening guidelines. Furthermore, we anticipate this method of increasing patient engagement could be applied to a broad range of health issues, both inside and outside of the context of cancer. This project will be an important first step in determining the feasibility of personalized text messaging to improve long-term adherence to screening recommendations. PMID:23612443

  17. Implementation of lung cancer screening: promises and hurdles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer screening is a subject of considerable interest in the medical community and the general population. Since the publication of the data from the national lung screening trial (NLST) in 2011, the interest in lung cancer screening has increased even more. Data from many sources provide evidence that low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) lung cancer screening can be performed with even greater efficacy if inclusion criteria as well as nodule management are optimized. There are, however, also a number of potential hurdles for the implementation of lung cancer screening. Among these are, in particular, the high prevalence of screen-detected pulmonary nodules, the unknown extent of over-diagnosis, the potential harms of the cumulative radiation dose and the insufficient data on cost-efficiency of lung cancer screening. In this article, the most recent insights into some of the most imminent questions are reviewed to provide an understanding of the challenges we still face in lung cancer screening. PMID:25806313

  18. Cancer screening in older adults: What to do when we don't know

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shabbir M. H. Alibhai; Anne M. Horgan

    2011-01-01

    More than one-half of new cancers and over 70% of cancer deaths in industrialized nations occur in adults age 65 or older. Systematic screening has been associated with reductions in cancer-related mortality for a variety of cancers, including breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Prostate cancer screening remains more controversial despite the recent publication of two large randomized trials of screening.

  19. Breast and Ovarian Cancer Screening Practices in Healthy Women with a Strong Family History of Breast or Ovarian Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudine Isaacs; Beth N. Peshkin; Marc Schwartz; Tiffani A. DeMarco; David Main; Caryn Lerman

    2002-01-01

    Studies in women with a family history of cancer demonstrate a wide variability in the uptake of cancer screening measures. Little data exist regarding the breast and ovarian cancer screening practices of women who are members of hereditary breast cancer families. In order to address this issue, we examined the screening behaviors and the determinants of screening in a clinic

  20. Colorectal cancer screening among Chinese American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen; Chapman, Christopher; Vallina, Helen

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors determining fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake in Chinese American immigrants. This study used a prospective, cross-sectional design with convenience sampling. An educational session on colorectal cancer screening (CRS) was provided to the participants during a health fair, and each participant was offered a no-cost FOBT kit. Data was collected over two consecutive years during three different health fairs. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data. A total of 113 participants were recruited and 72% of them returned the FOBT kit. There was a significant association between having a primary-care physician (PCP) and having CRS in the past, even after controlling for age, gender and the length of time in the US (P = .009). Participants who visited a doctor for health maintenance were less likely to participate in the FOBT, compared to participants who never visited a doctor or who only visited a doctor when they were sick (P = .001). The length of time in the US had a significant effect on having a PCP (P = .002). However, having a PCP or having CRS in the past was not associated with participating in the screening and so was feeling at risk for CRC. In fact, 49% of Chinese women and 45% of Chinese men felt no risk of CRC. Future research and interventions that address knowledge deficits and focus on recent immigrants and their access to health care may have the potential to increase CRS among Chinese American immigrants. PMID:22187109

  1. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until recently, the technology available required that cancer screening be confined to women. This study aimed to discover whether male and female perceptions of cancer and of screening differed. Methods Data on the public's cancer beliefs were collected by means of a postal survey (anonymous questionnaire). Two general practices based in Nottingham and in Mansfield, in east-central England, sent questionnaires to registered patients aged 30 to 70 years. 1,808 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis, 56.5 per cent from women. Results Women were less likely to underestimate overall cancer incidence, although each sex was more likely to cite a sex-specific cancer as being amongst the most common cancer site. In terms of risk factors, men were most uncertain about the role of stress and sexually-transmitted diseases, whereas women were more likely to rate excessive alcohol and family history as major risk factors. The majority of respondents believed the public health care system should provide cancer screening, but significantly more women than men reported having benefiting from the nationally-provided screening services. Those who were older, in better health or had longer periods of formal education were less worried about cancer than those who had illness experiences, lower incomes, or who were smokers. Actual or potential participation in bowel screening was higher amongst those who believed bowel cancer to be common and amongst men, despite women having more substantial worries about cancer than men. Conclusion Our results suggest that men's and women's differential knowledge of cancer correlates with women's closer involvement with screening. Even so, men were neither less positive about screening nor less likely to express a willingness to participate in relevant screening in the future. It is important to understand gender-related differences in knowledge and perceptions of cancer, if health promotion resources are to be allocated efficiently. PMID:19930703

  2. Screening for prevention and early diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Jane; Robb, Kathryn; Vernon, Sally; Waller, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The poor outcomes for cancers diagnosed at an advanced stage have been the driver behind research into techniques to detect disease before symptoms are manifest. For cervical and colorectal cancer, detection and treatment of "precancers" can prevent the development of cancer, a form of primary prevention. For other cancers-breast, prostate, lung, and ovarian-screening is a form of secondary prevention, aiming to improve outcomes through earlier diagnosis. International and national expert organizations regularly assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening technologies, issuing clinical guidelines for population-wide implementation. Psychological research has made important contributions to this process, assessing the psychological costs and benefits of possible screening outcomes (e.g., the impact of false positive results) and public tolerance of overdiagnosis. Cervical, colorectal, and breast screening are currently recommended, and prostate, lung, and ovarian screening are under active review. Once technologies and guidelines are in place, delivery of screening is implemented according to the health care system of the country, with invitation systems and provider recommendations playing a key role. Behavioral scientists can then investigate how individuals make screening decisions, assessing the impact of knowledge, perceived cancer risk, worry, and normative beliefs about screening, and this information can be used to develop strategies to promote screening uptake. This article describes current cancer screening options, discusses behavioral research designed to reduce underscreening and minimize inequalities, and considers the issues that are being raised by informed decision making and the development of risk-stratified approaches to screening. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25730719

  3. PSA screening for prostate cancer: why so much controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Fernand

    2013-01-01

    Since prostate cancer reaches the advanced and non curable stage in the absence of any specific symptom or sign, it seems reasonable to diagnose this cancer at an early and curable stage. Screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been the common technology used. The last follow-up of the first two prospective and randomized screening studies for prostate cancer, namely the Quebec and ERSPC (European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer) clinical trials started in 1988 and 1991, respectively, have shown reductions of prostate cancer death of 62% (P<0.002) and 21% (P<0.001) (38% in the tenth and eleventh years of follow-up, P<0.003), respectively, while the PLCO (Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer) screening trial reported no benefit. It has been estimated, however, that 85% of men in the planned ‘non-screened' group of the US study have been screened. With such a serious flaw, the PLCO study does not have the statistical power to reach any valid conclusion. In the Quebec study, only 7.3% of men were screened in the control arm. The important benefit observed in the ERSPC study was achieved using a less than optimal 4-year PSA screening interval which misses a significant number of cancers while the Quebec study used the optimal 1-year interval. With proper information obtained from their physicians or otherwise using data collected only from the clinical trials having the required statistical power, men should be in a good position to decide about being or not being screened for prostate cancer. PMID:23770941

  4. Demographics and Efficacy of Head and Neck Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Entezami, Payam; Chernin, Anna S.; Wallace, Nancy E.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Hogikyan, Norman D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to (1) describe the demographics and (2) determine the efficacy of a head and neck cancer screening program in order to optimize future programs. Methods After IRB approval, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to review a single institution’s 14-year experience (1996–2009) conducting a free annual head and neck cancer screening clinic. Available demographic and clinical data, as well as clinical outcomes were analyzed for all participants (n=761). The primary outcome was the presence of a finding suspicious for head and neck cancer on screening evaluation. Results Five percent of participants had findings suspicious for head and neck cancer on screening evaluation, and malignant or pre-malignant lesions were confirmed in one percent of participants. Lack of insurance (p=.05), tobacco use (p<.001), male gender (p=.03), separated marital status (p=.03), and younger age (p=.04) were the significant demographic predictors of a lesion suspicious for malignancy. Patients complaining of a neck mass (p<.001) or oral pain (p<.001) were significantly more likely to have findings suspicious of malignancy. A high percentage (40%) was diagnosed with benign otolaryngologic pathologies on screening evaluation. Conclusions A minority of patients presenting to a head and neck cancer screening clinic will have a suspicious lesion identified. Given these findings, in order to achieve maximal potential benefit, future head and neck cancer screening clinics should target patients with identifiable risk factors and take full advantage of opportunities for education and prevention. PMID:20723771

  5. Cervical cancer screening in a sexually transmitted disease clinic: screening adoption experiences from a midwestern clinic.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Beth E; Sayegh, M Aaron; Davis, Alissa; Arno, Janet N; Zimet, Gregory D; LeMonte, Ann M; Williams, James A; Barclay, Lynn; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Objectives. We examined whether a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic could reach women who had not received a Papanicolau (Pap) test in the past 3 years. We also explored staff attitudes and implementation of cervical cancer screening. Methods. Women (n?=?123) aged 30 to 50 years were offered cervical cancer screening in an Indiana STD clinic. We measured effectiveness by the patients' self-reported last Pap test. We explored adoption of screening through focus groups with 34 staff members by documenting their attitudes about cervical cancer screening and screening strategy adaptation. We also documented recruitment and screening implementation. Results. Almost half (47.9%) of participants reported a last Pap test 3 or more years previously; 30% had reported a last Pap more than 5 years ago, and 11.4% had a high-risk test outcome that required referral to colposcopy. Staff supported screening because of mission alignment and perceived patient benefit. Screening adaptations included eligibility, results provision, and follow-up. Conclusions. Cervical cancer screening was possible and potentially beneficial in STD clinics. Future effectiveness-implementation studies should expand to include all female patients, and should examine the degree to which adaptation of selected adoption frameworks is feasible. PMID:25689199

  6. Cancer Screening: The Journey from Epidemiology to Policy

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen A.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Hartge, Patricia; Berg, Christine D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Petitti, Diana B.; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening procedures have brought great benefit to the public’s health. However, the science of cancer screening and the evidence arising from research in this field as it is applied to policy is complex and has been difficult to communicate, especially on the national stage. We explore how epidemiologists have contributed to this evidence base and to its translation into policy. Our essay focuses on breast and lung cancer screening to identify commonalities of experience by epidemiologists across two different cancer sites and describe how epidemiologists interact with evolving scientific and policy environments. We describe the roles and challenges that epidemiologists encounter according to the maturity of the data, stakeholders, and the related political context. We also explore the unique position of cancer screening as influenced by the legislative landscape where, due to recent healthcare reform, cancer screening research plays directly into national policy. In the complex landscape for cancer screening policy, epidemiologists can increase their impact by learning from past experiences, being well prepared and communicating effectively. PMID:22626002

  7. Photometry And Colorimetry Of High Gain Projection Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, A. J.

    1982-02-01

    The introduction of projection screens with high gains has had an important effect on the development of projection television. These screens have very directional reflectance characteristics which have been measured by a specially built goniophotometer. The measurements from the instrument give a direct indication of the field of view that can be obtained from a screen for a given fall in apparent luminance. The measured results can also be used to calculate some of the less obvious photometric and colorimetric consequences of using and misusing these screens.

  8. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  9. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't. PMID:23378639

  10. Skin cancer screening and melanoma detection: a life saved

    E-print Network

    Rajpara, Anand; Fischer, Ryan; Chandra, Joan; Aires, Daniel; Blackmon, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    for a free skin cancer screening at a local health fair inpreviously in good health. On full body skin examination,and health care assistance at the university medical center. One month after being seen at the skin

  11. ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Quality Indicators of Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in Catalonia (Spain) Authors: M Peris, G Binefa, M Navarro, M Garcia, JA Espinàs, JM Borràs Affiliation: Catalan Institute of Oncology

  12. ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Cervical Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Attendance Rate (2003-2005) of the Hungarian Organized, Nation-Wide Cervical Cancer Screening Program Authors: I Boncz, A Sebestyén Affiliation: Department of Health Economics, Policy & Management, University

  13. Mammographic screening and mortality from breast cancer: the Malmö mammographic screening trial.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, I.; Aspegren, K.; Janzon, L.; Landberg, T.; Lindholm, K.; Linell, F.; Ljungberg, O.; Ranstam, J.; Sigfússon, B.

    1988-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine whether mortality from breast cancer could be reduced by repeated mammographic screening. DESIGN--Birth year cohorts of city population separately randomised into study and control groups. SETTING--Screening clinic outside main hospital. PATIENTS--Women aged over 45; 21,088 invited for screening and 21,195 in control group. INTERVENTIONS--Women in the study group were invited to attend for mammographic screening at intervals of 18-24 months. Five rounds of screening were completed. Breast cancer was treated according to stage at diagnosis. END POINT--Mortality from breast cancer. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--All women were followed up and classed at end point as alive without breast cancer, alive with breast cancer, dead from breast cancer, or dead from other causes. Cause of death was taken from national mortality registry and for patients with breast cancer was validated independently. Mean follow up was 8.8 years. Altogether 588 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in the study group and 447 in the control group; 99 v 94 women died of all causes and 63 v 66 women died of breast cancer (no significant difference; relative risk 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.35)). In the study group 29% more women aged less than 55 died of breast cancer (28 v 22; relative risk 1.29 (0.74 to 2.25)). More women in the study group died from breast cancer in the first seven years; after that the trend reversed, especially in women aged greater than or equal to 55 at entry. Overall, women in the study group aged greater than or equal to 55 had a 20% reduction in mortality from breast cancer (35 v 44; relative risk 0.79 (0.51 to 1.24)). OTHER FINDINGS--In the study group 100 (17%) cancers appeared in intervals between screenings and 107 (18%) in non-attenders; 51 of these women died from breast cancer. Cancers classed as stages II-IV comprised 33% (190/579) of cancers in the study group and 52% (231/443) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS--Invitation to mammographic screening may lead to reduced mortality from breast cancer, at least in women aged 55 or over. PMID:3142562

  14. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  15. National Surveys of Colorectal Cancer Screening Policies & Practices

    Cancer.gov

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the US, with 143,460 new cases and 51,690 deaths expected in 2012. In the late 1990s, evidence emerging from clinical studies prompted several groups to issue or revise recommendations for CRC screening. There is a consensus that average-risk adults aged 50 years and older should be screened for CRC.

  16. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M.; Domènech, X.; Vidal, C.; Torné, E.; Milà, N.; Binefa, G.; Benito, L.; Moreno, V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480). We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3%) were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%). There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%). When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88) and at more advanced stages (P = 0.025). Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  17. Screening for lung cancer: time for large-scale screening by chest computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Shlomi, Dekel; Ben-Avi, Ronny; Balmor, Gingy Ronen; Onn, Amir; Peled, Nir

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Age and smoking are the primary risk factors for lung cancer. Treatment based on surgical removal in the early stages of the disease results in better survival. Screening programmes for early detection that used chest radiography and sputum cytology failed to attain reduction of lung cancer mortality. Screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in a high-risk population. Nevertheless, no mortality advantage was manifested in small randomised control trials. A large randomised control trial in the U.S.A., the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), showed a significant relative reduction of 20% in lung cancer mortality and 6.7% reduction in total mortality, yet no reduction was evidenced in the late-stage prevalence. Screening for lung cancer by low-dose CT reveals a high level of false-positive lesions, which necessitates further noninvasive and invasive evaluations. Based primarily on the NLST eligible criteria, new guidelines have recently been developed by major relevant organisations. The overall recommendation coming out of this collective work calls for lung cancer screening by low-dose CT to be performed in medical centres manned by specialised multidisciplinary teams, as well as for a mandatory, pre-screening, comprehensive discussion with the patient about the risks and advantages involved in the process. Lung cancer screening is on the threshold of a new era, with ever more questions still left open to challenge future studies. PMID:24525442

  18. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  19. After Surviving a Cancer Diagnosis, Do Patients Receive Increased Cancer Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jessica R.; Witt, Whitney P.; Palta, Mari; LoConte, Noelle K.; Heidrich, Susan M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Pandhi, Nancy; Smith, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although 64% of cancer survivors are expected to live at least five years beyond diagnosis, the receipt of cancer screening by this population is unclear. The study objective is to assess the relation between a cancer diagnosis and future cancer screening, exploring provider, patient, and cancer-specific factors that explain observed relationships. Methods The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Wisconsin Tumor Registry were used to identify two participant groups: 415 diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer between 1992-1993 (pre-cancer) and 2003-2004 (post-cancer) and 4,680 no-cancer controls. Adjusted average predicted probabilities of cancer screening were estimated with models that first did not include and then included, provider (provider relationship length), participant (depressive symptoms (CES-D)) and cancer-specific (time since diagnosis) factors. Participants with a history of the cancer associated with a given screening test were then excluded to assess whether relationships are explained by screening for recurrence versus second cancers. Results Female cancer survivors were more likely than no-cancer controls to undergo pelvic/pap (70%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=63-76% and 61%,CI=59-63%) and mammography screening (86%,CI=78-90% and 76%,CI=74-77%), though male cancer survivors were not more likely to receive prostate exams (76%,CI=70-82% and 69%,CI=67-71%). After excluding people with a history of the cancer being screened for, there were few significant differences in cancer screening between short or long-term survivors (>5 years) and no-cancer controls. Relationships were not sensitive to adjustment for provider or participant factors. Conclusions The significant positive differences in cancer screening between people with and without cancer can be explained by screening for recurrence. Long-term cancer survivors are not more likely to receive follow-up screening for second cancers. This information should be used by providers to ensure patients receive recommended follow-up preventive care. PMID:22773714

  20. "Inside and outside": Sikh women's perspectives on cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Nelly D; Vollman, Ardene Robinson

    2007-03-01

    Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage through regular screening. The literature suggests that cervical cancer in immigrant women, a growing population in Canada, is less likely to be detected early than it is in the general population, as immigrant women tend not to take advantage of screening. Culturally appropriate screening services for immigrant women are few. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with female members of an urban Sikh community in Canada to explore perspectives on cervical cancer screening. In-depth interviews (13) and focus groups (3) were carried out to uncover challenges to cervical cancer screening. The researchers identified a prevailing theme of "inside/outside" whereby the women felt confined to their community, finding it difficult to move "outside" into Canadian society in order to participate in screening. Lack of knowledge about the importance of prevention, influence of family and community, and health-provider issues affected the women's access to screening. The results will be helpful for nurses planning and delivering screening services to Sikh women. PMID:17450712

  1. Screening for Cancer by Residents in an Internal Medicine Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Garrett R.; Prout, Marianne N.

    1986-01-01

    A study of cancer screening by internal medicine residents in an inner-city clinic revealed that screening was more frequent for male patients, and breast examinations and Pap smears were performed on less than a third of female patients, suggesting a need for more intensive early-detection education of residents. (MSE)

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Equal Access Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    DeBarros, Mia; Steele, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The military health system (MHS) a unique setting to analyze implementation programs as well as outcomes for colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we look at the efficacy of different CRC screening methods, attributes and results within the MHS, and current barriers to increase compliance. Materials and Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing PubMed and the Cochrane library. Key-word combinations included colorectal cancer screening, racial disparity, risk factors, colorectal cancer, screening modalities, and randomized control trials. Directed searches were also performed of embedded references. Results: Despite screening guidelines from several national organizations, extensive barriers to widespread screening remain, especially for minority populations. These barriers are diverse, ranging from education and access problems to personal beliefs. Screening rates in MHS have been reported to be generally higher at 71% compared to national averages of 50-65%. Conclusion: CRC screening can be highly effective at improving detection of both pre-malignant and early cancers. Improved patient education and directed efforts are needed to improve CRC screening both nationally and within the MHS. PMID:23459768

  3. Hereditary and common familial colorectal cancer: evidence for colorectal screening.

    PubMed

    Samadder, N Jewel; Jasperson, Kory; Burt, Randall W

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer among men and women. Between 3 and 6 % of all CRCs are attributed to well-defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis and several hamartomatous conditions. Up to 30 % of CRC cases exhibit common familial risk, likely related to a combination of inherited factors and environment. Identification of these patients through family history and appropriate genetic testing can provide estimates of cancer risk that inform appropriate cancer screening, surveillance and/or preventative interventions. This article examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetic basis, clinical management and evidence supporting colorectal screening. It also deals with the category of common (non-syndromic) familial risk including risk determination and screening guidelines. PMID:25501924

  4. Mammography screening for breast cancer in Copenhagen April 1991-March 1997. Mammography Screening Evaluation Group.

    PubMed

    Lynge, E

    1998-01-01

    A biennial mammography screening programme started for all women aged 50-69 in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark, on 1 April 1991. We report here on the outcome of the first three invitation rounds. Copenhagen has approximately 40,000 female residents aged 50-69. The Copenhagen Municipality IT Service runs the data files and issues the invitations based on the daily updated population register. Screening takes place at a special clinic at Bispebjerg Hospital, and since 1 September 1996 all assessment and surgery take place at Rigs-hospitalet. The first invitation round covered the period April 1991 to April 1993, the second invitation round the period May 1993 to May 1995, and the third invitation round the period June 1995 to March 1997. By now in total 120,772 invitations have been issued, 84,036 screening tests have been performed, 4110 women have been assessed with additional tests, 1057 women have undergone surgery, and 697 cases of invasive breast cancer cases or carcinoma in situ have been detected. The number of women screened during each of the three invitation rounds as a percentage of the target population aged 50-69 was 71%, 65% and 63%, respectively. It is possible for a woman to notify the programme if she does not want to be invited, and this caused the coverage to decline. The participation rate among the invited women was 71%, 69% and 70%, respectively. Ninety percent of those screened the first and second times and invited the third time participated. The number of screen detected invasive breast cancers of carcinoma in situ cases per 1000 participants during each invitation round was 11.9; 6.3; and 6.1, respectively. When compared with the incidence of invasive breast cancer in Copenhagen before screening, the ratios were 4-7 for all first time screened and 2 for all second or third time screened. Among the 697 screen detected cases, 84% were invasive breast cancers and 11% carcinoma in situ in women not previously known with breast cancer, and 5% were second primary breast cancers. Fifty two invasive interval cancers were found when women who tested negative during the first invitation round were followed up for two years in the Danish Cancer Register and the files of invasive breast cancers of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Compared with the incidence of invasive breast cancer in Copenhagen before screening this gave a proportionate interval cancer rate of 0.34 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.45). Eight percent of the women who ever participated in the programme had experienced at least one false positive screening test, and 10% of the women who participated all three times in the programme had experienced at least one false positive test. The assessment was an efficient procedure for the sorting out of the false positive screening tests. During the third invitation round, three quarters of those who underwent surgery had either invasive breast cancer or carcinoma in situ. The participation rate in the present programme is relatively low as are the participation rates in other large cities. However, the programme is well accepted among those who participate, as a high proportion of these women come back. The detection rates compared with the previous incidence of invasive breast cancer indicate a good performance of the programme, and so does the proportionate interval cancer rate following the first invitation round. The programme is thus functioning well. The relatively low coverage and the flow in the target population limit the reduction in breast cancer mortality to be expected from the screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality. PMID:9850674

  5. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle; Bradley, Stephen K.; Møller, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate in screening and to suggest ways that information about screening and HPV might reach a wider Greenlandic population. Conclusion Women living through the process of cervical disease, treatment and follow-up develop knowledge about HPV, cervical cell changes, cervical disease and their connection, which, if used to inform cervical screening programmes, will improve the quality of information about HPV, cervical cancer and screening participation. This includes that verbal and written information given at the point of screening and diagnosis needs to be complemented by visual imagery. PMID:23984277

  6. The GSI Cancer Therapy Project.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, H; Haberer, T; Kraft, G; Krause, U; Richter, M; Steiner, R; Debus, J

    1999-06-01

    At the Heavy Ion Research Institute GSI in Darmstadt an experimental cancer treatment program with a five years duration has been developed. A new method for cancer treatment with ions is applied, using rasterscan method in addition to an active pulse to pulse variation of ion beam properties, including the energy, intensity and focusing. An overview of this Cancer Therapy Project is presented, that covers both accelerator aspects to provide the required beam variations within a short time and the installations at the treatment place for rasterscan control. In addition to a description of the technical design (control-hard- and software) experimental results will be shown, containing the achieved beam properties and measurements of rasterscan performance. PMID:10394389

  7. Revised Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines: What Has--and Hasn't--Changed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Filed under: Prevention/Early Detection , Prostate Cancer Revised Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines: What Has—and Hasn't— ... Men should discuss the benefits and risks of prostate cancer screening with their doctors, according to revised ...

  8. Stochastic dominance for project screening and selection under uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Adeyemo, Adekunle M

    2013-01-01

    At any given moment, engineering and chemical companies have a host of projects that they are either trying to screen to advance to the next stage of research or select from for implementation. These choices could range ...

  9. Colonoscopy screening reduces risk of advanced colorectal cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A new study led by a researcher at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (home to the Abramson Cancer Center) adds support to current medical recommendations stating that screening colonoscopy substantially reduces an average-risk adult’s likelihood of being diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) in either the right or left side of the colon.

  10. Celebrity Appeal: Reaching Women to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A.; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation’s National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50–75 years (n = 772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements. PMID:25521047

  11. Celebrity appeal: reaching women to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation's National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50-75 years (n=772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements. PMID:25521047

  12. Successes and challenges in population-based cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Spayne, Mary; Rabeneck, Linda; Guerriero, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Cancer Care Ontario's (CCO's) organized breast, colorectal and cervical cancer screening programs are in different stages of development and maturity. Headed by clinical and scientific leads, the programs reflect a deep understanding of how to design, evaluate and report on programs based on evidence and best practice. Guided by a CCO-Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care ("the Ministry") joint committee and supported by recent investments in information technology infrastructure, the programs provide high-quality cancer screening to Ontario's eligible population. PMID:25562129

  13. Colorectal cancer screening: 20 years of development and recent progress

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Majek, Ondrej; Fric, Premysl; Minarikova, Petra; Minarik, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Europe and its incidence is steadily increasing. This trend could be reversed through timely secondary prevention (screening). In the last twenty years, CRC screening programs across Europe have experienced considerable improvements (fecal occult blood testing; transition from opportunistic to population based program settings). The Czech Republic is a typical example of a country with a long history of nationwide CRC screening programs in the face of very high CRC incidence and mortality rates. Each year, approximately 8000 people are diagnosed with CRC and some 4000 die from this malignancy. Twenty years ago, the first pilot studies on CRC screening led to the introduction of the opportunistic Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in 2000. Originally, this program was based on the guaiac fecal occult blood test (FOBT) offered by general practitioners, followed by colonoscopy in cases of FOBT positivity. The program has continuously evolved, namely with the implementation of immunochemical FOBTs and screening colonoscopy, as well as the involvement of gynecologists. Since the establishment of the Czech CRC Screening Registry in 2006, 2405850 FOBTs have been performed and 104565 preventive colonoscopies recorded within the screening program. The overall program expanded to cover 25.0% of the target population by 2011. However, stagnation in the annual number of performed FOBTs lately has led to switching to the option of a population-based program with personal invitation, which is currently being prepared. PMID:24744575

  14. Colorectal cancer screening: 20 years of development and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Majek, Ondrej; Fric, Premysl; Minarikova, Petra; Minarik, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav

    2014-04-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Europe and its incidence is steadily increasing. This trend could be reversed through timely secondary prevention (screening). In the last twenty years, CRC screening programs across Europe have experienced considerable improvements (fecal occult blood testing; transition from opportunistic to population based program settings). The Czech Republic is a typical example of a country with a long history of nationwide CRC screening programs in the face of very high CRC incidence and mortality rates. Each year, approximately 8000 people are diagnosed with CRC and some 4000 die from this malignancy. Twenty years ago, the first pilot studies on CRC screening led to the introduction of the opportunistic Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in 2000. Originally, this program was based on the guaiac fecal occult blood test (FOBT) offered by general practitioners, followed by colonoscopy in cases of FOBT positivity. The program has continuously evolved, namely with the implementation of immunochemical FOBTs and screening colonoscopy, as well as the involvement of gynecologists. Since the establishment of the Czech CRC Screening Registry in 2006, 2405850 FOBTs have been performed and 104565 preventive colonoscopies recorded within the screening program. The overall program expanded to cover 25.0% of the target population by 2011. However, stagnation in the annual number of performed FOBTs lately has led to switching to the option of a population-based program with personal invitation, which is currently being prepared. PMID:24744575

  15. Prostate and colon cancer screening messages in popular magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira L. Katz; Stacey Sheridan; Michael Pignone; Carmen Lewis; Jamila Battle; Claudia Gollop; Michael O’Malley

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To 1) compare the number of articles published about prostate, colon, and breast cancer in popular magazines during the past\\u000a 2 decades, and 2) evaluate the content of indepth prostate and colon cancer screening articles identified from 1996 to 2001.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: We used a searchable database to identify the number of prostate, colon, and breast cancer articles published in

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complications of advanced disease. ? For men with an aggressive prostate cancer, the best chance for curing it ... body. However, many early-stage cancers are not aggressive, and the five-year survival will be nearly ...

  17. Screening for prostate cancer in the US? Reduce the harms and keep the benefit.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2015-04-01

    While the benefit of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based screening is uncertain, a significant proportion of screen-detected cases is overdiagnosed. In order to make screening worthwhile, it is necessary to find policies that minimize overdiagnosis, without significantly increasing prostate cancer mortality (PCM). Using a microsimulation model (MISCAN) we project the outcomes of 83 screening policies in the US population, with different start and stop ages, screening frequencies, strategies where the PSA value changes the screening frequency, and strategies in which the PSA threshold (PSAt) increases with age. In the basecase strategy, yearly screening 50-74 with a PSAt of 3, the lifetime risk of PCM and overdiagnosis equals, respectively, 2.4 and 3.8%. The policies that reduce overdiagnosis the most (for maximum PCM increases relative to basecase of 1%, 3%, and 5%, respectively) are with a PSAt of 3, (1) yearly screening 50-74 where, if PSA <1 at age 65 or older, frequency becomes 4 years, with 3.6% (5.9% reduction), (2) 2-year screening 50-72, with 2.9% (24.3% reduction), and (3) yearly screening 50-70 (PSAt of 4 after age 66), with 2.2% (43.4% reduction). Stopping screening at age 70 is a reasonable way to reduce the harms and keep the benefit. Decreasing the stopping age has a larger effect on overdiagnosis reduction than reducing the screen frequency. Screening policies where the frequency of screening depends on PSA result or in which the PSAt changes with age did not substantially improve the balance of harms and benefits relative to simple yearly screening. PMID:25123412

  18. Distress screening in chronic disease: essential for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Petty, Lorie; Lester, Joanne

    2014-03-01

    Distress is a psychological state that is often observed in patients with chronic disease. Many cancers are considered chronic in nature, with patients experiencing long, disease-free states and intervals of metastatic disease. Distress can negatively affect the biopsychosocial balance in cancer survivors and impede their progress along the cancer trajectory. Distress can also affect medical and psychological outcomes and hinder advancement into long-term survivorship. Distress may contribute to disease progression, although despite research findings, health-care providers seldom screen for indications of persistent or unresolved distress. This article discusses research findings related to the prevalence of distress in multiple chronic diseases. Validated instruments used to screen for distress in cancer survivors, such as the Distress Thermometer and symptom checklist from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, are reviewed. With the availability of brief and concise instruments to screen for distress, providers have the ability to provide holistic and comprehensive care for cancer survivors. The overall financial impact of cancer-related distress is understudied, although similar psychological studies indicate that prevention or elimination of distress is beneficial. Cancer is a lifelong, chronic disease; patients have ongoing needs and varied sources of distress. As the number of cancer survivors exponentially increases, their psychosocial needs will likewise expand. PMID:25032045

  19. Screening for HPV Outperforms Pap Test for Cervical Cancer Published on Cancer Network (http://www.cancernetwork.com)

    E-print Network

    Serfling, Robert

    Screening for HPV Outperforms Pap Test for Cervical Cancer Published on Cancer Network (http://www.cancernetwork.com) Screening for HPV Outperforms Pap Test for Cervical Cancer News [1] | November 08, 2013 | Cervical Cancer [2 trials from Europe shows that HPV-based screening resulted in a greater long-term protection from

  20. CDC Grand Rounds: the Future of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cheryll C; Richards, Thomas B; Plescia, Marcus; Wong, Faye L; Ballard, Rachel; Levin, Theodore R; Calonge, Bruce N; Brawley, Otis W; Iskander, John

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, with 52% of deaths caused by cancers of the lung and bronchus, female breast, uterine cervix, colon and rectum, oral cavity and pharynx, prostate, and skin (melanoma). In the 1930s, uterine cancer, including cancer of the uterine cervix, was the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. With the advent of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test in the 1950s to detect cellular level changes in the cervix, cervical cancer death rates declined significantly. Since this first cancer screening test, others have been developed that detect the presence of cancer through imaging procedures (e.g., mammography, endoscopy, and computed tomography) and laboratory tests (e.g., fecal occult blood tests). PMID:25837243

  1. International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project Breast cancer is

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project NEED Breast cancer is emerging as a uniquely on molecularly- driven research and to design models that adequately serve the study of breast cancer risk scientists and public health experts is dedicated to research on the primary prevention of breast cancer

  2. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Kathleen M.; Singh, Harminder

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required. PMID:25506266

  3. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Cullati; Agathe I Charvet-Bérard; Thomas V Perneger

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. METHODS: Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin) in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health

  4. Variation in Recommendations for Cancer Screening among Primary Care Physicians in New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla J. Herman; Richard M. Hoffman; Kathy K. Altobelli

    1999-01-01

    The acceptance of age-appropriate cancer screening as an integral part of primary care has grown among physicians over the past decade. We conducted a mailed survey of all primary care physicians in New Mexico in order to better understand their current cancer screening practices. We found a high rate of self-reported screening, particularly for prostate and colorectal cancer. The screening

  5. Offering Lung Cancer Screening to High-Risk Medicare Beneficiaries Saves Lives and Is Cost-Effective: An Actuarial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyenson, Bruce S.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

    2014-01-01

    Background By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. Objective To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Methods Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Results Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ?30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life-year saved. Conclusion If all eligible Medicare beneficiaries had been screened and treated consistently from age 55 years, approximately 358,134 additional individuals with current or past lung cancer would be alive in 2014. LDCT screening is a low-cost and cost-effective strategy that fits well within the standard Medicare benefit, including its claims payment and quality monitoring. PMID:25237423

  6. Intelligent screening systems for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

  7. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

  8. Sanford-Burnham study with high-throughput screen finds compounds that regulate cancer cell invasion:

    Cancer.gov

    Metastasis—the spread of cancer from the place where it first started to another place in the body—is the most common reason that cancer treatments fail. To metastasize, some types of cancer cells rely on invadopodia, cellular membrane projections that act like feet, helping them “walk” away from the primary tumor and invade surrounding tissues. To determine how cells control invadopodia formation, scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) screened a collection of pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that either promote or inhibit the process.

  9. Enhancing breast cancer screening in the university setting.

    PubMed

    Vietri, V; Poskitt, S; Slaninka, S C

    1997-10-01

    Mammography, physical examination by a health care professional, and breast self-examination (BSE) may increase the probability of detection of breast cancer at an early stage and thus increase long-term survivor rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of supportive coaching as an intervention to enhance compliance with these breast cancer screening guidelines. The following research questions were identified: (a) what are the attitudes of women toward breast cancer screening? (b) what are the barriers to compliance identified by women in breast cancer screening? and (c) what are the effects of supportive interventions by a professional nurse and of compliance with breast cancer screening in women? A quasi-experimental design was used to study the research questions. The population chosen for the study included female employees in a state university setting. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. All participants were asked to complete a prestudy questionnaire measuring attitudes and beliefs, gathering demographic and health information, and surveying breast cancer screening practices. The experimental group then received coaching and supportive interventions over the course of the academic year. The remainder of the sample served as a control group. A poststudy questionnaire was then sent to the entire sample to identify behaviors related to breast cancer screening. A variety of beliefs and attitudes were observed in the groups. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups on compliance with mammography and the clinical breast examination. A difference was noted on compliance with BSE by the experimental group evidencing more compliance. PMID:9394054

  10. Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and management

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.; Dunkin, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research in the field of esophageal cancer. PMID:25395880

  11. Cancer Fatalism and Its Demographic Correlates Among African American and Hispanic Women: Effects on Adherence to Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Dettenborn; Gary Butts; Hayley Thompson

    This article focuses on cancer fatalism as a barrier to reg- ular cancer screening among African American and Hispanic women. The purpose of the study was to identify variables associated with cancer fatalism and to investigate the relationship of cancer fatalism and its cor- relates with adherence to screening for gynecological cancer. Study par- ticipants (83 African American women and

  12. The Finnish prostate cancer screening trial: Analyses on the screening failures.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas P; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Malila, Nea; Hakama, Matti; Santti, Henrikki; Määttänen, Liisa; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Kujala, Paula; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-05-15

    Prostate cancer (PC) screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been shown to decrease PC mortality in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). However, in the Finnish trial, which is the largest component of the ERSPC, no statistically significant mortality reduction was observed. We investigated which had the largest impact on PC deaths in the screening arm: non-participation, interval cancers or PSA threshold. The screening (SA) and control (CA) arms comprised altogether 80,144 men. Men in the SA were screened at four-year intervals and referred to biopsy if the PSA concentration was ?4.0 ng/ml, or 3.0-3.99 ng/ml with a free/total PSA ratio ?16%. The median follow-up was 15.0 years. A counterfactual exclusion method was applied to estimate the effect of three subgroups in the SA: the non-participants, the screen-negative men with PSA ?3.0 ng/ml and a subsequent PC diagnosis, and the men with interval PCs. The absolute risk of PC death was 0.76% in the SA and 0.85% in the CA; the observed hazard ratio (HR) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.04). After correcting for non-attendance, the HR was 0.78 (0.64-0.96); predicted effect for a hypothetical PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml the HR was 0.88 (0.74-1.04) and after eliminating the effect of interval cancers the HR was 0.88 (0.74-1.04). Non-participating men in the SA had a high risk of PC death and a large impact on PC mortality. A hypothetical lower PSA threshold and elimination of interval cancers would have had a less pronounced effect on the screening impact. PMID:25359457

  13. Advances in CT Colonography for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Judy; Weinstein, Stefanie; Morgan, Tara; Alore, Patrick; Aslam, Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a validated colorectal cancer test that provides an additional minimally-invasive screening option which is likely to be preferred by some patients. Important examination prerequisites include adequate colonic cleansing and distention. Tagging of residual material aids in the differentiation of true polyps from stool. Low radiation dose technique should be employed routinely for screening studies. Readers must be skilled in the use of both 2D and 3D interpretation methods. PMID:23459511

  14. [Approach to population-based screening in the Czech Republic, methodology and first results of the personalised invitation of citizens to cancer screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Dušek, L; Májek, O; Bláha, M; Daneš, J; Zavoral, M; Seifert, B; Dvo?ák, V; Skovajsová, M; Suchánek, S; Jung, T; Brzková, M; Klika, P; Klimeš, D; Koptíková, J; Gregor, J

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, a programme of personalised invitations was launched in the Czech Republic, with the objective of inviting insured persons to cancer screening programmes; namely breast cancer screening and cervical cancer screening in women, and colorectal cancer screening both in women and men. This programme aims at strengthening the current cancer prevention programmes, and to increase the currently inadequate participation of the target population in these programmes; therefore, personalised invitations are sent to citizens who have not participated in these programmes for several years and therefore at risk of developing a serious disease. The project is coordinated by the Czech Ministry of Health in cooperation with the expert medical societies involved (gynaecology, gastroenterology, gastrointestinal oncology, diagnostic radiology, general practice), representatives of health care payers, and other experts nominated by the Minister of Health. All health care payers invite their clients (insured persons) to preventive check-ups, covering all examinations needed. The project has been realised with the assistance of financial resources from EU funds. This article describes the methodology of personalised invitations which has been implemented nationwide, its data background, and the first results of the project in the first half of 2014, when almost 1.3 million Czech citizens were invited. PMID:25494890

  15. Cervical cancer worry and screening among appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-04-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  16. Preferences and acceptance of colorectal cancer screening in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengow, Udomsak; Chongsuwiwatvong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Birch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now common in Thailand with an increase in incidence over time. Health authorities are planning to implement a nationwide CRC screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as a primary screening tool. This study aimed to estimate preferences and acceptance of FIT and colonoscopy, explore factors influencing the acceptance, and investigate reasons behind choosing and rejecting to screen before the program was implemented. Patients aged 50-69, visiting the primary care unit during the study period, were invited to join this study. Patients with a history of cancer or past CRC screening were excluded. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Subjects were informed about CRC and the screening tests: FIT and colonoscopy. Then, they were asked for their opinions regarding the screening. The total number of subjects was 437 (86.7% response rate). Fifty-eight percent were females. The median age was 58 years. FIT was accepted by 74.1% of subjects compared to 55.6% for colonoscopy. The acceptance of colonoscopy was associated with perceived susceptibility to CRC and family history of cancer. No symptoms, unwilling to screen, healthy, too busy and anxious about diagnosis were reasons for refusing to screen. FIT was preferred for its simplicity and non-invasiveness compared with colonoscopy. Those rejecting FIT expressed a strong preference for colonoscopy. Subjects chose colonoscopy because of its accuracy; it was refused for the process and complications. If the screening program is implemented for the entire target population in Thailand, we estimate that 106,546 will have a positive FIT, between 8,618 and 12,749 identified with advanced adenoma and between 2,645 and 3,912 identified with CRC in the first round of the program. PMID:25824749

  17. Methodological issues for determining intervals of subsequent cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The gap between nationwide recommendations of cancer screening and the related evidences obtained from Korean adults should be filled. Estimation of the mean sojourn time (MST) in a specific cancer is important to determine the intervals of subsequent screening. This author arranged the methods for calculating MST into 5 categories based on the parameters used. Under the legal barrier for protection of individual privacy and confidentiality in a Korean academic situation, the methods involving the use of transition rates or prevalence/incidence ratio would be applicable among these methods. PMID:25078383

  18. Breast cancer worry and screening: some prospective data.

    PubMed

    McCaul, K D; Schroeder, D M; Reid, P A

    1996-11-01

    Breast cancer concerns were measured among 353 women, ages 40-75, from North Dakota. One year later, participants were recontacted and asked about their screening behavior during the previous year. Greater concern about breast cancer, even the highest level of concern, was related to a higher likelihood that women performed breast self-examination, had a mammography screening, and had a clinical breast examination. These data do not support the idea that worry inhibits action; instead, they suggest that nonpathological worry motivates self-protective behavior. PMID:8973922

  19. Yale study estimates that screening has prevented half a million colorectal cancers

    Cancer.gov

    An estimated half a million cancers were prevented by colorectal cancer screening in the United States from 1976 to 2009, report researchers from the Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale Cancer Center.

  20. Association Between Documented Family History of Cancer and Screening for Breast and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; O’Malley, Jean P.; Gough, Andrea; Buckley, David; Wallace, James; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Morris, Cynthia; Mori, Motomi; Lieberman, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether patients with a documented family history of breast or colorectal cancer, either positive or negative, were more likely to receive breast or colorectal cancer screening services than those with no documentation. Methods Medical record reviews were conducted on 3,433 patients aged 55 and older from four primary care practices in two rural Oregon communities. Data collected included patient demographic and risk information and receipt of screening mammography and/or one of four modalities to screen for colorectal cancer. Results Mammography and colorectal cancer screening rates were low in these rural communities, with 50% of average risk women being up-to-date for mammography and 37% of women and 38% of men being up-to-date for colorectal cancer screening according to their risk level. A positive family breast cancer history was associated with an increased likelihood of being up-to-date for mammography screening (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45-3.00 relative to a recorded negative history). A positive family history for colorectal cancer was associated with an increased likelihood of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening according to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) low risk guidelines for males (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.15-7.29) and females (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.32-4.64) relative to a recorded negative family history. Forty-four percent of the charts of female patients and 56% of the charts of male patients contained no documentation of a family cancer history having been taken. The absence of any recorded family cancer history was associated with a decreased likelihood of being up-to-date for mammography screening (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88 relative to recorded negative history) or for colorectal cancer screening OR 0.75, 95% CI 060-0.96 in females, 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.88 in males relative to recorded negative history). Conclusion Recording family history of cancer was associated with up-to-date cancer screening, even if the family history was negative. Establishing clinical routines to obtain family history could improve appropriate use of cancer screening. PMID:24029558

  1. Screening and chemoprevention in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gasent Blesa, J M; Esteban González, E; Alberola Candel, V

    2008-05-01

    Lung cancer is a major health problem due to its incidence and mortality. The risk factors, the existence of a preclinical phase, and the relationship between stage at diagnosis and survival are known. A number of strategies that aim to diagnose lung cancer in its earliest stages, based principally on imaging studies, are therefore being tested. Several drugs aimed at reducing the probability of developing lung cancer in the at-risk population are also under study. At the present time, the results obtained have not been encouraging and we do not have a clear strategy either for early diagnosis or for the use of chemopreventive agents. PMID:18490244

  2. Screening Adherence for Colorectal Cancer Among Immigrant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Jennie; Jandorf, Lina; Villagra, Cristina; Winkel, Gary; DuHamel, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We sought to assess factors related to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening adherence among immigrant, Hispanic women in Harlem, New York City. Method Adherence for colonoscopy and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening was measured among 255 women based on self-reported screening behaviors using American Cancer Society guidelines. Results Univariate results showed that age, language of the interview (English/Spanish), years in the United States, physician recommendation for either test, marital status (living alone/living with someone), and mammography adherence were associated with CRC screening adherence (p’s < .05). In the multivariate analysis, having an age greater than 65 years, being interviewed in Spanish, having lived in the United States longer, having a regular doctor and a physician recommendation, and being currently adherent for mammography were associated with higher CRC screening adherence. Conclusion Among this sample, there proved to be differences between having ever been screened and adherence with a greater proportion of women having ever completed either colonoscopy and/or FOBT compared to women who were adherent (72.9% vs 58.8%). Therefore, it is important to determine factors associated with adherence, not just screening utilization, in order to design strategies to increase adherence among immigrant Hispanic women. PMID:22046845

  3. Screening of gastric cancer: who, when, and how.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jaw-Town

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Conceivably, early diagnosis may be achievable through screening of the high-risk population. Therefore, it is important to identify individuals harboring premalignant lesions that include atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and mucosal dysplasia. The age threshold for GC screening depends on the regional incidence and the individual risk. In high-incidence countries such as Japan and Korea, the age to screen GC may be as early as 40 years. The mass screening by endoscopy in these countries would be able to detect a substantial portion of patients with early GCs as well as precancerous lesions. For the purpose of eliminating GC, however, these screening programs should be conducted in conjunction with Helicobacter pylori eradication. In low-incidence countries, it seems feasible to adopt a stepwise approach to identify high-risk individuals at first. The initial screening should focus on epidemiologic factors, genetic or hereditary risks, and the status of H pylori infection. Measurement of serum pepsinogen I and II and gastrin may detect atrophic gastritis in a noninvasive manner. Patients with these premalignant lesions should then receive endoscopic examination and enter surveillance. To date, there is no cost-effective strategy for an average-risk individual from a population with low incidence of GC, and therefore screening is unwarranted and cannot be recommended for them. PMID:24107396

  4. [Organization of colon-rectal cancer screening in the Provincial Health Agency of Ragusa].

    PubMed

    Blangiardi, F; Ferrera, G; Cilia, S; Aprile, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer screening is a secondary prevention program that permits early diagnosis of neoplasias and precancerous lesions are in order to diminish mortality and morbidity for certain types of tumors (breast, colon-rectal, and cervical). In 2010, the Ragusa Provincial Health Agency began screening for colon-rectal cancer in an experimental phase that initially involved only the municipality of Ragusa but that was then extended to other municipalities of the province. Although the organizing model suffered from many managerial problems including lack of human resources and tools, there was good collaboration and involvement of the public health/hygiene offices and the general practitioners and volunteer associations. This type of networking was useful in that adhesion to screening was well above that expected. Another winning aspect of the project resulted in clear and pertinent communication to the population. PMID:22880386

  5. Survey of Health Plan Policies and Programs for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    The Survey of Health Plan Policies and Programs for Colorectal Cancer Screening is a nationwide study that will provide important information about how screening for colorectal cancer is being conducted in U.S. health plans.

  6. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  7. Programs and Projects

    Cancer.gov

    Programs and Projects National Lung Screening Trial (NLST/LSS) Lung Screening Feasibility Study (LSS) Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) International Prostate Screening Trials Evaluation Group (IPSTEG) Early Detection

  8. Chapter 19: Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J; Kim, Jane J; Myers, Evan

    2006-08-31

    In the last two decades, computer-based models of cervical cancer screening have been used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different secondary prevention policies. Analyses in countries with existing screening programs have focused on identifying the optimal screening interval, ages for starting and stopping screening, and consideration of enhancements to conventional cytology, such as human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA testing as a triage for equivocal results or as a primary screening test for women over the age of 30. Analyses in resource-poor settings with infrequent or no screening have focused on strategies that enhance the linkage between screening and treatment, consider noncytologic alternatives such as HPV-DNA testing, and target women between the ages of 35 and 45 for screening one, two, or three times per lifetime. Despite differences in methods and assumptions, this paper identifies the qualitative themes that are consistent among studies, and highlights important methodological challenges and high-priority areas for further work. PMID:16950004

  9. Intraurban influences on physician colorectal cancer screening practices.

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Ashford, Alfred R.; Lantigua, Rafael; Hajiani, Farida; Franco, Rebeca; Heck, Julia E.; Gemson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community social and economic resources influence colorectal (CRC) screening decisions by physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to systematically assess the differences in screening recommendations of primary care physicians within two urban communities that are distinct in socioeconomic characteristics. METHODS: Two-hundred-sixty-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital-based) physicians were stratified by community. Using self-report questionnaires, we examined primary care physicians' CRC screening practices, knowledge of risk factors and perceived physician and patient barriers to screening, Physicians practicing in upper-socioeconomic status (SES) communities were compared with those of participants practicing in lower SES communities. RESULTS: Physicians practicing in low-SES urban communities were significantly more likely to screen with fecal occult blood test than were physicians in upper-SES areas. Alternatively, upper-SES physicians were significantly more likely to recommend screening colonoscopy than were lower-SES physicians. The number of physicians (N=11) who screened for CRC using the double-contrast barium enema were few. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level SES influences physician cancer screening practices. Further understanding of these relationships may guide the development of interventions targeted to specific neighborhoods within urban areas. PMID:18229773

  10. 04-12-2013 DCEG Seminar: Lingen - Oral Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    April 12, 2013 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM EPN Room CDEF + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Mark W. Lingen, DDS, Ph.D., FRCPath.Professor, Departments of Pathology, Medicine and Radiation & Cellular OncologyUniversity of ChicagoTitle: Oral cancer screening

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  12. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing. PMID:25294268

  13. What is lacking in current decision aids on cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Masahito; Rana, Gurpreet K; Hawley, Sarah; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Nease, Donald E; Ruffin, Mack T

    2013-05-01

    Recent guidelines on cancer screening have provided not only more screening options but also conflicting recommendations. Thus, patients, with their clinicians' support, must decide whether to get screened, which modality to use, and how often to undergo screening. Decision aids could potentially lead to better shared decision-making regarding screening between the patient and the clinician. A total of 73 decision aids concerning screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers were reviewed. The goal of this review was to assess the effectiveness of such decision aids, examine areas in need of more research, and determine how the decision aids can be currently applied in the real-world setting. Most studies used sound study designs. Significant variation existed in the setting, theoretical framework, and measured outcomes. Just over one-third of the decision aids included an explicit values clarification. Other than knowledge, little consistency was noted with regard to which patient attributes were measured as outcomes. Few studies actually measured shared decision-making. Little information was available regarding the feasibility and outcomes of integrating decision aids into practice. In this review, the implications for future research, as well as what clinicians can do now to incorporate decision aids into their practice, are discussed. PMID:23504675

  14. Participation in Biomedical Research Studies and Cancer Screenings: Perceptions of Risks to Minorities Compared With Whites

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ralph V.; Wang, Min Qi; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Claudio, Cristina; Russell, Stefanie Luise; Sommervil, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Background This analysis was conducted to determine whether there is a difference among blacks, Hispanics, and whites in their perception of risks associated with participating in either a biomedical study or a cancer screening. Methods The Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire, which focused on research subject participation, was administered in two different surveys (1999-2000 and 2003) in seven cities. The Cancer Screening Questionnaire was administered in 2003 in three cities. Results The study sample across the three surveys consisted of 1,064 blacks, 781 Hispanics, and 1,598 non-Hispanic whites. Response rates ranged from 44% to 70% by city. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and city, revealed that blacks and Hispanics each self-reported that minorities, compared with whites, are more likely to be “taken advantage of” in biomedical studies and much less likely to get a “thorough and careful examination” in a cancer screening (odds ratios ranged from 3.6 to 14.2). Conclusions Blacks and Hispanics perceive equally high levels of risk for participating in cancer screening examinations and for volunteering to become research subjects in biomedical studies. This perception provides a strong message about the need to overtly address this critical health disparities issue. PMID:18813202

  15. Mapping International Cancer Activities – Global Cancer Project Map Launch

    Cancer.gov

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning. This tool, the Global Cancer Project Map (GCPM), is a database that allows users locate and learn more about international cancer projects and research programs through the use of an interactive world map.

  16. Diagnostic evaluation following a positive lung screening chest radiograph in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, William G.; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Commins, John; Oken, Martin M.; Kvale, Paul A.; Hu, Ping; Ragard, Lawrence R.; Riley, Tom L.; Pinsky, Paul; Beck, Thomas M.; Prorok, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer mortality. One of the aims of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) was to determine if annual screening chest radiographs reduce lung cancer mortality. We enrolled 154,900 individuals, aged 55–74 years; 77,445 were randomized to the intervention arm and received an annual chest radiograph for 3 or 4 years. Participants with a positive screen underwent diagnostic evaluation under guidance of their primary physician. Methods of diagnosis or exclusion of cancer, interval from screen to diagnosis, and factors predicting diagnostic testing were evaluated. One or more positive screens occurred in 17% of participants. Positive screens resulted in biopsy in 3%, with 54% positive for cancer. Biopsy likelihood was associated with a mass, smoking, age, and family history of lung cancer. Diagnostic testing stopped after a chest radiograph or computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in over half. After a second or subsequent positive screen, evaluation stopped after comparison to prior radiographs in over half. Of 308 screen-detected cancers, the diagnosis was established by thoracotomy/thoracoscopy in 47.7%, needle biopsy in 27.6%, bronchoscopy in 20.1% and mediastinoscopy in 2.9%. Eighty-four percent of screen-detected lung cancers were diagnosed within 6 months. Diagnostic evaluations following a positive screen were conducted in a timely fashion. Lung cancer was diagnosed by tissue biopsy or cytology in all cases. Lung cancer was excluded during evaluation of positive screening examinations by clinical or radiographic evaluation in all but 1.4% who required a tissue biopsy. PMID:23993734

  17. Potential of Computer-Aided Diagnosis to Improve CT Lung Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noah Lee; Andrew F. Laine; Guillermo Márquez; Jeffrey M. Levsky; John K. Gohagan

    2009-01-01

    The development of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) has rekindled hope that effective lung cancer screening might yet be found. Screening is justified when there is evidence that it will extend lives at reasonable cost and acceptable levels of risk. A screening test should detect all extant cancers while avoiding unnecessary workups. Thus optimal screening modalities have both high sensitivity

  18. An Examination of Differential Follow-Up Rates in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Fox; Pam Arnsberger; Xiulan Zhang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that follow-up rates for women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results vary by age, ethnicity, and initial screening results in California's Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program. The sample consisted of women in the screening program who received an abnormal cervical screening result (N = 1,738). Bivariate and logistic regression

  19. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as the evidentiary foundation for an implementation guideline. Poor reporting, lack of precision and consistency in defining operational elements, and insufficient consideration of context and differences among populations are areas for additional research. PMID:21958556

  20. Family history in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Saarimäki, Lasse; Tammela, Teuvo L; Määttänen, Liisa; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula M; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-05-01

    Family history (FH) is one of the few known risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). There is also new evidence about mortality reduction in screening of PC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Therefore, we conducted a prospective study in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate the impact of FH on outcomes of PC screening. Of the 80,144 men enrolled, 31,866 men were randomized to the screening arm and were invited for screening with PSA test (cut-off 4 ng/ml) every 4 years. At the time of each invitation, FH of PC (FH) was assessed through a questionnaire. The analysis covered a follow-up of 12 years from randomization for all men with data on FH. Of the 23,702 (74.3%) invited men attending screening, 22,756 (96.0%) provided information of their FH. Altogether 1,723 (7.3%) men reported at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with PC and of them 235 (13.6%) were diagnosed with PC. Men with a first-degree FH had increased risk for PC (risk ratio (RR) 1.31, p?cancer (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-2.15). Risk for low-grade (Gleason 2-6) tumors was increased (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.69), but it was decreased for Gleason 8-10 tumors (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). PSA test performance (sensitivity and specificity) was slightly inferior for FH positives. No difference in PC mortality was observed in terms of FH. Our findings provide no support for selective PSA screening targeting men with FH of PC. PMID:25274038

  1. Age Group Differences in the Use of Breast Cancer Screening TestsThe Effects of Health Care Utilization and Socioeconomic Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Burg; Anthony P. Polednak

    1990-01-01

    The age-related decline in the use of breast cancer screening tests, specifically periodic mammography and physical breast examinations by a doctor, is especially problematic given that breast cancer risk increases with age. Survey data (N = 3,507) from the Awareness of Breast Cancer Project are used to compare the effects of socioeconomic variables and usual health care use variables on

  2. [Epidemiology of screening-targeted cancers according to new data of the Czech National Cancer Registry].

    PubMed

    Dušek, L; Mužík, J; Malúšková, D; Májek, O; Pavlík, T; Koptíková, J; Gregor, J; Brabec, P; Abrahámová, J

    2014-01-01

    The Czech Society for Oncology has developed an information system which combines the population-based Czech National Cancer Registry with clinical databases in order to cover the main areas of health care assessment - monitoring of the population burden, prediction of the number of cancer patients, diagnostic and treatment results. The presented data demonstrate a high cancer burden within the Czech population - each year there are approximately 8,000 new cases of colorectal cancer, 6,500 new cases of breast cancer, and 1,000 new cases of cervical cancer. And each year, about 4,000 people die from colorectal cancer, around 2,000 women die from breast cancer, and approximately 400 women die from cervical cancer in the Czech Republic. Population-based screening programmes focus on all of the above-mentioned groups of malignant tumours; therefore, it is essential to monitor epidemiological trends in order to assess the screening impact. Despite the high incidence rates of all three cancer types, the trend in mortality rates has been stable or has even decreased in the long term, which has inevitably led to a significant increase in the total prevalence of cancer patients. In 2011, the prevalence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer amounted to 51,064 people, 67,261 women and 17,398 women, respectively. When compared with the year 2001, there was a 59%, 69% and 25% increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer, respectively. Undoubtedly, taking care of high numbers of cancer patients will continue to require significant financial resources in the near future. As the epidemiological burden is still on the increase, preventive programmes need to be further promoted, including secondary prevention, which is provided through organised screening programmes. Although effective methods exist for timely diagnosis of all three of the above-mentioned cancer types, the epidemiological situation in the Czech Republic is being steadily worsened by a relatively high proportion of primary cancers being diagnosed too late. Each year, more than 50% of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed in clinical stage III or higher; in cervical cancer, this proportion is nearly 35%. By contrast, the well-promoted breast cancer screening programme has led to more than 75% of new cases of breast cancer being diagnosed in stages I or II, when the chance of successful treatment is significantly higher. PMID:25494887

  3. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  4. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  5. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  6. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  7. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  8. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  9. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in South eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16?±?0.94 vs 2.52?±?0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

  10. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  11. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. PMID:23769425

  12. Interventions to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rawl, Susan M.; Menon, Usha; Burness, Allison; Breslau, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Behavior change interventions to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening have targeted people in community and primary care settings, health care providers, and health systems. Randomized controlled trials provide the strongest evidence of intervention efficacy. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate trials of CRC screening interventions published between 1997 and 2007 and to identify knowledge gaps and future directions for research. Thirty-three randomized trials that met inclusion criteria were evaluated using a modified version of the TREND criteria. Significant intervention effects were reported in six out of ten trials focused on increasing fecal occult blood testing, four of seven trials focused on sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy completion, and nine of 16 focused on completion of any screening test. Several effective interventions to promote CRC screening were identified. Future trials need to use theory to guide interventions, examine moderators and mediators, consistently report results, and use comparable outcome measures. PMID:22261002

  13. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  14. Teledermatology protocol for screening of Skin Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Maria Fernanda; Amorim, Bruna Dücker Bastos; Wagner, Harley Miguel; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Telemedicine refers to the use of technology as improvement of healthcare delivery to places where distance becomes an obstacle. Its use represents a great potential for dermatology, a specialty whose visual analysis phase is essential in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES To analyze the compatibility index of skin cancer diagnoses between primary care and teledermatology, and to validate a protocol for standardization of digital imaging to obtain the reports in teledermatology. METHODS An observational cross-sectional study developed through the census of 333 examination requests, received between January/2012 and July/2012, in the Center for Telemedicine and Telehealth of SES-SC. We used a protocol for photographic lesion standardization, consisting of three steps (panoramic photo, close-up with ruler and dermoscopy). After collection, the data were sent to a virtual site on the Internet, and recorded with the use of an electronic health record containing the images, the skin phototype and demographic characteristics. RESULTS The level of compatibility between the diagnosis of skin cancer in Santa Catarina's primary care and the diagnosis proposed by teledermatology was 19.02%. Proportionally, it was 21.21% for BCC, 44.44% for SCC and 6.98% for MM. The protocol was statistically significant (p <0.05), with an OR of 38.77. CONCLUSION The rate of diagnostic compatibility of skin cancer was low and the use of the protocol optimized the chance of validating requests for examination.

  15. Lung Cancer Screening Practices of Primary Care Physicians: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Klabunde, Carrie N.; Marcus, Pamela M.; Han, Paul K. J.; Richards, Thomas B.; Vernon, Sally W.; Yuan, Gigi; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Although current practice guidelines do not recommend screening asymptomatic patients for lung cancer, physicians may still order lung cancer screening tests. No recent national survey of health care professionals has focused on lung cancer screening. In this study, we examined the lung cancer screening practices of US primary care physicians and characteristics of those who order lung cancer screening tests. METHODS We conducted a nationally representative survey of practicing primary care physicians in 2006–2007. Mailed questionnaires assessed the physicians’ knowledge of lung cancer screening guidelines, beliefs about the effectiveness of screening tests, and ordering of screening chest radiograph, low-dose spiral computed tomography, or sputum cytology in the past 12 months. Clinical vignettes were used to assess the physicians’ intentions to screen asymptomatic 50-year-old patients with varying smoking histories for lung cancer. RESULTS A total of 962 family physicians, general practitioners, and general internists completed questionnaires (cooperation rate = 76.8%). Overall, 38% had ordered no lung cancer screening tests; 55% had ordered chest radiograph, 22% low-dose spiral computed tomography, and less than 5% sputum cytology. In multivariate modeling, physicians were more likely to have ordered lung cancer screening tests if they believed that expert groups recommend lung cancer screening or that screening tests are effective; if they would recommend screening for asymptomatic patients, including patients without substantial smoking exposure; and if their patients had asked them about screening. CONCLUSIONS Primary care physicians in the United States frequently order lung cancer screening tests for asymptomatic patients, even though expert groups do not recommend it. Primary care physicians and patients need more information about lung cancer screening’s evidence base, guidelines, potential harms, and costs to avert inappropriate ordering. PMID:22412001

  16. Cervical cancer screening in Ghana, west Africa: prevalence of abnormal cytology and challenges for expanding screening.

    PubMed

    Handlogten, Kathryn S; Molitor, Rochelle J; Roeker, Lindsey E; Narla, Nirmala P; Bachman, Maria J; Quayson, Solomon; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei; Adjei, Ernest; Ankobea, Frank; Clayton, Amy; Roberts, Lewis; MacLaughlin, Kathy; Ansong, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Aims were to assess the prevalence of Papanicolaou (Pap) abnormalities found with cervical cancer screening in Agogo and Nkawie, communities in the Ashanti region of Ghana, and compare the correlation between Pap readings performed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, and at the Mayo Clinic cytology laboratory in Rochester, MN. Demographic data was collected and Pap tests were performed on women recruited for screening in the communities of Agogo (n=119) and Nkawie (n=255). The Pap tests were assessed by pathology laboratory staff at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Mayo Clinic. There was a significant difference in prevalence of abnormal cytology between the sites with a rate of 12.6% in Agogo and 3.5% in Nkawie (P=0.016). Demographic differences were noted in education level (P<0.001), occupation (P<0.001), religion (P=0.002), and marital status (P<0.001). The Cohen correlation coefficient between the two pathology departments interpreting samples was 0.185, which indicates a significant degree of discordance (P<0.001). Currently Ghana does not have a national cervical cancer screening program. Identifying higher risk communities and patients as a priority for screening may be useful with limited resources. Accurate identification of Pap abnormalities is necessary to implement an effective screening program. PMID:24487476

  17. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. PMID:25685149

  18. ICSN Data - Organization of Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

  19. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Cibelli; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; de Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  20. Health behaviors and cancer screening among Californians with a family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Julie S.; Steele, C. Brooke; Richardson, Lisa C.; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare health behaviors and cancer screening among Californians with and without a family history of cancer. Methods We analyzed data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey to ascertain cancer screening test use and to estimate the prevalence of health behaviors that may reduce the risk of cancer. We used logistic regression to control for demographic factors and health care access. Results Women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer were more likely to be up-to-date with mammography compared to women with no family history of cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.39, 2.04]); their health behaviors were similar to other women. Men and women with a family history of colorectal cancer were more likely to be up-to-date with CRC screening compared to individuals with no family history of cancer (OR=2.77, 95% CI [2.20, 3.49]), but were less likely to have a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (OR=0.80, 95% CI [0.67, 0.94]). Conclusion Innovative methods are needed to encourage those with a moderate to strong familial risk for breast cancer and colorectal cancer to increase their physical activity levels, strive to maintain a healthy weight, quit smoking, and reduce alcohol use. PMID:23018750

  1. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women: a literature review using the health belief model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LaToya T Austin; Farah Ahmad; Mary-Jane McNally; Donna E Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review published studies that examined factors influencing breast and cervical cancer screening behavior in Hispanic women, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and manual search were used to identify articles. Cancer screening barriers common among Hispanic women include fear of cancer, fatalistic views on cancer, linguistic barriers, and culturally

  2. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliki Christou; Judith M Katzenellenbogen; Sandra C Thompson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP)

  3. Barriers to Cancer Screening in Hmong Americans: The Influence of Health Care Accessibility, Culture, and Cancer Literacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Yun Lee; Suzanne Vang

    2010-01-01

    Hmong Americans face high cancer mortality rates even in comparison to their Asian American counterparts, and report low utilization\\u000a of cancer screenings. To date, no study has been conducted on the cultural barriers this population faces in undergoing cancer\\u000a screenings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the existing knowledge regarding the barriers to\\u000a cancer screening for

  4. UNC study shows genetic, non-invasive test could improve colon cancer screening

    Cancer.gov

    A non-invasive test that includes detection of the genetic abnormalities related to cancer could significantly improve the effectiveness of colon cancer screening, according to research from the UNC School of Medicine and UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

  5. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer Institute ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate cancer ...

  6. Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium International Breast Cancer Scr eening Network Biennial Meeting Kathleen Cronin Statistical Research and Applications Branch National Cancer Institute May

  7. Lung cancer screening guidelines. The nurse's role in patient education and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Rebecca H

    2014-06-01

    Although the third leading cancer in incidence following breast and prostate, lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of lung cancer cases are detected at an advanced stage when surgical resection is no longer an option. Recent research has concluded that lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for specific high-risk groups may reduce lung cancer mortality. Public awareness and the need for current information are growing regarding the state of the science relative to lung cancer screening for individuals at high risk for lung cancer. This article provides a historical perspective on the topic of lung cancer screening. The risks and benefits of screening are discussed, and current clinical practice guidelines are reviewed. Oncology nurses will need to be cognizant of the risks, benefits, and current guidelines related to lung cancer screening as they support patients and their families making informed decisions about personal health care. PMID:24867114

  8. Understanding Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening in Chuukese Women in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the primary cause of death due to cancer in women in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. The Chuukese population is the fastest growing segment of the Micronesian community in Hawai‘i. Little is known about the health beliefs or practices of this population in Hawai‘i. The purpose of this project was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Chuukese women in Hawai‘i regarding cervical cancer prevention and screening. Methods Research assistants from the Chuukese community were recruited and trained as members of the research team. A culturally sensitive survey tool was developed and piloted by the research team and used to interview ten key informants from the Chuukese community in Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Results There is limited knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the association with human papillomavirus (HPV). This may be indicative of a lack of health information in general. Fear, privacy concerns, lack of awareness and cultural beliefs represent the main barriers mentioned when discussing cervical cancer. Education, done in a group setting with other women, is the most recommended method of informing this community and improving preventive and screening services for cervical cancer in these women. PMID:20539995

  9. Screening for distress in patients with cancer: methodologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Feldstain, A; Tomei, C; Bélanger, M; Lebel, S

    2014-04-01

    Distress has been declared the 6th vital sign in Canadian cancer care. Accordingly, health care professionals in Canada are expected to screen for distress in patients with cancer, for which a toolkit has been developed. Identifying patients who may be in need of further resources has the potential to improve quality of care because those patients are more likely to have their existing distress identified and to be referred for appropriate follow-up services. The present article briefly reviews the background literature and the validation of the measures in the toolkit, and highlights future directions for methodologic validation of the toolkit for use according to the protocol. PMID:24764715

  10. The effect of Medicare reimbursement for screening mammography on utilization and payment. National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Screening Consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Breen, N; Feuer, E J; Depuy, S; Zapka, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In January 1991, Medicare extended its mammography benefit to reimburse for breast cancer screening mammograms. In 1991 and again in 1993, the National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Screening Consortium (BCSC) conducted a survey to test the hypothesis that this benefit would increase mammography use among women over the age of 65. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on non-Hispanic white women ages 65 to 74 living in 11 geographic areas targeted by the BCSC for an earlier study--six that had received cancer screening educational interventions and five control subsites--to measure the impact of the newly adopted Medicare benefit on the use of mammography and use of Medicare to reimburse mammography costs. RESULTS: The data show little overall increase between 1991 and 1993 in reported mammography use among respondents to the survey. However, in six intervention and five control subsites there was an increase in the percentage of women who reported using public payment sources to at least partially reimburse the cost of mammograms. In three intervention subsites, the increase from 1991 to 1993 in the percentage of women using public sources of payment was greater than in the corresponding control subsites. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that public health interventions are more likely to succeed when educational promotion accompanies a financial benefit. PMID:9323395

  11. Screening for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Rosell; Teresa Moran; Cristina Queralt; Rut Porta; Felipe Cardenal; Carlos Camps; Margarita Majem; Guillermo Lopez-Vivanco; Dolores Isla; Mariano Provencio; Amelia Insa; Bartomeu Massuti; Jose Luis Gonzalez-Larriba; Luis Paz-Ares; Isabel Bover; Rosario Garcia-Campelo; Miguel Angel Moreno; Silvia Catot; Christian Rolfo; Noemi Reguart; Ramon Palmero; José Miguel Sánchez; Roman Bastus; Clara Mayo; Jordi Bertran-Alamillo; Miguel Angel Molina; Jose Javier Sanchez; Miquel Taron

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) confer hy- persensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We evaluated the feasibility of large-scale screen- ing for EGFR mutations in such patients and analyzed the association between the mutations and the outcome of erlotinib treatment. Methods From April 2005 through

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening Activities in ICSN Countries, June 2006

    Cancer.gov

    Following the successful pilot program that ran from 2002-2004, the Australian government has allocated funding to phase in a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program, using an immunochemical FOBT, followed by colonoscopy if indicated. The first phase of the program (2006-2008) will target people turning 55 or 65 years of age between 1 May 2006 and 30 June 2008 and those who participated in the Pilot Program.

  13. Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates amongst female Cambodian, Somali, and Vietnamese immigrants in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponnila S Samuel; Jane P Pringle; Nathaniel W James IV; Susan J Fielding; Kathleen M Fairfield

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Minority women, particularly immigrants, have lower cancer screening rates than Caucasian women, but little else is known about cancer screening among immigrant women. Our objective was to assess breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates among immigrant women from Cambodia, Somalia, and Vietnam and explore screening barriers. METHODS: We measured screening rates by systematic chart review (N = 100)

  14. Knowledge of colorectal cancer screening among young Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and associated factors regarding colorectal cancer screening among university students in Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle practice and knowledge of colorectal screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 students (21.3±1.4 years old). The majority of the participants were Malay with a monthly family income of less than 5,000 Ringgit Malaysia (equal to 1,700 USD) (67.0% and 76.0%, respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority were non-smokers and had never consumed alcohol (83.7%, and 88.0%, respectively). The majority of the participants had no knowledge of digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, barium enema and fecal occult blood screening (63.3%, 60.7%, 74.0% and 62.3%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that their age and the discipline which the students were studying significantly influenced their level of knowledge about colorectal screening. The present study results indicate that education campaigns about colorectal cancer should be promoted. PMID:23679301

  15. Phenotypic screening in cancer drug discovery - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moffat, John G; Rudolph, Joachim; Bailey, David

    2014-08-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the use of phenotypic screens in drug discovery as an alternative to target-focused approaches. Given that oncology is currently the most active therapeutic area, and also one in which target-focused approaches have been particularly prominent in the past two decades, we investigated the contribution of phenotypic assays to oncology drug discovery by analysing the origins of all new small-molecule cancer drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over the past 15 years and those currently in clinical development. Although the majority of these drugs originated from target-based discovery, we identified a significant number whose discovery depended on phenotypic screening approaches. We postulate that the contribution of phenotypic screening to cancer drug discovery has been hampered by a reliance on 'classical' nonspecific drug effects such as cytotoxicity and mitotic arrest, exacerbated by a paucity of mechanistically defined cellular models for therapeutically translatable cancer phenotypes. However, technical and biological advances that enable such mechanistically informed phenotypic models have the potential to empower phenotypic drug discovery in oncology. PMID:25033736

  16. [National web portals as an official communication platform of cancer screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Gregor, J; Dušek, L; Májek, O; Snajdrová, L

    2014-01-01

    Official web portals are an important component of the background information of the cancer screening programmes. They provide up-to-date and relevant information for health care professionals, the general public and those interested in preventive examinations. They also serve as an official medium for publication of individual programme outcomes. The Czech national screening programmes are presented at the following websites: www.mamo.cz (breast cancer screening), www.kolorektum.cz (colorectal cancer screening), and www.cervix.cz (cervical cancer screening). PMID:25494897

  17. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: The road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies. PMID:25663756

  18. Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

  19. [Mass screening of breast cancer with imaging diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kido, C

    1991-10-01

    Westernization of our life-style and diet has caused a higher incidence of breast cancer in Japan. Although mass screenings such as anamnesis, visual and palpable examinations are provided by local government in Japan, no curable cancer in the early stage can be detected without the use of imaging diagnosis. Furthermore, the image can be saved as a record. Mammography yields images that are best suited for breast cancer examination in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. However, the large volume of information collected from the images makes diagnosis extremely difficult. In order to ease the burden on the diagnosing physician and to reduce the examination cost, CRT diagnosis by digital images and image selection by an automatic diagnosis supporting system with neuro-computer must replace the present filming method. On the other hand, 100% accuracy can not be achieved by either mammography or ultrasonic examination due to the limitation in depicting images on a display monitor. The accuracy rates of mammography and ultrasonic examination are 91.5% and 87.5% in our hospital. Imaging diagnosis, however, must be efficiently applied in addition to the visual and palpable examinations in promoting mass screening for breast cancer. PMID:1929441

  20. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Cancer.gov

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  1. Predictors of colorectal cancer screening from patients enrolled in a managed care health plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa M. Farmer; Roshan Bastani; Lorna Kwan; Michael Belman; Patricia A. Ganz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in reducing cancer mortality, national screening rates are low, indicating a critical need to understand the barriers and remedies for under- utilization of CRC screening tests. METHODS. Using results from independent cross-sectional telephone surveys with patients aged ? 50 years performed before (2000; n 5 498) and

  2. The Impact of Health Status on Physicians' Intentions to Offer Cancer Screening to Older Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell T. Heflin; Kathryn I. Pollak; Maragatha N. Kuchibhatla; Laurence G. Branch; Eugene Z. Oddone

    2006-01-01

    Background. Screening for breast and cervical cancer reduces disease-specific mortality, but high rates of comorbidity and disability among elderly persons may alter the risks and benefits of screening. Methods. We performed a mail survey of primary care physicians to estimate the impact of health status on physicians' intentions to offer cancer screening to older women. Respondents were asked to read

  3. Colorectal cancer screening disparities in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: which groups are most vulnerable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Yun Lee; Melissa Lundquist; Eunsu Ju; Xianghua Luo; Aloen Townsend

    2011-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant cause of mortality among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), yet studies have consistently reported lower CRC screening rates among AAPIs than among non-Latino Whites and African Americans. Moreover, existing research tends to aggregate AAPIs as one group when reporting CRC screening, masking the disproportionate burden in cancer screening that exists across AAPI

  4. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening

  5. Using an Ocean of Data, Researchers Model Real-Life Benefits of Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Using the results of screening trials, the NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network is trying to estimate the true benefit of cancer screening in the general population and identify the optimal way to implement screening within the health care system.

  6. Breast cancer screening practices among women in the United States, 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven S. Coughlin; Robert J. Uhler; Janet K. Bobo; Lee Caplan

    2004-01-01

    Results from recent studies indicate that many women in the US undergo routine screening for breast cancer, but some groups of women are under-screened. In this study, we examined the breast cancer screening practices of white and black women in the United States, according to Hispanic ethnicity and other factors, using data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Among

  7. Breast cancer screening for women with down syndrome: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Chicoine, Brian; Roth, Melody; Chicoine, Laura; Sulo, Suela

    2015-04-01

    This study examined mammogram reports of women with Down syndrome (DS) treated in the largest medical facility specifically serving adults with DS in the United States. Records of 684 women and results of 993 mammograms were reviewed, including 902 screening and 93 diagnostic mammograms. Only 2 (0.7%) women had a diagnosis of breast cancer. This study found a low rate of breast cancer among women with DS, a finding which is consistent with previous studies. The financial cost per finding was high, the benefit of the mammograms questionable, and the potential for harm greater. With less than 1% of the women with DS in this study developing breast cancer, further discussion is recommended to assess whether mammography is a beneficial, cost-effective part of health maintenance for women with DS. PMID:25860447

  8. Diagnostic Resolution of Cancer Screening Abnormalities at Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roetzheim, Richard G.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Calcano, Ercilia R.; Meade, Cathy D.; Fulp, William J.; Wells, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined timeliness of diagnostic evaluation of abnormal cancer screening tests in community health centers. Methods Using medical record review, timeliness of diagnosis was assessed among 317 people having either breast or colorectal-related abnormalities. Results For 241 subjects (76.0%) who reached clinical resolution, the median time to diagnostic resolution was 37 days. People with breast abnormalities had more than twice the odds (adjusted odds ratio: 2.84) of reaching diagnostic resolution within 180 days compared to patients with colorectal abnormalities. We found, however, no evidence of disparate outcomes according to patient race/ethnicity, insurance status, or spoken language. Conclusions Diagnostic evaluations are often either not completed or are delayed after a cancer-related abnormality is discovered. Further research is needed to understand the patient, provider, and health care system factors that contribute to these delays. There was no evidence of cancer disparities in the community health centers studied. PMID:24212174

  9. Mass spectrometric screening of ovarian cancer with serum glycans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Han; Park, Chang Won; Um, Dalho; Baek, Ki Hwang; Jo, Yohahn; An, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yangsun; Kim, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Changes of glycosylation pattern in serum proteins have been linked to various diseases including cancer, suggesting possible development of novel biomarkers based on the glycomic analysis. In this study, N-linked glycans from human serum were quantitatively profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and compared between healthy controls and ovarian cancer patients. A training set consisting of 40 healthy controls and 40 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated an inverse correlation between P value of ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) of each candidate biomarker peak from MALDI-TOF MS, providing standards for the classification. A multibiomarker panel composed of 15 MALDI-TOF MS peaks resulted in AUC of 0.89, 80~90% sensitivity, and 70~83% specificity in the training set. The performance of the biomarker panel was validated in a separate blind test set composed of 23 healthy controls and 37 ovarian cancer patients, leading to 81~84% sensitivity and 83% specificity with cut-off values determined by the training set. Sensitivity of CA-125, the most widely used ovarian cancer marker, was 74% in the training set and 78% in the test set, respectively. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS-mediated serum N-glycan analysis could provide critical information for the screening of ovarian cancer. PMID:24648610

  10. Mass Spectrometric Screening of Ovarian Cancer with Serum Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Han; Park, Chang Won; Um, Dalho; Baek, Ki Hwang; Jo, Yohahn; An, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yangsun; Kim, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Changes of glycosylation pattern in serum proteins have been linked to various diseases including cancer, suggesting possible development of novel biomarkers based on the glycomic analysis. In this study, N-linked glycans from human serum were quantitatively profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and compared between healthy controls and ovarian cancer patients. A training set consisting of 40 healthy controls and 40 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated an inverse correlation between P value of ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) of each candidate biomarker peak from MALDI-TOF MS, providing standards for the classification. A multibiomarker panel composed of 15 MALDI-TOF MS peaks resulted in AUC of 0.89, 80~90% sensitivity, and 70~83% specificity in the training set. The performance of the biomarker panel was validated in a separate blind test set composed of 23 healthy controls and 37 ovarian cancer patients, leading to 81~84% sensitivity and 83% specificity with cut-off values determined by the training set. Sensitivity of CA-125, the most widely used ovarian cancer marker, was 74% in the training set and 78% in the test set, respectively. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS-mediated serum N-glycan analysis could provide critical information for the screening of ovarian cancer. PMID:24648610

  11. Overdiagnosis of breast cancer in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program estimated by the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing ambiguity towards national mammographic screening programs due to varying publicized estimates of overdiagnosis, i.e., breast cancer that would not have been diagnosed in the women’s lifetime outside screening. This analysis compares the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in screened and unscreened women in Norway from the start of the fully implemented Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2005. Methods Subjects were 53 363 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study, aged 52–79 years, with follow-up through 2010. Mammogram and breast cancer risk factor information were taken from the most recent questionnaire (2002–07) before the start of individual follow-up. The analysis differentiated screening into incidence (52–69 years) and post screening (70–79 years). Relative risks (RR) were estimated by Poisson regression. Results The analysis failed to detect a significantly increased cumulative incidence rate in screened versus other women 52–79 years. RR of breast cancer among women outside the NBCSP, the “control group”, was non-significantly reduced by 7% (RR?=?0?93; 95% confidence interval 0?79 to 1?10) compared to those in the program. The RR was attenuated when adjusted for risk factors; RRadj?=?0?97 (0?82 to 1?15). The control group consisted of two subpopulations, those who only had a mammogram outside the program (RRadj =1?04; 0?86 to 1?26) and those who never had a mammogram (RRadj?=?0?77; 0?59 to 1?01). These groups differed significantly with respect to risk factors for breast cancer, partly as a consequence of the prescription rules for hormone therapy which indicate a mammogram. Conclusions In the fully implemented NBCSP, no significant difference was found in cumulative incidence rates of breast cancer between NOWAC women screened and not screened. Naïve comparisons of screened and unscreened women may be affected by important differences in risk factors. The current challenge for the screening program is to improve the diagnostics used at prevalence screenings (ages 50–51). PMID:24377727

  12. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...screened according to guidelines. Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other common cancers, particularly breast and cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other...

  13. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  14. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  15. Small calcification depiction in ultrasonography using correlation technique for breast cancer screening

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Small calcification depiction in ultrasonography using correlation technique for breast cancer of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 847 #12;In breast cancer screening-menopausal breast. In order to realize the breast cancer screening without radiation exposure for all people

  16. A focus group study of factors influencing African-American men's prostate cancer screening behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John; Emanuel, Angela; LaRose-Pierre, Margareth; Brown, James; Nash, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors perceived by African-American men as influencing their behavior relative to prostate cancer screening. A total of 49 African-American men, age 40 and above, participated in 10 focus group discussions in Florida. Data collection was between October 12, 2001 and March 9, 2002 in Tallahassee, Tampa, and Miami. Data analysis was conducted using a comprehensive ethnographical analysis, including the use of an ethnographical retrieval program, Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (QSR NUD*IST 4.0) software. Factors identified as influencing prostate cancer screening participation by African-American men were impediments to prostate cancer screening; positive outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; social influence; negative outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; resources or opportunities that facilitate prostate cancer screening; prostate cancer knowledge; perceived susceptibility to prostate cancer; perceived threat of prostate cancer; perceived severity of prostate cancer; positive health activities; illness experience; and prostate cancer screening intervention message concept, message source, and message channel. The results of this study may offer an excellent guide to designing effective, culturally sensitive, and relevant interventions, which would increase African-American men's participation in prostate cancer screening. PMID:15233488

  17. Mode of primary cancer detection as an indicator of screening practice for second primary cancer in cancer survivors: a nationwide survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While knowledge and risk perception have been associated with screening for second primary cancer (SPC), there are no clinically useful indicators to identify who is at risk of not being properly screened for SPC. We investigated whether the mode of primary cancer detection (i.e. screen-detected vs. non-screen-detected) is associated with subsequent completion of all appropriate SPC screening in cancer survivors. Methods Data were collected from cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and nine regional cancer centers across Korea. A total of 512 cancer survivors older than 40, time since diagnosis more than 2 years, and whose first primary cancer was not advanced or metastasized were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors, including mode of primary cancer detection, associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening according to national cancer screening guidelines. Results Being screen-detected for their first primary cancer was found to be significantly associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening (adjusted odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.33), after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Screen-detected cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have higher household income, have other comorbidities, and be within 5 years since diagnosis. Conclusions The mode of primary cancer detection, a readily available clinical information, can be used as an indicator for screening practice for SPC in cancer survivors. Education about the importance of SPC screening will be helpful particularly for cancer survivors whose primary cancer was not screen-detected. PMID:23181637

  18. Reducing cancer screening disparities in medicare beneficiaries through cancer patient navigation.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Thomas, William L; Domingo, Jermy-Leigh B; Allison, Amanda L; Ponce, Avette; Haunani Kamakana, P; Brazzel, Sandra S; Emmett Aluli, N; Tsark, JoAnn U

    2015-02-01

    Significant racial disparities in cancer mortality are seen between Medicare beneficiaries. A randomized controlled trial tested the use of lay navigators (care managers) to increase cancer screening of Asian and Pacific Islander Medicare beneficiaries. The study setting was Moloka'i General Hospital on the island of Moloka'i, Hawai'i, which was one of six sites participating in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Between 2006 and 2009, 488 Medicare beneficiaries (45% Hawaiian, 35% Filipino, 11% Japanese, 8% other) were randomized to have a navigator help them access cancer screening services (experimental condition, n = 242) or cancer education (control condition, n = 246). Self-reported data on screening participation were collected at baseline and exit from the study, and differences were tested using chi-square. Groups were similar in demographic characteristics and baseline screening prevalence of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers. At study exit, 57.0% of women in the experimental arm and 36.4% of controls had had a Papanicolaou test in the past 24 months (P = .001), 61.7% of women in the experimental arm and 42.4% of controls had had a mammogram in the past 12 months (P = .003), 54.4% of men in the experimental arm and 36.0% of controls had had a prostate-specific antigen test in the past 12 months (P = .008), and 43.0% of both sexes in the experimental arm and 27.2% of controls had had a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the past 5 years (P < .001). Findings suggest that navigation services can increase cancer screening in Medicare beneficiaries in groups with significant disparities. PMID:25640884

  19. Sensitivity, effect and overdiagnosis in screening for cancers with detectable pre-invasive phase.

    PubMed

    Hakama, Matti; Pokhrel, Arun; Malila, Nea; Hakulinen, Timo

    2015-02-15

    Studies on cancer screening often evaluate the performance by indirect indicators. In case the screening detects pre-invasive lesions, they may be a mixture of benefit of sensitivity and effect as well as of harm of overdiagnosis. Here, we develop the formulae for the sensitivity, the effect and overdiagnosis in screening for pre-invasive lesions of cancer. Sensitivity is the ability of screening to identify a progressive lesion at the level of test (relevant for the laboratory), episode (relevant in the clinic) and programme (relevant at the population level). Effect is reduction of cancer incidence in those screened (efficacy) and in the target population (effectiveness). The sensitivity is estimated by interval cancers between two consecutive screens (incidence method) and the effect by interval cancers and cancers detected at the subsequent screen. Overdiagnosis is estimated as the detection rate of pre-invasive lesions minus the rate of invasive cancer prevented by screening in one screening round. All the indicators are corrected for nonattendance and selective attendance by disease risk. The population to be followed and the period of follow-up are defined for each indicator separately. Data on cervix cancer screening with Papnet® automation device are given as an example. Estimation of sensitivity and effect are consistent with the purpose of the screening to prevent invasive disease. We further define the purpose at the level of laboratory, clinical medicine and public health and derive six estimators corresponding to the specific purposes considered in our article. PMID:24975995

  20. A new approach to digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Seifi, Payam; Vyborny, Carl J.

    2007-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is being proposed as a replacement for conventional mammography for breast cancer screening. However, there are limitations to DBT that reduce its effectiveness for screening, principally, difficulty in imaging microcalcifications and increased reading times by radiologists. We propose a method to overcome these limitations. Our proposed method is to divide the total dose given to the patient unequally such that one projection uses at least half of the dose and the remaining dose is divided over the remaining projections. We assume that in screening with DBT, only a single view is obtained using twice the dose of a conventional mammogram. All the projection images are used in the reconstruction. The 2D projection image that received the highest dose is analyzed by a computer-aided detection (CADe) scheme for microcalcifications. The radiologist views the 3D image set, with mass CADe, principally to search for masses and the 2D image to search for clustered microcalcifications with CADe. Since the 3D image set is for mass detection, the image can be reconstructed using larger sized pixels. This will reduce computation time and image noise. In principle, radiologists can review the tomosynthesis slices faster since they do not have to search for microcalcifications. We believe that by producing both a high resolution, "standard" dose 2D image and a lower resolution 3D image set, both calcifications and masses can be optimally imaged and detected in a time efficient manner.

  1. Estimation and projections of cancer prevalence from cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Verdecchia, Arduino; De Angelis, Giovanni; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2002-11-30

    A method, PIAMOD (Prevalence, Incidence, Analysis MODel), which allows the estimation and projection of cancer prevalence patterns by using cancer registry incidence and survival data is presented. As a first step the method involves the fit of incidence data by an age, period and cohort model to derive incidence projections. Prevalence is then estimated from modelled incidence and survival estimates. Cancer mortality is derived as a third step from modelled incidence, prevalence and survival. An application to female breast cancer is given for the Connecticut State by using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR), 1973-1993. The age, period and cohort model fitted incidence quite well and allowed us to derive long-term projections up to 2030. Patients' survival was also projected to future years according to a scenario approach based on two extreme hypotheses: steady, that is, no more improvements after 1993 (conservative), and continuously improving at the same rate as during the observation period. Age-standardized estimated incidence shows a changing trend around the year 2005, when it starts decreasing. Age-standardized prevalence is expected to increase and change trend at a later date. Breast cancer mortality is projected as decreasing, as the combined result of no further increase in incidence and improving cancer patients' survival. An easy-to-use PIAMOD software package, on which work is in progress, will be made available to individual cancer registries and/or health planning institutions or authorities once it is developed. The use of the PIAMOD method for cancer registries will allow them to provide results of paramount importance for the whole community involved in the assessment of future disease burden scenarios in an evolving society. PMID:12407687

  2. Patterns and determinants of breast and cervical cancer non-screening among Appalachian women

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Studts, Christina R.; Hatcher-Keller, Jenna; Buelt, Eliza; Adams, Elwanda

    2013-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancer account for nearly one-third of new cancer cases and one-sixth of cancer deaths. Cancer, the second leading cause of all deaths in the US, will claim the lives of nearly 800,000 women this year, which is particularly unfortunate because effective modes of early detection could significantly reduce mortality from breast and cervical cancer. We examined patterns of non-screening among Appalachian women. In-person interviews were conducted with 222 Appalachian women who fell outside of screening recommendations for timing of Pap tests and mammograms. These women, from six Appalachian counties, were participating in a group-randomized, multi-component trial aimed at increasing adherence to cancer screening recommendations. Results indicated that participants who were rarely or never screened for breast cancer were also likely to be rarely or never screened for cervical cancer. In addition, four key barriers were identified as independently and significantly associated with being rarely or never screened for both cervical and breast cancer. An improved understanding of cancer screening patterns plus the barriers underlying lack of screening may move us closer to developing effective interventions that facilitate women’s use of screening. PMID:23937729

  3. Plasma methylated septin 9: a colorectal cancer screening marker.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla; Tóth, Kinga; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a slow-developing cancer (10-15 years) with one of the highest frequencies in the world's population. Many countries have implemented various CRC screening programs, but have not achieved the desired compliance. Colonoscopy - considered the gold standard for CRC screening - has its limitations as well as the other techniques used, such as irrigoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, fecal blood and hemoglobin tests. The biomarker septin 9 has been found to be hypermethylated in nearly 100% of tissue neoplasia specimens and detected in circulating DNA fractions of CRC patients. A commercially available assay for septin 9 has been developed with moderate sensitivity (?70%) and specificity (?90%) and a second generation assay, Epi proColon 2.0 (Epigenomics AG), shows increased sensitivity (?92%). The performance of the assay proved to be independent of tumor site and reaches a high sensitivity of 77%, even in early cancer stages (I and II). Furthermore, septin 9 was recently used in follow-up studies for detection of early recurrence of CRC. This article evaluates the opportunities, known limitations and future perspectives of the recently introduced Epi proColon(®) 2.0 test, which is based on the detection of aberrantly methylated DNA of the v2 region of the septin 9 gene in plasma. PMID:25429690

  4. Barriers and Facilitators of Prostate Cancer Screening among Filipino Men in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Francisco A.; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F.; Misola, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawai’i. Design Exploratory, qualitative. Setting Community-based settings in Hawai’i. Sample 20 Filipino men, 40 years old or older Methods Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis performed for emergent themes. Main Research Variables Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally-relevant interventional strategies Findings Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek healthcare when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friend who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally-relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from health professionals and cancer survivors; radio/television commercials and newspaper articles targeted to the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano and/or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by Filipino multilingual, male healthcare professionals. Conclusions Culturally-relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Implications for Nursing Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men. PMID:21356660

  5. Monitoring diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP

    Cancer.gov

    Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP Julietta Patnick ICSN 2008 Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Screening: Principles • Maintenance of minimum

  6. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE).

  7. Dartmouth investigators determine that lung cancer screening with low-dose CT could be cost effective

    Cancer.gov

    Dartmouth researchers say lung cancer screening in the National Lung Screening Trial meets a commonly accepted standard for cost effectiveness as reported in the Nov. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

  8. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...personal history of colorectal cancer; or (vi) Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's Disease, and ulcerative colitis. (4) Screening barium enema means— (i) A screening double contrast barium enema of the entire...

  9. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...personal history of colorectal cancer; or (vi) Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's Disease, and ulcerative colitis. (4) Screening barium enema means— (i) A screening double contrast barium enema of the entire...

  10. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...personal history of colorectal cancer; or (vi) Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's Disease, and ulcerative colitis. (4) Screening barium enema means— (i) A screening double contrast barium enema of the entire...

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...personal history of colorectal cancer; or (vi) Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's Disease, and ulcerative colitis. (4) Screening barium enema means— (i) A screening double contrast barium enema of the entire...

  12. What happens when organisation of cervical cancer screening is delayed or stopped?

    Cancer.gov

    What happens when organisation of cervical cancer screening is delayed or stopped? Elsebeth Lynge elsebeth@pubhealth.ku.dk DENMARK Opportunistic screening, 1969: • All smears paid by the national health insurance National guidelines for organisation,

  13. How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies. PMID:20846446

  14. ACR CT accreditation program and the lung cancer screening program designation.

    PubMed

    Kazerooni, Ella A; Armstrong, Mark R; Amorosa, Judith K; Hernandez, Dina; Liebscher, Lawrence A; Nath, Hrudaya; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Stern, Eric J; Wilcox, Pamela A

    2015-01-01

    The ACR recognizes that low-dose CT for lung cancer screening has the potential to significantly reduce mortality from lung cancer in the appropriate high-risk population. The ACR supports the recommendations of the US Preventive Services Task Force and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for screening patients. To be effective, lung cancer screening should be performed at sites providing high-quality low-dose CT examinations overseen and interpreted by qualified physicians using a structured reporting and management system. The ACR has developed a set of tools necessary for radiologists to take the lead on the front lines of lung cancer screening. The ACR Lung Cancer Screening Center designation is built upon the ACR CT accreditation program and requires use of Lung-RADS or a similar structured reporting and management system. This designation provides patients and referring providers with the assurance that they will receive high-quality screening with appropriate follow-up care. PMID:25455196

  15. Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Trials with MultiEthnic Groups: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay B. MorrowFlorence; Florence J. Dallo; Manjula Julka

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the current literature of community-based colorectal cancer screening randomized\\u000a controlled trials with multi-ethnic groups. The CDC reports 40% of adults do not receive time-appropriate colorectal cancer\\u000a screening. Although overall screening rates have improved since 2000, disparities remain. Studies examining community characteristics\\u000a may offer insight into improving screening rates and eliminating disparities. We

  16. The Validity of Male Patients' Self-Reports Regarding Prostate Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. Jordan; James H. Price; Keith A. King; Tatiana Masyk; Archie W. Bedell

    1999-01-01

    Background.Despite the high rate of prostate cancer screening, the accuracy of male patients' self-reports of screening has not been investigated. This study assessed the concordance between patients' self-reports of prostate screening and the medical record.Methods.Focus groups were conducted to obtain male patients' perceptions of prostate cancer screening and salient terminology. A sample of males (n= 276), 40 years of age

  17. Accuracy of concurrent visual and cytology screening in detecting cervical cancer precursors in rural India.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Kedar; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Jayant, Kasturi; Jeronimo, Jose; Thorat, Ranjit; Hingmire, Sanjay; Muwonge, Richard; Chiwate, Aruna; Deshpande, Rutha; Ajit, Dulhan; Kelkar, Rohini; Rekhi, Bharat; Ruben, Irene; Malvi, Sylla G; Chinoy, Roshni; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Nene, Bhagwan M

    2012-09-15

    The high burden of cervical cancer and inadequate/suboptimal cytology screening in developing countries led to the evaluation of visual screening tests, like visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI). We describe the performance of VIA, VILI and cytology, carried out in a multinational project called "Screening Technologies to Advance Rapid Testing" in 5,519 women aged 30-49 years, in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). VIA, VILI and cytology were positive in 16.9%, 15.6% and 6.1% women, respectively. We found 57 cases of CIN2, 55 of CIN3 and 12 of cervical cancer; 90% of CIN3 and 43% CIN2 cases were positive for p16 overexpression and high-risk HPV infection, indicating a high validity of histological diagnosis. The sensitivity of VIA, VILI and cytology to detect high-grade CIN were 64.5%, 64.5% and 67.7%, respectively; specificities were 84.2%, 85.5% and 95.4%. A high proportion of p16 positive CIN 3 (93.8%) and 2 (76.9%) were positive on cytology compared with visual tests (68.8% and 53.8%, respectively) indicating a higher sensitivity of cytology to detect p16 positive high-grade CIN. However, the immediate availability of the results from the visual tests permits diagnosis and/or treatment to be performed in the same sitting, which can potentially reduce loss to follow-up when women must be recalled following positive cytology. Organizing visual screening services in low-resource countries may facilitate the gradual building of an infrastructure committed to screening allowing the eventual introduction of more sensitive, highly objective, reproducible and affordable human papillomavirus screening tests in future. PMID:22581670

  18. Design of the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip C. Prorok; Gerald L. Andriole; Robert S. Bresalier; Saundra S. Buys; David Chia; E. David Crawford; Ronald Fogel; Edward P. Gelmann; Fred Gilbert; Marsha A. Hasson; Richard B. Hayes; Christine Cole Johnson; Jack S. Mandel; Albert Oberman; Barbara O'Brien; Martin M. Oken; Sameer Rafla; Douglas Reding; Wilmer Rutt; Joel L. Weissfeld; Lance Yokochi; John K. Gohagan

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial are to determine in screenees ages 55–74 at entry whether screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (60-cm sigmoidoscope) can reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, whether screening with chest X-ray can reduce mortality from lung cancer, whether screenng men with digital rectal examination (DRE) plus serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) can reduce

  19. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

  20. Lung Cancer Screening Trial Shows Mortality Benefit from Low-Dose CT

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

  1. Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

  2. Save the Date! International Cancer Screening Network Meeting in 2015

    Cancer.gov

    The scientific program for the next International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) meeting is being developed. The meeting is being co-chaired by Drs. Carrie Klabunde (ARP Health Services and Economics Branch) and Harry de Koning (Erasmus Medical Center), and will be held on June 2-4, 2015, in the Netherlands. Staff involved in the planning effort include Dr. Klabunde and Dr. Paul Doria-Rose (ARP Health Services and Economics Branch), Dr. Stephen Taplin (Chief, Process of Care Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program), Ms.

  3. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  4. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

  5. Cervical Cancer Participation Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

  6. Factors Associated with the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Portland, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Butho; Bey, Amita; Knight, Jeremy; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims: This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women's decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women's cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR): 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.52). Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women's use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer.

  7. Automated Recommendation for Cervical Cancer Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  8. ICSN Data - Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

  9. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M.A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead to a decrease in lung cancer mortality. The NELSON lung nodule management is based on nodule volumetry and volume doubling time assessment. Evaluation of CT examinations in lung cancer screening can also include assessment of coronary calcification, emphysema and airway wall thickness, biomarkers for major diseases that share risk factors with lung cancer. In this review, a practical approach to the radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations is described. PMID:24061210

  10. Screening for Bladder Cancer: Recommendations from the U.S.Preventive Services Task Force

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer: Recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Summaries for Patients are a service provided by ... Screening for Bladder Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.” It is in the 16 August ...

  11. Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices - Gastroenterologist and General Surgeon Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    Form approved: OMB No. 0925-xxxx Expires: ____/____/____ The Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Health Care Financing

  12. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes of African Immigrants and Refugees

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  13. Gastric cancer screening uptake trends in Korea: results for the national cancer screening program from 2002 to 2011: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-02-01

    Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period.Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ?40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates.Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC?=?4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC?=?5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy.This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy on gastric cancer mortality is needed, and future evaluations of screening methods should take into account both cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25715251

  14. [New genetic tests and their clinical utility for cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Brand, Angela

    2013-04-01

    The promises resulting from the decoding of the human genome have not been fulfilled to the extent as expected. At the same time it is fair to say that the results of recent genetic research have not been useless. In the area of ????familial cancer the clinical benefit of genetic testing for healthy family members is very convincing, where the risk of disease can be reduced substantially through preventive interventions. For example, prophylactic mastectomy and premenopausal ovariectomy can reduce the cancer risk in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations dramatically. In recent years, the research has moved towards the decoding of the genetic causes of sporadic cancers as well. Genome-wide and hypothesis-free association studies have linked different chromosome regions to cancer. By this, new insights into disease mechanisms could be gained, an important requirement for the development of diagnostics and drugs. However, what is missing is the evidence that the associated SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) could be useful for individual risk calculation or for stratification of the population into groups with different preventive or screening needs. PMID:23535553

  15. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase our ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. These include the use of toluidine blue, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. The present paper reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of the aforementioned techniques in improving the identification of dysplastic/malignant changes of the oral mucosa. We conclude that available studies have shown promising results, but strong evidence to support the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids is still lacking. Further research with clear objectives, well-defined population cohorts, and sound methodology is strongly required. PMID:19284694

  16. Phenotype Recognition for RNAi Screening by Random Projection Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bailing

    2011-06-01

    High-content screening is important in drug discovery. The use of images of living cells as the basic unit for molecule discovery can aid the identification of small compounds altering cellular phenotypes. As such, efficient computational methods are required for the rate limiting task of cellular phenotype identification. In this paper we first investigate the effectiveness of a feature description approach by combining Haralick texture analysis with Curvelet transform and then propose a new ensemble approach for classification. The ensemble contains a set of base classifiers which are trained using random projection (RP) of original features onto higher-dimensional spaces. With Classification and Regression Tree (CART) as the base classifier, it has been empirically demonstrated that the proposed Random Projection Forest ensemble gives better classification results than those achieved by the Boosting, Bagging and Rotation Forest algorithms, offering a classification rate ˜88% with smallest standard deviation, which compares sharply with the published result of 82%.

  17. Factors influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n=334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

  18. Breast Cancer Screening among Southwest American Indian Women Living On-Reservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Giuliano; Mary Papenfuss; Jill de Guernsey de Zapien; Sally Tilousi; Leon Nuvayestewa

    1998-01-01

    Background.One- and five-year breast cancer survival rates are significantly lower among Southwest American Indian (AI) women compared with non-Hispanic whites, primarily due to late stage at diagnosis. By detecting cancers at an earlier stage, screening mammography can reduce breast cancer mortality by 30% among women ages 50–69 years.Methods.To determine rate of and predictors of participation in breast cancer screening services

  19. Large Screen Color Crt Projection System With Digital Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Richard E.

    1987-04-01

    The grouping of red, green and blue cathode ray tubes optically and electronically converged and projected upon a common screen surface has found wide usage for large screen projection of color video images. The majority of such projectors need only have sufficient convergence and geometry correction capability to "look good" with relatively low resolution broadcast and personal computer graphics video. These projectors typically use analog waveform correction techniques derived from standard broadcast technology which has evolved over many years. Colorimetry only needs to be good enough to give "good skin tones". There is another class of large screen color projectors which is gaining increased attention. These projectors are used with high resolution computer image generators in such demanding applications as flight simulators, image interpretation and military command and control systems. Often the images from multiple projectors are mosaicked to create a single very wide field of view-image. In these applications attention must be given to edge matching and blending between adjacent channels and matching the colorimetry of the multiple channels. Misconvergence and other errors between the three colors must be essentially zero. Until now the electrical waveforms used for convergence, blending, colorimetry and geometrical correction have been based on the use of second and third order power series and their cross products. The coefficients of the waveforms have been either adjusted by analog or digital techniques but the main waveform has had to be analog since subpixel correction as required when using fully digital techniques has been impractical from a size, cost and difficulty of calibration standpoint. This paper describes in detail the requirements for the various corrections mentioned above for single and multiple channel high resolution projectors and introduces a new and novel patent pending three dimensional digital waveform generation technique with two dimensional smoothing that functionally has subpixel bit mapping correction capability, yet is small in size, economical to construct and, best of all, easy to calibrate.

  20. Attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among the women of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, J; Islam, S; Marzen, T

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, but 80% of cancer occurs in developing countries. Bangladesh, like other developing countries faces a burden of diseases, in spite of having established screening program. This cross-sectional study was done to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among the women attending outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Two hundred women were enrolled in this study by purposive sampling. All the information was collected in a pre-designed structured questionnaire by an interviewer. Data were analyzed using statistical program SPSS version 17.0. About 12% of women had good knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening. Seventy eight percent of women did not ever have a screening test and 78.5% of women had no access to the facility of having a screening test. Seventy five percent of women had never been suggested by a doctor to have a screening test. The more the participants' age, low level of education and poor knowledge, the less the practice of cervical cancer screening (p<0.05). The most common reason cited for not having screening test was the lack of information. The women studied here demonstrated a very low coverage of the screening test and a poor knowledge regarding its utility. Improving the awareness is imperative for better implementation of cervical cancer screening program in Bangladesh. PMID:25481587

  1. What Promotes Cervical Cancer Screening among Chamorro Women in California?

    PubMed Central

    Tanjasiri, Sora P.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Pacific Islander women represent a significant at-risk population for cervical cancer, yet little is known about the modifiable factors associated with routine Pap testing. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to report and discuss the known and unknown factors associated with cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California. Design This cross-sectional study explored the factors associated with receipt of regular Pap testing among Chamorro women age 18 years and older in California. A self-administered survey was designed and distributed to women in order to understand their knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding routine receipt of Pap tests. Results Only about two-thirds of women had received a Pap test within the past two years, which is below the U.S. average of 72%. Significant predictors included age, health insurance coverage, knowledge of screening frequency, and beliefs regarding risk groups. These factors, however, accounted for less than 16% of the variance in Pap testing behavior. Conclusion We discuss the poor predictive value of existing demographic and theoretical variables, and discuss potentially new areas of research that can aid in the development of future intervention studies. Study limitations and implications are also discussed. PMID:22806217

  2. CT screening for lung cancer: value of expert review of initial baseline screenings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong Ming; Lee, In Jae; Zhao, Shijun; Rowena, Yip; Farooqi, Ali; Cheung, Edson H; Connery, Cliff P; Frumiento, Carmine; Glassberg, Robert M; Herzog, Gary; Peeke, Jeffrey; Scheinberg, Paul; Shah, Palmi; Taylor, Jana; Welch, Laura; Widmann, Mark; Yoder, Mark; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. Appropriate radiologic interpretation of screening CT can minimize unnecessary workup and intervention. This is particularly challenging in the baseline round. We report on the quality assurance process we developed for the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program. MATERIALS AND METHODS. After initial training at the coordinating center, radiologists at 10 participating institutions and at the center independently interpreted the first 100 baseline screenings. The radiologist at the institutions had access to the center interpretations before issuing the final reports. After the first 100 screenings, the interpretations were jointly discussed. This report summarizes the results of the initial 100 dual interpretations at the 10 institutions. RESULTS. The final institution interpretations agreed with the center in 895 of the 1000 interpretations. Compared with the center, the frequency of positive results was higher at eight of the 10 institutions. The most frequent reason of discrepant interpretations was not following the protocol (n = 55) and the least frequent was not identifying a nodule (n = 3). CONCLUSION. The quality assurance process helped focus educational programs and provided an excellent vehicle for review of the protocol with participating physicians. It also suggests that the rate of positive results can be reduced by such measures. PMID:25349980

  3. Modeling the Mortality Reduction due to CT Screening for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Millennia; Yip, Rowena; Chen, Xing; Kimmel, Marek; Gorlova, Olga Y.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2010-01-01

    Background The efficacy of CT screening for lung cancer remains controversial as results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) are not yet available. In this study, we use data from a single-arm CT screening trial to estimate the mortality reduction using a modeling-based approach to construct a control comparison arm. Methods In order to estimate the potential lung cancer mortality reduction due to CT screening, a previously developed and validated model was applied to the screening trial to predict the number of lung cancer deaths in the absence of screening. Using age, gender, and smoking characteristics matching the trial participants, the model was used to simulate 5000 trials in the absence of CT screening to produce the expected number of lung cancer deaths along with confidence intervals, while adjusting for healthy volunteer bias. Results There were 64 observed lung cancer deaths in the screening cohort (n=7995), while the model predicted 117.7 (95%CI: 98, 139) indicating a mortality reduction of 45.6% (p<0.001). When a more conservative healthy volunteer adjustment is applied, 111.3 lung cancer deaths are predicted (95%CI: 91, 132) for a lung-cancer-specific mortality reduction of 42.5% (p<0.001). Conclusions These results indicate that CT screening along with early stage treatment can reduce lung cancer-specific mortality. This mortality reduction is greatly influenced by the protocol of nodule follow-up and treatment, and length of follow-up. PMID:21656748

  4. ICSN Data - Policies on Age Groups, Screening Intervals, & Detection Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Characteristics

  5. Use of screening tests, diagnosis wait times, and wait-related satisfaction in breast and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, M.; Ryan, D.; Gadag, V.; West, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding factors relating to the perception of wait time by patients is key to improving the patient experience. Methods We surveyed 122 breast and 90 prostate cancer patients presenting at clinics or listed on the cancer registry in Newfoundland and Labrador and reviewed their charts. We compared the wait time (first visit to diagnosis) and the wait-related satisfaction for breast and prostate cancer patients who received regular screening tests and whose cancer was screening test–detected (“screen/screen”); who received regular screening tests and whose cancer was symptomatic (“screen/symptomatic”); who did not receive regular screening tests and whose cancer was screen test–detected (“no screen/screen”); and who did not receive regular screening tests and whose cancer was symptomatic (“no screen/symptomatic”). Results Although there were no group differences with respect to having a long wait (greater than the median of 47.5 days) for breast cancer patients (47.8% screen/screen, 54.7% screen/symptomatic, 50.0% no screen/ screen, 40.0% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.814), a smaller proportion of the screen/symptomatic patients were satisfied with their wait (72.5% screen/ screen, 56.4% screen/symptomatic, 100% no screen/ screen, 90.9% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.048). A larger proportion of screen/symptomatic prostate cancer patients had long waits (>104.5 days: 41.3% screen/screen, 92.0% screen/symptomatic, 46.0% no screen/screen, 40.0% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.011) and a smaller proportion of screen/ symptomatic patients were satisfied with their wait (71.2% screen/screen, 30.8% screen/symptomatic, 76.9% no screen/screen, 90.9% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.008). Conclusions Diagnosis-related wait times and satisfaction were poorest among patients who received regular screening tests but whose cancer was not detected by those tests. PMID:24940104

  6. Lead times and overdetection due to prostate-specific antigen screening: estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerrit Draisma; Rob Boer; Suzie J. Otto; Cruijsen-Koeter van der I. W; Ronald A. M. Damhuis; F. H. Schröder; Koning de H. J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for prostate cancer advances the time of diagnosis\\u000a (lead time) and detects cancers that would not have been diagnosed in the\\u000a absence of screening (overdetection). Both consequences have considerable\\u000a impact on the net benefits of screening. METHODS: We developed simulation\\u000a models based on results of the Rotterdam section of the European\\u000a Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer

  7. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Hasmeena; Gesthalter, Yaron; Spira, Avrum; Brody, Jerome S.; Steiling, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24840047

  8. Cancer Screening in Women: BMI and Adherence to Physician Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Chen, Ping-Hsin; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Reasons obese women are less likely to obtain mammograms and Pap smears are poorly understood. This study evaluated associations between body mass index (BMI) and receipt of and adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Methods Data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey (8289 women aged 40-74 years) were analyzed in 2006 using logistic regression. Women with prior hysterectomy were excluded from Pap smear analyses (n=5521). Outcome measures were being up-to-date with screening, receipt of physician recommendations, and women's adherence to physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, health care access, health behaviors, and comorbidity, severely obese women (BMI ? 40 kg/m2) were less likely to have mammography within 2 years (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.37, 0.68) and Pap smear within 3 years (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27,0.70). Obese women were as likely as normal weight women to receive physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smear. Severely obese women were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for mammography (OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.76). Women in all obese categories (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) were less likely to adhere to physician recommendation for Pap smear (OR's ranged 0.17-0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Obese women are less likely to adhere to physician recommendations for breast and cervical cancer screening. Interventions focusing solely on increasing physician recommendations for mammography and Pap smears will probably be insufficient for obese women. Additional strategies are needed to make cancer screening more acceptable for this high-risk group. PMID:17533069

  9. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Learning Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Diane S.; Kennedy, Catriona M.; Kilbride, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    As people with learning disabilities now live longer, they will experience the same age-related illnesses as the general population and cancer is a prime example of this. In women, cancer screening is used to detect early on-set of cancer of the breast and abnormalities of the cervix which might, if left untreated, develop into cancer.…

  10. Population screening and intensity of screening are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality: evidence of efficacy of mammography screening in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Roder; N. Houssami; G. Farshid; G. Gill; C. Luke; P. Downey; K. Beckmann; P. Iosifidis; L. Grieve; L. Williamson

    2008-01-01

    Background  Efficacy of breast screening may differ in practice from the results of randomized trials. We report one of the largest case–control\\u000a evaluations of a screening service.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects included 491 breast-cancer deaths affecting 45–80-year-old South Australian females during 2002–2005 (diagnosed after\\u000a BreastScreen commencement) and 1,473 live controls (three per death) randomly selected from the State Electoral Roll after\\u000a birth-date matching. Cancer

  11. Barriers for breast cancer screening among Asian women: a mini literature review.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Parisa; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Abdul Rahman, H; Zulkefli, Na Mohd

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Asian women. Breast cancer is detected in advanced stages and among younger age group women in Asia. The delay in presentation is attributed mainly to the social-cultural perception of the disease, poverty, and the strong influence of traditional medicine. Many of Asian women are not aware of the importance of regular screening. Cultural attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests, modesty, lack of encouragement by family members and physicians are the major inhibitors to women's participation in breast cancer screening. Health education using media and community health programs to create awareness of the advantages of earlier presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer in Asian women can motivate participation in breast cancer screening programs. PMID:17250418

  12. Low-dose Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer in a Clinical Setting: Essential Elements of a Screening Program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Brady J; McKee, Andrea B; Kitts, Andrea Borondy; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review clinical computed tomography (CT) lung screening program elements essential to safely and effectively manage the millions of Americans at high risk for lung cancer expected to enroll in lung cancer screening programs over the next 3 to 5 years. To optimize the potential net benefit of CT lung screening and facilitate medical audits benchmarked to national quality standards, radiologists should interpret these examinations using a validated structured reporting system such as Lung-RADS. Patient and physician educational outreach should be enacted to support an informed and shared decision-making process without creating barriers to screening access. Programs must integrate smoking cessation interventions to maximize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of screening. At an institutional level, budgets should account for the necessary expense of hiring and/or training qualified support staff and equipping them with information technology resources adequate to enroll and track patients accurately over decades of future screening evaluation. At a national level, planning should begin on ways to accommodate the upcoming increased demand for physician services in fields critical to the success of CT lung screening such as diagnostic radiology and thoracic surgery. Institutions with programs that follow these specifications will be well equipped to meet the significant oncoming demand for CT lung screening services and bestow clinical benefits on their patients equal to or beyond what was observed in the National Lung Screening Trial. PMID:25658476

  13. Characteristics and screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer aged 20–29 years

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, A; Leung, V M W; Landy, R; Lim, A W W; Sasieni, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: There was concern that failure to screen women aged 20–24 years would increase the number of cancers or advanced cancers in women aged 20–29 years. We describe the characteristics of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in England aged 20–29 years and examine the association between the period of diagnosis, screening history and FIGO stage. Methods: We used data on 1800 women diagnosed with cervical cancer between April 2007 and March 2012 at age 20–29 from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancers. Results: The majority of cancers (995, or 62% of those with known stage) were stage 1A. Cancer at age 20–24 years was rare (12% of those aged 20–29 years), when compared with age 25 (24%) and age 26–29 years (63%); however, cancers in women aged 20–24 years tended to be more advanced and were more often of a rare histological type. For 59% of women under age 30, the cervical cancer was screen detected, most of them (61%) as a result of their first screening test. A three-fold increase in the number of cancers diagnosed at age 25 years was seen since the start of the study period. Conclusion: Cervical cancer at age 20–24 years is rare. Most cancers in women under age 30 years are screen detected as microinvasive cancer. PMID:23820257

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Liver Cancer Screening in Adults at High Risk for Liver Cancer in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hwa; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Kim, Youn Nam; Nam, Chung Mo; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted in order to determine the most cost-effective strategy, in terms of interval and age range, forliver cancer screening in the high-risk population of Korea. Materials and Methods A stochastic modelwas used to simulate the cost-effectiveness ofliver cancer screening by combined ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein testing when varying both screening intervals and age ranges. The effectiveness of these screening strategies in the high-risk population was defined as the probability of detecting preclinical liver cancer, and costwas based on the direct cost ofthe screening and confirmative tests. Optimal cost-effectiveness was determined using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Among the 36 alternative strategies, one-year or two-year interval screening for men aged between 50 and 80 years, six-month or one-year interval screening for men aged between 40 and 80 years, and six-month interval screening for men aged between 30 and 80 years were identified as non-dominated strategies. For women, identified non-dominated strategies were: one-year interval screening between age 50 and 65 years, one-year or six-month interval screening between age 50 and 80 years, six-month interval screening between age 40 and 80 years, and six-month interval screening between age 30 and 80 years. Conclusion In Korea, a one-year screening interval for men aged 50 to 80 years would be marginally cost-effective. Further studies should be conducted in order to evaluate effectiveness of liver cancer screening, and compare the cost effectiveness of different liver cancer screening programs with a final outcome indicator such as qualityadjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years. PMID:25038757

  15. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Cibelli; Fonseca, Allex Jardim da; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins de; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women's health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.OBJETIVO Analisar a cobertura do programa de rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino em município com alta incidência da doença e os fatores relacionados à não adesão ao programa preventivo vigente. MÉTODOS Foi realizado estudo transversal, com base em inquérito domiciliar. A amostra foi composta por mulheres entre 25 e 59 anos de idade do município de Boa vista, RR, Brasil, com cobertura pelo programa de rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino. Foi utilizado o método de amostragem por conglomerado. A variável dependente foi a adesão ao programa de saúde da mulher, definida como a realização de pelo menos um teste de Papanicolaou nos 36 meses anteriores à data da entrevista; as variáveis explicativas foram extraídas a partir de informações individuais. Foi utilizado modelo linear generalizado. RESULTADOS Foram analisadas 603 mulheres, com idade média de 38,2 anos (DP = 10,2). Quinhentas e dezessete mulheres realizaram o exame, sendo a prevalência de realização, nos últimos três anos, de 85,7% (IC95% 82,5;88,5). Renda familiar per capita elevada e consulta médica recente associaram-se à menor taxa de não realização do exame na análise multivariada. O desconhecimento da doença, das causas e dos meios de prevenção correlacionou-se com a chance de não adesão ao rastreamento. Vinte por cento das mulheres relataram realização do exame em caráter oportunístico, e não rotineiro. CONCLUSÕES A cobertura informada é elevada, acima do recomendado para controle do câncer do colo uterino. O programa preventivo apresenta caráter oportunístico, sobretudo para as mulheres mais vulneráveis (com baixa renda e pouca informação sobre a doença). Estudos sobre a qualidade diagnóstica da citologia cervicovaginal e dos itinerários terapêuticos dos casos positivos são necessários para compreensão das barreiras para o controle do câncer do colo uterino. PMID:25741655

  16. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Cancer.gov

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  17. Factors Associated With Colorectal Cancer Screening Among the US Urban Japanese Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Honda

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The author examined the prevalence and predictors of colorectal cancer screening among the urban Japanese population of the United States. Methods. A sample of Japanese residents of major US metropolitan areas completed a self-administered mailed survey. Results. Physician recommendation, acculturation, and perceived psychological costs were consistent predictors of screening for colorectal cancer. Gender and mar- ital status were related

  18. Self-Reported Cancer Screening among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries: A Rural-Urban Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya; Zhang, Ning; Fiscella, Kevin; Noyes, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the rural-urban disparity of screening for breast cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) among the elder Medicare beneficiaries and assessed rurality's independent impact on receipt of screening. Methods: Using 2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we applied weighted logistic regression to estimate the overall rural-urban…

  19. Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

  20. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  1. Receipt of Cancer Screening Services: Surprising Results for Some Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.; Bellinger, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas. Methods: We utilized the 2008…

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  3. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  4. Enhancing Adherence among Older African American Men Enrolled in a Longitudinal Cancer Screening Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Vernon, Sally W.; Davis, Shawna D.; Kroll, David; Lamerato, Lois; Swanson, G. Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to enhance adherence among older (aged 55 years and older) African American men enrolled in a cancer screening trial for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. For this study, we defined "adherence" as completing the trial screenings. Design and Methods: We used a randomized trial design. Case managers…

  5. Barriers to cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study with women in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milica Markovic; Vesna Kesic; Lidija Topic; Bojana Matejic

    2005-01-01

    Serbia employs opportunistic approaches to cervical cancer screening, leading to inequitable health care access. To better understand the health care needs of women, we investigated their knowledge of and perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening. Data reported in the paper arise from nine focus group discussions with 62 women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. They were recruited in two cities with

  6. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Saslow; Carla Boetes; Wylie Burke; Steven Harms; Martin O. Leach; Constance D. Lehman; Elizabeth Morris; Etta Pisano; Mitchell Schnall; Stephen Sener; Robert A. Smith; Ellen Warner; Martin Yaffe; Kimberly S. Andrews; Christy A. Russell

    2007-01-01

    New evidence on breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) screening has become available since the American Cancer Society (ACS) last issued guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer in 2003. A guideline panel has reviewed this evidence and developed new recommendations for women at different defined levels of risk. Screening MRI is recommended for women with an approximately 20-25% or

  7. Socioeconomic disparity in cervical cancer screening among Korean women: 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer among Korean women and is one of the most preventable cancers in the world. This study aimed to investigate the change in cervical cancer screening rates, the level of socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening participation, and whether there was a reduction in these disparities between 1998 and 2010. Methods Using the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, women 30?years or older without a history of cervical cancer and who completed a health questionnaire, physical examination, and nutritional survey were included (n?=?17,105). Information about participation in cervical cancer screening was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer screening participation and the socioeconomic status of the women. Results The cervical cancer screening rate increased from 40.5% in 1998 to 52.5% in 2010. Socioeconomic disparities influenced participation, and women with lower educational levels and lower household income were less likely to be screened. Compared with the lowest educational level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for screening in women with the highest educational level were 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–2.30) in 1998, and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12–1.87) in 2010. Compared with women with the lowest household income level, the adjusted ORs for screening in women with the highest household income level were 1.80 (95% CI: 1.22–2.68), 2.82 (95% CI: 2.01–3.96), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.08–1.94) in 2001, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Conclusion Although population-wide progress has been made in participation in cervical cancer screening over the 12-year period, socioeconomic status remained an important factor in reducing compliance with cancer screening. PMID:23742100

  8. Examining regional variation in the use of cancer screening in Germany.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Verena; Siegel, Martin; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2014-06-01

    The detection of cancer in its early latent stages can improve a patient's chances of recovery and thereby reduce the overall burden of the disease. Cancer screening services are, however, only used by a small part of the population and utilization rates vary widely amongst the 402 German districts. This study examines to which extent geographic variation in the use of cancer screening can be explained by accessibility of these services and by spillover effects between adjacent areas, while controlling for a wide range of covariates. District level data on cancer screening utilization rates were calculated for breast, cervical, prostate, skin, and colorectal cancers using German data provided by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung - KBV) between 2008 and 2011. We estimated the impact of health service variables on cancer screening utilization using spatial and non-spatial regression models. Spatial autocorrelation in the residuals was estimated using Moran's I statistic. After controlling for socioeconomic and other regional covariates, screening rates for breast, prostate, skin, and colorectal cancers are significantly higher in areas with higher physician density. The utilization of Pap-tests, skin cancer screening and colonoscopies is inversely related with average travel time to physicians. The coefficients for the spatial lag are significant and positive in all models. The positive spatial lags indicate that screening utilization rates are determined by knowledge spillovers between neighboring districts. In terms of public policy, our study demonstrates the potential to increase the use of cancer screening services through improving knowledge regarding cancer screening and by ensuring patient access to cancer screening services. PMID:24727534

  9. Increased cancer risk for individuals with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and melanoma and their associated screening recommendations and practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Noe; Paul Schroy; Marie-France Demierre; Richard Babayan; Alan C. Geller

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and melanoma are three malignancies that appear to have strong genetic components that\\u000a can confer additional risk to family members. Screening tools, albeit controversial, are widely available to potentially aide\\u000a in early diagnosis. Family members are now more attuned to the risks and benefits of cancer screening, thus, it is imperative\\u000a that physicians understand the screening

  10. Impact of Risk Factors on Different Interval Cancer Subtypes in a Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, Jordi; Sala, Maria; Ibáñez, Josefa; Domingo, Laia; Fernandez, Belén; Otegi, Arantza; Barata, Teresa; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Ferrer, Joana; Castells, Xavier; Rué, Montserrat; Salas, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. Methods We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000–2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%), 235 false-negatives (23.2%), 172 minimal-signs (17.2%) and 114 occult tumors (11.3%). Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. Results A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR?=?2.71, 95%CI: 2.28–3.23); this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR?=?8.79, 95%CI: 6.24–12.40) than for true interval cancer (HR?=?2.26, 95%CI: 1.59–3.21). A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR?=?2.11, 95%CI: 1.60–2.78), previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR?=?1.83, 95%CI: 1.23–2.71). High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR?=?4.92, 95%CI: 2.58–9.38), followed by true intervals (RRR?=?1.67, 95%CI: 1.18–2.36) and false-negatives (RRR?=?1.58, 95%CI: 1.00–2.49). Conclusion The role of women's characteristics differs among interval cancer subtypes. This information could be useful to improve effectiveness of breast cancer screening programmes and to better classify subgroups of women with different risks of developing cancer. PMID:25333936

  11. What is the relationship between breast cancer risk and mammography screening? A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    McCaul, K D; Branstetter, A D; Schroeder, D M; Glasgow, R E

    1996-11-01

    This meta-analytic review addresses the issue of how a woman's risk of breast cancer relates to the likelihood that she will obtain mammography screenings. Studies that compared women with or without a family history of breast cancer (n = 19) showed that women with a family history were more likely to have been screened. Studies that measured perceived risk (n = 19) showed that feeling vulnerable to breast cancer was positively related to having obtained a screening. Studies that compared women who did or did not have a history of breast problems (n = 10) showed that those with a positive history were more likely to have been screened. Finally, studies that measured worry (n = 6) showed that greater worry was related to higher screening levels. Taken together, these data suggest that increasing perceptions of personal vulnerability may increase screening behavior for breast cancer. PMID:8973921

  12. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate colorectal cancer screening options for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Coldman, A.J.; Phillips, N.; Brisson, J.; Flanagan, W.; Wolfson, M.; Nadeau, C.; Fitzgerald, N.; Miller, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several screening methods for colorectal cancer (crc) are available, and some have been shown by randomized trials to be effective. In the present study, we used a well-developed population health simulation model to compare the risks and benefits of a variety of screening scenarios. Tests considered were the fecal occult blood test (fobt), the fecal immunochemical test (fit), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Outcomes considered included years of life gained, crc cases and deaths prevented, and direct health system costs. Methods A natural history model of crc was implemented and calibrated to specified targets within the framework of the Cancer Risk Management Model (crmm) from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. The crmm-crc permits users to enter their own parameter values or to use program-specified base values. For each of 23 screening scenarios, we used the crmm-crc to run 10 million replicate simulations. Results Using base parameter values and some user-specified values in the crmm-crc, and comparing our screening scenarios with no screening, all screening scenarios were found to reduce the incidence of and mortality from crc. The fobt was the least effective test; it was not associated with lower net cost. Colonoscopy screening was the most effective test; it had net costs comparable to those for several other strategies considered, but required more than 3 times the colonoscopy resources needed by other approaches. After colonoscopy, strategies based on the fit were predicted to be the most effective. In sensitivity analyses performed for the fobt and fit screening strategies, fobt parameter values associated with high-sensitivity formulations were associated with a substantial increase in test effectiveness. The fit was more cost-effective at the 50 ng/mL threshold than at the 100 ng/mL threshold. Conclusions The crmm-crc provides a sophisticated and flexible environment in which to evaluate crc control options. All screening scenarios considered in this study effectively reduced crc mortality, although sensitivity analyses demonstrated some uncertainty in the magnitude of the improvements. Where possible, local data should be used to reduce uncertainty in the parameters.

  13. Breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen after introduction of mammography screening: cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Olsen; Valagussa P; Moliterni A; Zambetti M; Daidone MG; Coradini D; Sisse H Njor; Ilse Vejborg; Walter Schwartz; Peter Dalgaard; Maj-Britt Jensen; Ulla Brix Tange; Mogens Blichert-Toft; Fritz Rank; Henning Mouridsen; Elsebeth Lynge

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect on breast cancer mortality during the first 10 years of the mammography service screening programme that was introduced in Copenhagen in 1991. Design Cohort study. Setting The mammography service screening programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants All women ever invited to mammography screening in the first 10 years of the programme. Historical, national, and historical national

  14. Lead-time in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrik Finne; Mahdi Fallah; Matti Hakama; Stefano Ciatto; Jonas Hugosson; Harry de Koning; Sue Moss; Vera Nelen; Anssi Auvinen

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundLead-time is defined as the time by which screening advances the diagnosis compared with absence of screening. A sufficiently long lead-time needs to be achieved so that cancer can be detected while still curable. A very short lead-time may indicate poor sensitivity of the screening test, while a very long lead-time suggests overdiagnosis.

  15. Getting adequate information across to colorectal cancer screening subjects can be difficult

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AF van Rijn; L. G. M. van Rossum; M. Deutekom; R. J. F. Laheij; P M M Bossuyt; P. Fockens; E. den Dekker; J. B. M. J. Jansen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Participation in screening should be the outcome of an informed decision. We evaluated whether invitees in the first Dutch colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme were adequately informed after having received a detailed information leaflet. METHODS: A total of 20,623 subjects aged 50-75 years were invited to the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening programme. All received a detailed information

  16. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  17. Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening in Asian and Latina University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Pamela C.; Durvasula, Ramani S.

    2008-01-01

    Preventative screening in the form of clinical breast examinations remains among the best protections against breast cancer. Despite the benefits that regular examinations confer, many women fail to obtain screening tests. Because ethnic minority women are particularly unlikely to undergo regular screening, and experience increased mortality and…

  18. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a review of current status

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Rayleen V.; Yang, Ian A.; Fong, Kwun M.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT) represents an exciting new development in the struggle to improve outcomes for people with lung cancer. Randomised controlled evidence demonstrating a 20% relative lung cancer mortality benefit has led to endorsement of screening by several expert bodies in the US and funding by healthcare providers. Despite this pivotal result, many questions remain regarding technical and logistical aspects of screening, cost-effectiveness and generalizability to other settings. This review discusses the rationale behind screening, the results of on-going trials, potential harms of screening and current knowledge gaps. PMID:24163745

  19. Appraising the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer: what do the results mean?

    PubMed

    Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The value of screening for prostate cancer has been a contentious issue within the medical literature for several decades. At the crux of the matter lies a judgment call of whether the potential benefits of screening, a reduction in prostate cancer and all-cause mortality, outweigh the limitations, overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The study by Schr?der et al. reports 9, 11 and 13-year follow-up data on men participating in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer (ERSPC). While the authors report a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality, they conclude that potential harms associated with screening currently circumvent any recommendation for a population-based approach to screening for prostate cancer. PMID:25432497

  20. Correlates of cervical cancer screening among underserved Hispanic and African-American women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Bazargan; Shahrzad H Bazargan; Muhammad Farooq; Richard S Baker

    2004-01-01

    Background. Substantial subgroups of American women, specifically those of ethnic minorities, have not been screened for cervical cancer or are not screened at regular intervals. The rates for receipt of female-related cancer screening tests remain far below the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010.Objective. This study applied a well-known, recently revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization,

  1. Lung Cancer Screening with Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Primary Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Thomas B.; White, Mary C.; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an update on lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and its implications for primary care providers. One of the unique features of lung cancer screening is the potential complexity in patient management if an LDCT scan reveals a small pulmonary nodule. Additional tests, consultation with multiple specialists, and follow-up evaluations may be needed to evaluate whether lung cancer is present. Primary care providers should know the resources available in their communities for lung cancer screening with LDCT and smoking cessation, and the key points to be addressed in informed and shared decision-making discussions with patients. PMID:24830610

  2. Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

  3. A novel case-control design to estimate the extent of over-diagnosis of breast cancer due to organised population-based mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Kerri R; Lynch, John W; Hiller, Janet E; Farshid, Gelareh; Houssami, Nehmat; Duffy, Stephen W; Roder, David M

    2015-03-15

    Debate about the extent of breast cancer over-diagnosis due to mammography screening has continued for over a decade, without consensus. Estimates range from 0 to 54%, but many studies have been criticized for having flawed methodology. In this study we used a novel study design to estimate over-diagnosis due to organised mammography screening in South Australia (SA). To estimate breast cancer incidence at and following screening we used a population-based, age-matched case-control design involving 4,931 breast cancer cases and 22,914 controls to obtain OR for yearly time intervals since women's last screening mammogram. The level of over-diagnosis was estimated by comparing the cumulative breast cancer incidence with and without screening. The former was derived by applying ORs for each time window to incidence rates in the absence of screening, and the latter, by projecting pre-screening incidence rates. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess potential biases. Over-diagnosis was estimated to be 8% (95%CI 2-14%) and 14% (95%CI 8-19%) among SA women aged 45 to 85 years from 2006-2010, for invasive breast cancer and all breast cancer respectively. These estimates were robust when applying various sensitivity analyses, except for adjustment for potential confounding assuming higher risk among screened than non-screened women, which reduced levels of over-diagnosis to 1% (95%CI 5-7%) and 8% (95%CI 2-14%) respectively when incidence rates for screening participants were adjusted by 10%. Our results indicate that the level of over-diagnosis due to mammography screening is modest and considerably lower than many previous estimates, including others for Australia. PMID:25098753

  4. The Ottawa County project: a report of a tuberculosis screening project in a small mining community.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R M; Schwartz, L P; Snider, D E

    1979-01-01

    Following a retrospective review of tuberculosis cases reported from Ottawa County, Oklahoma, from 1969 through 1973, a selective tuberculosis screening project was implemented. Screening of a "target group" of the population, 519 former miners, greater than or equal to 50 years of age, resulted in the discovery of abnormal chest X-rays in 182; (103 with silicosis, 36 with silicotuberculosis, 12 with inactive tuberculosis, and 31 with other abnormalities). Eighty-five of these persons had positive tuberculin skin tests. Preventive therapy was recommended for 50, and 36 completed the prescribed course of treatment. Eight new bacteriologically confirmed cases of tuberculosis were found and treated. A large number of persons (1,904) residing in the same area who were not part of the target group were also screened for tuberculosis. This group contained a large number of positive tuberculin reactors but very few were candidates for isoniazid preventive therapy. Thirteen persons in this group had abnormal chest X-rays consistent with inactive tuberculosis but 12 had been identified and given preventive therapy before the project began. These data suggest that selective approaches to screening for tuberculosis in a community which are based on an in-depth retrospective review of the tuberculosis case register can be highly successful. PMID:426159

  5. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  6. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  7. Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Parashari, A.; Singh, V.; Sehgal, A.; Satyanarayana, L.; Sodhani, P.; Gupta, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology. PMID:10994279

  8. American Indian Breast Cancer Project: Educational Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Casken, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of Pathways to Health, a breast cancer education program targeting American Indian women in California. Discusses initial focus group results concerning belief in breast cancer risk, barriers to cancer screening and treatment, culturally sensitive issues, and illness beliefs. Describes…

  9. Regret on Choice of Colorectal Cancer Screening Modality Was Associated with Poorer Screening Compliance: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C. S.; Ching, Jessica Y. L.; Chan, Victor C. W.; Bruggemann, Renee; Lam, Thomas Y. T.; Luk, Arthur K. C.; Wu, Justin C. Y.; Chan, Francis K. L.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance. Methods A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]). A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance. Results From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8%) regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7%) were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001) times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme. Conclusions This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance. PMID:25875160

  10. Study finds racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates:

    Cancer.gov

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic groups. The report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, was published today in the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

  11. Johns Hopkins study finds obese white women less likely to seek colon cancer screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new study by Johns Hopkins researchers shows that obese white women may be less likely than normal-weight counterparts and African-Americans of any weight or gender to seek potentially lifesaving colon cancer screening tests. Results of this study follow the same Johns Hopkins group’s previous research suggesting that obese white women also are less likely to arrange for mammograms, which screen for breast cancer, and Pap smears, which search for early signs of cervical cancer.

  12. Recruitment strategies in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: the first six years. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Simpson NK, Johnson CC, Ogden SL, Gamito E, Trocky N, McGuire C, Martin J, Barrow S, Lamerato L, Flickinger LM, Broski KG, Engelhard D, Hilke C, Bonk J, Gahagan B, Gren LH, Childs J, Lappe K, Fouad M, Thompson J, Sullivan D, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Project Team. Control Clin Trials. 2000 Dec 01. 21. 6 Suppl. 356S-78S.

  13. Client-Directed Interventions to Increase Community Access to Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy C. Baron; Barbara K. Rimer; Ralph J. Coates; Jon Kerner; Geetika P. Kalra; Stephanie Melillo; Nancy Habarta; Katherine M. Wilson; Sajal Chattopadhyay; Kimberly Leeks

    2008-01-01

    Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effective- ness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation,

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Midwestern Community-Based Residents: Indicators Of Success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Alex Matthews; Ann B. Nattinger; Thangam Venkatesan; Reza Shaker

    2007-01-01

    Screening reduces the rate of death and morbidity resulting from CRC. Although CRC screening rates are low relative to other\\u000a cancer screening tests, rates appear to be increasing: In 2004, 57% of adults ? 50 years reported up-to-date CRC screening\\u000a test use; 14 states and Washington DC showed rates in excess of 60%. Identification of indicators of success and challenges\\u000a remaining are

  15. Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  16. Two cases of ovarian cancer at an early stage incidentally detected using transvaginal ultrasonography in screening: importance of interval for ovarian cancer screening and selection of population with a high risk of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, A; Yokoyama, Y; Wada, J; Hashimoto, T; Oda, T; Sato, S; Mizunuma, H

    2009-01-01

    Interval of ovarian cancer screening using transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and selection of populations with a high risk of this disease are an important issue in detecting early stage-disease. We report two cases of ovarian cancer patients incidentally detected at FIGO Stage I using TVS in the obligatory staff health check. They had undergone other ovarian cancer screening by TVS six months before and received a carefree result at that time. One patient had risk factors (RFs) for ovarian cancer such as obesity and a familal history of ovarian cancer in a first degree relative, and the other had RFs such as obesity and endometrial malignancy. Although cost-effective screening may be important, we recommend that while normal and asymptomatic populations are screened annually, women with any high RFs for ovarian cancer should be screened every six months. PMID:19480258

  17. Lycopene, Tomato Products, and Prostate Cancer Incidence: A Review and Reassessment in the PSA Screening Era

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Melissa Y.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene has been proposed to protect against prostate cancer through various properties including decreased lipid oxidation, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and most notably potent antioxidant properties. Epidemiologic studies on the association between lycopene and prostate cancer incidence have yielded mixed results. Detection of an association has been complicated by unique epidemiologic considerations including the measurement of lycopene and its major source in the diet, tomato products, and assessment of prostate cancer incidence and progression. Understanding this association has been further challenging in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening era. PSA screening has increased the detection of prostate cancer, including a variety of relatively indolent cancers. This paper examines the lycopene and prostate cancer association in light of epidemiologic methodologic issues with particular emphasis on the effect of PSA screening on this association. PMID:22690215

  18. Overdiagnosis in Low-Dose Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patz, Edward F.; Pinsky, Paul; Gatsonis, Constantine; Sicks, JoRean D.; Kramer, Barnett S.; Tammemägi, Martin C.; Chiles, Caroline; Black, William C.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Screening for lung cancer has the potential to reduce mortality, but in addition to detecting aggressive tumors, screening will also detect indolent tumors that otherwise may not cause clinical symptoms. These overdiagnosis cases represent an important potential harm of screening because they incur additional cost, anxiety, and morbidity associated with cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE To estimate overdiagnosis in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We used data from the NLST, a randomized trial comparing screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) vs chest radiography (CXR) among 53 452 persons at high risk for lung cancer observed for 6.4 years, to estimate the excess number of lung cancers in the LDCT arm of the NLST compared with the CXR arm. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We calculated 2 measures of overdiagnosis: the probability that a lung cancer detected by screening with LDCT is an overdiagnosis (PS), defined as the excess lung cancers detected by LDCT divided by all lung cancers detected by screening in the LDCT arm; and the number of cases that were considered overdiagnosis relative to the number of persons needed to screen to prevent 1 death from lung cancer. RESULTS During follow-up, 1089 lung cancers were reported in the LDCT arm and 969 in the CXR arm of the NLST. The probability is 18.5% (95% CI, 5.4%–30.6%) that any lung cancer detected by screening with LDCT was an overdiagnosis, 22.5% (95% CI, 9.7%–34.3%) that a non-small cell lung cancer detected by LDCT was an overdiagnosis, and 78.9% (95% CI, 62.2%–93.5%) that a bronchioalveolar lung cancer detected by LDCT was an overdiagnosis. The number of cases of overdiagnosis found among the 320 participants who would need to be screened in the NLST to prevent 1 death from lung cancer was 1.38. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE More than 18% of all lung cancers detected by LDCT in the NLST seem to be indolent, and overdiagnosis should be considered when describing the risks of LDCT screening for lung cancer. PMID:24322569

  19. Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

  20. A Pilot Study of Lay Health Worker Outreach and Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Love, Mary Beth; Liang, Cindy; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa; Wong, Ching; Gildengorin, Ginny; Woo, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The research team recruited eight Chinese American (seven females, one male) lay health workers (LHWs). They received 12 h of training about colorectal cancer (CRC), its screening, and basic health education techniques. Each LHW were asked to recruit ten participants and conduct two educational sessions. Of the 81 participants recruited, 73 had not received colorectal cancer screening. Their mean age was 63.0 years, and 72.6% were women. Knowledge of colorectal cancer, its causes, and its screening increased significantly. Receipt of first colorectal cancer screening test increased from 0.0% at baseline to 55.7% for fecal occult blood tests, 7.1% for sigmoidoscopy, and 7.1% for colonoscopy. LHW outreach is feasible and may be effective in promoting CRC screening among Chinese Americans. PMID:20204570

  1. Lung cancer screening, version 1.2015: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Douglas E; Kazerooni, Ella; Baum, Scott L; Dransfield, Mark T; Eapen, George A; Ettinger, David S; Hou, Lifang; Jackman, David M; Klippenstein, Donald; Kumar, Rohit; Lackner, Rudy P; Leard, Lorriana E; Leung, Ann N C; Makani, Samir S; Massion, Pierre P; Meyers, Bryan F; Otterson, Gregory A; Peairs, Kimberly; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Pratt-Pozo, Christie; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Reid, Mary E; Rotter, Arnold J; Sachs, Peter B; Schabath, Matthew B; Sequist, Lecia V; Tong, Betty C; Travis, William D; Yang, Stephen C; Gregory, Kristina M; Hughes, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Lung Cancer Screening provide recommendations for selecting individuals for lung cancer screening, and for evaluation and follow-up of nodules found during screening, and are intended to assist with clinical and shared decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates to the 2015 NCCN Guidelines for Lung Cancer Screening, which include a revision to the recommendation from category 2B to 2A for one of the high-risk groups eligible for lung cancer screening. For low-dose CT of the lung, the recommended slice width was revised in the table on "Low-Dose Computed Tomography Acquisition, Storage, Interpretation, and Nodule Reporting." PMID:25583767

  2. Understanding patient options, utilization patterns, and burdens associated with breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Susan C; Vegesna, Ashok; Mass, Sharon; Clarke, Janice; Skoufalos, Alexandria

    2014-09-01

    Despite ongoing awareness, educational campaigns, and advances in technology, breast cancer screening remains a complex topic for women and for the health care system. Lack of consensus among organizations developing screening guidelines has caused confusion for patients and providers. The psychosocial factors related to breast cancer screening are not well understood. The prevailing algorithm for screening results in significant rates of patient recall for further diagnostic imaging or procedures, the majority of which rule out breast cancer rather than confirming it. For women, the consequences of the status quo range from unnecessary stress to additional out-of-pocket expenses to indirect costs that are more difficult to quantify. A more thoughtful approach to breast cancer screening, coupled with a research agenda that recognizes the indirect and intangible costs that women bear, is needed to improve cost and quality outcomes in this area. PMID:25247383

  3. Cancer-Related Risk Indicators and Preventive Screening Behaviors Among Lesbians and Bisexual Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Cochran; Vickie M. Mays; Deborah Bowen; Suzann Gage; Deborah Bybee; Susan J. Roberts; Robert S. Goldstein; Elizabeth J. Rankow; Jocelyn White

    Objectives. This study examined whether lesbians are at increased risk for certain cancers as a result of an accu- mulation of behavioral risk factors and difficulties in accessing health care. Methods. Prevalence estimates of behavioral risk factors (nulliparity, obe- sity, smoking, and alcohol use), cancer screening behaviors, and self-reported breast cancer histories derived from 7 in- dependently conducted surveys of

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  5. The Impact of Physicians’ Health Beliefs on Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Shieh; Feng Gao; Stephen Ristvedt; Mario Schootman; Dayna Early

    2005-01-01

    Primary-care physicians have significant influence on whether or not their patients participate in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). This study explored the association of physicians personal health beliefs, medical history, and personal participation in CRCS with their practice patterns regarding CRCS. Perceived personal risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) was associated with compliance with American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines for CRCS for

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive

    E-print Network

    El Zarki, Magda

    in cancer deaths at 10 years from 1% to 0.5%. Also assume that the intervention had precisely the effect hy no statistically significant effect on prostate cancer- specific mortality."1(p767) They also cite two recent metaProstate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive

  7. Genome-wide RNAi screens in Caenorhabditis elegans: impact on cancer Gino Poulin1

    E-print Network

    Ahringe, Julie

    , University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK Genes linked to human cancers often and discuss their impact on cancer research and possibi- lities for future screens. We also show that genes average, validating the use of C. elegans as a cancer gene discovery platform. We foresee that genome

  8. Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer the risk of colon carcinogenesis and colonoscopy-free screening for colorectal cancer CRC . © 2006 Society; enhanced backscattering; low coherence; elas- tic light scattering; spectroscopy; colorectal cancer. Paper

  9. The importance of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Wood, Douglas E

    2014-12-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial has provided convincing evidence of a substantial mortality benefit of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) for current and former smokers at high risk. The United States Preventive Services Task Force has recommended screening, triggering coverage of low-dose CT by private health insurers under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) are currently evaluating coverage of lung cancer screening for Medicare beneficiaries. Since 70% of lung cancer occurs in patients 65 years or older, CMS should cover low-dose CT, thus avoiding the situation of at-risk patients being screened up to age 64 through private insurers and then abruptly ceasing screening at exactly the ages when their risk for developing lung cancer is increasing. Legitimate concerns include false-positive findings that lead to further testing and invasive procedures, overdiagnosis (detection of clinically unimportant cancers), the morbidity and mortality of surgery, and the overall costs of follow-up tests and procedures. These concerns can be mitigated by clear criteria for screening high-risk patients, disciplined management of abnormalities based on algorithms, and high-quality multidisciplinary care. Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can lead to early diagnosis and cure for thousands of patients each year. Professional societies can help CMS responsibly implement a program that is patient-centered and minimizes unintended harms and costs. PMID:25317992

  10. The prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial and its associated research resource.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Claire S; Pinsky, Paul F; Kramer, Barnett S; Prorok, Philip C; Purdue, Mark P; Berg, Christine D; Gohagan, John K

    2013-11-20

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale research effort conducted by the National Cancer Institute. PLCO offers an example of coordinated research by both the extramural and intramural communities of the National Institutes of Health. The purpose of this article is to describe the PLCO research resource and how it is managed and to assess the productivity and the costs associated with this resource. Such an in-depth analysis of a single large-scale project can shed light on questions such as how large-scale projects should be managed, what metrics should be used to assess productivity, and how costs can be compared with productivity metrics. A comprehensive publication analysis identified 335 primary research publications resulting from research using PLCO data and biospecimens from 2000 to 2012. By the end of 2012, a total of 9679 citations (excluding self-citations) have resulted from this body of research publications, with an average of 29.7 citations per article, and an h index of 45, which is comparable with other large-scale studies, such as the Nurses' Health Study. In terms of impact on public health, PLCO trial results have been used by the US Preventive Services Task Force in making recommendations concerning prostate and ovarian cancer screening. The overall cost of PLCO was $454 million over 20 years, adjusted to 2011 dollars, with approximately $37 million for the collection, processing, and storage of biospecimens, including blood samples, buccal cells, and pathology tissues. PMID:24115361

  11. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and Its Associated Research Resource

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale research effort conducted by the National Cancer Institute. PLCO offers an example of coordinated research by both the extramural and intramural communities of the National Institutes of Health. The purpose of this article is to describe the PLCO research resource and how it is managed and to assess the productivity and the costs associated with this resource. Such an in-depth analysis of a single large-scale project can shed light on questions such as how large-scale projects should be managed, what metrics should be used to assess productivity, and how costs can be compared with productivity metrics. A comprehensive publication analysis identified 335 primary research publications resulting from research using PLCO data and biospecimens from 2000 to 2012. By the end of 2012, a total of 9679 citations (excluding self-citations) have resulted from this body of research publications, with an average of 29.7 citations per article, and an h index of 45, which is comparable with other large-scale studies, such as the Nurses’ Health Study. In terms of impact on public health, PLCO trial results have been used by the US Preventive Services Task Force in making recommendations concerning prostate and ovarian cancer screening. The overall cost of PLCO was $454 million over 20 years, adjusted to 2011 dollars, with approximately $37 million for the collection, processing, and storage of biospecimens, including blood samples, buccal cells, and pathology tissues. PMID:24115361

  12. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and Cancer Screening Among Female Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Racquel E.; Jensen, Gail A.; Sheridan, Stacey L.; Carpenter, William R.; Biddle, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Medicare covers several cancer screening tests not currently recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). In September 2002, the Task Force relaxed the upper age limit of 70 years for breast cancer screening recommendations, and in March 2003 an upper age limit of 65 years was introduced for cervical cancer screening recommendations. We assessed whether mammogram and Pap test utilization among women with Medicare coverage is influenced by changes in the Task Force's recommendations for screening. Methods: We identified female Medicare beneficiaries aged 66–80 years and used bivariate probit regression to examine the receipt of breast (mammogram) and cervical (Pap test) cancer screening reflecting changes in the Task Force recommendations. We analyzed 9,760 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey responses from 2001 to 2007. Results: More than two-thirds reported receiving a mammogram and more than one-third a Pap test in the previous 2 years. Lack of recommendation was given as a reason for not getting screened among the majority (51% for mammogram and 75% for Pap). After controlling for beneficiary-level socioeconomic characteristics and access to care factors, we did not observe a significant change in breast and cervical cancer screening patterns following the changes in Task Force recommendations. Conclusions: Although there is evidence that many Medicare beneficiaries adhere to screening guidelines, some women may be receiving non-recommended screening services covered by Medicare. PMID:24195774

  13. Time to benefit for colorectal cancer screening: survival meta-analysis of flexible sigmoidoscopy trials

    PubMed Central

    Boscardin, W John; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Lee, Sei J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the time to benefit of using flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Design Survival meta-analysis. Data sources A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review published in 2013, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing screening flexible sigmoidoscopy with no screening. Trials with fewer than 100 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings were excluded. Results Four studies were eligible (total n=459?814). They were similar for patients’ age (50-74 years), length of follow-up (11.2-11.9 years), and relative risk for colorectal cancer related mortality (0.69-0.78 with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening). For every 1000 people screened at five and 10 years, 0.3 and 1.2 colorectal cancer related deaths, respectively, were prevented. It took 4.3 years (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 5.8) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.0002 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 5000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). It took 9.4 years (7.6 to 11.3) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.001 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 1000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). Conclusion Our findings suggest that screening flexible sigmoidoscopy is most appropriate for older adults with a life expectancy greater than approximately 10 years.

  14. Issues with implementing a high-quality lung cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    After a comprehensive review of the evidence, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently endorsed screening with low-dose computed tomography as an early detection approach that has the potential to significantly reduce deaths due to lung cancer. Prudent implementation of lung cancer screening as a high-quality preventive health service is a complex challenge. The clinical evaluation and management of high-risk cohorts in the absence of symptoms mandates an approach that differs significantly from that of symptom-detected lung cancer. As with other cancer screenings, it is essential to provide to informed at-risk individuals a safe, high-quality, cost-effective, and accessible service. In this review, the components of a successful screening program are discussed as we begin to disseminate lung cancer screening as a national resource to improve outcomes with this lethal cancer. This information about lung cancer screening will assist clinicians with communications about the potential benefits and harms of this service for high-risk individuals considering participation in the screening process. PMID:24976072

  15. Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence in the United States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Limmer, Karen; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Dains, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased dramatically since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Nevertheless, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2013 predicted more than 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States. Given that some subpopulations in the United States are at a higher risk for cervical cancer than others, efforts to increase screening adherence are warranted. Many studies have explored the demographics of underscreened women, but no systematic reviews of screening demographics in adult US women were identified in the past 10 years, after release of the 2002 ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Knowledge of adherence to these guidelines becomes important as new guidelines were developed and released in 2012. The purpose of this systematic review of relevant studies was to identify factors that predict the use of cervical cancer screening in US women. Variables found to be significantly associated with adherence to screening included education, financial status, acculturation, psychosocial issues, and marital status. Using this information, nurse practitioners and other providers can target specific at-risk populations to increase screening by educating women about the need for cervical cancer screening and ensuring access to methods for prevention and early detection of the disease. PMID:25032031

  16. Final Project Docking Algorithms of Virtual Ligand Screening

    E-print Network

    of a protein with a ligand is critical for the success of any form of structure-aided drug design. In order screening attempts to sift through a list of compounds in a library using a docking algorithm technologies. Phases of Virtual Ligand Screening: To perform virtual ligand screening on a target, one must

  17. Effect of Payment Incentives on Cancer Screening in Ontario Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Tara; Wilton, Andrew S.; Moineddin, Rahim; Paszat, Lawrence; Glazier, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of pay for performance despite its widespread use. We assessed whether the introduction of a pay-for-performance scheme for primary care physicians in Ontario, Canada, was associated with increased cancer screening rates and determined the amounts paid to physicians as part of the program. METHODS We performed a longitudinal analysis using administrative data to determine cancer screening rates and incentive costs in each fiscal year from 1999/2000 to 2009/2010. We used a segmented linear regression analysis to assess whether there was a step change or change in screening rate trends after incentives were introduced in 2006/2007. We included all Ontarians eligible for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening. RESULTS We found no significant step change in the screening rate for any of the 3 cancers the year after incentives were introduced. Colon cancer screening was increasing at a rate of 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3% to 3.7%) per year before the incentives were introduced and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.7% to 5.7%) per year after. The cervical and breast cancer screening rates did not change significantly from year to year before or after the incentives were introduced. Between 2006/2007 and 2009/2010, $28.3 million, $31.3 million, and $50.0 million were spent on financial incentives for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The pay-for-performance scheme was associated with little or no improvement in screening rates despite substantial expenditure. Policy makers should consider other strategies for improving rates of cancer screening. PMID:25024239

  18. Effectiveness of the public health policy for breast cancer screening in Finland: population based cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Hakama, M.; Pukkala, E.; Heikkilä, M.; Kallio, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of screening for breast cancer as a public health policy. DESIGN: Follow up in 1987-92 of Finnish women invited to join the screening programme in 1987-9 and of the control women (balanced by age and matched by municipality of residence), who were not invited to the service screening. SETTING: Finland. SUBJECTS: Of the Finnish women born in 1927-39, 89893 women invited for screening and 68862 controls were followed; 1584 breast cancers were diagnosed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio of deaths from breast cancer among the women invited for screening to deaths among those not invited. RESULTS: There were 385 deaths from breast cancer, of which 127 were among the 1584 incident cases in 1987-92. The rate ratio of death was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 1.09). The effect was larger and significant (0.56; 0.33 to 0.95) among women aged under 56 years at entry. 20 cancers were prevented (one death prevented per 10000 screens). CONCLUSIONS: A breast screening programme can achieve a similar effect on mortality as achieved by the trials for breast cancer screening. However, it may be difficult to justify a screening programme as a public health policy on the basis of the mortality reduction only. Whether to run a screening programme as a public health policy also depends on its effects on the quality of life of the target population and what the resources would be used for if screening was not done. Given all the different dimensions in the effect, mammography based breast screening is probably justifiable as a public health policy. PMID:9093096

  19. Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Low-Dose Computed Tomographic Screening

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aggressive and heterogeneous nature of lung cancer has thwarted efforts to reduce mortality from this cancer through the use of screening. The advent of low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) altered the landscape of lung-cancer screening, with studies indicating that low-dose CT detects many tumors at early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was conducted to determine whether screening with low-dose CT could reduce mortality from lung cancer. Methods From August 2002 through April 2004, we enrolled 53,454 persons at high risk for lung cancer at 33 U.S. medical centers. Participants were randomly assigned to undergo three annual screenings with either low-dose CT (26,722 participants) or single-view posteroanterior chest radiography (26,732). Data were collected on cases of lung cancer and deaths from lung cancer that occurred through December 31, 2009. Results The rate of adherence to screening was more than 90%. The rate of positive screening tests was 24.2% with low-dose CT and 6.9% with radiography over all three rounds. A total of 96.4% of the positive screening results in the low-dose CT group and 94.5% in the radiography group were false positive results. The incidence of lung cancer was 645 cases per 100,000 person-years (1060 cancers) in the low-dose CT group, as compared with 572 cases per 100,000 person-years (941 cancers) in the radiography group (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.23). There were 247 deaths from lung cancer per 100,000 person-years in the low-dose CT group and 309 deaths per 100,000 person-years in the radiography group, representing a relative reduction in mortality from lung cancer with low-dose CT screening of 20.0% (95% CI, 6.8 to 26.7; P = 0.004). The rate of death from any cause was reduced in the low-dose CT group, as compared with the radiography group, by 6.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 13.6; P = 0.02). Conclusions Screening with the use of low-dose CT reduces mortality from lung cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; National Lung Screening Trial ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00047385.) PMID:21714641

  20. Factors influencing behavioral intention regarding prostate cancer screening among older African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Thomas, Shirley A.; Davis, Shawna D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with perceptions of prostate cancer screening among African-American men aged > or = 55 years based upon items developed using the Preventive Health model (PHM). RESEARCH APPROACH: Focus group research and thematic coding using content analysis. SETTING: A large midwestern, private, nonprofit health system. PARTICIPANTS: African-American men aged > or = 55 years. Focus group 1 included 10 men who ranged in age from 55-87 years, with a mean age of 73.4 years. The 11 participants in focus group 2 ranged in age from 55-81 years, with a mean age of 68.7 years. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: Focus group questions were developed based on the conceptual framework of the PHM. African-American men aged > or = 55 years were randomly selected from the patient population of the healthcare system to participate in one of two focus groups. Content analysis was used to code the focus group transcripts. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Self-reported perceptions of prostate cancer screening. FINDINGS: Major themes emerging from the focus groups related to prostate cancer screening include: lack of knowledge regarding cancer, fear of cancer, confusion between prostate cancer screening and prostate cancer diagnostic tests, encouragement by others as motivation for cancer screening, intergenerational transfer of health information, lack of health insurance coverage as a barrier to prostate cancer screening and treatment, and limited availability of screening clinic hours during nonworking hours. INTERPRETATION: The information gained from this study could be used to develop interventions promoting informed and shared decision-making by patients and their providers regarding prostate cancer screening. PMID:16623062

  1. People’s willingness to accept overdetection in cancer screening: population survey

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Caroline; Yang, Yaling; Oke, Jason; Hewitson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the level of overdetection people would find acceptable in screening for breast, prostate, and bowel cancer and whether acceptability is influenced by the magnitude of the benefit from screening and the cancer specific harms from overdetection. Design Online survey. Women were presented with scenarios on breast and bowel cancer, men with scenarios on prostate and bowel cancer. For each particular cancer, we presented epidemiological information and described the treatment and its consequences. Secondly, we presented two different scenarios of benefit: one indicating a 10% reduction in cancer specific mortality and the second indicating a 50% reduction. Setting Online survey of the population in the United Kingdom. Participants Respondents were part of an existing panel of people who volunteer for online research and were invited by email or online marketing. We recruited 1000 respondents, representative for age and sex for the UK population. Main outcome measures Number of cases of overdetection people were willing to accept, ranging from 0-1000 (complete screened population) for each cancer modality and each scenario of benefit. Results There was large variability between respondents in the level of overdetection they would find acceptable, with medians ranging from 113 to 313 cases of overdetection per 1000 people screened. Across all scenarios, 4-7% of respondents indicated they would accept no overdetection at all compared with 7-14% who thought that it would be acceptable for the entire screened population to be overdetected. Acceptability in screening for bowel cancer was significantly lower than for breast and prostate cancer. People aged 50 or over accepted significantly less overdetection, whereas people with higher education levels accepted more; 29% of respondents had heard of overdetection before. Conclusions Acceptability of overdetection in cancer screening is variable. Invitations for screening should include clear information on the likelihood and consequences of overdetection to allow people to make an informed choice. PMID:25736617

  2. Evolving role of computed tomographic colonography in colon cancer screening and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Friedel, David M; Iqbal, Shahzad; Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Babich, Jay P; Georgiou, Nicholas; Katz, Douglas S

    2012-10-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a relatively new imaging modality for the examination of patients for colorectal polyps and cancer. It has been validated in its accuracy for the detection of colon cancer and larger polyps (more than likely premalignant). CTC, however, is not widely accepted as a primary screening modality in the United States at present by many third-party payers, including Medicare, and its exact role in screening is evolving. Moreover, there has been opposition to incorporating CTC as an accepted screening instrument, especially by gastroenterologists. Heretofore, optical colonoscopy has been the mainstay in this screening. We discuss these issues and the continuing controversies concerning CTC. PMID:23038488

  3. Effort Required in Eligibility Screening for Clinical Trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Screening for cancer therapeutic trials is especially expensive due to the need to involve professional staff (e.g., oncology research nurses) in the screening process. The costs of screening a patient for trial eligibility in this cancer center study ranged from $129 to $336. Factors that led to this variability included trial phase (with early-phase research producing the highest costs), study complexity, and patient characteristics. Researchers should collect information on the cost of screening to assist in negotiating reimbursement with research sponsors.

  4. Panel Calls for Reducing Colorectal Cancer Deaths by Striking Down Barriers to Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other types of cancer, particularly breast and cervical. Although the screening rates in the target population--adults over age 50--have increased from 20-30 percent in 1997 to nearly 55 percetn in 2008--the rates are still too low. An NIH state-of-the-science panel was convened this week to identify ways to further increase the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening in the United States.

  5. Screening for Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) among endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Heather; Frankel, Wendy; Panescu, Jenny; Lockman, Janet; Sotamaa, Kaisa; Fix, Daniel; Comeras, Ilene; La Jeunesse, Jennifer; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Westman, Judith A; Prior, Thomas W; Clendenning, Mark; Penzone, Pamela; Lombardi, Janet; Dunn, Patti; Cohn, David E; Copeland, Larry; Eaton, Lynne; Fowler, Jeffrey; Lewandowski, George; Vaccarello, Luis; Bell, Jeffrey; Reid, Gary; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2006-08-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer in women with Lynch syndrome. The identification of individuals with Lynch syndrome is desirable because they can benefit from increased cancer surveillance. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and desirability of molecular screening for Lynch syndrome in all endometrial cancer patients. Unselected endometrial cancer patients (N = 543) were studied. All tumors underwent microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Patients with MSI-positive tumors underwent testing for germ line mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Of 543 tumors studied, 118 (21.7%) were MSI positive (98 of 118 MSI high and 20 of 118 MSI low). All 118 patients with MSI-positive tumors had mutation testing, and nine of them had deleterious germ line mutations (one MLH1, three MSH2, and five MSH6). In addition, one case with an MSI-negative tumor had abnormal MSH6 immunohistochemical staining and was subsequently found to have a mutation in MSH6. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with the mutation result in all seven truncating mutation-positive cases but was not consistent in two of the three missense mutation cases. We conclude that in central Ohio, at least 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.9-3.5%) of newly diagnosed endometrial cancer patients had Lynch syndrome. Seven of the 10 Lynch syndrome patients did not meet any published criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, and six of them were diagnosed at age >50. Studying all endometrial cancer patients for Lynch syndrome using a combination of MSI and immunohistochemistry for molecular prescreening followed by gene sequencing and deletion analysis is feasible and may be desirable. PMID:16885385

  6. Knowledge and Screening of Head and Neck Cancer Among American Indians in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2014-10-16

    Objectives. We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. Methods. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Results. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b?=?0.90; P?=?.01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P?=?.06). Conclusions. There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302177). PMID:25320895

  7. Variation in detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) during screening mammography A survey within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN)

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Ponti, Antonio; James, Ted; Májek, Ond?ej; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Anttila, Ahti; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Frigerio, Alfonso; Kawai, Masaaki; Scharpantgen, Astrid; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Vidal, Carmen; Ederra, Maria; Salas, Dolores; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Tomatis, Mariano; Kerlikowske, Karla; Taplin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is concern about detection of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) in screening mammography. DCIS accounts for a substantial proportion of screen detected lesions but its effect on breast cancer mortality is debated. The International Cancer Screening Network conducted a comparative analysis to determine variation in DCIS detection. Patients and Methods Data were collected during 2004–2008 on number of screening examinations, detected breast cancers, DCIS cases, and Globocan 2008 breast cancer incidence rates derived from national or regional cancer registers. We calculated screen-detection rates for breast cancers and DCIS. Results Data were obtained from 15 screening settings in 12 countries; 7,176,050 screening examinations; 29,605 breast cancers; and 5,324 DCIS cases. The ratio between highest and lowest breast cancer incidence was 2.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.76–3.00); 2.97 (95% CI 2.51–3.51) for detection of breast cancer; and 3.49 (95% CI 2.70–4.51) for detection of DCIS. Conclusions Considerable international variation was found in DCIS detection. This variation could not be fully explained by variation in incidence nor in breast cancer detection rates. It suggests the potential for wide discrepancies in management of DCIS resulting in overtreatment of indolent DCIS or undertreatment of potentially curable disease. Comprehensive cancer registration is needed to monitor DCIS detection. Efforts to understand discrepancies and standardize management may improve care. PMID:24041876

  8. Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines against the most important oncogenic types, namely HPV16 and 18. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24331748

  9. Using Community Engagement to Inform and Implement a Community-Randomized Controlled Trial in the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brianne; Burchell, Ann N.; Escott, Nicholas; Little, Julian; Maar, Marion; Ogilvie, Gina; Severini, Alberto; Bishop, Lisa; Morrisseau, Kyla; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN) women in particular, endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening – the Papinacolaou (Pap) test – and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS) is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada, and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women’s health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities. PMID:24600584

  10. Using community engagement to inform and implement a community-randomized controlled trial in the anishinaabek cervical cancer screening study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brianne; Burchell, Ann N; Escott, Nicholas; Little, Julian; Maar, Marion; Ogilvie, Gina; Severini, Alberto; Bishop, Lisa; Morrisseau, Kyla; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN) women in particular, endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening - the Papinacolaou (Pap) test - and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS) is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada, and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women's health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities. PMID:24600584

  11. The Cost Implications of Prostate Cancer Screening in the Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaomei; Wang, Rong; Long, Jessica B.; Ross, Joseph S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Yu, James B.; Makarov, Danil V.; Gold, Heather T.; Gross, Cary P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent debate about prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based testing for prostate cancer screening among older men has rarely considered the cost of screening. Methods We assembled a population-based cohort of male Medicare beneficiaries aged 66–99 years who had never been diagnosed with prostate cancer at the end of 2006 (n = 94,652) and followed them for three years to assess the cost of PSA screening and downstream procedures (biopsy, pathology, and hospitalization due to biopsy complications) at both the national and the hospital referral region (HRR) level. Results Approximately 51.2% of men received PSA screening tests during the three-year period, with 2.9% undergoing biopsy. The annual expenditures on prostate cancer screening by the national fee-for-service Medicare program were $447 million in 2009 US dollars. The mean annual screening cost at the HRR level ranged from $17 to $62 per beneficiary. Downstream biopsy-related procedures accounted for 72% of the overall screening costs and varied significantly across regions. Compared with men residing in HRRs that were in the lowest quartile for screening expenditures, men living in the highest HRR quartile were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer of any stage [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.35] and localized cancer (IRR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15–1.47). The IRR for regional/metastasized cancer was also elevated although not statistically significant (IRR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.81–2.11). Conclusion Medicare prostate cancer screening-related expenditures are substantial, vary considerably across regions, and are positively associated with rates of cancer diagnosis. PMID:24122801

  12. Sorting out measures and definitions of screening participation to improve comparability: the example of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Garcia, Montse; Blom, Johannes; Senore, Carlo; Mai, Verna; Klabunde, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Participation is a key indicator of the potential effectiveness of any population-based intervention. Defining, measuring and reporting participation in cancer screening programmes has become more heterogeneous as the number and diversity of interventions have increased, and the purposes of this benchmarking parameter have broadened. This study, centred on colorectal cancer, addresses current issues that affect the increasingly complex task of comparing screening participation across settings. Reports from programmes with a defined target population and active invitation scheme, published between 2005 and 2012, were reviewed. Differences in defining and measuring participation were identified and quantified, and participation indicators were grouped by aims of measure and temporal dimensions. We found that consistent terminology, clear and complete reporting of participation definition and systematic documentation of coverage by invitation were lacking. Further, adherence to definitions proposed in the 2010 European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Colorectal Cancer Screening was suboptimal. Ineligible individuals represented 1% to 15% of invitations, and variable criteria for ineligibility yielded differences in participation estimates that could obscure the interpretation of colorectal cancer screening participation internationally. Excluding ineligible individuals from the reference population enhances comparability of participation measures. Standardised measures of cumulative participation to compare screening protocols with different intervals and inclusion of time since invitation in definitions are urgently needed to improve international comparability of colorectal cancer screening participation. Recommendations to improve comparability of participation indicators in cancer screening interventions are made. PMID:24144735

  13. Circulating miR-18a: a sensitive cancer screening biomarker in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Takeshita, Hiroki; Morimura, Ryo; Hirajima, Shoji; Tsujiura, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Miyamae, Mahito; Nagata, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been reported to be stably detectable in plasma/serum and to exhibit resistance to endogenous ribonuclease activity because of binding to proteins such as Argonaute-2 and high-density lipoprotein, or being packed by secretory particles such as exosomes. These secretory particles include specific microRNAs and can function as intercellular transmitters. These findings could open-up a new and promising field in the use of circulating microRNAs for cancer treatment. In particular, miR-18a, which is located in the potentially oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster, is a highly expressed microRNAs in several types of cancers. The concentration of miR-18a in plasma/serum of patients with cancer such as esophageal (AUC=0.944), pancreatic (AUC=0.936), hepatocellular (AUC=0.881), colorectal and other types of cancers is much higher than that of healthy volunteers. Such reports provide evidence that circulating miR-18 might be a next-generation biomarker and contribute to cancer screening in non-invasive liquid biopsy, to a clinically-satisfactory degree of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:24815829

  14. Prevalence screening for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women by CA 125 measurement and ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, I; Davies, A P; Bridges, J; Stabile, I; Fay, T; Lower, A; Grudzinskas, J G; Oram, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the performance of the sequential combination of serum CA 125 measurement and ultrasonography in screening for ovarian cancer. DESIGN--The serum CA 125 concentration of each subject was determined and those with a concentration > or = 30 U/ml were recalled for abdominal ultrasonography. If ultrasonography gave abnormal results surgical investigation was arranged. Volunteers were followed up by annual postal questionnaire. SETTING--General practice, occupational health departments, ovarian cancer screening clinic. SUBJECTS--22,000 women volunteers who were postmenopausal and aged over 45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Apparent sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, years of cancer detected. RESULTS--41 women had a positive screening result and were investigated surgically. 11 had ovarian cancer (true positive result) and 30 had other disorders or no abnormality (false positive result). Of the 21,959 volunteers with a negative screening result, eight subsequently presented clinically with ovarian cancer (false negative result) and 21,951 had not developed ovarian cancer during follow up (apparent true negative result). The screening protocol achieved a specificity of 99.9%, a positive predictive value of 26.8%, and an apparent sensitivity of 78.6% and 57.9% at one year and two year follow up respectively. The estimated number of years of cancer detected by the prevalence screen was 1.4 years. CONCLUSIONS--This screening protocol is highly specific for ovarian cancer and can detect a substantial proportion of cases at a preclinical stage. Further investigation is required to determine the effect of the screening protocol on the ratio of early to late stage disease detected and on mortality from ovarian cancer. PMID:8490497

  15. Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography: an analysis of the MEDCAC decision.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mark S; Groves, Robert C; Fowler, Alpha A; Shepherd, Ray W; Cassano, Anthony D; Cafaro, Patricia L; Chestnut, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. However, among the top 4 deadliest cancers, lung cancer is the only one not subject to routine screening. Optimism for an effective lung cancer-screening examination soared after the release of the National Lung Screening Trial results in November 2011. Since then, nearly 40 major medical societies and organizations have endorsed low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. In December 2013, the United States Preventive Services Task Force also endorsed LDCT. However, the momentum for LDCT screening slowed in April 2014 when the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee (MEDCAC) panel concluded that there was not enough evidence to justify the annual use of LDCT scans for the detection of early lung cancer. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of lung cancer, the National Lung Screening Trial study results, and the growing national endorsement of LDCT from a variety of key stakeholder organizations. We subsequently analyze and offer our evidence-based counterpoints to the major assumptions underlying the MEDCAC decision. PMID:25286290

  16. Screening mammography. A missed clinical opportunity Results of the NCI (National Cancer Institute) Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and national health interview survey studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-04

    Data from seven studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were used to determine current rates of breast cancer screening and to identify the characteristics of and reasons for women not being screened. All seven studies were population-based surveys of women aged 50 to 74 years without breast cancer. While over 90% of non-Hispanic white respondents had regular sources of medical care, 46% to 76% had a clinical breast examination within the previous year, and only 25% to 41% had a mammogram. Less educated and poorer women had fewer mammograms. The two most common reasons women gave for never having had a mammogram were that they did not known they needed it and that their physician had not recommended it. Many physicians may have overlooked the opportunity to recommend mammography for older women when performing a clinical breast examination and to educate their patients about the benefit of screening mammography.

  17. Endoscopic Gastric Cancer Screening and Surveillance in High-Risk Groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major cancer problem world-wide and future incidence will likely increase due to rapidly aging population demographics. Population-based screening is being undertaken in Korea and Japan, where gastric cancer incidence rates are high, and seems to be effective in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. However, such strategies are difficult to implement in countries with a low incidence or limited resources. Thus, screening strategies should be directed towards high-risk population subgroups. Gastric cancer has a relatively long mean sojourn time, and prognosis of early-stage disease is excellent. In general population, screening at 2-year interval in Korea seems to be effective for early-stage diagnosis. In subjects with atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia, surveillance is recommended at 1 to 3 years intervals according to European and Japanese recommendation. Screening intervals for family members with sporadic gastric cancer has not yet been adequately evaluated, but 1-year interval is recommended for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer family-members. Gastric cancer patients treated by endoscopic resection are the highest-risk group, and 1-year interval surveillance can detect most metachronous gastric cancers at an early stage. Future gastric cancer surveillance strategies using endoscopy should be guided by risk-stratification assessment, and further refinement of optimal surveillance intervals is needed. PMID:25505714

  18. Available web-based teaching resources for health care professionals on screening for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Insua, Angel; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Rapidis, Alexander; Diz, Pedro; Seoane, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify websites with adequate information on oral cancer screening for healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to assess both their quality and contents. Study Design: Websites were identified using Google and HON medical professional search engines using the terms “screening for oral cancer”. The first 100 sites retrieved by each engine were analysed using the DISCERN questionnaire (reliability), the V instrument (contents on oral cancer) and further by the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Grade Level and the Flesch Reading Ease (readability). Results: The overall rating showed minimal shortcomings in the quality of the information in the websites. The coverage and correctness of information on “visual examination” was rated as fair/good, whereas updating of contents resulted very variable (eg: 81% for visual examination and 18.2% for molecular biomarkers). These results permitted to rank the websites housing relevant information for oral cancer. Top ranking websites were affiliated to the Oral Cancer Foundation (USA), WHO Collaborating Centre for oral cancer (UK) whose webpage is entitled “Oral Cancer Education and Research”, and the Clinical Guidelines maintained by the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Canada) and the British Dental Association (UK) respectively. Conclusions: There are web-based, HCP-addressed, resources on screening for oral cancer housing heterogeneous information both in quality and contents. The use of specific evaluation tools permits the selection of reliable websites on this topic with a potential to improve the existing educational gaps among HCPs. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, screening, secondary prevention, internet, teaching resources, continuous education. PMID:25475775

  19. Endoscopic gastric cancer screening and surveillance in high-risk groups.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Ju

    2014-11-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major cancer problem world-wide and future incidence will likely increase due to rapidly aging population demographics. Population-based screening is being undertaken in Korea and Japan, where gastric cancer incidence rates are high, and seems to be effective in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. However, such strategies are difficult to implement in countries with a low incidence or limited resources. Thus, screening strategies should be directed towards high-risk population subgroups. Gastric cancer has a relatively long mean sojourn time, and prognosis of early-stage disease is excellent. In general population, screening at 2-year interval in Korea seems to be effective for early-stage diagnosis. In subjects with atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia, surveillance is recommended at 1 to 3 years intervals according to European and Japanese recommendation. Screening intervals for family members with sporadic gastric cancer has not yet been adequately evaluated, but 1-year interval is recommended for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer family-members. Gastric cancer patients treated by endoscopic resection are the highest-risk group, and 1-year interval surveillance can detect most metachronous gastric cancers at an early stage. Future gastric cancer surveillance strategies using endoscopy should be guided by risk-stratification assessment, and further refinement of optimal surveillance intervals is needed. PMID:25505714

  20. The Pan-Cancer Proteomic Landscape of The Cancer Genome Atlas Projects - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos The Pan-Cancer Proteomic Landscape of The Cancer Genome Atlas Projects - Rehan Akbani The Pan-Cancer Proteomic Landscape of The Cancer Genome Atlas Projects - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symposium

  1. CA-125 change over time shows promise as screening tool for early detection of ovarian cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Evaluating its change over time, CA-125, the protein long-recognized for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, now shows promise as a screening tool for early-stage disease, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The updated findings are published in Cancer; preliminary data were first presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. If a larger study shows survival benefit, the simple blood test could offer a much-needed screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages – even in the most aggressive forms – in post-menopausal women at average risk for the disease.

  2. Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer Means Getting FIT: The Past, Present, and Future of Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Hemoglobin (FIT)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Callum G.; Halloran, Stephen P.; Young, Graeme P.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening. PMID:24672652

  3. The effect of a church-based breast cancer screening education program on mammography rates among African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Husaini, Baqar A.; Sherkat, Darren E.; Levine, Robert; Bragg, Richard; Van, Cain A.; Emerson, Janice S.; Mentes, Christina M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of breast cancer screening education programs on mammography rates among African-American women 40 years of age and over. We conducted two types of educational programs in community settings, primarily in African-American churches. Three-month follow-up interviews were used to determine whether women who participated in programming were more likely to get a mammogram if they had not had a mammogram in the last year. Our results demonstrate that the educational programs significantly increased the likelihood of getting a mammogram when compared to a control group that received no educational programming. Further, we found that the programs were effective for motivating breast cancer screening in housing projects as well as in the churches, and that the effectiveness of the programs remained even when we controlled for socioeconomic status, depression, and age. PMID:11853042

  4. Different cervical cancer screening approaches in a Chinese multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Li, N; Shi, J-F; Franceschi, S; Zhang, W-H; Dai, M; Liu, B; Zhang, Y-Z; Li, L-K; Wu, R-F; De Vuyst, H; Plummer, M; Qiao, Y-L; Clifford, G

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate alternative cervical cancer screening methods, digital colposcopy and collection of cervical exfoliated cells for liquid-based cytology (LBC) and hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing were performed among 2562 women aged 15–59 years in three study sites in the People's Republic of China (rural Shanxi province, Shenyang city in Liaoning province and Shenzhen city in Guangdong province). Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) was also evaluated independently from colposcopy. A total of 74 cases of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) were identified, and 16 CIN2+ cases were imputed among unbiopsied women to correct for verification bias. Corrected sensitivity for CIN2+ was 37% for VIA, 54% for colposcopy, 87% for LBC with a threshold of atypical cells of undetermined significance (LBC?ASCUS), 90% for HC2, 84% for LBC using HC2 to triage ASCUS and 96% for positivity to LBC?ASCUS or HC2. For VIA, sensitivity was much lower among women ?40 years (12%) than those aged ?39 years (50%). Specificity varied from 77% for positivity to LBC?ASCUS or HC2, up to 94% for LBC using HC2 to triage ASCUS. In conclusion, LBC, HC2 and their combinations performed well, whereas VIA missed a majority of CIN2+, particularly in older women. Digital colposcopy performed better than VIA, but still missed nearly half of CIN2+ in this study. PMID:19127262

  5. Portuguese women's knowledge and health beliefs about cervical cancer and its screening.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2013-01-01

    Currently little is known about Portuguese women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. In-depth, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five females were recruited, the age range was 30 to 60. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented. PMID:23461350

  6. Interventions to Enhance Breast Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Christopher M.; Blackman, Dionne J.; Peek, Monica E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify interventions designed to enhance breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment among minority women. Most trials in this area have focused on breast cancer screening, while relatively few have addressed diagnostic testing or breast cancer treatment. Among patient-targeted screening interventions, those that are culturally tailored or addressed financial or logistical barriers are generally more effective than reminder-based interventions, especially among women with fewer financial resources and those without previous mammography. Chart-based reminders increase physician adherence to mammography guidelines but are less effective at increasing clinical breast examination. Several trials demonstrate that case management is an effective strategy for expediting diagnostic testing after screening abnormalities have been found. Additional support for these and other proven health care organization-based interventions appears justified and may be necessary to eliminate racial and ethnic breast cancer disparities. PMID:17881627

  7. UCSF study examines risk reduction and screening for ovarian cancer among women following BRCA testing

    Cancer.gov

    Following BRCA testing, many women who are non-BRCA carriers undergo risk-reducing procedures and additional ovarian cancer screenings, despite limited data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions among the general population.

  8. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of Cancer Stem Cells by High-Throughput Screening

    E-print Network

    Onder, Tamer T.

    Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe ...

  9. Using Risk for Advanced Proximal Colonic Neoplasia to Tailor Endoscopic Screening for Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    USING RISK FOR ADVANCED PROXIMAL COLONIC NEOPLASIA TO TAILOR ENDOSCOPIC SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER Thomas F. Imperiale, MD, Ching Y Lin, BS, Indiana University School of Medicine; David R. Wagner, MS, James D. Rogge, MD, Indianapolis Gastroenterology

  10. UCLA researchers develop new screening system to find brain cancer stem cell killers:

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed and used a high-throughput molecular screening approach that identifies and characterizes chemical compounds that can target the stem cells that are responsible for creating deadly brain tumors.

  11. PROGRESS IN DEVELOPING AN OVARIAN CANCER SCREEN BASED ON WHISPERING GALLERY MODE IMAGING

    E-print Network

    Huckabay, Heath Aaron

    2012-05-31

    Despite considerable research devoted to identifying biomarkers for ovarian cancer, no screening method is currently available for routine early detection of the disease. While highly treatable in its early stages, a lack ...

  12. News Note: Not all doctors comply with practice guidelines for recommending colorectal cancer screenings

    Cancer.gov

    A study of nearly 1,300 primary care physicians in the United States found that only about 20 percent of those doctors recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screenings tests to their patients in accordance with current practice guidelines.

  13. Achromatized-transmission-type holographic screen for stereo imaging and the multiview projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Bobrinev, Vladimir I.; Shestak, Serguei A.; Jeon, Hyung-Wook; Lee, Seong-Keun; Kim, Kyung-tae

    1996-12-01

    The main drawback of a transmission type holographic screen is the color separation when the color images are projected on it due to its high dispersion. This drawback can be overcome by recording the screen with use of a long narrow slit type diffuser as an object. With the diffuser, a holographic screen of size 30 by 40 cm2 has been recorded to display a full color stereoscopic image. The images displayed on the screen show a good resolution and are naturally colored, except near the edges of the screen. The color distortions in the edges of the screen are reduced by a lenticular sheet attached to the screen. The lenticular sheet enlarges the viewing zone. The image that appears on the screen is bright enough to watch even in a normally illuminated room

  14. Urban Latino African American Cancer (ULAAC) Disparities Project

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Disparities Research Partnership Programs (CDRP) January 18, 2008 Urban Latino African American Cancer (ULAAC) Disparities Project Michael L. Steinberg, MD, FACR, FASTRO Principal Investigator David C. Khan, MD Co-Principal Investigator Nicole C.

  15. Sociopsychological Tailoring to Address Colorectal Cancer Screening Disparities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jerant, Anthony; Kravitz, Richard L.; Sohler, Nancy; Fiscella, Kevin; Romero, Raquel L.; Parnes, Bennett; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Slee, Christina; Dvorak, Simon; Turner, Charles; Hudnut, Andrew; Prieto, Francisco; Franks, Peter

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Interventions tailored to sociopsychological factors associated with health behaviors have promise for reducing colorectal cancer screening disparities, but limited research has assessed their impact in multiethnic populations. We examined whether an interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) tailored to expanded health belief model sociopsychological factors could promote colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample. METHODS We undertook a randomized controlled trial, comparing an IMCP tailored to colorectal cancer screening self-efficacy, knowledge, barriers, readiness, test preference, and experiences with a nontailored informational program, both delivered before office visits. The primary outcome was record-documented colorectal cancer screening during a 12-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes included postvisit sociopsychological factor status and discussion, as well as clinician recommendation of screening during office visits. We enrolled 1,164 patients stratified by ethnicity and language (49.3% non-Hispanic, 27.2% Hispanic/English, 23.4% Hispanic/Spanish) from 26 offices around 5 centers (Sacramento, California; Rochester and the Bronx, New York; Denver, Colorado; and San Antonio, Texas). RESULTS Adjusting for ethnicity/language, study center, and the previsit value of the dependent variable, compared with control patients, the IMCP led to significantly greater colorectal cancer screening knowledge, self-efficacy, readiness, test preference specificity, discussion, and recommendation. During the followup period, 132 (23%) IMCP and 123 (22%) control patients received screening (adjusted difference = 0.5 percentage points, 95% CI ?4.3 to 5.3). IMCP effects did not differ significantly by ethnicity/language. CONCLUSIONS Sociopsychological factor tailoring was no more effective than nontailored information in encouraging colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample, despite enhancing sociopsychological factors and visit behaviors associated with screening. The utility of sociopsychological tailoring in addressing screening disparities remains uncertain. PMID:24821891

  16. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Institute develops nomogram to determine individualized estimates of screen-detected prostate cancer overdiagnosis

    Cancer.gov

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Institute researchers have developed a nomogram that incorporates age, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis, so that an individual's risk that a screen-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed can be estimated.

  17. Correlations Among Poverty, Behavioral Factors, Cancer Screening, and Age-Adjusted Cancer Mortality Rates Using State-Level Data

    Cancer.gov

    129 Table 7.1. Correlations Among Poverty, Behavioral Factors, Cancer Screening, and Age-Adjusted Cancer Mortality Rates Using State-Level Data: United States, 1990?1999 (N = 51) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

  18. The impact of HPV vaccines and screening tests on cervical cancer prevention: A National Cancer Institute Science Writers' Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    An Oct. 19, 2010, science writers' seminar to discuss new research findings and future directions in HPV-related cancer research.  Among the topics discussed will be the natural history of HPV and related cancers, advances in screening techniques and tools, the role of vaccines and microbicides in prevention, both nationally and internationally, and future research directions.

  19. Integrating Men’s Health and Masculinity Theories to Explain Colorectal Cancer Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review paper, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men’s CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men’s health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men’s CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions which target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors. PMID:23813927

  20. Etiologic and early marker studies in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Hayes; Douglas Reding; William Kopp; Amy F. Subar; Narayan Bhat; Nathaniel Rothman; Neil Caporaso; Regina G. Ziegler; Christine Cole Johnson; Joel L. Weissfeld; Robert N. Hoover; Patricia Hartge; Cindy Palace; John K. Gohagan

    2000-01-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, which is randomizing 74,000 screening arm participants (37,000 men, 37,000 women; ages 55–74) and an equal number of nonscreened controls, is a unique setting for the investigation of the etiology of cancer and other diseases and for the evaluation of potential molecular markers of early disease. At entry,b aseline information is

  1. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized european study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz H. Schröder; Jonas Hugosson; Monique J. Roobol; Teuvo L. J. Tammela; Stefano Ciatto; Vera Nelen; Maciej Kwiatkowski; Marcos Lujan; Hans Lilja; Marco Zappa; Louis J. Denis; Franz Recker; A. B. Määpttänen; C. H. Bangma; G. Aus; A. Villers; X. Rébillard; Van Kwast van T. D; B. G. Blijenberg; S. M. Moss; Koning de H. J; A. Auvinen

    2009-01-01

    Background The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer was initiated in the early 1990s to evaluate the effect of screening with prostate-specific-antigen(PSA) testing on death rates from prostate cancer. Methods We identified 182,000 men between the ages of 50 and 74 years through registries in seven European countries for inclusion in our study. The men were randomly assigned

  2. A genomic screen for genes upregulated by demethylation and histone deacetylase inhibition in human colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromu Suzuki; Edward Gabrielson; Wei Chen; Ramaswamy Anbazhagan; Manon van Engeland; Matty P. Weijenberg; James G. Herman; Stephen B. Baylin

    2002-01-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of gene promoters is a major mechanism associated with inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes in cancer. We previously showed this transcriptional silencing to be mediated by both methylation and histone deacetylase activity, with methylation being dominant. Here, we have used cDNA microarray analysis to screen for genes that are epigenetically silenced in human colorectal cancer. By screening over 10,000

  3. Understanding Prostate Cancer Screenings among African American Men: Combining the Behavioral Science and Anthropological Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Yi Lu

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the perspectives from behavioral science and medical anthropology to discuss factors affecting prostate\\u000a cancer screenings among African American men. It argues that the hegemonic health behavior model historically used to frame\\u000a prostate cancer screenings without considering the context in which African American men are embedded. By the same token,\\u000a the sociocultural perspective tends to articulate the cultural

  4. Theoretical foundations for interventions designed to promote informed decision making for cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah J. Bowen; Jennifer D. Allen; Thuy Vu; Robin E. Johnson; Kelly Fryer-Edwards; Alton Hart

    2006-01-01

    Background: Decision aids are currently being developed and evaluated for use in cancer-screening decisional settings.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the theoretical basis of interventions to promote informed decision\\u000a making in cancer screening.Methods: We reviewed interventions cited in Briss et al. (1) and Rimer et al. (2) to identify their theoretical basis, intervention\\u000a content, measurement

  5. Cost-effectiveness model for colon cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Lieberman

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The relative efficacy and effectiveness of different colon screening programs has not been assessed. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a model for comparing several colon screening programs and to determine the key variables that impact program effectiveness. Methods: Five screening programs were compared: annual fecal occult blood test (FOBT) alone, flexible sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance in the Elderly: Updates and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Day, Lukejohn W.; Velayos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is common worldwide, and the elderly are disproportionately affected. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of precancerous adenomas and colorectal cancer, thus raising the issue of screening and surveillance in older patients. Elderly patients are a diverse and heterogeneous group, and special considerations such as comorbid medical conditions, functional status and cognitive ability play a role in deciding on the utility of screening and surveillance. Colorectal cancer screening can be beneficial to patients, but at certain ages and under some circumstances the harm of screening outweighs the benefits. Increasing adverse events, poorer bowel preparation and more incomplete examinations are observed in older patients undergoing colonoscopy for diagnostic, screening and surveillance purposes. Decisions regarding screening, surveillance and treatment for colorectal cancer require a multidisciplinary approach that accounts not only for the patient’s age but also for their overall health, preferences and functional status. This review provides an update and examines the challenges surrounding colorectal cancer diagnosis, screening, and treatment in the elderly. PMID:25721001

  7. Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in the elderly: updates and controversies.

    PubMed

    Day, Lukejohn W; Velayos, Fernando

    2015-03-15

    Colorectal cancer is common worldwide, and the elderly are disproportionately affected. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of precancerous adenomas and colorectal cancer, thus raising the issue of screening and surveillance in older patients. Elderly patients are a diverse and heteroge-neous group, and special considerations such as comorbid medical conditions, functional status and cognitive ability play a role in deciding on the utility of screening and sur-veillance. Colorectal cancer screening can be beneficial to patients, but at certain ages and under some circumstances the harm of screening outweighs the benefits. Increasing ad-verse events, poorer bowel preparation and more incomplete examinations are observed in older patients undergoing colo-noscopy for diagnostic, screening and surveillance purposes. Decisions regarding screening, surveillance and treatment for colorectal cancer require a multidisciplinary approach that accounts not only for the patient's age but also for their overall health, preferences and functional status. This review provides an update and examines the challenges surround-ing colorectal cancer diagnosis, screening, and treatment in the elderly. (Gut Liver, 2015;9:143-151). PMID:25721001

  8. Individually tailored screening of breast cancer with genes, tumour phenotypes, clinical attributes, and conventional risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y-Y; Yen, M-F; Yu, C-P; Chen, H-H

    2013-01-01

    Background: We demonstrated how to comprehensively translate the existing and updated scientific evidence on genomic discovery, tumour phenotype, clinical features, and conventional risk factors in association with breast cancer to facilitate individually tailored screening for breast cancer. Methods: We proposed an individual-risk-score-based approach that translates state-of-the-art scientific evidence into the initiators and promoters affecting onset and subsequent progression of breast tumour underpinning a novel multi-variable three-state temporal natural history model. We applied such a quantitative approach to a population-based Taiwanese women periodical screening cohort. Results: Risk prediction for pre-clinical detectable and clinical-detected breast cancer was made by the two risk scores to stratify the underlying population to assess the optimal age to begin screening and the inter-screening interval for each category and to ascertain which high-risk group requires an alternative image technique. The risk-score-based approach significantly reduced the interval cancer rate as a percentage of the expected rate in the absence of screening by 30% and also reduced 8.2% false positive cases compared with triennial universal screening. Conclusion: We developed a novel quantitative approach following the principle of translational research to provide a roadmap with state-of-the-art genomic discovery and clinical parameters to facilitate individually tailored breast cancer screening. PMID:23674086

  9. Mammography requests in general practice during the introduction of nationwide breast cancer screening, 1988-1995.

    PubMed

    Beemsterboer, P M; de Koning, H J; Looman, C W; Borsboom, G J; Bartelds, A I; van der Maas, P J

    1999-03-01

    Introducing an organised breast cancer screening programme for certain age groups in a population might induce opportunistic screening in adjacent (non-invited) age groups and influence health behaviour in the target population. We analysed the effect of the start of the Dutch national screening programme on the number of mammographies requested by 43-45 general practices for the age groups 30-39, 40-49, 50-69 and 70+ years, using logistic regression analysis. In all age groups an immediate increase was observed in the number of mammography requests after the start of the screening, which was largest and statistically significant in the target population of the screening programme (age 50-69 years). More than 2 years after the start of screening, the number of mammography requests in all age groups had decreased to the level before the start and in the age group 50-69 years the number of mammographies was significantly lower than before the screening started. The unexpected increase in mammographies after the start of the breast cancer screening programme might be related to registry problems or to the process of building up the screening programme. Eventually there was a decrease in the number of mammographies in the target population, probably an effect of the introduction of the national screening programme. Opportunistic screening was not clearly demonstrated in adjacent age groups. PMID:10448298

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Preventive Health Model for Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flight, Ingrid H.; Wilson, Carlene J.; McGillivray, Jane; Myers, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between…

  12. Using the Transtheoretical Model to Stage Screening Behavior for Colorectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette M. Trauth; Bruce S. Ling; Joel L. Weissfeld; Robert E. Schoen; Mutlu Hayran

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to describe the colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening behavior of a population of two lower income communities near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The transtheoretical model was used to characterize individuals according to their stage of readiness to engage in one of two recommended CRC screening tests—the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) or Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FSG) test. A telephone survey was conducted

  13. Preliminary results of primary screening for breast cancer with the Mama Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Gästrin

    1993-01-01

    Summary In 1972 a comprehensive BSE screening strategy for the early detection of breast cancer, the “Mama Program Screening” (MPS), was developed in Finland by the author on the initiative of women's organizations. The program consists of a) initial information about the facilities of the program and BSE-performance, b) prospective surveillance of the BSE-behaviour of complying women, who use a

  14. The Association of Social Support and Education with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…

  15. How should we measure informed choice? The case of cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, R; Hewison, J; Thompson, A; Weller, D

    2005-01-01

    Informed choice is increasingly recognised as important in supporting patient autonomy and ensuring that people are neither deceived nor coerced. In cancer screening the emphasis has shifted away from just promoting the benefits of screening to providing comprehensive information to enable people to make an informed choice. Cancer screening programmes in the UK now have policies in place which state that it is their responsibility to ensure that individuals are making an individual informed choice. There is a need to evaluate whether such policies mean that those people invited for screening are making informed choices, and how comprehensive information affects other variables such as uptake, cost effectiveness, and satisfaction. At the present time, there is no validated measure of informed choice in cancer screening. Such a measure could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase informed choice and levels of informed choice in a population invited for screening. It could encourage health professionals to be accountable. Factors important when measuring informed choice in cancer screening include an individual's understanding of the limitations of screening, the ability to make an autonomous choice, and the difference between choice and behaviour. PMID:15800356

  16. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaopua, Lana Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening

  17. Health Beliefs and Practices Related to Cancer Screening Among Arab Muslim Women in an Urban Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khlood Faik Salman

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study I investigated the participation status in breast and cervical cancer screening of a group of American immigrant Arab Muslim women (AMW). Perceived knowledge of and barriers to screening participation, relationships among demographic variables, health practice and beliefs, and self-reports of traditionalism and acculturation also are studied. Factors including religious and cultural beliefs, economic concerns, and modesty

  18. Determinants of participation in colonoscopic screening by siblings of colorectal cancer patients in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myriam Taouqi; Isabelle Ingrand; Michel Beauchant; Virginie Migeot; Pierre Ingrand

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Targeted colonosocopic screening is recommended for first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 60 and offers the possibility of reducing morbidity and mortality, but participation remains too low. The objective of this study was to determine in a French population the factors that affect siblings' participation in screening, notably those relating to the individuals, their

  19. Comparing Benefits from Many Possible Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Programs: Extrapolating from the National Lung Screening Trial Using Comparative Modeling

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Pamela M.; Meza, Rafael; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Black, William C.; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Erdogan, Ayca; ten Haaf, Kevin; Hazelton, William; Holford, Theodore R.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Clarke, Lauren; Kong, Chung Yin; Choi, Sung Eun; Munshi, Vidit N.; Han, Summer S.; van Rosmalen, Joost; Pinsky, Paul F.; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that in current and former smokers aged 55 to 74 years, with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking history and who had quit smoking no more than 15 years ago, 3 annual computed tomography (CT) screens reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 20% relative to 3 annual chest X-ray screens. We compared the benefits achievable with 576 lung cancer screening programs that varied CT screen number and frequency, ages of screening, and eligibility based on smoking. Methods and Findings We used five independent microsimulation models with lung cancer natural history parameters previously calibrated to the NLST to simulate life histories of the US cohort born in 1950 under all 576 programs. ‘Efficient’ (within model) programs prevented the greatest number of lung cancer deaths, compared to no screening, for a given number of CT screens. Among 120 ‘consensus efficient’ (identified as efficient across models) programs, the average starting age was 55 years, the stopping age was 80 or 85 years, the average minimum pack-years was 27, and the maximum years since quitting was 20. Among consensus efficient programs, 11% to 40% of the cohort was screened, and 153 to 846 lung cancer deaths were averted per 100,000 people. In all models, annual screening based on age and smoking eligibility in NLST was not efficient; continuing screening to age 80 or 85 years was more efficient. Conclusions Consensus results from five models identified a set of efficient screening programs that include annual CT lung cancer screening using criteria like NLST eligibility but extended to older ages. Guidelines for screening should also consider harms of screening and individual patient characteristics. PMID:24979231

  20. Multimodality breast cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Trop, I.; Lalonde, L.; Mayrand, M.H.; David, J.; Larouche, N.; Provencher, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Women with a predisposition for breast cancer require a tailored screening program for early cancer detection. We evaluated the performance of mammography (mg), ultrasonography (us), and magnetic resonance imaging (mri) screening in these women. Patients and Methods In asymptomatic women either confirmed as BRCA1/2 carriers, or having a greater than 30% probability of being so as estimated by brcapro [Berry D, Parmigiani G. Duke spore (Specialized Program of Research Excellence) in Breast Cancer. 1999], we conducted a prospective comparative trial consisting of annual mri and mg, and biannual us and clinical breast examination. All evaluations were done within 30 days of one another. For each screening round, imaging tests were independently interpreted by three radiologists. Results The study enrolled 184 women, and 387 screening rounds were performed, detecting 12 cancers (9 infiltrating, 3 in situ), for an overall cancer yield of 6.5%. At diagnosis, 7 infiltrating cancers were smaller than 2 cm (T1); only 1 woman presented with axillary nodal metastases. All tumours were negative for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Of the 12 cancers, mri detected 10, and mg, 7; us did not identify any additional cancers. The overall recall rate after mri was 21.8%, as compared with 11.4% for us and 16.1% for mg. Recall rates declined with successive screening rounds. In total, 45 biopsies were performed: 21 as a result of an us abnormality; 17, because of an mri lesion; and 7, because of a mg anomaly. Interpretation In high-risk women, mri offers the best sensitivity for breast cancer screening. The combination of yearly mri and mg reached a negative predictive value of 100%. The recall rate is greatest with mri, but declines for all modalities with successive screening rounds. PMID:20567624