Science.gov

Sample records for cancer screening project

  1. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation Rates Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

  4. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePLUS

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening ... Colon cancer screening can detect polyps and early cancers in the intestines. This type of screening can find problems ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  7. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cancer is ...

  8. Breast Cancer Screening Methods

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... medlineplus/videos/news/Screening_Methods_123015.html Breast Cancer Screening Methods HealthDay News Video - December 31, 2015 ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Breast Cancer Screening Methods For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  9. International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  11. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. PMID:26315516

  13. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Primary Care Practice Published Recommendations Draft Summary Prostate Cancer: Screening Release Date: May 2012 This topic is ... against prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer. The USPSTF recommends against the service. There is ...

  14. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  16. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Cancer) Cancer Screening ... professional Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Breast Cancer Screening ( ...

  17. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations About the USPSTF Task Force 101 Resources Our Members Our Partners Reports to ... Professionals Recommendations from The Community Preventive Services Task Force on Promoting Cancer Screening Cancer Control P.L. ...

  18. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  19. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at an older age. Having the gene for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Being white. Endometrial ... women who have or are at risk for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer , experts suggest yearly screening ...

  20. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Clinical Guideline Annals of Internal Medicine Screening for Cervical Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement Virginia ... of a high-grade precancerous cervical lesion or cervical cancer, women with in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol, or ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Mulhem, Elie; Fulbright, Nikolaus; Duncan, Norah

    2015-10-15

    Among American men, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has been used to screen for prostate cancer for more than 25 years, the test has low sensitivity and specificity, and there is no clear evidence for determining what threshold warrants prostate biopsy. Only one of five randomized controlled trials of PSA screening showed an effect on prostate cancer-specific mortality, and the absolute reduction in deaths from prostate cancer was one per 781 men screened after 13 years of follow-up. None of the trials showed benefit in all-cause mortality, and screening increased prostate cancer diagnoses by about 60%. Harms of screening include adverse effects from prostate biopsy, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and anxiety. One-half of screen-detected prostate cancers will not cause symptoms in the patient's lifetime, and 80% to 85% of men who choose observation will not die from prostate cancer within 15 years. Adverse effects of radical prostatectomy include perioperative complications, erectile dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. Radiation therapy can cause acute toxicity leading to urinary urgency, dysuria, diarrhea, and rectal pain; late toxicity includes erectile dysfunction, rectal bleeding, and urethral stricture. Despite variations across guidelines, no organization recommends routine PSA testing, and all endorse some form of shared decision-making before testing. If screening is performed, it should generally be discontinued at 70 years of age. PMID:26554408

  2. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Deffebach, Mark E; Humphrey, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Screening for lung cancer in high-risk individuals with annual low-dose computed tomography has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% and is recommended by multiple health care organizations. Lung cancer screening is not a specific test; it is a process that involves appropriate selection of high-risk individuals, careful interpretation and follow-up of imaging, and annual testing. Screening should be performed in the context of a multidisciplinary program experienced in the diagnosis and management of lung nodules and early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26315517

  3. Lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Lynn T; Tanner, Nichole T; Gould, Michael K; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. This recommendation is largely based on the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial. Both policy-level and clinical decision-making about LDCT screening must consider the potential benefits of screening (reduced mortality from lung cancer) and possible harms. Effective screening requires an appreciation that screening should be limited to individuals at high risk of death from lung cancer, and that the risk of harm related to false positive findings, overdiagnosis, and unnecessary invasive testing is real. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of screening will inform appropriate implementation, with the objective that an evidence-based and systematic approach to screening will help to reduce the enormous mortality burden of lung cancer. PMID:25369325

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Screening methods used to find cervical changes that may lead to cervical cancer include the Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Such screening tests may find cancers early, when they are most treatable. Women who have never been screened or who have not been screened in the past 5 years face a greater risk of developing invasive cervical cancer.

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  7. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Biomarkers and Screening Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  8. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries. The consortium meets once every two to three years, and began as a small group of 16 collaborators in 1997.

  9. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:26162490

  10. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... screening coverage in your state. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program States are making breast cancer ... Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) . The NBCCEDP attempts to ...

  11. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers. PMID:24160954

  12. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  13. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Sarah A; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-02-01

    Cancer screening is an important tool for reducing morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this article, performance characteristics of commonly used screening tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers are discussed. Guidelines are emphasized and key issues to consider in screening older adults are highlighted. PMID:26614858

  14. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at an older age. Having the gene for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Being white. Endometrial ... women who have or are at risk for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer , experts suggest yearly screening ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1. Colorectal cancer screening prevents cancer and saves lives. ??Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon or rec- tum, and is often called simply “colon cancer.” It is the #2 cause of cancer deaths in the United States and kills more nonsmokers than any other cancer. African American ...

  16. New Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cervical Cancer Screening HPV About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  17. Testicular Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 15 to 34 years. Testicular cancer is very ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  18. Community collaboration to increase foreign-born women¿s participation in a cervical cancer screening program in Sweden: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevailing inequities in healthcare have been well addressed in previous research, especially screening program participation, but less attention has been paid to how to overcome these inequities. This paper explores a key factor of a successful improvement project: collaboration with local doulas to raise cervical cancer screening participation by more than 40 percent in an area with a large number of foreign-born residents. Methods Data was collected through two focus group discussions with the doulas in order to design interventions and debrief after interventions had been carried out in the community. Various tools were used to analyze the verbal data and monitor the progress of the project. Results Three major themes emerged from the focus group discussions: barriers that prevent women from participating in the cervical cancer screening program, interventions to increase participation, and the role of the doulas in the interventions. Conclusions This paper suggests that several barriers make participation in cervical cancer screening program more difficult for foreign-born women in Sweden. Specifically, these barriers include lack of knowledge concerning cancer and the importance of preventive healthcare services and practical obstacles such as unavailable child care and language skills. The overarching approach to surmount these barriers was to engage persons with a shared cultural background and mother tongue as the target audience to verbally communicate information. The doulas who helped to identify barriers and plan and execute interventions gained increased confidence and a sense of pride in assisting to bridge the gap between healthcare providers and users. PMID:25106490

  19. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  20. Breast Cancer Screening Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. Source for graph data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cancer ...

  1. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normally line the intestines ). Polyps in the stomach. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Having a ... the following: Partial gastrectomy . Polyps in the stomach. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). People who ...

  2. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  3. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the type of cells that become malignant (cancerous): Squamous cell carcinoma : Cancer that begins in squamous cells , the thin, ... adenocarcinoma each year and fewer new cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is found ...

  4. CHEST Supplement Screening for Lung Cancer

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    e78S CHEST Supplement Screening for Lung Cancer DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF LUNG CANCER, 3RD ED individuals). 3.2.2. In patients at risk for developing lung cancer, screening for lung cancer with sputum are age 55 to 74 and who have smoked for Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer

  5. Colorectal cancer screening in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Zavada, Filip; Dusek, Ladislav; Muzik, Jan; Seifert, Bohumil; Fric, Premysl

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent malignant disease in Europe. Every year, 412?000 people are diagnosed with this condition, and 207?000 patients die of it. In 2003, recommendations for screening programs were issued by the Council of the European Union (EU), and these currently serve as the basis for the preparation of European guidelines for CRC screening. The manner in which CRC screening is carried out varies significantly from country to country within the EU, both in terms of organization and the screening test chosen. A screening program of one sort or another has been implemented in 19 of 27 EU countries. The most frequently applied method is testing stool for occult bleeding (fecal occult blood test, FOBT). In recent years, a screening colonoscopy has been introduced, either as the only method (Poland) or the method of choice (Germany, Czech Republic). PMID:20014454

  6. Can you screen for ovarian cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, M. L.; Parham, G.

    1995-01-01

    Screening for ovarian cancer has become an area of great interest because of the high mortality rate associated with advanced ovarian cancer. This article discusses the requirements for a test to be considered a screening modality, outlines the current methodology used in ovarian cancer screening, addresses the shortcomings as well as problems related to cost effectiveness with the current screening modalities, and identifies special circumstances in which ovarian cancer screening may be beneficial. PMID:7897681

  7. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  8. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  9. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    Covell, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions. PMID:26132924

  10. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Covell, David G

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions. PMID:26132924

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in men than in women. Age and health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening (PSA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Medicare drug coverage Costs for Medicare health plans Ways to pay Part A & Part B premiums Costs at a glance What Medicare Covers ... coverage choices What Part A covers What Part B covers What drug plans cover What Medicare health plans cover Preventive & screening ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screenings (Coverage)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Medicare drug coverage Costs for Medicare health plans Ways to pay Part A & Part B premiums Costs at a glance What Medicare Covers ... coverage choices What Part A covers What Part B covers What drug plans cover What Medicare health plans cover Preventive & screening ...

  14. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Audit Feedback on Reading Performance of Screening Mammograms

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  15. ICSN Collaborative Projects: Colorectal Cancer Cost Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

  16. Lung cancer screening: identifying the high risk cohort

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Michael W.; Raji, Olaide Y.

    2015-01-01

    Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a viable screening tool for early lung cancer detection and mortality reduction. In practice, the success of any lung cancer screening programme will depend on successful identification of individuals at high risk in order to maximise the benefit-harm ratio. Risk prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors have been recognised as a method of identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. Identification of individuals at high risk will facilitate early diagnosis, reduce overall costs and also improve the current poor survival from lung cancer. This review summarises the current methods utilised in identifying high risk cohorts for lung cancer as proposed by the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) risk model, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial risk models and the prediction model for lung cancer death using quintiles. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of CT screening and future perspective for selecting high risk individuals is discussed. PMID:25984362

  17. Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pre-cancers are treated Next Topic Additional resources Cervical cancer prevention and screening: Financial issues Financial issues can ... to tell you up front. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program All states are making cervical ...

  18. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  19. Unique interactive projection display screen

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  20. www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Screening

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Screening Guest Experts: Lynn Tanoue, MD Professor of Therapeutic Radiology and an expert in the use of radiation to treat lung cancers and cutaneous lymphomas Oncology Program. Dr. Detterbeck and I also co- direct the new Yale Lung Cancer and Lung Nodule Screening

  1. Interval cancers in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Fracheboud, J; Koning, H J de; Beemsterboer, P M M; Boer, R; Verbeek, A L M; Hendriks, J H C L; Ineveld, B M van; Broeders, M J M; Bruyn, A E de; Maas, P J van der

    1999-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme in The Netherlands for women aged 50–69 started in 1989. In our study we assessed the occurrence and stage distribution of interval cancers in women screened during 1990–1993. Records of 0.84 million screened women were linked to the regional cancer registries yielding a follow-up of at least 2.5 years. Age-adjusted incidence rates and relative (proportionate) incidences per tumour size including ductal carcinoma in-situ were calculated for screen-detected and interval cancers, and cancers in not (yet) screened women, comparing them with published data from the UK regions North West and East Anglia. In total 1527 interval cancers were identified: 0.95 and 0.99 per 1000 woman-years of follow-up in the 2-year interval after initial and subsequent screens respectively. In the first year after initial screening interval cancers amounted to 27% (26% after subsequent screens) of underlying incidence, and in the second year to 52% (55%). Generally, interval cancers had a more favourable tumour size distribution than breast cancer in not (yet) screened women. The Dutch programme detected relatively less (favourable) invasive cancers in initial screens than the UK programme, whereas the number of interval cancers confirms UK findings. Measures should be considered to improve the detection of small invasive cancers and to reduce false-negative rates, even if this will lead to increasing referral rates. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10555768

  2. Organizational Factors and the Cancer Screening Process

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Jane; Edwards, Heather; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer screening is a process of care consisting of several steps and interfaces. This article reviews what is known about the association between organizational factors and cancer screening rates and examines how organizational strategies can address the steps and interfaces of cancer screening in the context of both intraorganizational and interorganizational processes. We reviewed 79 studies assessing the relationship between organizational factors and cancer screening. Screening rates are largely driven by strategies to 1) limit the number of interfaces across organizational boundaries; 2) recruit patients, promote referrals, and facilitate appointment scheduling; and 3) promote continuous patient care. Optimal screening rates can be achieved when health-care organizations tailor strategies to the steps and interfaces in the cancer screening process that are most critical for their organizations, the providers who work within them, and the patients they serve. PMID:20386053

  3. Impact of Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines on Screening for Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Ursu, Allison; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack

    2015-01-01

    The highest prevalence of chlamydia infection in the United States is among people aged 15 to 24 years. We assessed the impact of not doing routine cervical cancer screening on the rates of chlamydia screening in women aged 15 to 21 years. We classified visits to family medicine ambulatory clinics according to their timing relative to the 2009 guideline change that led to more restrictive cervical cancer screening. Women had higher odds of being screened for chlamydia before vs after the guideline change (odds ratio = 13.97; 95% CI, 9.17-21.29; P <.001). Chlamydia and cervical cancer screening need to be uncoupled and new screening opportunities should be identified. PMID:26195682

  4. CRN - Cancer Screening Research: Ovarian Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The objective of this project is to describe end of life care and factors that may be associated with care (or lack of it) for women who die of ovarian cancer. An important goal of this study is to examine end-of-life care among a group of these patients who are diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. A special focus of this project is the experience of end-of-life care in managed care organizations.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Short, Matthew W; Layton, Miles C; Teer, Bethany N; Domagalski, Jason E

    2015-01-15

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women. The incidence and mortality rate of the disease have been declining over the past two decades because of early detection and treatment. Screening in persons at average risk should begin at 50 years of age; the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening after 75 years of age. Options for screening include high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing annually, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years with high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every three years, or colonoscopy every 10 years. In 2012, the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer updated its surveillance guidelines to promote the appropriate use of colonoscopy resources and reduce harms from delayed or unnecessary procedures; these guidelines provide recommendations for when to repeat colonoscopy based on findings. Adenomatous and serrated polyps have malignant potential and warrant early surveillance colonoscopy. Patients with one or two tubular adenomas that are smaller than 10 mm should have a repeat colonoscopy in five to 10 years. Repeat colonoscopy at five years is recommended for patients with nondysplastic serrated polyps that are smaller than 10 mm. Patients with three to 10 adenomas found during a single colonoscopy, an adenoma or serrated polyp that is 10 mm or larger, an adenoma with villous features or high-grade dysplasia, a sessile serrated polyp with cytologic dysplasia, or a traditional serrated adenoma are at increased risk of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance and should have a repeat colonoscopy in three years. More than 10 synchronous adenomas warrant surveillance colonoscopy in less than three years. Colonoscopy may be repeated in 10 years if distal, small (less than 10 mm) hyperplastic polyps are the only finding. PMID:25591210

  6. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Coelho, Debora Lucciola; De Lima, David Correa Alves; Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates. PMID:26688708

  7. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  8. Implementation of HPV-testing for cervical cancer screening in programmatic contexts: The Jujuy demonstration project in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Arrossi, Silvina; Thouyaret, Laura; Laudi, Rosa; Marín, Oscar; Ramírez, Josefina; Paolino, Melisa; Herrero, Rolando; Campanera, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present results of programmatic introduction of HPV testing with cytologic triage among women 30 years and older in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, including description of the planning phase and results of program performance during the first year. We describe the project implementation process, and calculate key performance indicators using SITAM, the national screening information system. We also compare disease detection rates of HPV testing in 2012 with cytology as performed during the previous year. HPV testing with cytology triage was introduced through a consensus-building process. Key activities included establishment of algorithms and guidelines, creating the HPV laboratory, training of health professionals, information campaigns for women and designing the referral network. By the end of 2012, 100% (n?=?270) of public health care centers were offering HPV testing and 22,834 women had been HPV tested, 98.5% (n?=?22,515) were 30+. HPV positivity among women over 30 was 12.7%, 807 women were HPV+ and had abnormal cytology, and 281 CIN2+ were identified. CIN2+ detection rates was 1.25 in 2012 and 0.62 in 2011 when the program was cytology based (p?=?0.0002). This project showed that effective introduction of HPV testing in programmatic contexts of low-middle income settings is feasible and detects more disease than cytology. PMID:25807897

  9. Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Screening as Appropriate Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate Colorectal cancer is the second ... Age Group Percentage of Adults Who Receive Recommended Colorectal Cancer Screening by Age Group 78pm-ubty Download these ...

  10. Panel's strategies to increase colorectal cancer screening

    Cancer.gov

    Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other types of cancer, particularly breast and cervical. Although the screening rates in the target population--adults over age 50--have increased from 20-30 percent in 1997 to

  11. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  12. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing. This study compares screening of 50,000 women in 10 Latin American countries for visual, cytological, and molecular triage methods, or combination of these methods, for their performance and cost-effectiveness among women participating in HPV-based screening programs.

  13. CRN - Cancer Screening Research: DETECT Study

    Cancer.gov

    DETECT is based on the notion that all women in HMOs have access to screening and care but some still have unfortunate outcomes. The question is why. Working with colleagues from nine HMOs around the United States, the DETECT team is evaluating whether late-stage breast and invasive cervical cancers occur because women are not screened, cancers are not detected when screening occurs, or follow-up does not occur when an abnormality is found.

  14. Screening for cervical cancer in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, H

    1999-04-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in Jamaica despite the availability of Pap smear screening. 90% of women who die from cervical cancer have never been screened. The effectiveness of Pap smear screening depends on women's knowledge of and attitudes toward screening, the availability of this service, the adequacy of laboratory facilities to process the smears, staffing of clinics and laboratories, quality control, a system of recall of women with positive smears, and economic factors. This article reviews the impact of each of these factors in the Jamaican context. Most women have heard of the Pap smear but believe its purpose is to detect rather than prevent cervical cancer. Screening rates are low among poor, uneducated women. As a result of staff shortages in government laboratories, there is a long delay before Pap smear results are returned. The problem of cervical cancer is severe enough in Jamaica to justify the reallocation of funds from less critical areas. PMID:12349102

  15. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  16. Prostate Cancer Pathology, Screening, and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, E. David; Miller, Gary J; Labrie, Fernand; Hirano, Daisaku; Batuello, Joseph; Glodé, L Michael

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of prostate cancer pathology, screening methods, and epidemiology were discussed at the 11th International Prostate Cancer Update. Regarding pathology, Dr. Gary Miller enumerated several factors that lead to the perception of prostate cancer as “unpredictable.” These include the disease’s multifocal nature, variable progression rates, and the uncertainty regarding the point at which carcinomas metastasize. Screening methods have been the subject of research by the Laval University Prostate Cancer Screening Program since 1988. Dr. Fernand Labrie presented the results of this 10-year study. Dr. Daisaku Hirano presented data from his studies of prostate cancer epidemiology in Japan as compared to the United States. The role of environmental factors, particularly diet, in prostate cancer pathogenesis and development is supported by the increase of the disease in Japan, concurrent with the “westernization” of diet there. Finally, useful information was presented on new computer- and Internet-based diagnostic and research tools. PMID:16985996

  17. The Korean guideline for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Suh, Mina; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lim, Myong Cheol; Choi, Jaekyung; Ki, Moran; Kim, Yong Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Jea Hoon; Park, Eal Whan; Lee, Hoo Yeon; Lim, Sung Chul; Cho, Chi Heum; Hong, Sung Ran; Dang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Yeol; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-07-01

    The incidence rate of cervical cancer in Korea is still higher than in other developed countries, notwithstanding the national mass-screening program. Furthermore, a new method has been introduced in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, the committee for cervical cancer screening in Korea updated the recommendation statement established in 2002. The new version of the guideline was developed by the committee using evidence-based methods. The committee reviewed the evidence for the benefits and harms of the Papanicolaou test, liquid-based cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and reached conclusions after deliberation. The committee recommends screening for cervical cancer with cytology (Papanicolaou test or liquid-based cytology) every three years in women older than 20 years of age (recommendation A). The cervical cytology combined with HPV test is optionally recommended after taking into consideration individual risk or preference (recommendation C). The current evidence for primary HPV screening is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening (recommendation I). Cervical cancer screening can be terminated at the age of 74 years if more than three consecutive negative cytology reports have been confirmed within 10 years (recommendation D). PMID:26197860

  18. Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

  19. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer screening in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hillemanns, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With the adoption of the Cancer Screening and Registration Law (KFRG, 2013) based on the National Cancer Plan, the so far opportunistic cervical cancer screening in Germany is to be converted to an organized screening program. This decision in Germany is consistent with the new EU Guidelines and, in anticipation of the upcoming German S3 guideline for cervical cancer screening. PMID:26514679

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is right. ? The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends against PSA screening to detect prostate cancer [ ... evidence update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149:192. Moyer VA, ...

  1. BCSC Screening Performance Benchmarks: Cancers (2009 Data)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Cancers for 2,061,691 Screening Mammography Examinations from 2004 - 2008 -- based on BCSC data through

  2. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easiest to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. If breast ... women’s health specialist, radiologist, physician’s assistant, or other healthcare professional. Resources CDC's Campaign: "Breast Cancer Screening: The ...

  3. Tests and investigations for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Magdalen R R; Seaman, Helen E; Halloran, Stephen P

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, colorectal (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer, after lung and breast cancer, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death, although in developed countries CRC incidence is higher and it accounts for an even higher proportion of cancer deaths. Successful treatment of early-stage CRC confers substantial survival advantage, and there is now overwhelming evidence that screening average-risk individuals for CRC reduces the incidence and disease-specific mortality. In spite of considerable research for new biomarkers for CRC, the detection of blood in faeces remains the most effective screening tool. The best evidence to date for population-based CRC screening comes from randomised-controlled trials that used a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBt) as the first-line screening modality, whereby test-positive individuals are referred for follow-up investigations, usually colonoscopy. A major innovation in the last ten years or so has been the development of other more analytically sensitive and specific screening techniques for blood in faeces. The faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) confers substantial benefits over gFOBt in terms of analytical sensitivity, specificity and practicality and FIT are now recommended for CRC screening by the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. The challenge internationally is to develop high quality CRC screening programmes for which uptake is high. This is especially important for developing countries witnessing an increase in the incidence of CRC as populations adopt more westernised lifestyles. This review describes the tests available for CRC screening and how they are being used worldwide. The reader will gain an understanding of developments in CRC screening and issues that arise in choosing the most appropriate screening test (or tests) for organised population-based screening internationally and optimising the performance of the chosen test (or tests). Whilst a wide range of literature has been cited, this is not a systematic review. The authors provide FOBT CRC screening for a population of 14.6 million in the south of England and the senior author (SPH) was the lead author of the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis and leads the World Endoscopy Organization Colorectal Cancer Committee's Expert Working Group on 'FIT for Screening'. PMID:24769265

  4. Awareness of cancer and cancer screening by Korean community residents.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kwon, Myung Soon; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was through a survey of awareness of cancer and cancer screening of Korean community residents to identify the stereotypes of cancer and bases for development of improved screening programs for early detection. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were over 30 years and under 69 years old. The total was 2,700 persons which underwent structured telephone survey questionnaires considered with specific rates of gender, region, and age. For statistical analysis, PASW Statistics 17.0 WIN was utilized. Frequency analysis, the Chi-square (??) test for univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed. The awareness of cancer and cancer screening in subjects differed by gender, region and age. For the idea of cancer, women thought about death less than men (OR: 0.73, p<0.001). On the other hand, women had negative thoughts - fear/terror/suffering/pain/pain - more than their male counterparts (OR: 2.04, p<0.001). Next, for the idea of cancer screening, women recognized fear/terror more than men (OR: 1.38, p<0.01). The higher age, the more tension/anxiety/worry/burden/irritated/pressure (OR: 1.43, p<0.01, OR: 2.15, p<0.001, OR: 2.49, p<0.001)). People may be reminded of fear and death for cancer and of fear, terror, tension and anxiety for cancer screening. To change vague fear and negative attitudes of cancer could increase the rate of cancer screening as well as help to improve the quality of life for community cancer survivors and facilitate return to normal social life. Therefore, it is necessary to provide promotion and education to improve the awareness of cancer and cancer screening. PMID:24998568

  5. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  6. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  7. Cervical cancer screening: Less testing, smarter testing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Sikon, Andrea; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda

    2011-11-01

    In its 2009 recommendations for cervical cancer screening, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) calls for less-frequent but smarter screening that integrates testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. We review the recommendations from this and other organizations and how and why they are evolving. PMID:22049541

  8. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age of 40 years, and from then on every 2 years until the age of 70-75 years. For cervical cancer, if cytology (Pap) testing is used for screening, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 25-30 years and from then on every 3 or 5 years. If human papillomavirus testing is used for screening, most women are invited starting at the age of 35 years (usually not before age 30 years) and from then on every 5 years or more. Irrespective of the test used, women continue participating in screening until the age of 60 or 65 years, and continue beyond this age unless the most recent test results are normal. PMID:26596722

  9. Chemoprevention studies within lung cancer screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, G; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A; Infante, M; Bonanni, B

    2015-01-01

    While aggressive tobacco control and help to stop smoking are essential weapons in the fight against lung cancer, screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk populations and chemoprevention may also contribute to reducing lung cancer deaths. Persons undergoing LDCT screening are an ideal population to be tested for agents potentially able to prevent the development of lung cancer by the regression of precancerous lesions, which are routinely monitored as part of the screening process. Peripheral subsolid nodules appear as particularly suitable targets, since many are adenocarcinoma precursors. A study on inhaled budesonide (a potential chemopreventive drug) for 1 year found that the mean size of non-solid lung nodules was significantly reduced over 5 years of follow-up, compared to inhaled placebo, in a population of high-risk individuals with indeterminate lung nodules not requiring immediate specific investigation for lung cancer and detected as part of a lung cancer screening program with LDCT. A new randomised placebo-controlled phase-II trial to test the ability of aspirin to induce the regression of non-solid and partially solid nodules detected by LDCT screening has been started. The effect of aspirin on a miRNA signature able to predict the presence of both cancer and precancerous lesions in high-risk asymptomatic individuals is also being monitored in the trial. This signature was previously shown to predict the presence of both lung cancer and non-solid lung nodules in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:26635901

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Randomized Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. By using screening tests for cancer, doctors may be able to discover and treat cancers that might otherwise kill a person.

  12. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the type of cells that become malignant (cancerous): Squamous cell carcinoma : Cancer that begins in squamous cells , the thin, ... adenocarcinoma each year and fewer new cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is found ...

  13. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...

  14. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Sickles, E.A. )

    1991-10-01

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill.

  15. BCSC Reports Novel Findings in Breast Cancer Risk and Screening Effectiveness

    Cancer.gov

    In its first two years of funding, the "Risk-Based Breast Cancer Screening in Community Settings" (BCSC-P01) program project achieved major advances in understanding breast cancer risk, effectiveness of screening mammography in women at elevated risk, and use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The studies summarized below represent the first time these findings have been reported in scientific journals.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening: The Northern Trust Experience

    PubMed Central

    Neely, David; Campbell, William; Davey, Philip; Rodgers, Colin; McCrory, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer with resulting major mortality. In a bid to reduce the mortality, bowel cancer screening has been established in the United Kingdom. The screening programme was commenced in Northern Ireland in 2010 within the Northern Health and Social Care Trust, following its implementation in England and Scotland. This study aimed to look at early outcome data for bowel cancer screening in Northern Ireland and compare data with other regions in the UK. Design: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who tested faecal occult blood (FOB) positive and attended for pre-assessment between May 2010 and May 2011. Data was also collected from the computerised endoscopy database (Endoscribe®). Patient demographics, colonoscopic depth of insertion, findings and complications were documented. Subsequent surgical management, pathological staging and final outcome were also noted. Results: 182 patients attended for pre-assessment in the time frame and 178 patients proceeded to colonoscopy. The commonest pathology encountered was polyps, identified in 95 (52.7%) patients. Macroscopically 13 cancers were seen on endoscopy and a further two were found on post-operative histology of polyps that were not amenable to endoscopic resection. In addition, 5 malignant polyps were found on histological analysis of the excised polyps. The staging of cancers was favourable with 35% being Dukes’ A stage. Conclusion: Outcomes from the first year of colorectal cancer screening in the Northern Trust are in keeping with early results from previous studies in terms of cancer detection rates per colonoscopy and proportion of early stage cancers. However, the adenoma detection rate was higher than anticipated. PMID:24505151

  17. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  18. Attitudes Toward Colorectal Cancer Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Bruce S; Moskowitz, Mark A; Wachs, David; Pearson, Brad; Schroy, Paul C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine patient and physician preferences in regard to 5 colorectal cancer screening alternatives endorsed by a 1997 expert panel, determine the impact of patient and physician values regarding certain test features on screening preference, and assess physicians' perceptions of patients' values. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING A general internal medicine practice at an academic medical center in 1998. PARTICIPANTS Patients (N = 217; 76% response rate) and physicians (N = 39; 87% response rate) at the study setting. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Patients preferred fecal occult blood testing (43%) or colonoscopy (40%). In patients for whom accuracy was the most important test feature, colonoscopy (62%) was the preferred screening method. Patients for whom invasive test features were more important preferred fecal occult blood testing (76%; P < .001). Patients and physicians were similar in their values regarding the various test features. However, there was a significant difference between physicians' perceptions of which test features were important to patients compared with the patients' actual responses (P < .001). The largest discrepancy was for accuracy (patient actual 54% vs physician opinion 15%) and discomfort (patient actual 15% vs physician opinion 64%). CONCLUSIONS Patients have distinct preferences for colorectal cancer screening tests that are associated with the importance placed on certain test features. Physicians incorrectly perceive those factors that are important to patients. Physicians should incorporate patient values in regard to certain test features when discussing colorectal cancer screening with their patients and when eliciting their screening preferences. PMID:11903761

  19. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in men than in women. Age and health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from ...

  20. Lung cancer screening guidelines: common ground and differences.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Swati; Mulshine, James L

    2014-06-01

    Lung cancer accounts for almost one-third of all cancer related deaths. Lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation and so many lung cancers now are diagnosed in former smokers. Five-year survival of lung cancer has marginally improved over decades and significantly lags behind that of colon, breast and prostate cancer. Over the past one decade, lung cancer screening trials have shown promising results. Results from National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), have shown a significant 20% reduction in mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Based on these results, annual LDCT testing has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high risk population. However, development and acceptance of lung cancer screening as a public health policy is still in the nascent stages. Major concerns relate to risk of radiation, overdiagnosis bias, proportion of false positives and cost benefit analysis. This article reviews the literature pertaining to lung cancer screening guidelines and above mentioned concerns. PMID:25806292

  1. Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer.

    PubMed

    Lambert, René

    2012-12-16

    The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett's esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer. PMID:23293721

  2. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  3. Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    In this audio clip, Drs. Lisa Schwartz and Steven Woloshin of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy discuss the benefits and harms of cancer screening and highlight popular misconceptions about cancer screening statistics.

  4. Cervical cancer screening: what's new and what's coming?

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Lipold, Laura; McKenzie, Margaret; Sikon, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    In their 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, several organizations call for less-frequent but more-effective screening that incorporates testing for human papillomavirus (HPV). We review these recommendations and the possible future direction of screening. PMID:23456465

  5. Thinking beyond the treatment effect in screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saurabh

    2015-08-01

    In the optimism surrounding screening for lung cancer, the downsides of screening should not be ignored. The article examines the dark side of screening, which is not an unmitigated good. PMID:26100199

  6. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  8. Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using Absolute Risk Prediction

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using Absolute Risk Prediction Stephanie A. Kovalchik skovalch@rand.org FHCRC 2014 Risk Prediction Symposium June 11, 2014 1 #12;Outline · Lung Cancer Epidemiology and Screening · Screening Benefit and Absolute Risk · Absolute Risk Model for Lung Cancer

  9. Cancer Screening: Should Cancer Screening be Essential Component of Primary Health Care in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Balasubramanium, Ganesh; Kumar, Abhinendra; Jain, Aanchal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a fatal disease and is on the rise across the globe. In India, breast, cervix and the oral cavity are the leading cancer sites, but, unfortunately, in-spite of availability of screening tools, there is no organized cancer screening program in India. The main objective of this study was to review the performance of various cancer screening modalities in a resource poor setting. Methods: MEDLINE and web of science electronic database was searched from January 1990 to December 2013, using keywords such as “breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer and their corresponding mesh terms were also used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies published in English and conducted in India. A total of 16 studies was found relevant and eligible for the review. The data on sensitivity and specificity of various screening tool was extracted and analyzed. Results: Most of the reported screening trails in India are on cervical cancer and few on breast and oral cancer screening. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of cervical cancer screening test such as visual inspection with acetic acid, magnified visual inspection with acetic acid, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine, cytology (Papanicolaou smear) and human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid was found to be 68.76% and 84.02%, 63.27% and 85.43%, 81.86% and 87.03%, 63.25% and 93.17% and 75.04% and 91.66%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical breast examination was found to be 94.30% and 94.30%, respectively. Oral cancer screening through visual inspection by trained health care worker was found to have 87.90% sensitivity and 92.05% specificity. Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries. PMID:26236443

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Sigmoidoscopy—Regular sigmoidoscopy can increase one’s chances of surviving colorectal cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends sigmoidoscopy for adults aged 50 to 75 years once every 5 years, when conducted along with high-sensitivity FOBT once every 3 years.

  11. Screening to Detect Cancer-Colon and Rectal Cancer (Video Playlist)

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Barry Kramer summaries the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dr. Christine Berg discuss the results of the colorectal cancer arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. View

  12. State of the Art Review: Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Slomka, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S., the burden of this disease could be dramatically reduced by increased utilization of screening. Evidence-based recommendations and guidelines from national societies recommend screening all average risk adults starting at age fifty. However, the myriad of screening options and slight differences in screening recommendations between guidelines may lead to confusion among patients and their primary care providers. This goal of this review is to briefly summarize the colorectal cancer screening guidelines issued by three major organizations, compare their recommendations, and address emerging issues in colorectal cancer screening. PMID:23539676

  13. Barriers to Cancer Screening by Rural Appalachian Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Renee; Tudiver, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Rural Appalachia has significantly higher overall cancer mortality compared with national rates, and lack of cancer screening is believed to be one of the contributing factors. Reducing the cancer disparity in this region must include strategies to address suboptimal cancer screening practices by rural Appalachian primary care providers (PCPs). To…

  14. Microfluidic Devices for Cancer Screening by N-Glycan Analysis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Project Summary A microfluidic-based screening method will be developed to differentiate different disease states of cancer. The screening method is based on high-resolution microchip electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. N-Glycan profiles are generated for all samples and compared by statistical analysis. The method relies on the analysis of the entire N-glycan profile, not a single biomarker, to provide sufficient differentiation among control individuals, patients suffering from various stages of cancer, and patients with pre-malignant diseases.

  15. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  16. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals. PMID:25635703

  17. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical procedure. Efforts to improve the practice of colonoscopy will be described. Another limitation of the current practice is the inability to detect polypoid neoplasia that is hidden from view under white light imaging by the natural folds that occur within the colon. A device to overcome this limitation will also be described. Efforts to improve colorectal cancer screening (and thereby decrease the death rate of this second leading cause of cancer death in the United States) are progressing in many arenas. The researcher, basic or clinical, should maintain an up to date overview of the field and how each new technological advance is likely to have a role in the screening and early detection of colorectal cancer.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening Activities in ICSN Countries

    Cancer.gov

    Targeted Prevention Programs Branch Canberra, ACT, Australia Following the successful pilot program that ran from 2002-2004, a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program which uses immunochemical FOBT, followed by colonoscopy if indicated, will be introduced. The first phase of the program (2006-2008) will target people turning 55 or 65 years of age between 1 May 2006 and 30 June 2008 and those who participated in the pilot program.

  20. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. The underlying rationale for the trial is that screening for cancer may enable doctors to discover and treat the disease earlier. Numerous epidemiologic and ancillary studies are included to answer related crucial questions.

  1. Effectively Communicating Colorectal Cancer Screening Information to Primary Care Providers: Application for State, Tribe or Territory Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Jennifer; Vanderpool, Robin; McClung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients are more likely to be screened for colorectal cancer if it is recommended by a health care provider. Therefore, it is imperative that providers have access to the latest screening guidelines. Purpose: This practice-based project sought to identify Kentucky primary care providers' preferred sources and methods of receiving…

  2. Screening All Women for Breast Cancer Genes Not Feasible

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154586.html Screening All Women for Breast Cancer Genes Not Feasible: Study ... 2015 FRIDAY, Sept. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Screening all women for gene mutations that increase the risk ...

  3. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods. PMID:25167359

  4. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    PubMed

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible in combination with cytology. Various models and approaches are in the testing phase and appear promising. HPV testing is on the other hand well accepted and recommended as a triage test to select women with equivocal smear results (Pap group III, ASCUS) if a biopsy is required or can be followed up and also for follow-up of patients after cone biopsy. However, vaccination of young girls against oncogenic HPV types which has now become widespread still leaves many questions open for the future because the observation period is too short. There is justified hope that this will become a valuable tool in cervical cancer control and may lead to a substantial reduction in the burden of cervical cancer in the future. However, as the current vaccines on the market do not cover all oncogenic virus types and the effects of vaccination will only be observed after many years, the necessity of a cytological screening will remain unrestricted. Therefore, cervical cytology will remain as the trusted, simple to use, economic and proven, like no other method for early cancer detection, efficient procedure even in the foreseeable future. If carried out with the highest quality demands it will play a central role in the early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:19756616

  5. CISNET: Support for Development of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) requested a decision analysis to inform their update of the recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. The objective was to assess life-years gained and colonoscopy requirements for colorectal cancer screening strategies and identify a set of recommendable screening strategies. The decision analysis used two of CISNET's microsimulation models, MISCAN and SimCRC, to assess life-years gained and colonoscopy requirements for colorectal cancer screening strategies, and identify a set of recommendable screening strategies.

  6. Survival Analysis of Patients with Interval Cancer Undergoing Gastric Cancer Screening by Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. Methods We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. Results A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. Conclusion The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. PMID:26023768

  7. Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927

  8. Colorectal cancer screening uptake over three biennial invitation rounds in the English bowel cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Siu Hing; Halloran, Stephen; Snowball, Julia; Seaman, Helen; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake over three biennial invitation rounds in the National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England. Methods We analysed data from the BCSP's Southern Hub for individuals (n=62?099) aged 60–64?years at the time of first invitation to screening with a follow-up period that allowed for two further biennial invitations. Data on sex, age and a neighbourhood-level measure of socioeconomic deprivation were used in the analysis. Outcomes included uptake of guaiac-based faecal occult blood (gFOB) test screening, inadequate gFOB screening (?1 test kit(s) returned but failed to complete further gFOB tests needed to reach a conclusive test result), test positivity, compliance with follow-up examinations (usually colonoscopy) and diagnostic outcomes. Results Overall gFOB uptake was 57.4% in the first, 60.9% in the second and 66.2% in third biennial invitation round. This resulted in 70.1% of the initial cohort having responded at least once, 60.7% at least twice and 44.4% three times. Participation in the first round was strongly predictive of participation in the second round (‘Previous Responders’: 86.6% vs ‘Previous Non-Responders’: 23.1%). Participation in the third round was highest among ‘Consistent Screeners’ (94.5%), followed by ‘Late Entrants’ (78.0%), ‘Dropouts’ (59.8%) and ‘Consistent Non-Responders’ (14.6%). Socioeconomic inequalities in uptake were observed across the three rounds, but sex inequalities decreased over rounds. Inadequate gFOB screening was influenced by screening history and socioeconomic deprivation. Screening history was the only significant predictor of follow-up compliance. Conclusions Screening history is associated with overall gFOB uptake, inadequate gFOB screening and follow-up compliance. Socioeconomic deprivation is also consistently associated with lower gFOB uptake and inadequate gFOB screening. Improving regular screening among identified ‘at-risk’ groups is important for the effectiveness of CRC screening programmes. PMID:24812001

  9. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  10. New cervical cancer screening strategy: combined Pap and HPV testing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Zanotti, Kristine; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda

    2005-02-01

    Our strategy for cervical cancer screeing is being revolutionized by our new understanding of how human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to carcinogenesis and the natural history of cervical cancer. The American Cancer Society and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommend combined HPV and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for cervical cancer screening in women age 30 or older. However, although incorporation of HPV DNA testing into primary screening provides clear benefits, it also raises new questions. PMID:15757169

  11. Digital compared to screen-film mammography: breast cancer prognostic features in an organized screening program.

    PubMed

    Prummel, Maegan V; Done, Susan J; Muradali, Derek; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Shumak, Rene S; Yaffe, Martin J; Holloway, Claire M B; Chiarelli, Anna M

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study found cancer detection rates were equivalent for direct radiography compared to screen-film mammography, while rates for computed radiography were significantly lower. This study compares prognostic features of invasive breast cancers by type of mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified invasive breast cancers diagnosed among concurrent cohorts of women aged 50-74 screened by direct radiography, computed radiography, or screen-film mammography from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. During the study period, 816,232 mammograms were performed on 668,418 women, and 3,323 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Of 2,642 eligible women contacted, 2,041 participated (77.3 %). The final sample size for analysis included 1,405 screen-detected and 418 interval cancers (diagnosed within 24 months of a negative screening mammogram). Polytomous logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tumour characteristics and type of mammography, and between tumour characteristics and detection method. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were recorded. Cancers detected by computed radiography compared to screen-film mammography were significantly more likely to be lymph node positive (OR 1.94, 95 %CI 1.01-3.73) and have higher stage (II:I, OR 2.14, 95 %CI 1.11-4.13 and III/IV:I, OR 2.97, 95 %CI 1.02-8.59). Compared to screen-film mammography, significantly more cancers detected by direct radiography (OR 1.64, 95 %CI 1.12-2.38) were lymph node positive. Interval cancers had worse prognostic features compared to screen-detected cancers, irrespective of mammography type. Screening with computed radiography may lead to the detection of cancers with a less favourable stage distribution compared to screen-film mammography that may reflect a delayed diagnosis. Screening programs should re-evaluate their use of computed radiography for breast screening. PMID:25108740

  12. Breast Cancer Screening in an Era of Personalized Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Barlow, William E.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L.; Conant, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women’s health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for “overdiagnosis,” and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a “1-size-fits-all” guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women’s risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. PMID:24830599

  13. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  14. Breast Cancer Mortality After Screening Mammography in British Columbia Women

    Cancer.gov

    BC Cancer Agency CARE & RESEARCH Breast Cancer Mortality After Screening Mammography in British Columbia Women Andrew J. Coldman, Ph.D. Norm Phillips, M.Sc. Lisa Kan, M.Sc. Linda Warren, M.D. Population & Preventive Oncology BC Cancer Agency BC Cancer

  15. Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cervical & vaginal cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... pay for them. Related resources National Cancer Institute—cervical cancer information CDC—cervical cancer information U.S. Preventive Services ...

  16. [Meaningful words? Cancer screening communication in Italy].

    PubMed

    Cogo, Carla; Petrella, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Over the last ten years, Italian work groups of communication within The National Centre for Screening Monitoring have been working on various aspects of communication in screening: quality surveys, information materials, guidelines, websites, and training. This has been done taking into account that good quality information must be clear, accessible, up to date, evidence based, clear about its limitations and capable of indicating further sources of information. Whenever possible, information has been developed in collaboration with the target groups: citizens but also health professionals. However, if good quality information must be clear about benefits and harms, the communication of quantitative information is particularly complex in cancer screening. Moreover, receiving more information on risks and benefits does not seem to modify participation. In addition, more balanced information does not entail that a person will include it in the decision process.Throughout several focus groups, citizens have made it clear that the information received from the programmes was only a part of the decisional process in which other elements were just as, if not more, important: trust in doctors, family and friends, perception of health authority efficiency, personal experiences, inconsistencies in information or public disagreements with other credible sources. Such elements can be seen as an opportunity to strengthen partnerships with professional and advocacy groups and to cooperate more efficiently with media and specialists from different fields. PMID:22706362

  17. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  18. Behavioral Economics: “Nudging” Underserved Populations to Be Screened for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; McBride, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

  19. Behavioral economics: "nudging" underserved populations to be screened for cancer.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

  20. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

  1. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

  2. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

  3. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

  4. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

  5. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial: Q and A

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the

  6. A Social Marketing Approach To Increasing Breast Cancer Screening Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carol A.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; McCormack Brown, Kelli; Alfonso, Moya Lynn; Quinn, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    Used social marketing to identify factors influencing women's breast cancer screening behaviors. Data from focus groups and interviews with diverse women highlighted women's attitudes, knowledge, and barriers regarding screening. Results were used to develop a comprehensive social marketing plan to motivate irregular users of breast cancer

  7. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening

  8. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  9. 4-Kallikrein Test and Kallikrein Markers in Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michelle L; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-02-01

    A preponderance of clinical evidence supports a significant public health benefit for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening and early detection of prostate cancer in appropriately counseled and selected men. Population-based screening with PSA decreases prostate cancer mortality; however, because of relatively poor specificity, PSA-based screening may also increase the detection of clinically insignificant cancers that would otherwise never require treatment. Use of newer biomarkers that increase the specificity for prostate cancer detection may aid in risk stratification and the appropriate identification of men for prostate biopsy. The authors review the 4-kallikrein panel and 4K probability score. PMID:26614027

  10. Impact of Lung Cancer Screening Results on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Christine D.; Riley, Thomas L.; Cunningham, Christopher R.; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening programs may provide opportunities to reduce smoking rates among participants. This study evaluates the impact of lung cancer screening results on smoking cessation. Methods Data from Lung Screening Study participants in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; 2002–2009) were used to prepare multivariable longitudinal regression models predicting annual smoking cessation in those who were current smokers at study entry (n = 15489, excluding those developing lung cancer in follow-up). The associations of lung cancer screening results on smoking cessation over the trial period were analyzed. All hypothesis testing used two sided P values. Results In adjusted analyses, smoking cessation was strongly associated with the amount of abnormality observed in the previous year’s screening (P < .0001). Compared with those with a normal screen, individuals were less likely to be smokers if their previous year’s screen had a major abnormality that was not suspicious for lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.722 to 0.912; P < .001), was suspicious for lung cancer but stable from previous screens (OR = 0.785; 95% CI = 0.706 to 0.872; P < .001), or was suspicious for lung cancer and was new or changed from the previous screen (OR = 0.663; 95% CI = 0.607 to 0.724; P < .001). Differences in smoking prevalence were present up to 5 years after the last screen. Conclusions Smoking cessation is statistically significantly associated with screen-detected abnormality. Integration of effective smoking cessation programs within screening programs should lead to further reduction in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24872540

  11. Update on colon cancer screening: recent advances and observations in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Shaw, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    There have been many recent advances and observations regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. New CRC surveillance guidelines have been published to help endoscopists with the management of important clinical issues such as serrated polyps. There have been several important large studies examining the impact of endoscopic process measures such as bowel prep, withdrawal time, and adenoma detection rate on CRC screening. In addition, there have been technical advances in CT colonography including the development of exams that do not require a bowel preparation. Other new technology such as colon capsule endoscopy may aid endoscopists in the challenge of completing the evaluation of the colon in those patients with an incomplete colonoscopy. Finally, there have been large studies which examine the performance characteristics of the so-called non-invasive CRC screening tests such as fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and fecal DNA. PMID:25108645

  12. Evaluating Progress in Cancer Screening | A Model for Screening and Risk Factor Surveillance

    Cancer.gov

    ARP sponsored the first Cancer Control Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS CCS) in 1987. Since 2000, the NHIS CCS has been co-sponsored by the NCI and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NHIS CCS was and remains the national gold standard for monitoring diffusion of and access to cancer screening. The CCS also covers diet, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco use and control, genetic testing, family history of cancer, cancer risk assessment, and cancer survivorship.

  13. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States.

  14. Relationship between Cancer Worry and Stages of Adoption for Breast Cancer Screening among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunji; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Lee, Sangeun; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    Background The possibility of developing breast cancer is a concern for all women; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening in Korea. Here, we investigated the associations between cancer worry, the stages of adopting breast cancer screening, and socio-demographic factors known to influence screening behaviors. Methods This study was based on the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual cross-sectional survey that utilized nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 1,773 randomly selected women aged 40–74 years. Chi-squared tests and multinomial logistic analyses were conducted to determine the associations between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening and to outline the factors associated with each stage. Results Korean women were classified into the following stages of adoption for breast cancer screening: pre-contemplation (24.7%), contemplation (13.0%), action/maintenance (50.8%), relapse risk (8.9%), and relapse (2.6%). Women in the action/maintenance stages reported more moderate to higher levels of worry about getting cancer than those in the pre-contemplation stage. Further, age of 40–49 years and having private cancer insurance were associated with women in the action/maintenance stages. Conclusion Interventions to address breast cancer worry may play an important role in increasing participation and equity in breast cancer screening. PMID:26186652

  15. Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis—European recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Quirke, Phil; Risio, Mauro; Lambert, René; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, colorectal cancer is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths, accounting for approximately 436,000 incident cases and 212,000 deaths in 2008. The potential of high-quality screening to improve control of the disease has been recognized by the Council of the European Union who issued a recommendation on cancer screening in 2003. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based European Guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have recently been developed by experts in a pan-European project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document consists of ten chapters and an extensive evidence base. The content of the chapter dealing with pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis is presented here in order to promote international discussion and collaboration leading to improvements in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider scientific community. PMID:21061133

  16. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  17. Colorectal cancer screening: a global overview of existing programmes.

    PubMed

    Schreuders, Eline H; Ruco, Arlinda; Rabeneck, Linda; Schoen, Robert E; Sung, Joseph J Y; Young, Graeme P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, with wide geographical variation in incidence and mortality across the world. Despite proof that screening can decrease CRC incidence and mortality, CRC screening is only offered to a small proportion of the target population worldwide. Throughout the world there are widespread differences in CRC screening implementation status and strategy. Differences can be attributed to geographical variation in CRC incidence, economic resources, healthcare structure and infrastructure to support screening such as the ability to identify the target population at risk and cancer registry availability. This review highlights issues to consider when implementing a CRC screening programme and gives a worldwide overview of CRC burden and the current status of screening programmes, with focus on international differences. PMID:26041752

  18. Current status of breast cancer screening in the world.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Tadaoki; Nagao, Taeko; Okazaki, Kenji; Kira, Misako; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Tangoku, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The mortality associated with breast cancer is decreasing in Europe and the United States. There are various reasons for these trends, including an increase in detection of early-stage breast cancers due to increased use of mammographic screening and the establishment of standardized systemic treatments based on evidence-based medicine. However, in Japanese women, both the morbidity and the mortality of breast cancer are increasing. In this manuscript, we describe the current status of mammographic screening in Europe and the United States, and the status of breast cancer screening in Japan. Quality control systems are also introduced, and the need for practical measures, such as implementation of quality control systems aimed at improving the cancer screening rate (with a target of 50%) and population-based screening (organized screening), based on the Cancer Control Act, is described. Current countermeasures for dense breasts in women in their 40s, both overseas and in Japan, are also described, together with discussions of the diagnostic capability of digital mammography, the usefulness of screening combined with computer-aided diagnosis, and the current status of screening using MRI in Europe and the United States. PMID:18841333

  19. Lung Cancer Screening: Computed Tomography Radiation and Protocols.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Venkatesh A; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Rehani, Madan; Digumarthy, Subba R

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have supported the use of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest as a screening tool for lung cancer. Several professional organizations have now included LDCT screening in high-risk populations in their guidelines. The United States Preventive Services Task Force has added LDCT to its lung cancer-screening guidelines as of December 2013. Recently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services acknowledged that the evidence for LDCT lung cancer screening is adequate, provided that eligibility criteria are met. As widespread use of LDCT is anticipated, the radiation dose associated with LDCT needs to be optimized. The American College of Radiology-Society of Thoracic Radiology collaboration and the National Comprehensive Cancer Care Network recently provided some guidelines for LDCT utilization for lung cancer screening. There are several scanning and image reconstruction techniques that can be used for reducing radiation dose in LDCT lung cancer screening. This review article presents protocols and guidelines for use of LDCT in lung cancer screening and describes our early experience in implementing LDCT at our institution. PMID:25856411

  20. Colorectal cancer screening - using informatics and compunetics to empower the at-risk individual.

    PubMed

    Aramini, Jeffery J; Zhang, Xiaohui; Popovich, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    Population-based cancer screening is most effective and cost efficient when offered through an organized screening program that incorporates all elements of the screening process, including information systems that support optimal program operation, monitoring, and evaluation. Although it is well accepted that organized population-based cancer screening programs can effectively reduce mortality, little effort has been invested in designing, developing, and implementing information systems to support these programs. This paper presents a prototype information management system for organized population-based cancer screening. A typical colorectal cancer screening program was modeled for illustration of organized cancer screening workflow, key functional features were investigated, and a system infrastructure and architecture designed. The system as designed facilitates the sharing and management of information among the many stakeholders involved in the program (e.g., participant, family physician, specialist, hospitals, laboratories pharmacist). Throughout the functional design phase of this project, empowerment of the-at risk individual with access to personalized information and support was the core consideration. The leveraging of existing health records to facilitate risk profiling, and the proactive engagement and education of individuals with personalized information were considered key functional requirements of the system. The system was designed to provide participants with easy web-enabled access to view their status in the cancer screening program, and on-line resources to facilitate scheduling of activities, updating of personal profiles, and access to additional relevant information. By proactively engaging individuals, providing them with personalized information, and facilitating their involvement in the cancer screening program with easy-to-use information management tools, the likelihood of program enrollment and participation will be greatly increased. PMID:18560066

  1. Physician use of persuasion and colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Wunderlich, Tracy; Flocke, Susan A; Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Dyer, Karen E; Siminoff, Laura A

    2015-03-01

    The impact of patient-physician communication on subsequent patient behavior has rarely been evaluated in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening discussions. We describe physicians' use of persuasive techniques when recommending CRC screening and evaluate its association with patients' subsequent adherence to screening. Audio recordings of N?=?414 periodic health examinations were joined with screening use data from electronic medical records and pre-/post-visit patient surveys. The association between persuasion and screening was assessed using generalized estimating equations. According to observer ratings, primary care physicians frequently use persuasive techniques (63 %) when recommending CRC screening, most commonly argument or refutation. However, physician persuasion was not associated with subsequent screening adherence. Physician use of persuasion may be a common vehicle for information provision during CRC screening discussions; however, our results do not support the sole reliance on persuasive techniques if the goal is to improve adherence to recommended screening. PMID:25729457

  2. Developed by the Yale Lung Screening and Nodule Program at Yale Cancer Center Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven Copyright 2013, Yale Cancer Center

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Developed by the Yale Lung Screening and Nodule Program at Yale Cancer Center Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven ©Copyright 2013, Yale Cancer Center Summary of Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines Program American Cancer Society (ACS) American Cancer Society. Interim Guidance on Lung Cancer Screening

  3. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until recently, the technology available required that cancer screening be confined to women. This study aimed to discover whether male and female perceptions of cancer and of screening differed. Methods Data on the public's cancer beliefs were collected by means of a postal survey (anonymous questionnaire). Two general practices based in Nottingham and in Mansfield, in east-central England, sent questionnaires to registered patients aged 30 to 70 years. 1,808 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis, 56.5 per cent from women. Results Women were less likely to underestimate overall cancer incidence, although each sex was more likely to cite a sex-specific cancer as being amongst the most common cancer site. In terms of risk factors, men were most uncertain about the role of stress and sexually-transmitted diseases, whereas women were more likely to rate excessive alcohol and family history as major risk factors. The majority of respondents believed the public health care system should provide cancer screening, but significantly more women than men reported having benefiting from the nationally-provided screening services. Those who were older, in better health or had longer periods of formal education were less worried about cancer than those who had illness experiences, lower incomes, or who were smokers. Actual or potential participation in bowel screening was higher amongst those who believed bowel cancer to be common and amongst men, despite women having more substantial worries about cancer than men. Conclusion Our results suggest that men's and women's differential knowledge of cancer correlates with women's closer involvement with screening. Even so, men were neither less positive about screening nor less likely to express a willingness to participate in relevant screening in the future. It is important to understand gender-related differences in knowledge and perceptions of cancer, if health promotion resources are to be allocated efficiently. PMID:19930703

  4. [Korean guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection].

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Kim, Young-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common in females in Korea. Since the most of colorectal cancer occur through the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. Korean Multi-Society Take Force developed the guidelines with evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements drawn by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea, optimal screening methods for colorectal cancer, and detection for adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22387833

  5. Practice Bulletin No. 157: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the United States has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women. By 2011, it decreased to 6.7 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease from 5.55 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 2.3 per 100,000 women in 2011 (). The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that there would be 12,900 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States in 2015, with 4,100 deaths from the disease (). Cervical cancer is much more common worldwide, particularly in countries without screening programs, with an estimated 527,624 new cases of the disease and 265,672 resultant deaths each year (). When cervical cancer screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed ().New technologies for cervical cancer screening continue to evolve, as do recommendations for managing the results. In addition, there are different risk-benefit considerations for women at different ages, as reflected in age-specific screening recommendations. In 2011, the ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) updated their joint guidelines for cervical cancer screening (), as did the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (). Subsequently, in 2015, ASCCP and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening for cervical cancer that was approved in 2014 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (). The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence regarding the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:26695583

  6. Practice Bulletin No. 157 Summary: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the United States has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women. By 2011, it decreased to 6.7 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease from 5.55 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 2.3 per 100,000 women in 2011 (1). The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that there would be 12,900 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States in 2015, with 4,100 deaths from the disease (2). Cervical cancer is much more common worldwide, particularly in countries without screening programs, with an estimated 527,624 new cases of the disease and 265,672 resultant deaths each year (3). When cervical cancer screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed (4, 5).New technologies for cervical cancer screening continue to evolve, as do recommendations for managing the results. In addition, there are different risk-benefit considerations for women at different ages, as reflected in age-specific screening recommendations. In 2011, the ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) updated their joint guidelines for cervical cancer screening (6), as did the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (7). Subsequently, in 2015, ASCCP and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening for cervical cancer that was approved in 2014 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (8). The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence regarding the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:26695578

  7. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P.; Kulkarni, A.; Narayanswamy, S.; Dalal, J.; Halbe, V.; Patkar, S.; Bhatt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1%) failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients). Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80%) screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  8. Awareness of breast cancer and screening procedures among Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Kanaga, K C; Nithiya, J; Shatirah, M F V Noor

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women globally and early detection increases the survival rate of patients. Therefore, this study was done to determine factors which influence the awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures. A cross-sectional study was performed on 125 women aged 19-60 years in urban and rural areas in Malaysia using a validated questionnaire covering knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices. A total of 99.2% respondents knew that breast cancer is the leading cancer with a mean knowledge of 67.3 ± 15.3% for urban and 50.2 ± 14.7% for rural women Mann Whitney U showed rural women had significantly less awareness compared to urban women (p< 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed a significant positive relationship between education and awareness (p< 0.05). Regarding awareness of the screening methods, 92.8%, 50.4% and 47.2% of respondents correctly answered questions on capability of BSE, CBE and mammography, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures increases with higher education and urban living. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an intensive breast cancer awareness campaign and availablity of screening centres prioritized in rural areas. PMID:22292634

  9. ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Cervical Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Attendance Rate (2003-2005) of the Hungarian Organized, Nation-Wide Cervical Cancer Screening Program Authors: I Boncz, A Sebestyén Affiliation: Department of Health Economics, Policy & Management, University

  10. Colon Cancer Screening Rates on the Rise in NYC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... why, and might serve as model for other cities, experts say To use the sharing features on ... News) -- Colon cancer screening rates in New York City rose 40 percent over four years, possibly due ...

  11. Skin cancer screening and melanoma detection: a life saved

    E-print Network

    Rajpara, Anand; Fischer, Ryan; Chandra, Joan; Aires, Daniel; Blackmon, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    for a free skin cancer screening at a local health fair inpreviously in good health. On full body skin examination,and health care assistance at the university medical center. One month after being seen at the skin

  12. ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Quality Indicators of Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in Catalonia (Spain) Authors: M Peris, G Binefa, M Navarro, M Garcia, JA Espinàs, JM Borràs Affiliation: Catalan Institute of Oncology

  13. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  14. BCSC Screening Performance Benchmarks: Benchmarks for Cancers (2009 Data)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Benchmarks for Cancers for Screening Mammography Examinations from 2004 - 2008 -- based on BCSC data

  15. Improving compliance with cervical cancer screening guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, Cara; Castro, Eduardo; Thomas, Jen; Kuehl, Thomas J.; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Hinskey, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical cancer screening guidelines for the care of healthy women include HPV cotesting with all Papanicolaou (Pap) smears after the age of 30. To improve compliance with current guidelines, we instituted two processes: first, simplifying the ordering process to a single order for Pap smear plus HPV cotesting using an electronic medical record system (EMR); and second, providing education for clinic staff. Baseline and postintervention data were collected by retrospective chart review. Patients were selected during three intervals: prior to the transition to Epic EMR, after the transition to Epic, and after an educational intervention. Compliance with standard guidelines was evaluated in relation to the trial intervals, type of provider, patient age, and duration from the previous Pap smear. Provider type was analyzed by considering gynecologists versus nongynecologist providers, and physicians versus mid-level providers. Overall, the percentage of compliance with HPV test ordering did not differ (P = 0.21) between intervals. Univariate analyses performed to identify factors likely to be associated with the practice of ordering HPV cotesting only involved the type of provider. In conclusion, transition to Epic and a training session had minimal impact on compliance with ordering HPV cotesting at the time of a Pap smear except among family practice physicians, who did significantly improve their compliance rate. Gynecologists and mid-level providers were more compliant with ordering HPV cotesting throughout, but did not significantly improve after the interventions. PMID:26424938

  16. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M.; Domènech, X.; Vidal, C.; Torné, E.; Milà, N.; Binefa, G.; Benito, L.; Moreno, V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480). We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3%) were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%). There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%). When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88) and at more advanced stages (P = 0.025). Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured. PMID:25802515

  17. After Surviving a Cancer Diagnosis, Do Patients Receive Increased Cancer Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jessica R.; Witt, Whitney P.; Palta, Mari; LoConte, Noelle K.; Heidrich, Susan M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Pandhi, Nancy; Smith, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although 64% of cancer survivors are expected to live at least five years beyond diagnosis, the receipt of cancer screening by this population is unclear. The study objective is to assess the relation between a cancer diagnosis and future cancer screening, exploring provider, patient, and cancer-specific factors that explain observed relationships. Methods The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Wisconsin Tumor Registry were used to identify two participant groups: 415 diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer between 1992-1993 (pre-cancer) and 2003-2004 (post-cancer) and 4,680 no-cancer controls. Adjusted average predicted probabilities of cancer screening were estimated with models that first did not include and then included, provider (provider relationship length), participant (depressive symptoms (CES-D)) and cancer-specific (time since diagnosis) factors. Participants with a history of the cancer associated with a given screening test were then excluded to assess whether relationships are explained by screening for recurrence versus second cancers. Results Female cancer survivors were more likely than no-cancer controls to undergo pelvic/pap (70%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=63-76% and 61%,CI=59-63%) and mammography screening (86%,CI=78-90% and 76%,CI=74-77%), though male cancer survivors were not more likely to receive prostate exams (76%,CI=70-82% and 69%,CI=67-71%). After excluding people with a history of the cancer being screened for, there were few significant differences in cancer screening between short or long-term survivors (>5 years) and no-cancer controls. Relationships were not sensitive to adjustment for provider or participant factors. Conclusions The significant positive differences in cancer screening between people with and without cancer can be explained by screening for recurrence. Long-term cancer survivors are not more likely to receive follow-up screening for second cancers. This information should be used by providers to ensure patients receive recommended follow-up preventive care. PMID:22773714

  18. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Laghi, Andrea; Iafrate, Franco; Rengo, Marco; Hassan, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has two roles: one present and the other potential. The present role is, without any further discussion, the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy. The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. However, despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC screening of average-risk individuals by different scientific societies including the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology, and the US Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, other entities, such as the US Preventive Services Task Force, have considered the evidence insufficient to justify its use as a mass screening method. Medicare has also recently denied reimbursement for CTC as a screening test. Nevertheless, multiple advantages exist for using CTC as a CRC screening test: high accuracy, full evaluation of the colon in virtually all patients, non-invasiveness, safety, patient comfort, detection of extracolonic findings and cost-effectiveness. The main potential drawback of a CTC screening is the exposure to ionizing radiation. However, this is not a major issue, since low-dose protocols are now routinely implemented, delivering a dose comparable or slightly superior to the annual radiation exposure of any individual. Indirect evidence exists that such a radiation exposure does not induce additional cancers. PMID:20731011

  19. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ? 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP. PMID:25639903

  20. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, N N; Savani, B N; Shaw, B E; Abraham, A A; Ahmed, I A; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, K S; Basak, G W; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, T K; Greinix, H T; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, B K; Hayashi, R J; Jacobsohn, D A; Kamble, R T; Kasow, K A; Khera, N; Lazarus, H M; Malone, A K; Lupo-Stanghellini, M T; Margossian, S P; Muffly, L S; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, J R; Wirk, B; Wood, W A; Yong, A; Duncan, C N; Flowers, M E D; Majhail, N S

    2015-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  1. Lung cancer screening: history, current perspectives, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divakar; Newman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has remained the leading cause of death worldwide among all cancers. The dismal 5-year survival rate of 16% is in part due to the lack of symptoms during early stages and lack of an effective screening test until recently. Chest X-ray and sputum cytology were studied extensively as potential screening tests for lung cancer and were conclusively proven to be of no value. Subsequently, a number of studies compared computed tomography (CT) with the chest X-ray. These studies did identify lung cancer in earlier stages. However, they were not designed to prove a reduction in mortality. Later trials have focused on low-dose CT (LDCT) as a screening tool. The largest US trial – the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) – enrolled approximately 54,000 patients and revealed a 20% reduction in mortality. While a role for LDCT in lung cancer screening has been established, the issues of high false positive rates, radiation risk, and cost effectiveness still need to be addressed. The guidelines of the international organizations that now include LDCT in lung cancer screening are reviewed. Other methods that may improve earlier detection such as positron emission tomography, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and molecular biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:26528348

  2. Cancer screening behaviors among Korean-American women.

    PubMed

    Juon, H S; Choi, Y; Kim, M T

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate breast and cervical cancer screening tests and to examine the correlates of cancer screening behaviors. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 438 Korean-American women residing in Maryland was conducted. About 50% of women age 18 and older had had a Pap smear and 46.6% of these women age 40 and older had had a mammogram in the past 2 years. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the strongest correlate of screening behaviors was having a regular medical checkup. Age and acculturation were found to be important correlates of cancer screening tests: Women less than 50 years of age were more likely to have cancer screening tests than those 50 years and older. English language proficiency was associated with having a mammogram and the proportion of life spent in the United States was associated with having a Pap smear. Employment interacted with marital status for a Pap smear, with those married and unemployed being less likely to have a Pap smear than women who were both married and employed. For strategies to increase cancer-screening tests among Korean-American women, we need to aim at developing culturally appropriate educational programs about cancer for less acculturated and recent immigrants. PMID:11198273

  3. Hereditary and common familial colorectal cancer: evidence for colorectal screening.

    PubMed

    Samadder, N Jewel; Jasperson, Kory; Burt, Randall W

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer among men and women. Between 3 and 6% of all CRCs are attributed to well-defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis and several hamartomatous conditions. Up to 30% of CRC cases exhibit common familial risk, likely related to a combination of inherited factors and environment. Identification of these patients through family history and appropriate genetic testing can provide estimates of cancer risk that inform appropriate cancer screening, surveillance and/or preventative interventions. This article examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetic basis, clinical management and evidence supporting colorectal screening. It also deals with the category of common (non-syndromic) familial risk including risk determination and screening guidelines. PMID:25501924

  4. Standardization for transcriptomic molecular markers to screen human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farid E; Vos, Paul W; Ijames, Stephanie; Lysle, Donald T; Flake, Gordon; Sinar, Dennis R; Naziri, Wade; Marcuard, Stephan P

    2007-01-01

    Establishing test performance criteria for a transcriptomic colon cancer marker approach must be carried out in a standardized fashion in order tso ensure that the test will perform the same way in any laboratory, anywhere. Condition of sample preservation and shipping prior to total RNA extraction is critical, and we recommend preserving stool samples in an appropriate preservative and shipping them in cold packs so as to keep stools at 4 degrees C. It is not necessary to isolate colonocytes to obtain adequate RNA for testing. It is, however, important to obtain samples from both mucin-rich and non-mucin rich to have a good representation of both left- and right-side colon cancers. Employing a commercial total RNA extraction kit that contains an RLT buffer from Qiagen Corporation (Valencia, CA, USA) removes bacterial RNA from stool preparations and results in a high yield of undegraded RNA of human origin. Genes selected based on the enormous resources of NCI's Cancer Genome Anatomy project give good results. Primers for PCR should span more than one exon. Use of semiquantitative PCR, preferably with several reference housekeeping genes of various copy numbers, depending on tested genes, should enhance confidence in the quantitative results. Having standardized the testing conditions in our ongoing work, it is now imperative that a larger prospective randomized clinical study utilizing stool and tissue samples derived from several control and colon cancer patients, to allow for statistically valid analyses, be conducted in order to determine the true sensitivity and specificity of the transcriptomic screening approach for this cancer whose incidence is on the rise worldwide. PMID:18204205

  5. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24787379

  6. [Why screen for lung cancer in patients with arterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Lederlin, M; Trédaniel, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in France. Such a prognosis is explained by late diagnosis at a metastatic stage for half of the patients. Tobacco is the main risk factor for lung cancer, as it is for peripheral arterial disease. A review of literature shows that between 2.3% and 19% of patients with arterial disease also have lung cancer. When lung cancer is detected after treatment of arterial disease, it is at an advanced stage. But it can be diagnosed at an early stage when it is searched simultaneously with arterial disease treatment. There is no recommendation for lung cancer screening specifically for patients with arterial disease. However individual screening based on an annual low-dose chest scan is proposed for smokers meeting the criteria defined by the study of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Such screening has two disadvantages : the high number of false positives and the irradiation induced by the accumulation of examinations. The ISET method would alternatively help to identify circulating tumor cells on a simple blood test for subjects not yet at solid tumor stage, provided this method be subject to multicentric validation. Thus one could consider that the management of a patient with arterial disease meeting NLST criteria should be accompanied with screening for lung cancer by searching for tumor cells associated with low-dose scanner. PMID:26276562

  7. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  8. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  9. Colorectal Cancer Deaths Attributable to Nonuse of Screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Reinier G.S.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Goede, S.L.; Levin, Theodore R.; Quinn, Virginia P.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Corley, Douglas A.; Zauber, Ann G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Screening is a major contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality reductions in the U.S., but is underutilized. We estimated the fraction of CRC deaths attributable to nonuse of screening to demonstrate the potential benefits from targeted interventions. Methods The established MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) in people aged ?50 years. The model incorporates long-term patterns and effects of screening by age and type of screening test. PAF for 2010 was estimated using currently available data on screening uptake; PAF was also projected assuming constant future screening rates to incorporate lagged effects from past increases in screening uptake. We also computed PAF using Levin's formula to gauge how this simpler approach differs from the model-based approach. Results There were an estimated 51,500 CRC deaths in 2010, about 63% (N?32,200) of which were attributable to non-screening. The PAF decreases slightly to 58% in 2020. Levin's approach yielded a considerably more conservative PAF of 46% (N?23,600) for 2010. Conclusions The majority of current U.S. CRC deaths are attributable to non-screening. This underscores the potential benefits of increasing screening uptake in the population. Traditional methods of estimating PAF underestimated screening effects compared with model-based approaches. PMID:25721748

  10. Identifying Risk Factors Using a Skin Cancer Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Etzkorn, Jeremy Robert; Parikh, Rajiv Prakash; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Law, Kimberly; Davis, Ashley H.; Rawal, Bhupendra; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane L.; Rendina, Lois E.; Zager, Jonathan S.; Lien, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer continues to increase. To detect lesions at an earlier phase in their progression, skin cancer screening programs have been advocated by some. However, the effectiveness of skin cancer screening and the ideal population that these screenings should target have yet to be firmly established. This study details the relationship of a group of well-known risk factors with presumptive diagnoses in a large series of individuals self-referred for free skin cancer screening. Methods Data obtained during 2007 to 2010 from a descriptive cross-sectional study skin cancer screening program are presented. Participant history was recorded using standardized medical history forms prior to skin examination. Screeners conducted a skin examination varying from whole-body to limited areas (per participant preference) and recorded diagnoses. Diagnoses were assigned to the nonmelanoma cancer (NMC) or suspicious pigmented lesion group for analysis. Results A presumptive diagnosis of NMC was associated with male sex, age ? 50 years, personal history of skin cancer, lower skin phototype, increased sunscreen use, and increased chronic sun exposure (all P values ? .0001). After controlling for skin phototype, increased sunscreen use was not associated with a presumptive diagnosis of NMC (P = .96). Presumptive diagnosis of a suspicious pigmented lesion was associated with a reported history of “changing mole” (P < .0001) and negatively associated with age ? 50 years (P < .0001) and a personal history of skin cancer (P = .0119). Conclusions Several known risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer correlated with a presumptive diagnosis of NMC. The yield of presumptive atypical pigmented lesions was increased in participants aged < 50 years, supporting the notion that this population may benefit from screening. PMID:24077401

  11. Invited commentary: screening and the elusive etiology of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2015-09-01

    The role of lifestyle risk factors in prostate cancer risk remains elusive despite a large number of epidemiologic studies. In a pooled analysis of data from South and East Asian countries published in this issue, Fowke et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(5):381-389) found no evidence for an association between prostate cancer mortality and obesity, alcohol, or smoking. Prostate cancer screening is very uncommon in these countries, and previous evidence for associations with lifestyle factors comes primarily from studies carried out in North America, where screening is very common. Fowke et al. concluded that screening biases are likely to explain the differences in study results. In this commentary, we discuss the potential influence of population-based cancer screening programs in estimates of association from epidemiologic studies. This highlights the importance of carefully considering the impact of screening in the analysis and interpretation of results, in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of cancers that can be detected by screening. PMID:26243738

  12. Developments in Screening Tests and Strategies for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sovich, Justin L.; Sartor, Zachary; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and second most common in women. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States, CRC is the third most common cause of cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates have steadily fallen, primarily due to widespread screening. Methods. We conducted keyword searches on PubMed in four categories of CRC screening: stool, endoscopic, radiologic, and serum, as well as news searches in Medscape and Google News. Results. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for CRC screening and the most common method in the United States. Technological improvements continue to be made, including the promising “third-eye retroscope.” Fecal occult blood remains widely used, particularly outside the United States. The first at-home screen, a fecal DNA screen, has also recently been approved. Radiological methods are effective but seldom used due to cost and other factors. Serum tests are largely experimental, although at least one is moving closer to market. Conclusions. Colonoscopy is likely to remain the most popular screening modality for the immediate future, although its shortcomings will continue to spur innovation in a variety of modalities. PMID:26504799

  13. HPV testing as a screen for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a necessary factor in the development of pre-invasive and invasive cancers of the lower genital tract, of which cervical cancer is the most prevalent. A molecular understanding of malignant transformation and epidemiologic information has led to the development of many strategies for detection and early intervention. Newer tests for oncogenic subtypes of HPV have made it possible to predict the risk of future development of cervical cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of HPV related disease and examines the role of HPV testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer. It summarizes the data from prospective and randomized controlled trials on HPV screening from Europe and North America and includes smaller studies from low and middle income countries where cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women. PMID:26126623

  14. A Community Capacity-Enhancement Approach to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Older Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Screening Older Minority Women project, the authors applied a community capacity-enhancement approach to promoting breast and cervical cancer screening among older women of color. Members of informal support networks were recruited for this health promotion intervention to empower Latina and African American women to engage in positive…

  15. Health care systems redesign project to improve dysphagia screening.

    PubMed

    Daggett, Virginia S; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa M; Plue, Laurie; Russell, Scott; Allen, George; Williams, Linda S; Chumbler, Neale R; Bravata, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to improve dysphagia-screening processes in a tertiary Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The dysphagia-screening tool was redesigned on the basis of frontline clinician feedback, clinical guidelines, user satisfaction, and multidisciplinary expertise. The revised tool triggered a speech-language consult for positive screens and demonstrated higher scores in user satisfaction and task efficiency. Systems redesign processes were effective for redesigning the tool and implementing practice changes with clinicians involved in dysphagia screening. PMID:25463001

  16. Celebrity Appeal: Reaching Women to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A.; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation’s National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50–75 years (n = 772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements. PMID:25521047

  17. Successes and challenges in population-based cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Spayne, Mary; Rabeneck, Linda; Guerriero, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Cancer Care Ontario's (CCO's) organized breast, colorectal and cervical cancer screening programs are in different stages of development and maturity. Headed by clinical and scientific leads, the programs reflect a deep understanding of how to design, evaluate and report on programs based on evidence and best practice. Guided by a CCO-Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care ("the Ministry") joint committee and supported by recent investments in information technology infrastructure, the programs provide high-quality cancer screening to Ontario's eligible population. PMID:25562129

  18. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Cristina; Chai, Jianyuan

    2009-01-01

    Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy. PMID:21160770

  19. Colorectal cancer screening: 20 years of development and recent progress

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Majek, Ondrej; Fric, Premysl; Minarikova, Petra; Minarik, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Europe and its incidence is steadily increasing. This trend could be reversed through timely secondary prevention (screening). In the last twenty years, CRC screening programs across Europe have experienced considerable improvements (fecal occult blood testing; transition from opportunistic to population based program settings). The Czech Republic is a typical example of a country with a long history of nationwide CRC screening programs in the face of very high CRC incidence and mortality rates. Each year, approximately 8000 people are diagnosed with CRC and some 4000 die from this malignancy. Twenty years ago, the first pilot studies on CRC screening led to the introduction of the opportunistic Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in 2000. Originally, this program was based on the guaiac fecal occult blood test (FOBT) offered by general practitioners, followed by colonoscopy in cases of FOBT positivity. The program has continuously evolved, namely with the implementation of immunochemical FOBTs and screening colonoscopy, as well as the involvement of gynecologists. Since the establishment of the Czech CRC Screening Registry in 2006, 2405850 FOBTs have been performed and 104565 preventive colonoscopies recorded within the screening program. The overall program expanded to cover 25.0% of the target population by 2011. However, stagnation in the annual number of performed FOBTs lately has led to switching to the option of a population-based program with personal invitation, which is currently being prepared. PMID:24744575

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC are higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. We investigated the association between different indicators of SES and CRC screening rates in Korea. The eligible study population included males and females aged 50 to 74 years who participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey (2010–2012). The “compliance with recommendation” category was applicable to participants who had undergone a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), double-contrast barium enema, or colonoscopy within 1, 5, or 10 years, respectively. In total, 6221 subjects (51.4% female, 55.6% aged 50 years) were included in the final analysis. Lower household income was significantly negatively related to compliance with screening recommendations (P for trend?screening rate using the FOBT; male sex, older age, higher household income, having supplemental insurance, family history of cancer, and poor self-reported health were associated with a higher screening rate using colonoscopy. Lower household income was associated with a higher screening rate using the FOBT and with a lower screening rate using colonoscopy. To increase the rate of CRC screening using colonoscopy, efforts should be made toward improving the education and promotion of screening to the low household income target population. PMID:26426605

  1. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    PubMed

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary. PMID:9280875

  2. Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

  3. ICSN - Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates Screening

  4. Nanoscale/Molecular analysis of Fecal Colonocytes for Colorectal Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Existing guidelines recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screening for all patients over age 50. However, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer death among Americans largely because colonoscopic screening of all the >100 million Americans over age 50 is unfeasible for both patient-related (non-compliance) and societal (inadequate endoscopic capacity and funding) reasons.

  5. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS PROJECTION SCREENS

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS PROJECTION SCREENS JANUARY Audio-Visual Systems Requirements B. Tension projection screens are prohibited. #12;UGA DESIGN Requirements (HVAC) B. As a minimum, conform to the current Board of Regents of the University System

  6. Distress Screening in Chronic Disease: Essential for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Lorie; Lester, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Distress is a psychological state that is often observed in patients with chronic disease. Many cancers are considered chronic in nature, with patients experiencing long, disease-free states and intervals of metastatic disease. Distress can negatively affect the biopsychosocial balance in cancer survivors and impede their progress along the cancer trajectory. Distress can also affect medical and psychological outcomes and hinder advancement into long-term survivorship. Distress may contribute to disease progression, although despite research findings, health-care providers seldom screen for indications of persistent or unresolved distress. This article discusses research findings related to the prevalence of distress in multiple chronic diseases. Validated instruments used to screen for distress in cancer survivors, such as the Distress Thermometer and symptom checklist from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, are reviewed. With the availability of brief and concise instruments to screen for distress, providers have the ability to provide holistic and comprehensive care for cancer survivors. The overall financial impact of cancer-related distress is understudied, although similar psychological studies indicate that prevention or elimination of distress is beneficial. Cancer is a lifelong, chronic disease; patients have ongoing needs and varied sources of distress. As the number of cancer survivors exponentially increases, their psychosocial needs will likewise expand. PMID:25032045

  7. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normally line the intestines ). Polyps in the stomach. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Having a ... the following: Partial gastrectomy . Polyps in the stomach. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). People who ...

  8. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening in indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Jang, Se Lim; Corriveau, André; Gotay, Carolyn; Johnston, Nora; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-10-01

    Cancer mortality among indigenous peoples is increasing, but these populations commonly under use cancer-screening services. This systematic review explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening among indigenous peoples worldwide. Searches of major bibliographic databases identified primary studies published in English up to March, 2014; of 33 eligible studies, three were cohort studies, 27 cross-sectional, and three case-control. Knowledge of and participation in screening was greater for breast cancer than for other cancers. Indigenous peoples tended to have less knowledge, less favourable attitudes, and a higher propensity to refuse screening than non-indigenous populations. The most common factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening included access to screening, knowledge about cancer and screening, educational attainment, perceived necessity of screening, and age. Greater understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening in diverse indigenous cultures is needed so that culturally appropriate cancer prevention programmes can be provided. PMID:25281469

  10. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Kathleen M.; Singh, Harminder

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required. PMID:25506266

  11. Offering Lung Cancer Screening to High-Risk Medicare Beneficiaries Saves Lives and Is Cost-Effective: An Actuarial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyenson, Bruce S.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

    2014-01-01

    Background By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. Objective To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Methods Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Results Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ?30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life-year saved. Conclusion If all eligible Medicare beneficiaries had been screened and treated consistently from age 55 years, approximately 358,134 additional individuals with current or past lung cancer would be alive in 2014. LDCT screening is a low-cost and cost-effective strategy that fits well within the standard Medicare benefit, including its claims payment and quality monitoring. PMID:25237423

  12. Efficacy of screening for cervical cancer: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Guzick, D S

    1978-01-01

    Cytologic screening for cervical cancer currently enjoys wide acceptance, but there remains controversy in the literature concerning its efficacy in prolonging life. On the basis of a literature review, several conclusions are reached: 1) Cervical screening can identify women who are at greater-than-average risk of developing invasive cervical cancer by detecting asymptomatic lesions that would frequently progress to invasion if left untreated; 2) Therapy based on confirmed positive smears can reduce the incidence and mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer, as shown by declining rates in many centers that had constant or increasing rates before screening began, lower rates for geographic areas and occupational groups having less screening, and lower rates among screened women than unscreened women; and 3) Attempts to estimate the amount of life prolongation attributable to cervical screening have not yet yielded reliable figures, because of difficulties with the models or data used. However, in view of the available evidence, it is suggested that incomplete data should not prevent a vigorous continuation of screening where it is already extensive, and an escalation where it is not. PMID:626255

  13. Screening for Cervical, Prostate, and Breast Cancer: Interpreting the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Williams, Jane; Parker, Lisa; Pickles, Kristen; Jacklyn, Gemma; Rychetnik, Lucie; Barratt, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Cancer screening is an important component of prevention and early detection in public health and clinical medicine. The evidence for cancer screening, however, is often contentious. A description and explanation of disagreements over the evidence for cervical, breast, and prostate screening may assist physicians, policymakers, and citizens faced with screening decisions and suggest directions for future screening research. There are particular issues to be aware of in the evidence base for each form of screening, which are summarized in this paper. Five tensions explain existing conflicts over the evidence: (1) data from differing contexts may not be comparable; (2) screening technologies affect evidence quality, and thus evidence must evolve with changing technologies; (3) the quality of evidence of benefit varies, and the implications are contested; (4) evidence about harm is relatively new, there are gaps in that evidence, and there is disagreement over what it means; and (5) evidence about outcomes is often poorly communicated. The following principles will assist people to evaluate and use the evidence: (1) attend closely to transferability; (2) consider the influence of technologies on the evidence base; (3) query the design of meta-analyses; (4) ensure harms are defined and measured; and (5) improve risk communication practices. More fundamentally, there is a need to question the purpose of cancer screening and the values that inform that purpose, recognizing that different stakeholders may value different things. If implemented, these strategies will improve the production and interpretation of the methodologically challenging and always-growing evidence for and against cancer screening. PMID:26091929

  14. Intelligent screening systems for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

  15. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

  16. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Bernheim, Adam; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lennes, Inga T; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Gilman, Matthew D; Sharma, Amita; Flores, Efren J; Muse, Victorine V; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the National Lung Screening Trial data released in 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force made lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography (CT) a public health recommendation in 2013. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) currently reimburse LCS for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-77 years who have a tobacco smoking history of at least 30 pack-years and who are either currently smoking or had quit less than 15 years earlier. Commercial insurers reimburse the cost of LCS for individuals aged 55-80 years with the same smoking history. Effective care for the millions of Americans who qualify for LCS requires an organized step-wise approach. The 10-pillar model reflects the elements required to support a successful LCS program: eligibility, education, examination ordering, image acquisition, image review, communication, referral network, quality improvement, reimbursement, and research frontiers. Examination ordering can be coupled with decision support to ensure that only eligible individuals undergo LCS. Communication of results revolves around the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) from the American College of Radiology. Lung-RADS is a structured decision-oriented reporting system designed to minimize the rate of false-positive screening examination results. With nodule size and morphology as discriminators, Lung-RADS links nodule management pathways to the variety of nodules present on LCS CT studies. Tracking of patient outcomes is facilitated by a CMS-approved national registry maintained by the American College of Radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26495797

  17. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the incidence of both distal colorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; P<0.001) and proximal colorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; P<0.001). Mortality from distal colorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001); mortality from proximal colorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; PLCO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00002540.) PMID:22612596

  18. Alcohol Consumption, Depression, Insomnia and Colorectal Cancer Screening: Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Daniel; Quinn, Megan; Wang, Ke Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) can be reduced drastically by early detection and early treatment. However, uptake of CRC screening is relatively low, about 50% for those whom the test is highly recommended. Objectives: We examined the influence of and racial differences in depression, insomnia, alcohol use, and tobacco use on CRC screening uptake in the US. Patients and Methods: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Information Survey data was conducted. Both weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in SAS to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 21511 participants were included in the analysis. Results: Prevalence of CRC screening in the participants was 19%. Adjusting for all factors, insomnia (OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.06 - 1.32), moderate alcohol drinking (OR = 1.16, 95%CI = 1.01 - 1.30), past smoking (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.04 - 1.32), depression (OR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.18 - 1.58), African American (AA) race, and cancer history were positively associated with CRC screening. Females and Single were inversely associated with CRC screening prevalence. In stratified analysis by races (White and AA), depression was associated with CRC screening in both races. Marital status, smoking, cancer history and insomnia were associated with CRC screening in Whites only; while alcohol use was associated with CRC screening in AAs only. Conclusions: We have found significant associations between lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption and smoking) and mental health problems (depression and insomnia) and CRC screening uptake. To improve overall CRC screening uptake in the US, it is important to consider racial differences in predictors and tailor appropriate interventions to each racial/ethnic group. PMID:26097837

  19. Race and colorectal cancer screening compliance among persons with a family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Thompson, Nicole; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Bull-Henry, Kathy; Sherif, Zaki A; Lee, Edward L; Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan; Platz, Elizabeth A; Smoot, Duane T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine compliance to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines among persons with a family history of any type of cancer and investigate racial differences in screening compliance. METHODS: We used the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey and identified 1094 (27.4%) respondents (weighted population size = 21959672) without a family history of cancer and 3138 (72.6%) respondents (weighted population size = 58201479) with a family history of cancer who were 50 years and older. We defined compliance with CRC screening as the use of fecal occult blood testing within 1 year, sigmoidoscopy within 5 years, or colonoscopy within 10 years. We compared compliance with CRC screening among those with and without a family member with a history of cancer. RESULTS: Overall, those with a family member with cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening (64.9% vs 55.1%; OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.20-1.74). The absolute increase in screening rates associated with family history of cancer was 8.2% among whites. Hispanics had lowest screening rates among those without family history of cancer 41.9% but had highest absolute increase (14.7%) in CRC screening rate when they have a family member with cancer. Blacks had the lowest absolute increase in CRC screening (5.3%) when a family member has a known history of cancer. However, the noted increase in screening rates among blacks and Hispanics when they have a family member with cancer were not higher than whites without a family history of cancer: (54.5% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 0.72-1.88) for blacks and (56.7% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.25; 95%CI: 0.72-2.18) for Hispanics. CONCLUSION: While adults with a family history of any cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening guidelines irrespective of race/ethnicity, blacks and Hispanics with a family history of cancer were less likely to be compliant than whites without a family history. Increased burden from CRC among blacks may be related to poor uptake of screening among high-risk groups. PMID:26672497

  20. Implementation of gastric cancer screening - the global experience.

    PubMed

    Leja, M?rcis; You, Weicheng; Camargo, M Constanza; Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is still an important global healthcare problem, and in absolute figures it is going to remain at the present level in foreseeable future. In general, survival of patients with GC is poor mainly due to advanced-stage diagnosis. Early-stage GC can be cured by endoscopic resection or less invasive surgical treatment. Unfortunately, there is no appropriate screening strategy available for global application. This article provides a description of established national and regional GC screening programs and the screening modalities used. This review also summarizes current approaches to develop cancer-screening biomarkers. Although candidates with initial promising results have been suggested, moving discovery into clinical practice is still a major challenge. Well-designed biomarker studies, with systematic validation steps, are needed to decrease the burden of this fatal disease. PMID:25439074

  1. Projects | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of the Burkitt Lymphoma Genome Sequencing Project (BLGSP) is to explore potential genetic changes in patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL)Opens in a New Tab that could lead to better prevention, detection, and treatment of this rare and aggressive cancer.

  2. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Conclusions Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening exams. PMID:23930245

  3. Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules in CT lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-07-01

    The distinct appearance and behavior of subsolid pulmonary nodules (SSNs) has resulted in separate recommendations for the management of solitary SSNs, both for incidentally detected as well as for screen detected nodules. However, these guidelines have been based primarily on expert opinion. Recently two studies were published regarding SSNs detected in low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening, including management advices. PMID:26380722

  4. Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules in CT lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.

    2015-01-01

    The distinct appearance and behavior of subsolid pulmonary nodules (SSNs) has resulted in separate recommendations for the management of solitary SSNs, both for incidentally detected as well as for screen detected nodules. However, these guidelines have been based primarily on expert opinion. Recently two studies were published regarding SSNs detected in low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening, including management advices. PMID:26380722

  5. Primary care physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to cancer screening and cancer prevention clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ka'ano'i, Momi E; Braun, Kathryn L; Gotay, Carolyn C

    2004-09-01

    Native Hawaiians have high cancer incidence and mortality rates, thus would benefit from timely cancer screening and opportunities to participate in cancer prevention clinical trials. Two-hundred-fifty-four (254) primary care physicians (PCPs) were surveyed for their knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cancer screening and prevention, clinical trials and participation of Native Hawaiians in them. More than 90% of responding PCPs follow guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening and counsel patients on smoking cessation, and 75% or greater follow guidelines for colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy testing and counsel patients on exercise, diet, and weight management. About 60% reported familiarity with at least one of three prevention trials offered at the time of the survey, and 28% reported having referred or recommended patients to cancer prevention trials in the past. Major barriers to discussing trials with patients included lack of awareness on the part of physicians and patients, limited support staff, and time constraints. Less than 30% of respondents were aware of community resources supporting cancer research. This study indicated that Hawai'i PCPs follow national guidelines for cancer screening, and many are aware of ongoing prevention trials. However, additional participation in cancer screening and prevention activities will require attention to reducing logistical barriers and increasing awareness of cancer information and research services. PMID:16281694

  6. Evaluating Teaching Techniques in the Hmong Breast and Cervical Cancer Health Awareness Project

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage, have low literacy, and experienced care that is not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. Purpose To evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants’ perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Methods Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male=30, female = 120). Teach back method was used to assess participants’ understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants’ perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants’ responses. Results The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people’s understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Conclusion Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations. PMID:24488558

  7. Cervical cancer worry and screening among appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-04-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  8. Colorectal cancer screening among Korean Americans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among Korean Americans (KAs) has increased in recent years, even as the rate in nearly ever other population group in the United States has decreased. Reversing this trend will require improving screening rates, but a variety of sociocultural factors may inhibit this goal. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on cancer screening among KAs, and identified thirteen eligible studies that examined CRC screening. KAs have CRC screening rates that are significantly lower than the national average. Only about one in four KAs ages 50 and older reports having ever had a fecal ocult blood test (FOBT) and only about 40 % have ever had a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. KA adults are also significantly less likely than the general US population to say they have heard of FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. In the KA population, screening rates are higher among adults with higher socioeconomic status, greater acculturation to the United States, more cancer knowledge, more social support, and better access to healthcare services. Improving cultural and financial access to health education and healthcare services may increase CRC screening among KAs and reduce the incidence of the disease. PMID:23982772

  9. AMIGAS: Building a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Judith Lee; Wilson, Katherine M.; Orians, Carlyn E.; Byrd, Theresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many barriers to cervical cancer screening for Hispanic women have been documented, but few effective interventions exist. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends increasing cervical cancer screening through various methods. Building on this evidence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the research and testing phases for an evidence-based and theoretically grounded intervention designed to increase cervical cancer screening among never and rarely screened Hispanic women of Mexican descent. In this article, we describe the development process of the AMIGAS (Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guía, y Amor para su Salud) intervention, highlight the integration of scientific evidence and community-based participatory research principles, and identify opportunities for dissemination, adaptation, and implementation of this intervention. Methods The AMIGAS team was a collaboration among researchers, promotoras (community health workers), and program administrators. The multiyear, multiphase project was conducted in Houston, Texas; El Paso, Texas; and Yakima, Washington. The team completed several rounds of formative research, designed intervention materials and methodology, conducted a randomized controlled trial, created a guide for program administrators, and developed an intervention dissemination plan. Results Trial results demonstrated that AMIGAS was successful in increasing cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women. Adaptation of AMIGAS showed minimal reduction of outcomes. Dissemination efforts are underway to make AMIGAS available in a downloadable format via the Internet. Conclusions Developing a community-based intervention that is evidence-based and theoretically grounded is challenging, time-intensive, and requires collaboration among multiple disciplines. Inclusion of key stakeholders—in particular program deliverers and administrators—and planning for dissemination and translation to practice are integral components of successful intervention design. By providing explicit directions for adaptation for program deliverers, relevant information for program administrators, and access to the intervention via the Internet, AMIGAS is available to help increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women and other women disproportionately affected by cervical cancer. PMID:23930983

  10. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  11. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Edwin JR; Mirsadraee, Saeed; Murchison, John T

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality due to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world. PMID:26339461

  12. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Genetics and Screening.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Giardiello, Francis M

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. About 30% of patients with CRC report a family history of CRC. However, only 5% of CRCs arise in the setting of a well-established mendelian inherited disorder. In addition, serrated polyposis is a clinically defined syndrome with multiple serrated polyps in the colorectum and an increased CRC risk for which the genetics are unknown. This article focuses on genetic and clinical aspects of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and MUTYH-associated polyposis. PMID:26315524

  13. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial was a population-based randomized trial to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in more than 150,000 men and women aged 55 to 74.  The PLCO Biorepository, accessible by the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) web portal, contains about 2.7 million biologic specimens from intervention participants during their six trial screening years, and buccal cell specimens from control participants. The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) component has biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before diagnosis of disease. 

  14. Should Colorectal Cancer Screening Be Considered in Elderly Without Prior Screening? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Hees, Frank; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Meester, Reinier G.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in adequately screened elderly aged over 75. The USPSTF did not address the appropriateness of screening in elderly aged over 75 without prior screening. Objective To determine up to what age CRC screening should be considered in unscreened elderly with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity and to determine which test is indicated at what age. Design Microsimulation modeling study. Data Sources Derived from the literature. Target Populations Unscreened elderly aged 76, 77, (...), and 90 with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Interventions Once-only colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening. Outcome Measures CRC cases prevented, CRC deaths prevented, life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, costs, and costs per QALY gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis In unscreened elderly with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity, CRC screening was cost-effective up to age 86, 83, and 80, respectively. In unscreened elderly with no comorbidity, colonoscopy screening was most effective and still cost-effective up to age 83; sigmoidoscopy screening was indicated at age 84; and FIT screening was indicated at ages 85 and 86. In unscreened elderly with moderate (severe) comorbidity, colonoscopy screening was indicated up to age 80 (77); sigmoidoscopy screening was indicated at age 81 (78); and FIT screening was indicated at ages 82 and 83 (79 and 80). Results of Sensitivity Analyses Results were most sensitive to lowering the threshold for the willingness-to-pay per QALY gained from $100,000 to $50,000. Limitation We only considered cohorts at average risk for CRC. Conclusions In unscreened elderly with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity, whose physical condition allows a colonoscopy, CRC screening should be considered well beyond age 75: up to age 86, 83, and 80, respectively. At most ages, colonoscopy screening is indicated. Primary Funding Source The U.S. National Cancer Institute. PMID:24887616

  15. [Organization of colon-rectal cancer screening in the Provincial Health Agency of Ragusa].

    PubMed

    Blangiardi, F; Ferrera, G; Cilia, S; Aprile, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer screening is a secondary prevention program that permits early diagnosis of neoplasias and precancerous lesions are in order to diminish mortality and morbidity for certain types of tumors (breast, colon-rectal, and cervical). In 2010, the Ragusa Provincial Health Agency began screening for colon-rectal cancer in an experimental phase that initially involved only the municipality of Ragusa but that was then extended to other municipalities of the province. Although the organizing model suffered from many managerial problems including lack of human resources and tools, there was good collaboration and involvement of the public health/hygiene offices and the general practitioners and volunteer associations. This type of networking was useful in that adhesion to screening was well above that expected. Another winning aspect of the project resulted in clear and pertinent communication to the population. PMID:22880386

  16. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008–2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  17. Use of mammography in screening for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sierra, A E; Potchen, E J

    1990-12-01

    Recognizing the enormous impact that quality breast screening mammography can have on reducing breast cancer deaths, we need to determine when women's and physician's perceived restrictions for mammography examination impede the progress of its use for early cancer detection. A uniform system should emphasize valid communication and education between women and their physicians. Women seek to have a voice in their medical treatment. Yet that responsibility has an emotional price. Physicians and patients must decide together on the most appropriate strategies to enhance communication and adopt specific guidelines they will adhere to, to detect and cure early breast cancer. Women must be educated about breast screening mammography, and physicians must increase their efforts to proclaim its importance. Women need be assured the trend is toward using the most modern mammographic techniques. Quality medical care is medicine's purpose and in women's best interest. At present, no other diagnostic method is equivalent to mammography and capable of providing an equivalent impact on improving the detection and cure rate of breast cancer. Despite medical activities designed to reduce uncertainty in medicine, scientific evidence has not provided systematic answers as to the "best" way to approach issues of quality, cost, accessibility, or communication for breast screening mammography. No particular expert opinion or preference prevails for breast screening protocols. What is needed is adoption of a multidisciplinary approach, educating and motivating women and physicians to participate in breast screening activities. With trends directed toward high-volume breast screening operations, low-cost, quality mammography must be available and be impeccably performed. Some activities are natural subjects for financial quantification. It is objectionable to assume, however, that we can accurately place and agree on dollar amounts alone to represent the costs and benefits of screening mammography. The gaps between practices and attitudes about the benefits, risks, and costs of screening mammography suggest that people are not satisfied with the way physicians, women, influential groups, or regulatory agencies are balancing all of the elements. Better communication must exist between physicians and their peer groups involved in performing responsible mammography. Better communication must be achieved between physicians and women to take advantage of the usefulness of quality breast screening mammography. High-quality screening programs must be linked to third-party reimbursement and to legislation, if we are to make a difference. Screening mammography deserves our medical, economic, social, and political attention and action. PMID:2092250

  18. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Cancer.gov

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  19. Stochastic dominance for project screening and selection under uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Adeyemo, Adekunle M

    2013-01-01

    At any given moment, engineering and chemical companies have a host of projects that they are either trying to screen to advance to the next stage of research or select from for implementation. These choices could range ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening: Defining the Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E.; Brucker, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Ortmann, O.; Albring, C.; Wallwiener, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of a National Cancer Plan published in 2012, Germany has followed the recommendations of the WHO and the EU. The first area of action listed in Germany?s National Cancer Plan is improving the early detection of cancer. Both citizens and medical specialists are encouraged to take responsibility themselves and contribute to the efforts being made to meet the challenge of cancer. Screening for cervical cancer has long been an integral part of the German Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer and now – following the recommendations given in the European Guideline – an organised screening approach shall be developed to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks through a partial reorganisation of existing structures. Before this can be rolled out nationwide, it will be necessary to check the feasibility and suitability of new contents and organisational structures. The Federal Joint Committee which is largely responsible for the process according to the draft law on the implementation of the National Cancer Plan has emphasised the importance of evidence-based medicine and of collaboration between the autonomous governing bodies within the healthcare system to obtain viable results. For medical specialists, the follow-on question is which areas will need more research in future. New process steps need to be developed and verified to see whether they offer evidence which will support defined approaches or whether such evidence needs to be newly compiled, e.g. by testing invitation procedures for screening in trial schemes. The experience gained during the implementation of the existing directive on early detection of cancer should be integrated into the new process. Research initiated by specialists could encourage the development of a new version of the Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer suitable for the Germany?s healthcare system.

  1. A transparent projection screen based on plasmonic Ag nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Saito, Koichiro; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2015-12-28

    A transparent and colourless projection screen is fabricated by depositing a silver nanocube sub-monolayer on a titania thin film. Backward scattering of the silver nanocubes is enhanced by titania in the blue and red regions, to which human eyes are less sensitive. As a result, this screen, which is cost-effective even for large areas, allows projection of full colour images. PMID:26592208

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  3. CT Colonography Screening for Colorectal Cancer Act (S. 2262)

    Cancer.gov

    The bill would amend title XVII of the Social Security Act to provide for Medicare coverage of computed tomography colonography as a colorectal cancer screening test. The bill was introduced by Sen. James Inhofe (R-OK) and referred the Senate Finance

  4. 04-12-2013 DCEG Seminar: Lingen - Oral Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    April 12, 2013 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM EPN Room CDEF + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Mark W. Lingen, DDS, Ph.D., FRCPath.Professor, Departments of Pathology, Medicine and Radiation & Cellular OncologyUniversity of ChicagoTitle: Oral cancer screening

  5. Barriers and Facilitators Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Stuifbergen, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that women with various types of chronic disabling conditions are less likely to participate in routine breast cancer screening than those without disabling conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators related to breast cancer screening among women with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 36 women with MS, whose mean age was 55 years, participated in a semistructured interview in a private setting. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The interview questions, informed by the Health Belief Model, addressed knowledge, experience, barriers, and facilitators related to breast cancer screening. Qualitative descriptive techniques were used to analyze the data. About 94% of the women in the sample were white, 67% were married, 47% had at least a bachelor's degree, and 31% were unemployed because of their disability. The results showed that 70% of these women had received annual mammograms and 50% had performed monthly breast self-examinations. Of the women who had not received mammograms, most (80%) had mobility limitations. Some of the women in this study described various environmental and intrapersonal barriers to breast cancer screening. Among these were barriers related to transportation, difficulty in positioning for the examination, health-care provider attitudes, not remembering, fear, discomfort, and “having enough to handle.” Facilitators included annual reminders and helpful health-care providers. PMID:22942803

  6. Fatalistic Beliefs and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Mexican Women.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Fatalistic beliefs about cervical cancer were studied in 464 Mexican women, and how such beliefs relate to participation in cervical cancer screening was evaluated. Rural women were less likely than urban women to have had a Pap test and more likely to believe that the illness is due to bad luck or fate. These were also the beliefs most associated with nonscreening among rural women, whereas for urban women the belief most associated with nonscreening was "there is not much I can do to prevent cervical cancer." PMID:25256106

  7. [Possibilities of the TruScreen for screening of precancer and cancer of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2009-01-01

    The classic approach of detection of pre-cancer and cancer of uterine cervix includes cytological examination, followed by colposcopy assessment of the detected cytological abnormalities. Real-time devices use in-vivo techniques for the measurement, computerized analysis and classifying of different types of cervical tissues. The aim of the present review is to present the technical characteristics and to discus the diagnostic possibilities of TruScreen-automated optical-electron system for cervical screening. The analysis of the presented in the literature diagnostic value of the method at different grades intraepithelial lesions shows that it has higher sensitivity (67-70%) and lower specificity (81%) in comparison to the Pap test with the following results (45-69% sensitivity and 95% specificity). This makes the method suitable for independent primary screening, as well as for adding the diagnostic assurance of the cytological method. PMID:20225497

  8. [Intelligent distributed system of population cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Barchuk, A A; Podolsky, M D; Gaidukov, V S; Kuznetsov, V I; Arseniev, A I; Kanaev, S V; Barchuk, A S; Levchenko, E V; Merabishvili, V M; Kostitsyn, K A; Beloglazova, O V; Filochkina, A V; Gagua, K E; Preis, V G; Tarakanov, S A

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes data dedicated to improving the efficiency of screening of malignant tumors through the use of modern information and telecommunication technologies. It is showed that currently available software solutions in the field of medical imaging is not enough adapted for population screening. So far there is no single standard that defines checking algorithms of data processing at certain controlled conditions. The most expected result will be the organization of information centralized storage, sharing diagnostic data, providing broad access to them, automated analysis and selection of diagnostically significant results through the software. The basic requirements for the development of self-learning systems for intelligent processing array of heterogeneous data through the use of technologies of semantic networks are provided. PMID:26571818

  9. Cancer Prevalence Estimates | Cancer Prevalence and Cost of Care Projections

    Cancer.gov

    This site is based on a study that estimates and projects the national cost of cancer care through the year 2020 separately for multiple cancer sites using the most recent available U.S. population projections, cancer incidence, survival, and cost of care data.

  10. Screening for Breast Cancer: Making Sense of the Recommendations for Average and High-Risk Women

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Screening for Breast Cancer: Making Sense of the Recommendations for Average and High-Risk Women new breast cancer screening guidelines. Unfortunately, this ill-timed release coincided with debate these guidelines for women at average-risk and also examine new data on the breast cancer screening options

  11. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  12. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  13. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  14. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  15. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  16. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  17. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  18. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  19. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  20. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  1. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  2. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  3. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  4. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

  5. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  6. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  7. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing Pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16?±?0.94 vs 2.52?±?0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

  8. Detection rates of high-grade prostate cancer during subsequent screening visits. Results of the European Randomized Screening Study for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Ciatto, Stefano; Martikainen, Paula M; Hoedemaeker, Robert; Laurila, Marita; Pihl, Carl-Gustaph; Hugosson, Jonas; Neetens, Ingrid; Nelen, Vera; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Roobol, Monique J; Määtänen, Liisa; Santonja, Carlos; Moss, Sue; Schröder, Fritz H

    2006-05-15

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests has led to a stage and grade shift as compared to the pre-PSA era. Effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer should be manifested by a reduction in detection rate of aggressive cancers during subsequent screening. In 6 centers of the European Randomized Screening study for Prostate Cancer, a total of 58,710 men were tested for prostate cancer. Screening centers differed with regard to age-range, screening interval and biopsy indications. During the 2nd visit, the proportion of Gleason score 6 cancers increased from 62.5 to 75%, mainly at the expense of Gleason score 7 cancers. High-grade (Gleason score 8-10) cancer detection rates varied per screening center during the 1st visit from 5.1 to 41.1, and during the 2nd visit from 6.4 to 29.3/10,000 men. The overall detection rate of high-grade cancers showed a reduction during the 2nd visit from 26 to 12/10,000 men, an effect mainly attributable to the screening center with the highest cancer detection rate (i.e. 507/10,000 men). Variations in detection rates among screening centers related among others to biopsy compliance and age range. PMID:16353141

  9. Familial colorectal cancer screening: When and what to do?

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Rossi, Piero; Sica, Giuseppe; Pallone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and represents a clinical challenge. Family members of patients affected by CRC have an increased risk of CRC development. In these individuals, screening is strongly recommended and should be started earlier than in the population with average risk, in order to detect neoplastic precursors, such as adenoma, advanced adenoma, and nonpolypoid adenomatous lesions of the colon. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a non invasive, widespread screening method that can reduce CRC-related mortality. Sigmoidoscopy, alone or in addition to FOBT, represents another screening strategy that reduces CRC mortality. Colonoscopy is the best choice for screening high-risk populations, as it allows simultaneous detection and removal of preneoplastic lesions. The choice of test depends on local health policy and varies among countries. PMID:26185367

  10. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  11. Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Lung Cancer Screening Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Egede, Leonard E.; Shamblin, Clayton; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death for veterans cared for by the US Veterans Health Administration. The LC burden among veterans is almost double that of the general population. Before implementation of an LC screening program, we set out to assess the role of beliefs and attitudes toward LC screening among veterans. Methods: Veterans presenting to the Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center were invited to complete a self-administered survey. The survey comprised questions about demographics, smoking status, health status, and knowledge about LC and willingness to be screened. Responses from veteran ever and never smokers were compared. Results: A total of 209 veterans completed the survey. Smokers were significantly (P < .05) more likely than never smokers to be less educated, have a lower income, and report poorer health. Smokers were more likely than never smokers to have two or more comorbidities, which trended toward significance (P = .062). Smokers were more likely to have been told by a physician that they were at high risk for LC and to believe that they were at risk. Nearly all veterans surveyed (92.8%) would have a CT scan for LC screening, and 92.4% would have surgery for a screen-detected LC. Conclusions: Veterans are overwhelmingly willing to undergo screening for LC, and it seems that participation will not be a barrier to implementation of an LC screening program. The mortality benefit of LC screening, however, may not be generalizable to the veteran population because of a higher number of comorbid conditions. PMID:23764896

  12. Screening for Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Accurate tests for at-risk populations are available for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Effective treatments for all three diseases exist if diagnosed early. New antivirals are making a significant impact on HCV. Liver transplant is curative for early HCC and is prioritized by the United Network for Organ Sharing in the United States. Screening and surveillance for deadly disease only makes sense if there are identifiable populations at risk for the condition, there are sensitive and specific low-cost tests available for the condition, and there are effective treatments for the condition. PMID:26315520

  13. Guaiac faecal occult blood test performance at initial and repeat screens in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, B; Whyte, S; Chilcott, J; Patnick, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: In many countries, screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) relies on repeat testing using the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT). This study aimed to compare gFOBT performance measures between initial and repeat screens. Methods: Data on screening uptake and outcomes from the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) for the years 2008 and 2011 were used. An existing CRC natural history model was used to estimate gFOBT sensitivity and specificity, and the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. Results: The gFOBT sensitivity for CRC was estimated to decrease from 27.35% at the initial screen to 20.22% at the repeat screen. Decreases were also observed for the positive predictive value (8.4–7.2%) and detection rate for CRC (0.19–0.14%). Assuming equal performance measures for both the initial and repeat screens led to an overestimate of the cost effectiveness of gFOBT screening compared with the other screening modalities. Conclusions: Performance measures for gFOBT screening were generally lower in the repeat screen compared with the initial screen. Screening for CRC using gFOBT is likely to be cost-effective; however, the use of different screening modalities may result in additional benefits. Future economic evaluations of gFOBT should not assume equal sensitivities between screening rounds. PMID:25180767

  14. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai‘i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger’s focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being “on the radar” of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through “real talk” (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai‘i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  15. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  16. [Breast cancer screening: a better anamnesis and an informed choice].

    PubMed

    Fauquert, B

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this article is to compare breast cancer screening national and international guidelines for defining a pragmatic and evidence-based attitude for primary care professionals in Belgium. A literature review was made in the main guidelines databases and in the belgian epidemiological and reimbursement databases. The decrease in breast cancer mortality this last decade reduce the screening efficiency by the same extent. Finally, it is recommended to propose systematically mammotest screening between 50 and 70 and to inform the patients by messages developed for this purpose by the KCE. Based on a simple family history, we can define three risk groups (KCE - strong recommendation, moderate evidence level). Start this anamnesis from 30 years old, seems to be logical regards to the exams which have to be done if the risk is very elevated. If the risk is elevated, it is recommended to propose annual mammography between 40 and 49 (KCE - weak recommendation - very low evidence level). If the risk is very elevated, refer to the secondary care. Supplementary data are needed to appreciate the influence of social health determinant on the breast cancer morbidity and mortality and to improve our vision of the screening benefice-risk trade-off. PMID:26591308

  17. [Breast cancer screening in France: an overview in 2009].

    PubMed

    Séradour, Brigitte

    2010-02-20

    French breast cancer screening programme achieved national coverage in 2004-2005, fifteen years after the first pilot programs. The new protocol published in 2001, 2 views per breast every two years allowed systematic clinical examination for women aged 50 to 74. Acceptance rate increased gradually and reached 52.5% in 2008; 65% of mammograms after age 50 are in organized screening. Quality of mammograms has largely increased because of technical control and training of radiologists and radiographers. Digital systems are allowed in the program from January 2008 and it is too early to measure the impact of this new technology. Performance indicators are globally satisfactory, and the number of positive mammograms was 10.1% in 2006. Cancer detection rates increased from 5% per hundred in 2001 to 6.7% per hundred in 2005-2006 and second reading detected 6.4% of all cancers in 2006. Improvements have concerned screening and diagnosis and all age groups. France is the first European country for the annual volume of mammograms in the screening programme. PMID:20225555

  18. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Cibelli; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; de Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  19. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging women to participate in screening is key to reducing CC burden in rural women in China, it is urgent that a targeted health promotion intervention is developed and implemented in project counties, especially targeting older women, women with less education and women in less developed regions, and focus on improving their CC knowledge and encouraging them to communicate with health care providers. The health promotion intervention targeting health care providers is also important to improve their knowledge of CC and provide best advice to women. PMID:26657110

  20. A decision support system for breast cancer detection in screening programs

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Peter

    A decision support system for breast cancer detection in screening programs Marina Velikova1 of breast cancer screening programs is to detect cancers at an early (preclinical) stage, by using pe on reading multi- ple images (at least two) of each breast as a cancerous lesion tends to be observed

  1. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  2. Cervical cancer screening: A never-ending developing program.

    PubMed

    Comparetto, Ciro; Borruto, Franco

    2015-07-16

    With the term "oncological screening", we define the overall performances made to detect early onset of tumors. These tests are conducted on a population that does not have any signs or symptoms related to a neoplasm. The whole population above a certain age, only one sex, only subjects with a high risk of developing cancer due to genetic, professional, discretionary reasons may be involved. Screening campaigns should be associated, when risk factors that can be avoided are known, with campaigns for the prevention of cancer by means of suitable behavior. The goal of cancer screening cannot however be limited to the diagnosis of a greater number of neoplasms. Screening will be useful only if it leads to a reduction in overall mortality or at least in mortality related to the tumor. Screening should then allow the diagnosis of the disease at a stage when there is a possibility of healing, possibility that is instead difficult when the disease is diagnosed at the appearance of signs or symptoms. This is the reason why not all campaigns of cancer screening have the same effectiveness. In Italy, every year there are about 150000 deaths due to cancer. Some of these tumors can be cured with a very high percentage of success if diagnosed in time. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed with non-invasive tests. The screening test used all over the world is Papanicolaou (Pap) test. This test may be carried out over the entire healthy population potentially exposed to the risk of contracting cancer. Public health has begun the screening campaigns in the hope of saving many of the approximately 270000 new cases of cancer reported each year. Screening is done following protocols that guarantee quality at the national level: these protocols are subject to change over time to reflect new realities or to correct any errors in the system. A simplified sketch of a possible route of cancer screening is as follows: (1) after selecting the target population, for example all women between 25 and 64 years (in the case of monitoring of cervical cancer), an invitation letter with the date and time of the appointment, planned according to the acceptance capacity of the hospital, is sent to all individuals; (2) an examination, which depending on the individual and the type of cancer to be monitored, for example, can be a Pap smear, is performed and the patient can go home; (3) once available the results of examinations, if negative, they shall be communicated to the person concerned that will be notified by mail and will be recalled for a second test at a few years of distance, in the case of non-negativity, instead, the patient is contacted by telephone and informed of the need to carry out further examinations: it is said that the patient is in the "phase two" of the screening pathway; (4) in phase two, reached by only a small portion of the interested parties (usually less than 3%-5%), more in-depth tests are carried out, which, depending on the individual and the type of cancer, can be: cytological and colposcopic examinations, the removal of a fragment of tissue (biopsy) and subsequent histological examination, additional tests such as ultrasound, radiography, or others such as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, etc., in case of negativity, the concerned person will be called for new control tests at a a few years of distance, in case of non-negativity, it will be proposed instead an oncologic therapeutic plan and/or surgery to treat the diagnosed tumor; and (5) once the treatment plan is completed, the individual enters the follow-up protocol, which is monitored over time to see if the tumor has been completely removed or if instead it is still developing. Cervical cancer is undoubtedly the most successful example of a cancer screening campaign. Paradoxically, its effectiveness is one of the strongest reasons to criticize the usefulness of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in countries where the screening service with Pap test is organized in an efficient manner. Cervi

  3. Cervical cancer screening: A never-ending developing program

    PubMed Central

    Comparetto, Ciro; Borruto, Franco

    2015-01-01

    With the term “oncological screening”, we define the overall performances made to detect early onset of tumors. These tests are conducted on a population that does not have any signs or symptoms related to a neoplasm. The whole population above a certain age, only one sex, only subjects with a high risk of developing cancer due to genetic, professional, discretionary reasons may be involved. Screening campaigns should be associated, when risk factors that can be avoided are known, with campaigns for the prevention of cancer by means of suitable behavior. The goal of cancer screening cannot however be limited to the diagnosis of a greater number of neoplasms. Screening will be useful only if it leads to a reduction in overall mortality or at least in mortality related to the tumor. Screening should then allow the diagnosis of the disease at a stage when there is a possibility of healing, possibility that is instead difficult when the disease is diagnosed at the appearance of signs or symptoms. This is the reason why not all campaigns of cancer screening have the same effectiveness. In Italy, every year there are about 150000 deaths due to cancer. Some of these tumors can be cured with a very high percentage of success if diagnosed in time. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed with non-invasive tests. The screening test used all over the world is Papanicolaou (Pap) test. This test may be carried out over the entire healthy population potentially exposed to the risk of contracting cancer. Public health has begun the screening campaigns in the hope of saving many of the approximately 270000 new cases of cancer reported each year. Screening is done following protocols that guarantee quality at the national level: these protocols are subject to change over time to reflect new realities or to correct any errors in the system. A simplified sketch of a possible route of cancer screening is as follows: (1) after selecting the target population, for example all women between 25 and 64 years (in the case of monitoring of cervical cancer), an invitation letter with the date and time of the appointment, planned according to the acceptance capacity of the hospital, is sent to all individuals; (2) an examination, which depending on the individual and the type of cancer to be monitored, for example, can be a Pap smear, is performed and the patient can go home; (3) once available the results of examinations, if negative, they shall be communicated to the person concerned that will be notified by mail and will be recalled for a second test at a few years of distance, in the case of non-negativity, instead, the patient is contacted by telephone and informed of the need to carry out further examinations: it is said that the patient is in the “phase two” of the screening pathway; (4) in phase two, reached by only a small portion of the interested parties (usually less than 3%-5%), more in-depth tests are carried out, which, depending on the individual and the type of cancer, can be: cytological and colposcopic examinations, the removal of a fragment of tissue (biopsy) and subsequent histological examination, additional tests such as ultrasound, radiography, or others such as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, etc., in case of negativity, the concerned person will be called for new control tests at a a few years of distance, in case of non-negativity, it will be proposed instead an oncologic therapeutic plan and/or surgery to treat the diagnosed tumor; and (5) once the treatment plan is completed, the individual enters the follow-up protocol, which is monitored over time to see if the tumor has been completely removed or if instead it is still developing. Cervical cancer is undoubtedly the most successful example of a cancer screening campaign. Paradoxically, its effectiveness is one of the strongest reasons to criticize the usefulness of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in countries where the screening service with Pap test is organized in an efficient manne

  4. Screening for Bladder Cancer: Recommendations from the U.S.Preventive Services Task Force

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to look for blood, cancer cells, or tumor biomarkers. Treatments for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, ... tests to look for blood or cancer cells. Biomarker tests are expensive. Adults with a positive screening ...

  5. Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium International Breast Cancer Scr eening Network Biennial Meeting Kathleen Cronin Statistical Research and Applications Branch National Cancer Institute May

  6. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer Institute ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate cancer ...

  7. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor ? activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015. Screening for chemical contributions to breast cancer risk: a case study for chemical safety evaluation. Environ Health Perspect 123:1255–1264;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408337 PMID:26032647

  8. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community. PMID:23334709

  9. Lung cancer screening guidelines. The nurse's role in patient education and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Rebecca H

    2014-06-01

    Although the third leading cancer in incidence following breast and prostate, lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of lung cancer cases are detected at an advanced stage when surgical resection is no longer an option. Recent research has concluded that lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for specific high-risk groups may reduce lung cancer mortality. Public awareness and the need for current information are growing regarding the state of the science relative to lung cancer screening for individuals at high risk for lung cancer. This article provides a historical perspective on the topic of lung cancer screening. The risks and benefits of screening are discussed, and current clinical practice guidelines are reviewed. Oncology nurses will need to be cognizant of the risks, benefits, and current guidelines related to lung cancer screening as they support patients and their families making informed decisions about personal health care. PMID:24867114

  10. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community

    PubMed Central

    Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-01-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based survey was conducted on the Hopi reservation in 2012 (n = 252 women). Frequency of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, participation in HCSS programs and barriers to screening were evaluated. Unconditional multiple logistic regression estimated the independent effect of the HCSS program on CRC screening. Approximately 88 % of Hopi women 40+ reported ever having had a mammogram; 71 % did so within the past 2 years. Approximately 66 % of women 50+ were ever screened for colorectal cancer (FOBT and/or colonoscopy). Women who had their last mammogram through HCSS were 2.81 (95 % CI 1.12, 7.07) times more likely to have been screened for CRC. Breast and cervical cancer screening continues at a high rate among Hopi women and is substantially greater than that reported prior to the inception of HCSS. Furthermore, participation in programs offered by HCSS is strongly associated with increased colorectal cancer screening. This tribal health program (HCSS) has strongly influenced cancer screening among Hopi women and is a model of a tribally run cancer prevention program. PMID:26091896

  11. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for gastric cancer, both environmental and genetic. Serological markers and histological precursor lesions of GC and early detection of GC of using these markers is reviewed. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies and provide suggestions for further research. PMID:24618998

  12. ICSN Data - Organization of Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

  13. Prostate cancer screening: what general practitioners and patients need to know.

    PubMed

    Boyden, A

    1996-09-01

    Much controversy surrounds the appropriateness of screening for prostate cancer. The individual benefit from screening is unproven. Screening may result in many men being unnecessarily treated for prostate cancer with the associated risks of developing treatment related side effects, including impotence and incontinence. Men requesting screening need to be informed of these issues before they decide whether to proceed. This article reviews the current position in relation to screening, critically appraising current thinking in order to clarify the issues. PMID:8854414

  14. [Psychological consequences of breast cancer screening among healthy women].

    PubMed

    von Bülow, B

    2000-02-21

    The number of healthy women undergoing screening for cancer is very large. It is therefore important to know about the psychological consequences of screening. The literature for this review was found by searching in national and international databases and reading lists of references. This review finds that both women with negative test results and women with false positive test results report on psychological consequences such as fear and raised anxiety, depression, impaired working capacity, reduced self-esteem and self-confidence, as well as effects on their relationship to other people. They also report on physical symptoms such as impaired sleep or appetite. This review suggests that methods other than psychometric questionnaires would offer more knowledge on the subject and that future research should concentrate on those women experiencing serious psychological effects of screening. PMID:10741242

  15. Colorectal Cancer Screening Activities in ICSN Countries, June 2006

    Cancer.gov

    Following the successful pilot program that ran from 2002-2004, the Australian government has allocated funding to phase in a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program, using an immunochemical FOBT, followed by colonoscopy if indicated. The first phase of the program (2006-2008) will target people turning 55 or 65 years of age between 1 May 2006 and 30 June 2008 and those who participated in the Pilot Program.

  16. Laser speckle reduction via colloidal-dispersion-filled projection screens.

    PubMed

    Riechert, Falko; Bastian, Georg; Lemmer, Uli

    2009-07-01

    We use projection screens filled with colloidal dispersions to reduce laser speckle in laser projection systems. Laser light is multiply scattered at the globules of the colloidal dispersion's internal phase, which do Brownian movement. The integration time of the human eye causes a perception of a reduced laser speckle contrast because of temporal averaging. As a counteracting effect, blurring of projected images occurs in the colloidal dispersion, which degrades image quality. We measure and compare speckle reduction and blurring of three different colloidal dispersions filled into transmission screens of different thicknesses. We realized a high speckle contrast reduction at simultaneously low blurring with a thin screen filled with a highly scattering colloidal dispersion with forward-peaked scattering. We realize speckle contrast values below 3% at acceptable blurring. PMID:19571932

  17. Upward Communication About Cancer Screening—Adolescent Daughter to Mother

    PubMed Central

    MOSAVEL, MAGHBOEBA; PORTS, KATIE A.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial breast and cervical cancer disparities exist in the United States, particularly among African American women with low social economic status. There is considerable potential for discussions about cancer prevention between mothers and daughters. However, upward communication, from child to parent, remains a relatively novel research area, and it remains unclear how receptive mothers would be to messages from their daughter about cancer, a topic that may be considered culturally inappropriate for daughters to initiate. In this study, we simulated cancer message delivery to daughters and then conducted direct observation of daughters as they recalled and shared the message with their mother or female elder. We found that daughters were able to successfully recall and deliver a cancer appeal to their mother and mothers were generally receptive to this message. Not only did mothers listen to their daughters’ appeals, but also daughters’ knowledge of cancer was considerably improved by the opportunity to educate her female elder. Moreover, daughters’ nonverbal communication suggested a surprisingly relaxed demeanor. The potential of young people to impact the screening behavior of their female elders is very promising in terms of reducing cancer disparities. PMID:25848895

  18. Estimation of screening test (Hemoccult®) sensitivity in colorectal cancer mass screening

    PubMed Central

    Jouve, J L; Remontet, L; Dancourt, V; Lejeune, C; Benhamiche, A M; Faivre, J; Esteve, J

    2001-01-01

    3 controlled cohorts of mass-screening for colorectal cancer using a biennial faecal occult blood (HemoccultII®) test on well-defined European populations have demonstrated a 14% to 18% reduction in specific mortality. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity (S) of this HemoccultII®test and and also mean sojourn time (MST) from French colorectal mass-screening programme data. 6 biennial screening rounds were performed from 1988 to 1998 in 45 603 individuals aged 45–74 years in Saône-et-Loire (Burgundy, France). The prevalent/incidence ratio was calculated in order to obtain a direct estimate of the product S.MST. The analysis of the proportional incidence and its modelling was used to derive an indirect estimate of S and MST. The product S.MST was higher for males than females and higher for left colon than either the right colon or rectum. The analysis of the proportional incidence confirmed the result for subsites but no other significant differences were found. The sensitivity was estimated at 0.57 and the MST at 2.56 years. This study confirms that the sensitivity of the Hemoccult test is relatively low and that the relatively short sojourn time is in favour of annual screening. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384097

  19. [Depression and advanced cancer: agreement between different screening strategies].

    PubMed

    Rhondali, Wadih; Chirac, Anne; Celles, Laurent; Filbet, Marilène

    2014-02-01

    Depression is a frequent problem in advanced cancer patients. However, there is no systematic screening for depression in the majority of cancer center resulting in underdiagnosed depression among cancer patients. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of agreement between self-reported depression by the patient and the physician and nurse assessment using the same tools. One of the secondary objectives was to estimate the possibility of a systematic and repeated (at one month) assessment. We used two scales for depression screening: the Brief Edinburg Depression Scale (BEDS) and the depression item of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Twenty-nine patients were included and eight of them (28%) had a BEDS score >6 and benefited from the initiation or modification of their antidepressant treatment. At visit 2, 15 patients were seen again and BEDS score was found ?6 for all of them. A moderate concordance was found between assessment using the BEDS by patient and physician's (?=0.519) and low agreement was found between physician and nurse regardless of the tool used (? from 0.071 to 0.313). Researches with larger cohorts are now needed to confirm the benefits of depression's screening in this frail population and also to assess available strategies. PMID:24556283

  20. Problems in screening colorectal cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Mladen, Davidovic M.; Dragoslav, Milosevic P.; Sanja, Zdravkovic; Bozidar, Bojic; Snezana, Djurica

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the problems in the screening of colorectal carcinoma in the elderly. METHODS: Three models of colorectal cancer prevention were examined: standard screening, active check-up of suspected cases and summons to have endoscopic check-up for previously diagnosed colorectal polyps. The study was performed among three groups of elderly individuals: Group 1 (167 cases), hospitalized asymptomatic individuals without symptoms in large intestines. Group 2 (612 cases): old individuals at home for the aged, out of which 32 showed symptoms of colon disorders; Group 3 (44 cases): elderly people with diagnosed polyps. As a result of 1788 rectosigmoidoscopies, we identified 61 individuals with polyps, out of which 44 patients were over 65 years old. However, only 9 of these 44 individuals agreed to have the endoscopy performed again. RESULTS: One cancer and 13 polyps were detected in Group 1, and two polyps in Group 2. However, it should be noted that only eleven individuals from Group 2 agreed to have the endoscopy. In Group 3, there were no relapses of the polyps among the nine individuals who came back for the endoscopy. CONCLUSION: Poor understanding of the screening procedures is one of the greatest problems in early detection of the cancer in the aged. Paradoxically, the cooperation is better with hospitalized patients, than with “successfully old” persons. PMID:14562405

  1. Implementing lung cancer screening in the real world: opportunity, challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Optican, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that, in 2012, there were 1,589,925 deaths from lung cancer worldwide. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has the potential to significantly alter this statistic, by identifying lung cancers in earlier stages, enabling curative treatment. Challenges remain, however, in replicating the 20% mortality benefit demonstrated by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), in populations outside the confines of a research trial, not only in the US but around the world. We review the history of lung cancer screening, the current evidence for LDCT screening, and the key elements needed for a successful screening program. PMID:26380176

  2. Mammographic and clinical characteristics of different phenotypes of screen-detected and interval breast cancers in a nationwide screening program.

    PubMed

    Baré, Marisa; Torà, Núria; Salas, Dolores; Sentís, Melchor; Ferrer, Joana; Ibáñez, Josefa; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Barata, Teresa; Domingo, Laia; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the context of a population-based screening program, we aimed to evaluate the major mammographic features and clinicopathological characteristics of breast tumors at diagnosis and the associations between them, focusing on tumors with the worst prognosis. We analyzed cancers diagnosed in a cohort of 645,764 women aged 45-69 years participating in seven population-based screening programs in Spain, between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2006 and followed up until June 2009. We included all interval cancers and a sample of screen-detected cancers, whether invasive or in situ. We compared tumor-related information and breast density for different phenotypes (Triple-negative (TN), HER2+, Luminal B and Luminal A) in screen-detected and interval cancers. We used Chi-square or Fisher's exact test to compare major mammographic features of invasive versus in situ tumors, of screen-detected versus interval cancers, and of different types of interval cancers. We included 2582 tumors (1570 screen-detected and 1012 interval cancers). There were significant differences in the distribution of most clinicopathological variables between screen-detected and interval cancers. Invasive TN interval tumors were more common than other phenotypes in breasts with low mammographic density; three-quarters of these tumors presented as masses without associated calcifications. HER2+ tumors were more common in denser breasts and were associated with calcifications and multifocality. Architectural distortion was more common in Luminal A and Luminal B tumors. Certain radiologic findings are associated with pre-invasive lesions; these differ among invasive tumor phenotypes. We corroborate that TN and HER2+ cancers have distinctive appearances also in the context of population-based screening programs. This information can be useful for establishing protocols for diagnostic strategies in screening units. PMID:26531756

  3. Modeling human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in the United States for analyses of screening and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Stout, Natasha K; Ortendahl, Jesse; Kuntz, Karen M; Goldie, Sue J; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-01-01

    Background To provide quantitative insight into current U.S. policy choices for cervical cancer prevention, we developed a model of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, explicitly incorporating uncertainty about the natural history of disease. Methods We developed a stochastic microsimulation of cervical cancer that distinguishes different HPV types by their incidence, clearance, persistence, and progression. Input parameter sets were sampled randomly from uniform distributions, and simulations undertaken with each set. Through systematic reviews and formal data synthesis, we established multiple epidemiologic targets for model calibration, including age-specific prevalence of HPV by type, age-specific prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV type distribution within CIN and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. For each set of sampled input parameters, likelihood-based goodness-of-fit (GOF) scores were computed based on comparisons between model-predicted outcomes and calibration targets. Using 50 randomly resampled, good-fitting parameter sets, we assessed the external consistency and face validity of the model, comparing predicted screening outcomes to independent data. To illustrate the advantage of this approach in reflecting parameter uncertainty, we used the 50 sets to project the distribution of health outcomes in U.S. women under different cervical cancer prevention strategies. Results Approximately 200 good-fitting parameter sets were identified from 1,000,000 simulated sets. Modeled screening outcomes were externally consistent with results from multiple independent data sources. Based on 50 good-fitting parameter sets, the expected reductions in lifetime risk of cancer with annual or biennial screening were 76% (range across 50 sets: 69–82%) and 69% (60–77%), respectively. The reduction from vaccination alone was 75%, although it ranged from 60% to 88%, reflecting considerable parameter uncertainty about the natural history of type-specific HPV infection. The uncertainty surrounding the model-predicted reduction in cervical cancer incidence narrowed substantially when vaccination was combined with every-5-year screening, with a mean reduction of 89% and range of 83% to 95%. Conclusion We demonstrate an approach to parameterization, calibration and performance evaluation for a U.S. cervical cancer microsimulation model intended to provide qualitative and quantitative inputs into decisions that must be taken before long-term data on vaccination outcomes become available. This approach allows for a rigorous and comprehensive description of policy-relevant uncertainty about health outcomes under alternative cancer prevention strategies. The model provides a tool that can accommodate new information, and can be modified as needed, to iteratively assess the expected benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of different policies in the U.S. PMID:17967185

  4. Examining breast cancer screening barriers among Central American and Mexican immigrant women: fatalistic beliefs or structural factors?

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Miller, Eva B

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined "cancer fatalism" (the belief that cancer is predetermined, beyond individual control, and necessarily fatal) as a major barrier to breast cancer screening among Latinas. The authors examine perceptions of breast cancer, its causes, and experiences with screening among Salvadoran, Guatemalan, Mexican, and Bolivian immigrant women in Washington, DC. Two salient themes emerged: (a) perceptions of breast cancer causes and breast cancer screening; and (b) structural factors are the real barriers to breast cancer screening. Findings demonstrate participants' awareness and motivation to get screened and elucidate structural barriers that are obscured by the discourse of fatalism and hinder breast cancer screening. PMID:25383565

  5. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening

  6. Using an Ocean of Data, Researchers Model Real-Life Benefits of Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Using the results of screening trials, the NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network is trying to estimate the true benefit of cancer screening in the general population and identify the optimal way to implement screening within the health care system.

  7. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Cancer.gov

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  8. Mapping International Cancer Activities – Global Cancer Project Map Launch

    Cancer.gov

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning. This tool, the Global Cancer Project Map (GCPM), is a database that allows users locate and learn more about international cancer projects and research programs through the use of an interactive world map.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening Among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Sanchez, Ingrid A; Cano, Miguel A; Byrd, Theresa L; Vernon, Sally W; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E

    2015-10-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline survey about Pap test attitudes subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to be screened for cervical cancer. At 6 months postbaseline, cervical cancer screening behavior was assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theory. Model fit statistics indicated good model fit: ?(2)(48) = 54.32, p = .246; comparative fit index = .992; root mean square error of approximation = .015; weighted root mean square residual = .687. Subjective norms (p = .005) and perceived behavioral control (p < .0001) were positively associated with intention to be screened for cervical cancer, and the intention to be screened predicted actual cervical cancer screening (p < .0001). The proportion of variance (R(2)) in intention accounted for by the predictors was .276 and the R(2) in cervical cancer screening accounted for was .130. This study provides support for the use of the theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among Latinas. This knowledge can be used to inform the development of a theory of planned behavior-based intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas and reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer in this group of women. PMID:25712240

  10. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Great Britain: Dynamic interrelated processes.

    PubMed

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-12-01

    No previous analysis has investigated the determinants of screening uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening for possible spillover effects from one type of screening examination to the other type of screening examination with a dynamic bivariate panel probit model. For our analysis, we used a dynamic random effects bivariate panel probit model with initial conditions (Wooldridge-type estimator) and dependent variables were the participation of breast and cervical cancer screening in the recent year. The balanced panel sample consisted of 844 women from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) from the time period 1992 to 2008. Our analysis showed the high relevance of past screening behaviour and the importance of state dependency for the same and the other type of cancer screening examinations even after controlling for covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. The uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening was higher when the same screening examination was done one or three years earlier. This result is in accordance with the medical screening programmes in Great Britain. With regard to breast and cervical cancer screening positive spillover effects existed between screening examinations in the third order lags. Women with a previous visit to a general practitioner and individuals in the recommended age groups had a higher uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening. Other socioeconomic and health related variables had non-uniform results in both screening examinations. Promoting the uptake of one female prevention activity could also enhance the uptake of the other prevention activity. PMID:26487452

  11. variantGPS: SNP500Cancer Project

    Cancer.gov

    The SNP500Cancer is part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project and is specifically designed to generate resources for the identification and characterization of genetic variation in genes important in cancer. CGAP is dedicated to the development of technology, including both assays and utilization of technical platforms.

  12. Optimising faecal occult blood screening:retrospective analysis of NHS Bowel Cancer Screening data to improve the screening algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, J; Butler, P; Seaman, H; Snowball, J; Sarkar, S; Blanks, R; Halloran, S; Bodger, K; Rees, C J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Colorectal neoplasia causes bleeding, enabling detection using Faecal Occult Blood tests (FOBt). The National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) guaiac-based FOBt (gFOBt) kits contain six sample windows (or ‘spots') and each kit returns either a positive, unclear or negative result. Test kits with five or six positive windows are termed ‘abnormal' and the subject is referred for further investigation, usually colonoscopy. If 1–4 windows are positive, the result is initially ‘unclear' and up to two further kits are submitted, further positivity leads to colonoscopy (‘weak positive'). If no further blood is detected, the test is deemed ‘normal' and subjects are tested again in 2 years' time. We studied the association between spot positivity % (SP%) and neoplasia. Methods: Subjects in the Southern Hub completing the first of two consecutive episodes between April 2009 and March 2011 were studied. Each episode included up to three kits and a maximum of 18 windows (spots). For each positivity combination, the percentage of positive spots out of the total number of spots completed by an individual in a single-screening episode was derived and named ‘SP%'. Fifty-five combinations of SP can occur if the position of positive/negative spots on the same test card is ignored. The proportion of individuals for whom neoplasia was identified in Episode 2 was derived for each of the 55 spot combinations. In addition, the Episode 1 spot pattern was analysed for subjects with cancer detected in Episode 2. Results: During Episode 2, 284?261 subjects completed gFOBT screening and colonoscopies were performed on 3891 (1.4%) subjects. At colonoscopy, cancer was detected in 7.4% (n=286) and a further 39.8% (n=1550) had adenomas. Cancer was detected in 21.3% of subjects with an abnormal first kit (five or six positive spots) and in 5.9% of those with a weak positive test result. The proportion of cancers detected was positively correlated with SP%, with an R2 correlation (linear) of 0.89. As the SP% increased from 11 to 100%, so the colorectal cancer (CRC) detection rate increased from 4 to 25%. At the lower SP%s, from 11to 25%, the CRC risk was relatively static at ?4%. Above an SP% of 25%, every 10-percentage points increase in the SP%, was associated with an increase in cancer detection of 2.5%. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a strong correlation between SP% and cancer detection within the NHS BCSP. At the population level, subjects' cancer risk ranged from 4 to 25% and correlated with the gFOBt spot pattern. Some subjects with an SP% of 11% proceed to colonoscopy, whereas others with an SP% of 22% do not. Colonoscopy on patients with four positive spots in kit 1 (SP% 22%) would, we estimate, detect cancer in ?4% of cases and increase overall colonoscopy volume by 6%. This study also demonstrated how screening programme data could be used to guide its ongoing implementation and inform other programmes. PMID:25225905

  13. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...screened according to guidelines. Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other common cancers, particularly breast and cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other...

  14. Colorectal cancer screening in Canada: results from the first round of screening for five provincial programs

    PubMed Central

    Major, D.; Bryant, H.; Delaney, M.; Fekete, S.; Gentile, L.; Harrison, M.; Mai, V.; Nicholson, E.; Taylor, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early implementation of programmatic colorectal cancer (crc) screening for average-risk individuals 50–74 years of age in Canada has used fecal occult blood tests [fts (guaiac or immunochemical)] and colonoscopy for follow-up of abnormal fts. This paper presents results of an evaluation of this crc screening. Methods Five Canadian provincial programs provided aggregated data for individuals with a first-round ft processed between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Results The 104,750 people who successfully completed a first round of screening represented 16.1% of those who had access to the programs between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011 (mean age: 61.2 years; men: 61.4 years; women: 61.1 years). Of those participants, 4661 had an abnormal ft (4.4%). Uptake of colonoscopy within 180 days after an abnormal ft was 80.5%, ranging from 67.8% to 89.5% by program. The positive predictive value (ppv) for adenoma was 35.9% for guaiac ft and 50.6% for immunochemical ft. Adenoma and crc detection rates were, respectively, 16.9 and 1.8 per 1000 screened. Of invasive crcs detected, 64.6% were stage i or ii. Conclusions Considering the variation in characteristics and stage of implementation of each provincial program, the collaboration of the provinces leading to this report on the early performance of crc screening in Canada is a major milestone. Targets are met or nearly met for significant indicators such as ppv for adenoma and cancer detection rate. Participation is expected to increase as programs are fully implemented in the provinces. Additional effort may be needed to improve timely access to follow-up colonoscopy. PMID:24155629

  15. Developing Screening Services for Colorectal Cancer on Android Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chiao-Jung; Lin, Chun-Che; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Che-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem in Western countries and also in Asia. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in Taiwan. According to the well-known adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the majority of CRC develops from colorectal adenomatous polyps. This concept provides the rationale for screening and prevention of CRC. Removal of colorectal adenoma could reduce the mortality and incidence of CRC. Mobile phones are now playing an ever more crucial role in people's daily lives. The latest generation of smartphones is increasingly viewed as hand-held computers rather than as phones, because of their powerful on-board computing capability, capacious memories, large screens, and open operating systems that encourage development of applications (apps). Subjects and Methods: If we can detect the potential CRC patients early and offer them appropriate treatments and services, this would not only promote the quality of life, but also reduce the possible serious complications and medical costs. In this study, an intelligent CRC screening app on Android™ (Google™, Mountain View, CA) smartphones has been developed based on a data mining approach using decision tree algorithms. For comparison, the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test were also used. Results: Compared with the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test, the proposed app system not only provides an easy and efficient way to quickly detect high-risk groups of potential CRC patients, but also brings more information about CRC to customer-oriented services. Conclusions: We developed and implemented an app system on Android platforms for ubiquitous healthcare services for CRC screening. It can assist people in achieving early screening, diagnosis, and treatment purposes, prevent the occurrence of complications, and thus reach the goal of preventive medicine. PMID:24848873

  16. Proactive Screening for Young Children with Behavioral Problems: The Early Screening Project (ESP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Edward G.; And Others

    This paper describes the Early Screening Project (ESP), a system to identify behavior problems among preschool children ages 3 to 5. The ESP is a three-stage, multiple-gating set of procedures which assesses both the frequency and intensity of adjustment problems. In Stage 1, teachers rank students on externalizing and internalizing behavior…

  17. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  18. Breast Cancer Screening, Area Deprivation, and Later-Stage Breast Cancer in Appalachia: Does Geography Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Roger T; Yang, Tse-Chang; Matthews, Stephen A; Camacho, Fabian; Kern, Teresa; Mackley, Heath B; Kimmick, Gretchen; Louis, Christopher; Lengerich, Eugene; Yao, Nengliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the relationship of an area-based measure of a breast cancer screening and geographic area deprivation on the incidence of later stage breast cancer (LSBC) across a diverse region of Appalachia. Data Source Central cancer registry data (2006–2008) from three Appalachian states were linked to Medicare claims and census data. Study Design Exploratory spatial analysis preceded the statistical model based on negative binomial regression to model predictors and effect modification by geographic subregions. Principal Findings Exploratory spatial analysis revealed geographically varying effects of area deprivation and screening on LSBC. In the negative binomial regression model, predictors of LSBC included receipt of screening, area deprivation, supply of mammography centers, and female population aged >75 years. The most deprived counties had a 3.31 times greater rate of LSBC compared to the least deprived. Effect of screening on LSBC was significantly stronger in northern Appalachia than elsewhere in the study region, found mostly for high-population counties. Conclusions Breast cancer screening and area deprivation are strongly associated with disparity in LBSC in Appalachia. The presence of geographically varying predictors of later stage tumors in Appalachia suggests the importance of place-based health care access and risk. PMID:24117371

  19. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Thomas L.; Cataneo, Renee N.; Lebauer, Cassie; Mundada, Mayur; Pass, Harvey I.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Rom, William N.; Vallières, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Methods Model-building phase (unblinded): Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation): We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively). The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF) values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B). Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Results Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88). In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel. Conclusions Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a separate independent cohort, in a blinded replicated study. Combining breath biomarkers with chest CT could potentially improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00639067 PMID:26698306

  20. research Project spotlight fast and Privacy-Preserving screening

    E-print Network

    Yao, Danfeng "Daphne'

    research Project spotlight fast and Privacy-Preserving screening of massive Data for leaks Danfeng modern businesses. Unfortunately, there are numerous ways for data to be leaked out of organization that the detection of data leak can be performed without revealing the sensitive patterns. This feature is quite

  1. Medical Student Response to a Class Lipid-Screening Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Gifford; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Medical students at the State University of New York's Downstate Medical Center initiated and carried out a voluntary project to screen lipids (cholesterol) to identify known coronary risk factors. The incidence of coronary disease factors among these students and the response of students with high cholesterol levels are reported. (Authors/PP)

  2. Reducing cancer screening disparities in medicare beneficiaries through cancer patient navigation.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Thomas, William L; Domingo, Jermy-Leigh B; Allison, Amanda L; Ponce, Avette; Haunani Kamakana, P; Brazzel, Sandra S; Emmett Aluli, N; Tsark, JoAnn U

    2015-02-01

    Significant racial disparities in cancer mortality are seen between Medicare beneficiaries. A randomized controlled trial tested the use of lay navigators (care managers) to increase cancer screening of Asian and Pacific Islander Medicare beneficiaries. The study setting was Moloka'i General Hospital on the island of Moloka'i, Hawai'i, which was one of six sites participating in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Between 2006 and 2009, 488 Medicare beneficiaries (45% Hawaiian, 35% Filipino, 11% Japanese, 8% other) were randomized to have a navigator help them access cancer screening services (experimental condition, n = 242) or cancer education (control condition, n = 246). Self-reported data on screening participation were collected at baseline and exit from the study, and differences were tested using chi-square. Groups were similar in demographic characteristics and baseline screening prevalence of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers. At study exit, 57.0% of women in the experimental arm and 36.4% of controls had had a Papanicolaou test in the past 24 months (P = .001), 61.7% of women in the experimental arm and 42.4% of controls had had a mammogram in the past 12 months (P = .003), 54.4% of men in the experimental arm and 36.0% of controls had had a prostate-specific antigen test in the past 12 months (P = .008), and 43.0% of both sexes in the experimental arm and 27.2% of controls had had a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the past 5 years (P < .001). Findings suggest that navigation services can increase cancer screening in Medicare beneficiaries in groups with significant disparities. PMID:25640884

  3. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  4. [Screening for colorectal cancer: even with virtual colography?].

    PubMed

    Layer, G; Riemann, J F

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is responsible for 27,000 deaths and 65,000 new cancers in Germany each year, although this should be unnecessary as CRC is preventable because it is possible to remove the precursors, harmless polyps and adenomas. However, only 2.5?% of people in health insurance make use of screening colonoscopy annually so that it becomes necessary to check out other screening tests. The most commonly used test is the Guaiak-based test for fecal occult blood (gFOBT) which is highly specific but not very sensitive (only approximately 10?%). New immunological stool tests are more sensitive but the specificity is reduced from 90?% to approximately 80?%. Virtual colonoscopy based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is comparable to endoscopy for diagnostics with overall accuracy rates of approximately 80-90?% for polyps larger than 5 mm but for radiation protection reasons CT is not usable in Germany and MRI is internationally not adequately established by large study trials. For the future there is much hope in molecular blood tests. It is of great importance that every physician is aware of the different tests, their strengths and weaknesses and advises all patients to use the different screening possibilities. PMID:23933636

  5. Monitoring diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP

    Cancer.gov

    Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP Julietta Patnick ICSN 2008 Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Screening: Principles • Maintenance of minimum

  6. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  7. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kayoko; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kaida, Shogo; Nishida, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG): Group A [H. pylori (?) PG (?)], Group B [H. pylori (+) PG (?)], Group C [H. pylori (+) PG (+)], and Group D [H. pylori (?) PG (+)]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1) high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2) high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3) low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1), every two years in (2), and annually in (3) should be considered. PMID:26494936

  8. Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

  9. 8/30/2013 7:53 AM Combined DES/SD Model of Breast Cancer Screening for

    E-print Network

    8/30/2013 7:53 AM Combined DES/SD Model of Breast Cancer Screening for Older Women, II: Screening Combined DES/SD Model of Breast Cancer Screening for Older Women, II: Screening-and-Treatment Simulation of breast cancer in US women of age 65+. The first article details a natural-history simulation model

  10. Factors Associated with the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Portland, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Butho; Bey, Amita; Knight, Jeremy; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims: This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women's decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women's cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR): 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.52). Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women's use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer. PMID:25839002

  11. Save the Date! International Cancer Screening Network Meeting in 2015

    Cancer.gov

    The scientific program for the next International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) meeting is being developed. The meeting is being co-chaired by Drs. Carrie Klabunde (ARP Health Services and Economics Branch) and Harry de Koning (Erasmus Medical Center), and will be held on June 2-4, 2015, in the Netherlands. Staff involved in the planning effort include Dr. Klabunde and Dr. Paul Doria-Rose (ARP Health Services and Economics Branch), Dr. Stephen Taplin (Chief, Process of Care Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program), Ms.

  12. Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Park, Young Sook; Lee, Eun Ok; Yun, Soon Nyung

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests from a feminist perspective. Twenty Korean women working in Dong-Dae-Moon Market in Seoul, South Korea were recruited using a convenience sampling method. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guideline that was developed for the study. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. The themes emerged from the analysis process included: "importance of breasts to women", "fearful, but not related to me", "bad previous experience", and "no need for a breast exam." Based on the findings, implications for nursing practice are proposed. PMID:15240081

  13. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: Exploring Perceptions and Barriers with Hmong Women and Men in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Kue, Jennifer; Zukoski, Ann; Keon, Karen Levy; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hmong women are reported to have very low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening compared to other Asian and White women in the U.S. Reasons for low cancer screening rates among this population are not well understood. METHODS This qualitative study (n=83) explored Hmong women and men’s perceptions of breast and cervical cancer and cancer screening, women’s experiences with breast and cervical cancer screening, and health care system barriers to screening. RESULTS Hmong women and men perceived breast cancer to be more severe than other types of cancers. Participants believed that breast cancer is curable if detected early. Cervical cancer was not well understood and was of greater concern than breast cancer because of its location within the body and its consequences for reproduction. In general, few participants had personal experiences with breast and/or cervical cancer. Overall, women and men had positive things to say about screenings for breast and cervical cancer, expressing that screenings offered a “proof of illness.” The majority of women did not report any concerns with the exams themselves, although some discussed embarrassment, pain, and discomfort. Barriers to screening included lack of health insurance, making co-payments, language, and issues related to scheduling appointments. Barriers differed for younger and older women. CONCLUSION Results of this study provide new insight into perceptions, experiences, and barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women and men. These findings have implications for developing culturally appropriate interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening in this population. PMID:23477387

  14. Predictors of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai

    2015-06-01

    This study examines Pap testing behavior among 265 Vietnamese American women aged 18 or above. A community-based survey was conducted with Vietnamese women in five cities: Houston (TX), Springfield (MA), Camden (NJ), Charlotte (NC), and Falls Church (VA). Seventy-five percent of the study sample ever received a Pap test, 45% within the last 12 months. Women's perceived risks of cancer, belief that cancer can be detected early with screening, and disagreement that it is embarrassing to get tested and that only married women should get tested are related to Pap testing. Having health insurance is the most important predictor of Pap testing. Main reasons for not having tested in the last 12 months include: feeling well, having no insurance, and high costs. Interventions should improve financial access to Pap testing among Vietnamese American women. Results also suggest that future communication programs should emphasize preventive practices and change traditional attitudes and misconceptions related to Pap testing. PMID:24078321

  15. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes of African Immigrants and Refugees

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  16. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

  17. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  18. ICSN - Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates Organization

  19. ICSN - Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Cervical

  20. Cervical Cancer Participation Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

  1. Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Performance in Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Daniel W.; Bast, Robert C.; Berg, Christine D.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hartge, Patricia; Lokshin, Anna E.; Lu, Karen H.; McIntosh, Martin W.; Mor, Gil; Patriotis, Christos; Pinsky, Paul F.; Thornquist, Mark D.; Scholler, Nathalie; Skates, Steven J.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Ward, David C.; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Claire S.; Urban, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a cancer screening biomarker’s intended performance requires “phase III” specimens obtained in asymptomatic individuals before clinical diagnosis rather than “phase II” specimens obtained from symptomatic individuals at diagnosis. We used specimens from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial to evaluate ovarian cancer biomarkers previously assessed in phase II sets. Phase II specimens from 180 ovarian cancer cases and 660 benign disease or general population controls were assembled from four Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) or Ovarian Cancer Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) sites and used to rank 49 biomarkers. Thirty-five markers, including 6 additional markers from a fifth site, were then evaluated in PLCO proximate specimens from 118 women with ovarian cancer and 474 matched controls. Top markers in phase II specimens included CA125, HE4, transthyretin, CA15.3, and CA72.4 with sensitivity at 95% specificity ranging from 0.73 to 0.40. Except for transthyretin, these markers had similar or better sensitivity when moving to phase III specimens that had been drawn within six months of the clinical diagnosis. Performance of all markers declined in phase III specimens more remote than 6 months from diagnosis. Despite many promising new markers for ovarian cancer, CA125 remains the single-best biomarker in the phase II and phase III specimens tested in this study. PMID:21372036

  2. Factors influencing breast cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n = 334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P < .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P < .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

  3. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  4. A systematic review of patient acceptance of screening for oral cancer outside of dental care settings.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Flohr, Francesca D; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review summarised the literature on patient acceptability of screening for oral cancer outside dental care settings. A comprehensive search of relevant literature was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHAL, psycINFO, CANCERLIT and BNI to identify relevant articles published between 1975 and Dec 2013. Studies reporting acceptability of oral cancer screening to undiagnosed individuals attending non-dental settings were eligible for inclusion. A total of 2935 references were initially identified from the computerised search but 2217 were excluded after screening the titles. From the abstracts of the remaining 178 articles, 47 full text articles were retrieved for further scrutiny, and 12 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. In these studies, knowledge about oral cancer, anxiety related to the screening process, preference for care provision, and financial cost were influencing factors for the acceptance of screening. Written information provided to patients in primary care was reported to boost immediate knowledge levels of oral cancer, lessen anxiety, and increase intentions for screening. The majority of screening methods were entirely acceptable to patients; lack of acceptability from the patients' viewpoint was not a significant barrier to carrying out opportunistic screening of high-risk populations. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that acceptance of, and satisfaction with oral cancer screening is high, particularly where patients have previously been educated about oral cancer. Further research focusing on patient's preferences would enable streamlining of the approach to oral cancer screening taken by any national programme. PMID:25127201

  5. ICSN Data - Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

  6. China national lung cancer screening guideline with low-dose computed tomography (2015 version)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing-hua; Fan, Ya-guang; Bu, Hong; Wang, Ying; Wu, Ning; Huang, Yun-chao; Wang, Guiqi; Wang, Xin-yun; Qiao, You-lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in China. Results from a randomized controlled trial using annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in specific high-risk groups demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality. Methods A China national lung cancer screening guideline was developed by lung cancer early detection and treatment expert group appointed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission, based on results of the National Lung Screening Trial, systematic review of evidence related to LDCT screening, and protocol of lung cancer screening program conducted in rural China. Results Annual lung cancer screening with LDCT is recommended for high risk individuals aged 50–74 years who have at least a 20 pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past five years. Individualized decision making should be conducted before LDCT screening. LDCT screening also represents an opportunity to educate patients as to the health risks of smoking; thus, education should be integrated into the screening process in order to assist smoking cessation. Conclusions A lung cancer screening guideline is provided for the high-risk population in China. PMID:26557925

  7. Colorectal cancer screening: Why immunochemical fecal occult blood tests may be the best option

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many test options available for colorectal cancer screening. The choice of test relates to the objectives of those offering or considering screening. Discussion While all screening programs aim to detect disease early in order to improve the length and/or quality of life for the individual, some organizations and individuals prefer screening tests that offer the opportunity for cancer prevention. Others favor maximizing participation or the opportunity for shared decision-making, including discussion of information on test quality and availability. We propose three additional objectives for screening: minimizing harms, optimizing economic efficiency and maximizing equity of access to screening. Summary Applying these objectives to colorectal cancer screening, we advocate the use of immunochemical FOBTs as the preferred screening strategy, as it satisfies all three of these important objectives. PMID:23272939

  8. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K.; McClellan, Sean R.; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this paper we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. METHODS We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population, and compared them to non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient- level) of screening completion among Asian patients. RESULTS Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography (OR:0.81 95% CI:0.71–0.92) and colorectal cancer screening (OR:0.79 CI:0.72–0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR:1.16 CI:1.00–1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.66 CI:1.51–1.82). Additionally, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR:1.32 CI:1.20–1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.31 CI:1.24–1.37). CONCLUSIONS Language- and gender- concordant primary care providers, and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. IMPACT This study demonstrates how use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. PMID:25368396

  9. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sylvia R; Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-12-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based survey was conducted on the Hopi reservation in 2012 (n = 252 women). Frequency of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, participation in HCSS programs and barriers to screening were evaluated. Unconditional multiple logistic regression estimated the independent effect of the HCSS program on CRC screening. Approximately 88 % of Hopi women 40+ reported ever having had a mammogram; 71 % did so within the past 2 years. Approximately 66 % of women 50+ were ever screened for colorectal cancer (FOBT and/or colonoscopy). Women who had their last mammogram through HCSS were 2.81 (95 % CI 1.12, 7.07) times more likely to have been screened for CRC. Breast and cervical cancer screening continues at a high rate among Hopi women and is substantially greater than that reported prior to the inception of HCSS. Furthermore, participation in programs offered by HCSS  is strongly associated with increased colorectal cancer screening. This tribal health program (HCSS) has strongly influenced cancer screening among Hopi women and is a model of a tribally run cancer prevention program. PMID:26091896

  10. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Learning Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Diane S.; Kennedy, Catriona M.; Kilbride, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    As people with learning disabilities now live longer, they will experience the same age-related illnesses as the general population and cancer is a prime example of this. In women, cancer screening is used to detect early on-set of cancer of the breast and abnormalities of the cervix which might, if left untreated, develop into cancer.…

  11. Breath testing as potential colorectal cancer screening tool.

    PubMed

    Amal, Haitham; Leja, Marcis; Funka, Konrads; Lasina, Ieva; Skapars, Roberts; Sivins, Armands; Ancans, Guntis; Kikuste, Ilze; Vanags, Aigars; Tolmanis, Ivars; Kirsners, Arnis; Kupcinskas, Limas; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is included in organized programs of many countries worldwide, there is still a place for better screening tools. In this study, 418 breath samples were collected from 65 patients with CRC, 22 with advanced or nonadvanced adenomas, and 122 control cases. All patients, including the controls, had undergone colonoscopy. The samples were analysed with two different techniques. The first technique relied on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The T-test was used to identify significant VOCs (p values?screening. PMID:26212114

  12. Cancer Cases from ACRIN Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial: Radiologist Analysis with Use of a Logistic Regression Model1

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Etta D.; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Cole, Elodia B.; Marques, Helga S.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Blevins, Meredith; Conant, Emily F.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Baum, Janet K.; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Jong, Roberta A.; Koomen, Marcia A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lee, Yeonhee; Pavic, Dag; Yoon, Sora C.; Padungchaichote, Wittaya; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine which factors contributed to the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) cancer detection results. Materials and Methods: This project was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Seven radiologist readers reviewed the film hard-copy (screen-film) and digital mammograms in DMIST cancer cases and assessed the factors that contributed to lesion visibility on both types of images. Two multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyze the combined and condensed visibility ratings assigned by the readers to the paired digital and screen-film images. Results: Readers most frequently attributed differences in DMIST cancer visibility to variations in image contrast—not differences in positioning or compression—between digital and screen-film mammography. The odds of a cancer being more visible on a digital mammogram—rather than being equally visible on digital and screen-film mammograms—were significantly greater for women with dense breasts than for women with nondense breasts, even with the data adjusted for patient age, lesion type, and mammography system (odds ratio, 2.28; P < .0001). The odds of a cancer being more visible at digital mammography—rather than being equally visible at digital and screen-film mammography—were significantly greater for lesions imaged with the General Electric digital mammography system than for lesions imaged with the Fischer (P = .0070) and Fuji (P = .0070) devices. Conclusion: The significantly better diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography, as compared with screen-film mammography, in women with dense breasts demonstrated in the DMIST was most likely attributable to differences in image contrast, which were most likely due to the inherent system performance improvements that are available with digital mammography. The authors conclude that the DMIST results were attributable primarily to differences in the display and acquisition characteristics of the mammography devices rather than to reader variability. PMID:19703878

  13. Illumination design of a multi-touch sensing projection screen for augmented virtual environments

    E-print Network

    Hua, Hong

    Illumination design of a multi-touch sensing projection screen for augmented virtual environments of a multi-touch sensing projection screen for augmented virtual environments Sheng Liu, Chunyu Gao, Hong Hua The paper presents the illumination engineering for a low- cost multi-touch projection screen. Eight near

  14. NCG 5.0: updates of a manually curated repository of cancer genes and associated properties from cancer mutational screenings

    PubMed Central

    An, Omer; Dall'Olio, Giovanni M.; Mourikis, Thanos P.; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.

    2016-01-01

    The Network of Cancer Genes (NCG, http://ncg.kcl.ac.uk/) is a manually curated repository of cancer genes derived from the scientific literature. Due to the increasing amount of cancer genomic data, we have introduced a more robust procedure to extract cancer genes from published cancer mutational screenings and two curators independently reviewed each publication. NCG release 5.0 (August 2015) collects 1571 cancer genes from 175 published studies that describe 188 mutational screenings of 13 315 cancer samples from 49 cancer types and 24 primary sites. In addition to collecting cancer genes, NCG also provides information on the experimental validation that supports the role of these genes in cancer and annotates their properties (duplicability, evolutionary origin, expression profile, function and interactions with proteins and miRNAs). PMID:26516186

  15. Screen-detected colorectal cancers are associated with an improved outcome compared with stage-matched interval cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gill, M D; Bramble, M G; Hull, M A; Mills, S J; Morris, E; Bradburn, D M; Bury, Y; Parker, C E; Lee, T J W; Rees, C J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) detected through the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) have been shown to have a more favourable outcome compared to non-screen-detected cancers. The aim was to identify whether this was solely due to the earlier stage shift of these cancers, or whether other factors were involved. Methods: A combination of a regional CRC registry (Northern Colorectal Cancer Audit Group) and the BCSP database were used to identify screen-detected and interval cancers (diagnosed after a negative faecal occult blood test, before the next screening round), diagnosed between April 2007 and March 2010, within the North East of England. For each Dukes' stage, patient demographics, tumour characteristics, and survival rates were compared between these two groups. Results: Overall, 322 screen-detected cancers were compared against 192 interval cancers. Screen-detected Dukes' C and D CRCs had a superior survival rate compared with interval cancers (P=0.014 and P=0.04, respectively). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that Dukes' stage, tumour location, and diagnostic group (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29–0.69, P<0.001 for screen-detected CRCs) were all found to have a significant impact on the survival of patients. Conclusions: The improved survival of screen-detected over interval cancers for stages C and D suggest that there may be a biological difference in the cancers in each group. Although lead-time bias may have a role, this may be related to a tumour's propensity to bleed and therefore may reflect detection through current screening tests. PMID:25247322

  16. ICSN Data - Policies on Age Groups, Screening Intervals, & Detection Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Characteristics

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer: the role of CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Y

    2014-05-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the third most frequent cancer and the cancer with the second highest mortality rate, frequently develops on a pre-existing adenomatous polyps whose slow growth and malignant degeneration can be identified and controlled by effective screening. Although most lesions can be detected and resected during optical colonoscopy (OC), the cost, risk and poor acceptance of this technique by the general population means that it is reserved for high-risk or very high-risk individuals. The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (such as the Hemoccult(®)) is proposed for intermediate-risk individuals between 50 and 75 years old. However, despite the improvements that have been made in this method, sensitivity is low, and although it is simple, it is too rarely used. CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy) is proposed in case of failure, additional risk factors or refusal of optical colonoscopy in high-risk patients or in the presence of a positive FOBT. It should also be proposed as an alternative to the FOBT test to patients who accept the constraints of this technique. PMID:24794252

  18. Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaf?rmation Recommendation Statement The full report is titled “Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaf?rmation Recommendation Statement.” It is in the 18 ...

  19. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  20. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  1. Self-Reported Cancer Screening among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries: A Rural-Urban Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya; Zhang, Ning; Fiscella, Kevin; Noyes, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the rural-urban disparity of screening for breast cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) among the elder Medicare beneficiaries and assessed rurality's independent impact on receipt of screening. Methods: Using 2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we applied weighted logistic regression to estimate the overall rural-urban…

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  3. Enhancing Adherence among Older African American Men Enrolled in a Longitudinal Cancer Screening Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Vernon, Sally W.; Davis, Shawna D.; Kroll, David; Lamerato, Lois; Swanson, G. Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to enhance adherence among older (aged 55 years and older) African American men enrolled in a cancer screening trial for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. For this study, we defined "adherence" as completing the trial screenings. Design and Methods: We used a randomized trial design. Case managers…

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  5. Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

  6. Receipt of Cancer Screening Services: Surprising Results for Some Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.; Bellinger, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas. Methods: We utilized the 2008…

  7. Impact of Risk Factors on Different Interval Cancer Subtypes in a Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, Jordi; Sala, Maria; Ibáñez, Josefa; Domingo, Laia; Fernandez, Belén; Otegi, Arantza; Barata, Teresa; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Ferrer, Joana; Castells, Xavier; Rué, Montserrat; Salas, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. Methods We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000–2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%), 235 false-negatives (23.2%), 172 minimal-signs (17.2%) and 114 occult tumors (11.3%). Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. Results A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR?=?2.71, 95%CI: 2.28–3.23); this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR?=?8.79, 95%CI: 6.24–12.40) than for true interval cancer (HR?=?2.26, 95%CI: 1.59–3.21). A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR?=?2.11, 95%CI: 1.60–2.78), previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR?=?1.83, 95%CI: 1.23–2.71). High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR?=?4.92, 95%CI: 2.58–9.38), followed by true intervals (RRR?=?1.67, 95%CI: 1.18–2.36) and false-negatives (RRR?=?1.58, 95%CI: 1.00–2.49). Conclusion The role of women's characteristics differs among interval cancer subtypes. This information could be useful to improve effectiveness of breast cancer screening programmes and to better classify subgroups of women with different risks of developing cancer. PMID:25333936

  8. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research.

    PubMed

    Lörincz, Attila T

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the clinical utility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has increased over the years and has now become very convincing. Some specific uses of HPV detection are a) triage of women with cytological determinations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and related management strategies, b) as a marker for test of cure post-treatment, and c) most importantly, as an adjunct to cytology in routine cervical disease screening programs. There are many studies that support each of these applications and include 8 studies on ASC-US triage, 10 on test of cure and 13 on adjunctive or stand-alone HPV screening. The most notable investigation of ASC-US triage was ALTS, a randomized controlled trial of 3,488 women. With respect to routine HPV screening the combined studies included 77,000 women, providing as a histological endpoint more than 1,000 cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Testing methods were either the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. HPV testing of women with ASC-US cytology had on average a higher sensitivity (90%) and specificity (70%) than repeating the cytological test (sensitivity 75%, specificity 60%) and was also more sensitive than colposcopy for follow-up. As an adjunct to the Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology test in routine screening, HPV DNA testing was a more sensitive indicator for prevalent high-grade CIN than either conventional or liquid cytology. A combination of HPV DNA and Papanicolaou testing had almost 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The specificity of the combined tests was slightly lower than the specificity of the Papanicolaou test. One "double-negative" HPV DNA and Papanicolaou test indicated a higher prognostic assurance against risk of future CIN 3 than three subsequent negative conventional Papanicolaou tests and may safely allow three-year or longer screening intervals for such low-risk women. It appears that HPV DNA testing is on the way to becoming a common testing strategy in cervical cancer prevention programs. Research continues into approaches for improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of HPV detection methods. Hybrid Capture 3 will offer improved HPV typing capabilities and the Rapid Capture machine allows for robot-assisted HPV DNA testing, permitting greater test throughput. PCR test improvements are expected to contribute to the growth of flexible accurate and cost-effective HPV DNA tests. It is likely that improved diagnostic technology along with HPV genotyping and quantitation may provide more value in future. A particularly promising approach is to combine HPV DNA testing with expression levels of other markers such as proliferative or cell cycle regulatory proteins to subdivide HPV-positive women into those who are at greater risk of cancer and those who can be safely followed by screening at longer intervals. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14746031

  9. Survivorship: screening for cancer and treatment effects, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-11-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer and cancer treatment. This portion of the guidelines describes recommendations regarding screening for the effects of cancer and its treatment. The panel created a sample screening tool, specifically for use in combination with the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship, to guide providers to topics that require more in-depth assessment. Effective screening and assessment can help providers deliver necessary and comprehensive survivorship care. PMID:25361799

  10. Factors influencing colorectal cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Liu, Jianguo; Kenerson, Donna; Neal, Rachel; Takizala, Zudi; Beard, Katina; Pinkerton, Helen; Burress, Marilyn; Blot, Bill

    2012-06-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for colorectal cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African Americans 50 years and older (n=460) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of colorectal cancer screening such as being married and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and health insurance (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving colorectal cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:22048986

  11. Decisional Stage Distribution for Colorectal Cancer Screening among Diverse, Low-Income Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening.…

  12. Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening in Asian and Latina University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Pamela C.; Durvasula, Ramani S.

    2008-01-01

    Preventative screening in the form of clinical breast examinations remains among the best protections against breast cancer. Despite the benefits that regular examinations confer, many women fail to obtain screening tests. Because ethnic minority women are particularly unlikely to undergo regular screening, and experience increased mortality and…

  13. Challenges and Possible Solutions to Colorectal Cancer Screening for the Underserved

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates. We identify four key policy and research priorities to increase screening among underserved populations: 1) actively promote the message, “the best test is the one that gets done”; 2) develop and implement methods to identify unscreened individuals within underserved population groups for screening interventions; 3) develop and implement approaches for organized screening delivery; and 4) fund and enhance programs and policies that provide access to screening, diagnostic follow-up, and CRC treatment for underserved populations. This commentary represents the consensus of a diverse group of experts in cancer control and prevention, epidemiology, gastroenterology, and primary care from across the country who formed the Coalition to Boost Screening among the Underserved in the United States. The group was organized and held its first annual working group meeting in conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization’s annual Colorectal Cancer Screening Committee meeting during Digestive Disease Week 2012 in San Diego, California. PMID:24681602

  14. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  15. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate colorectal cancer screening options for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Coldman, A.J.; Phillips, N.; Brisson, J.; Flanagan, W.; Wolfson, M.; Nadeau, C.; Fitzgerald, N.; Miller, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several screening methods for colorectal cancer (crc) are available, and some have been shown by randomized trials to be effective. In the present study, we used a well-developed population health simulation model to compare the risks and benefits of a variety of screening scenarios. Tests considered were the fecal occult blood test (fobt), the fecal immunochemical test (fit), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Outcomes considered included years of life gained, crc cases and deaths prevented, and direct health system costs. Methods A natural history model of crc was implemented and calibrated to specified targets within the framework of the Cancer Risk Management Model (crmm) from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. The crmm-crc permits users to enter their own parameter values or to use program-specified base values. For each of 23 screening scenarios, we used the crmm-crc to run 10 million replicate simulations. Results Using base parameter values and some user-specified values in the crmm-crc, and comparing our screening scenarios with no screening, all screening scenarios were found to reduce the incidence of and mortality from crc. The fobt was the least effective test; it was not associated with lower net cost. Colonoscopy screening was the most effective test; it had net costs comparable to those for several other strategies considered, but required more than 3 times the colonoscopy resources needed by other approaches. After colonoscopy, strategies based on the fit were predicted to be the most effective. In sensitivity analyses performed for the fobt and fit screening strategies, fobt parameter values associated with high-sensitivity formulations were associated with a substantial increase in test effectiveness. The fit was more cost-effective at the 50 ng/mL threshold than at the 100 ng/mL threshold. Conclusions The crmm-crc provides a sophisticated and flexible environment in which to evaluate crc control options. All screening scenarios considered in this study effectively reduced crc mortality, although sensitivity analyses demonstrated some uncertainty in the magnitude of the improvements. Where possible, local data should be used to reduce uncertainty in the parameters. PMID:25908920

  16. Do's and don'ts in evaluation of endoscopic screening for gastrointestinal cancers.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, Michael; Kalager, Mette; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic screening for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and colon has been introduced in many countries of the world. Endoscopic screening has the potential to reduce incidence and mortality of the target diseases, but may also be harmful and have unwanted side effects. Precise estimates of the magnitude of benefits and harms of endoscopic screening for cancer are a prerequisite for informed decision making for or against participation in screening for individuals in the target population. This paper outlines the most common pitfalls in the evaluation of screening and offers some recommendations for future studies. PMID:26382306

  17. Cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in female sex workers using “screen and treat” approach

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Smita; Kulkarni, Vinay; Darak, Trupti; Mahajan, Uma; Srivastava, Yogesh; Gupta, Sanjay; Krishnan, Sumitra; Mandolkar, Mahesh; Bharti, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Female sex workers (FSWs) are at an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and thus have an increased risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. We evaluated the feasibility of “screen and treat approach” for cervical cancer prevention and the performance of different screening tests among FSWs. Methods Women were screened using cytology, VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid), and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine) and underwent colposcopy, biopsy, and immediate treatment using cold coagulation, if indicated, at the same visit. Results We screened 300 FSWs of whom 200 (66.67%) were HIV uninfected and 100 (33.34%) were HIV infected. The overall prevalence of CIN 2–3 lesions was 4.7%. But all women with CIN 2–3 lesions were HIV infected, and thus the prevalence of CIN 2–3 lesions in HIV-infected FSWs was 14/100 (14%, 95% confidence interval: 7.2–20.8). All of them screened positive by all three screening tests. Cold coagulation was well tolerated, with no appreciable side effects. Conclusion Cervical cancer prevention by “screen and treat” approach using VIA, followed by ablative treatment, in this high-risk group of women is feasible and can be implemented through various targeted intervention programs. PMID:25999765

  18. Appraising the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer: what do the results mean?

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The value of screening for prostate cancer has been a contentious issue within the medical literature for several decades. At the crux of the matter lies a judgment call of whether the potential benefits of screening, a reduction in prostate cancer and all-cause mortality, outweigh the limitations, overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The study by Schröder et al. reports 9, 11 and 13-year follow-up data on men participating in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer (ERSPC). While the authors report a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality, they conclude that potential harms associated with screening currently circumvent any recommendation for a population-based approach to screening for prostate cancer. PMID:25432497

  19. Projection type transparent 3D display using active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoshita, Hiroki; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Equipment to enjoy a 3D image, such as a movie theater, television and so on have been developed many. So 3D video are widely known as a familiar image of technology now. The display representing the 3D image are there such as eyewear, naked-eye, the HMD-type, etc. They has been used for different applications and location. But have not been widely studied for the transparent 3D display. If transparent large 3D display is realized, it is useful to display 3D image overlaid on real scene in some applications such as road sign, shop window, screen in the conference room etc. As a previous study, to produce a transparent 3D display by using a special transparent screen and number of projectors is proposed. However, for smooth motion parallax, many projectors are required. In this paper, we propose a display that has transparency and large display area by time multiplexing projection image in time-division from one or small number of projectors to active screen. The active screen is composed of a number of vertically-long small rotate mirrors. It is possible to realize the stereoscopic viewing by changing the image of the projector in synchronism with the scanning of the beam.3D vision can be realized by light is scanned. Also, the display has transparency, because it is possible to see through the display when the mirror becomes perpendicular to the viewer. We confirmed the validity of the proposed method by using simulation.

  20. Factors influencing prostate cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushal; Kenerson, Donna; Wang, Hong; Brown, Byron; Pinkerton, Helen; Burress, Marilyn; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Ukoli, Flora; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions to get screened for prostate cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. It also examined obstacles to getting screened. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American men 45 years and older (n=293) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. Participants from Nashville, those who were older, obese, and who had health insurance were more likely to have been screened (p<.05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening (such as cost and transportation) and geographic region (p<.05). Educational interventions aimed at improving prostate cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles to and predictors of screening. PMID:20173288

  1. Beyond Adherence: Health Care Disparities and the Struggle to Get Screened for Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hunleth, Jean M; Steinmetz, Emily K; McQueen, Amy; James, Aimee S

    2016-01-01

    Dominant health care professional discourses on cancer take for granted high levels of individual responsibility in cancer prevention, especially in expectations about preventive screening. At the same time, adhering to screening guidelines can be difficult for lower income and under-insured individuals. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prime example. Since the advent of CRC screening, disparities in CRC mortality have widened along lines of income, insurance, and race in the United States. We used a community-engaged research method, Photovoice, to examine how people from medically under-served areas experienced and gave meaning to CRC screening. In our analysis, we first discuss ways in which participants recounted screening as a struggle. Second, we highlight a category that participants suggested was key to successful screening: social connections. Finally, we identify screening as an emotionally laden process that is underpinned by feelings of uncertainty, guilt, fear, and relief. We discuss the importance of these findings to research and practice. PMID:26160775

  2. Predicting breast and colon cancer screening among English-as-a-second-language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada.

    PubMed

    Todd, Laura; Harvey, Erin; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the cancer screening behaviors of older ESL Chinese immigrant women. To explore predictors of colon and breast cancer screening in this population, 103 Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking immigrant women ages 50 years and older were recruited. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate screening behaviors, health literacy, and demographic characteristics. Eighty-five percent self-reported that they were current breast cancer screeners, and 75% were current colon cancer screeners. Recommendation from a physician, having a female physician, and high or moderate proficiency in English predicted current mammography screening. Physician recommendation, first language, and self-efficacy predicted use of colon cancer screening. Bivariate analyses also revealed an association between use of colon cancer screening and greater health literacy and longer residency in Canada. Important predictors of screening emerged that potentially informs interventions to increase cancer prevention among older Chinese immigrants. The essential role of physician recommendation was identified for both breast and colon cancer screening. PMID:20625870

  3. Geographic variations in access and utilization of cancer screening services: examining disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native Elders 

    E-print Network

    Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-06-09

    Despite recommendations for cancer screening for breast and colorectal cancer among the Medicare population, preventive screenings rates are often lower among vulnerable populations such as the small but rapidly growing older American Indian...

  4. A new emissive projection display technology and a high contrast DLP projection display on black screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ted X.; Cheng, Botao

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, Sun Innovations demonstrates an innovative emissive projection display (EPD) system. It is comprised of a fully transparent fluorescent screen with a UV image projector. The screen can be applied to glass windows or windshield, without affecting visible light transmission. The UV projector can be based on either a DLP (digital light processor) or a laser scanner display engine. For a DLP based projector, a discharge lamp coupled to a set of UV filters can be applied to generate a full color video image on the transparent screen. UV or blue-ray laser diodes of different wavelengths can be combined with scanning mirrors to generate a vector display for full windshield display applications. This display combines the best of both worlds of conventional projection and emissive display technologies. Like a projection display, the screen has no pixel structure and can be manufactured roll to roll; the display is scalable. Like an emissive display (e.g. plasma or CRT), the quality of the image is superior, with very large viewing angles. It also offers some unique features. For example, in addition to a fully transparent display on windows or windshields, it can be applied to a black substrate to create the first front projection display on true "black" screen that has superior image contrast at low projection power. This fundamentally new display platform can enable multiple major commercial applications that can not be addressed by any of the existing display technologies.

  5. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lairson, David R.; Kim, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470), colon cancer (n = 16,323), breast cancer (n = 10,076), or uterine cervical cancer (n = 2,447) were included. Income level was divided into three groups according to their monthly contribution of National Health Insurance. We employed absolute (age-standardized prevalence rate, slope index of inequality) and relative (relative index of inequality) measures to separately examine social disparities among participants and non-participants of the National Cancer Screening Program in terms of the early-stage rate. Results Age-standardized prevalence rates of early-stage by income group were always higher in participants than in non-participants. Furthermore, the age-standardized prevalence rate of early-stage in the low income group of the participants was also higher than that of the high income group of the non-participants. The sizes of disparities (both slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality) are smaller in participants compared to non-participants. Conclusion National Cancer Screening Program participation reduced income disparity in cancer stage at diagnosis. Population-based cancer screening programs can be used as an effective measure to reduce income disparity in cancer care. PMID:26284526

  6. The Benefit and Burden of Cancer Screening in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Ami P.; Bale, Allen; Lovick, Niki; Zuckerman, Kaye; Deshpande, Hari; Rath, Kristina; Schwartz, Peter; Hofstatter, Erin W.

    2015-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare cancer predisposition syndrome classically associated with remarkably early onset of cancer in families with a typical spectrum of malignancies, including sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinoma. Because the risks of cancer development are strikingly high for Li-Fraumeni syndrome, aggressive cancer surveillance is often pursued in these individuals. However, optimal screening methods and intervals for Li-Fraumeni syndrome have yet to be determined. In addition, there may be a significant psychosocial burden to intensive cancer surveillance and some prevention modalities. Here, we describe a case of a young woman with a de novo mutation in TP53 and multiple malignancies, with her most recent cancers found at early, curable stages due to aggressive cancer screening. The potential benefits and risks of intensive cancer surveillance in hereditary cancer syndromes is discussed. PMID:26029016

  7. Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

  8. The utility of Google Trends data to examine interest in cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, M; Toor, A; Cavazos-Rehg, P; Jeffe, D B; McQueen, A; Eberth, J; Davidson, N O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the utility of January 2004 to April 2014 Google Trends data from information searches for cancer screenings and preparations as a complement to population screening data, which are traditionally estimated through costly population-level surveys. Setting State-level data across the USA. Participants Persons who searched for terms related to cancer screening using Google, and persons who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Primary and secondary outcome measures (1) State-level Google Trends data, providing relative search volume (RSV) data scaled to the highest search proportion per week (RSV100) for search terms over time since 2004 and across different geographical locations. (2) RSV of new screening tests, free/low-cost screening for breast and colorectal cancer, and new preparations for colonoscopy (Prepopik). (3) State-level breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer screening rates. Results Correlations between Google Trends and BRFSS data ranged from 0.55 for ever having had a colonoscopy to 0.14 for having a Pap smear within the past 3?years. Free/low-cost mammography and colonoscopy showed higher RSV during their respective cancer awareness months. RSV for Miralax remained stable, while interest in Prepopik increased over time. RSV for lung cancer screening, virtual colonoscopy and three-dimensional mammography was low. Conclusions Google Trends data provides enormous scientific possibilities, but are not a suitable substitute for, but may complement, traditional data collection and analysis about cancer screening and related interests. PMID:26056120

  9. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  10. Stool DNA methylation assays in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyska, Tanya; Nossikoff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is fourth most common cancer in men and third in women worldwide. Developing a diagnostic panel of sensitive and specific biomarkers for the early detection of CRC is recognised as to be crucial for early initial diagnosis, which in turn leads to better long term survival. Most of the research on novel potential CRC biomarkers in the last 2 decades has been focussed on stool DNA analysis. In this paper, we describe the recent advances in non-invasive CRC screening and more specifically in molecular assays for aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions. In several research papers these markers showed superior rates for sensitivity and specificity in comparison to previously described assays. These tests detected the majority of adenomas ? 1 cm in size and the detection rates progressively increased with larger adenomas. The methylation status of the BMP3 and NDRG4 promoters demonstrated effective detection of neoplasms at all sites throughout the colon and was not affected by common clinical variables. Recently, a multitarget stool DNA test consisting of molecular assays for aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions, mutant KRAS and immunochemical assay for human haemoglobin has been made commercially available and is currently reimbursed in the United States. Although this is the most sensitive non-invasive CRC screening test, there is the need for further research in several areas - establishment of the best timeframe for repeated DNA stool testing; validation of the results in populations outside of North America; usefulness for surveillance and prognosis of patients; cost-effectiveness of DNA stool testing in real-life populations. PMID:26401070

  11. RNA-based mutation screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kohonen-Corish, M.; Ross, V.L.; Doe, W.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a cancer syndrome inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Four susceptibility genes are known, which code for DNA mismatch repair enzymes. The purpose of this study was to identify the HNPCC gene defects in a cohort of Australian HNPCC families and to evaluate the use of RNA-based screening methods. Six mutations were identified, four in the hMLH1 gene and two in hMSH2, by using a combination of DNA-based and RNA-based methods. One of the hMLH1 defects was a missense mutation, and the other five mutations would be expected to result in a shortened protein. These included a rare type of mRNA splicing mutation in hMLH1 exon 17. By use of reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR, defective transcripts were detectable for three of the hMLH1 mutations but not for the fourth one, which was predicted to cause skipping of exon 15. Furthermore, many more alternative transcripts for the hMLH1 gene were found than previously described, and these were more abundant in the RNA samples prepared from whole blood than from lymphoblastoid cell lines. This confounded RNA-based screening for HNPCC mutations, because it was difficult to determine which aberrant RT-PCR fragment was the real hereditary defect. One of the splice-site mutations reported here causes skipping of exons 9 and 10, which also occurs as an alternative transcript. When the protein-truncation test was used, the results were indistinguishable between the patients in this family and controls. Other aberrant transcripts were also observed that varied in size between individuals but were unrelated to the hereditary defects. This study has important implications for the design of reliable diagnostic tests for HNPCC gene defects. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  13. Early detection of lung cancer: Low-dose computed tomography screening in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shi-Jun; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related death in China and western countries for both men and women. Overall, the five-year survival rate of lung cancer is approximately 15%, whereas the five-year survival for patients with surgically resected early-stage disease is 60–80%. Screening is conceptually a good strategy for reducing the mortality rate of lung cancer. Randomized controlled trials in the 1960s and 1970s found that chest radiographic screening did not result in a reduction in mortality for high-risk individuals. Recently published data from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in subjects who underwent low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening compared to those randomized to conventional chest X-ray. The encouraging results of the NLST, however, could not be confirmed by the preliminary results of ongoing European trials. More results from European randomized controlled trials are expected in the next few years. Recently, a number of lung cancer screening studies using LDCT have been initiated in China. This article briefly summarizes the results of the current and previous lung cancer screening trials worldwide, and focuses on the current status of LDCT lung cancer screening in China. PMID:26273391

  14. Study finds racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates:

    Cancer.gov

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic groups. The report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, was published today in the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

  15. Lung Cancer Screening With Low-Dose CT in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eberth, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    The findings of the landmark National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)-showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality when screening with low-dose CT (LDCT), compared with chest radiography-marked a turning point in the field of lung cancer screening, influencing organizational recommendations and leading to increasing acceptance of LDCT for screening of individuals at high risk for lung cancer. However, many practices and institutions have experienced barriers in their attempts to implement successful screening programs; these include challenges in maintaining the same high caliber of screening programs as those in the NLST, confusion regarding insurance reimbursement protocols, and a lack of resources to help physicians discuss the specifics of LDCT screening with their patients. To address these challenges, standards are being established to ensure consistent quality of screening programs, including certification standards and protocols maintained by the ACR. In addition, the US Preventive Services Task Force's "B" rating, given to LDCT screening in late 2013, resulted in mandated private insurance coverage beginning in 2015 and the 2015 CMS coverage determination has spurred previously reluctant organizations to prepare for population-based screening. Despite these successes, protocols for billing and claims processing are still evolving and organizations are considering how best to implement the shared decision-making process required by CMS. Despite some procedural setbacks that have yet to be resolved, LDCT screening for individuals at high risk of lung cancer has grown substantially since its effectiveness was shown by the NLST in 2011. PMID:26614885

  16. Regret on Choice of Colorectal Cancer Screening Modality Was Associated with Poorer Screening Compliance: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C. S.; Ching, Jessica Y. L.; Chan, Victor C. W.; Bruggemann, Renee; Lam, Thomas Y. T.; Luk, Arthur K. C.; Wu, Justin C. Y.; Chan, Francis K. L.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance. Methods A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]). A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance. Results From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8%) regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7%) were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001) times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme. Conclusions This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance. PMID:25875160

  17. Changes in Breast Cancer Risk Distribution Among Vermont Women Using Screening Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Kenyon C.; Mace, John L.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Herschorn, Sally D.; James, Ted A.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Geller, Berta M.; Weaver, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening mammography utilization in Vermont has declined since 2009 during a time of changing screening guidelines and increased interest in personalized screening regimens. This study evaluates whether the breast cancer risk distribution of the state’s screened population changed during the observed decline. Methods We examined the breast cancer risk distribution among screened women between 2001 and 2012 using data from the Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System. We estimated each screened woman’s 5-year risk of breast cancer using the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium risk calculator. Annual screening counts by risk group were normalized and age-adjusted to the Vermont female population by direct standardization. Results The normalized rate of low-risk (5-year breast cancer risk of <1%) women screened increased 8.3% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8 to 11.9) between 2003 and 2008 and then declined by ?5.4% per year (95% CI = ?8.1 to ?2.6) until 2012. When stratified by age group, the rate of low-risk women screened declined ?4.4% per year (95% CI = ?8.8 to 0.1; not statistically significant) for ages 40 to 49 years and declined a statistically significant ?7.1% per year (95% CI = ?12.1 to ?2.0) for ages 50 to 74 years during 2008 to 2012. These declines represented the bulk of overall decreases in screening after 2008, with rates for women categorized in higher risk levels generally exhibiting small annual changes. Conclusions The observed decline in women screened in Vermont in recent years is largely attributable to reductions in screening visits by women who are at low risk of developing breast cancer. PMID:24957223

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practice toward cervical cancer screening among Sikkimese nursing staff in India

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hafizur; Kar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess baseline knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear screening among Sikkimese staff nurses in India. Materials and Methods: Between April 2012 and February 2013, a predesigned, pretested, self -administered multiple responses questionnaire survey was conducted among staff nurses’ working in various hospitals of Sikkim. Questionnaire contained information about their demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening methods, attitudes toward cervical cancer screening and practice of Pap smear amongst themselves. Results: Overall, 90.4% nurses responded that they were aware of cancer cervix. Three quarter of the staff nurses were not aware of commonest site being cancer cervix in women. Of the 320 participants, who had heard of cancer cervix, 253 (79.1%) were aware of cancer cervix screening. Pap smear screening should start at 21 years or 3 years after sexual debut was known to only one-third of the nursing staff. Age was found to be a significant predictor of awareness of Pap smear screening among nursing staff. Awareness was significantly more prevalent among older staff (P < 0.007). Married nursing staffs were significantly more likely to be aware of screening methods, and nursing staff of Christian and Buddhist religion were 1.25 times and 2.03 times more likely to aware of screening methods than Hindu religion respectively. Only 16.6% nurses, who were aware of a Pap smear (11.9% of the total sample), had ever undergone a Pap smear test. Most common reason offered for not undergoing Pap smear test were, they felt they were not at risk (41%), uncomfortable pelvic examination (25%) and fear of a bad result (16.6%). Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear was low among Sikkimese nursing staff in India. There is an urgent need for re-orientation course for working nurses and integration of cervical cancer prevention issues in the nurses’ existing curriculum in India and other developing countries. PMID:26157287

  19. Psychosocial consequences of allocation to lung cancer screening: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggestrup, Louise Mosborg; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Siersma, Volkert; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the psychosocial consequences of being allocated to the control group as compared with the screen group in a randomised lung cancer screening trial. Method The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, a randomised controlled trial, ran from 2004 to 2010 with the purpose of investigating the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening. The participants in Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were randomised to either the control group or the screen group and were asked to complete the questionnaires Consequences Of Screening and Consequences Of Screening in Lung Cancer (COS-LC). The Consequences Of Screening and the COS-LC were used to examine the psychosocial consequences of participating in the study, by comparing the control and the screen groups' responses at the prevalence and at the incidence round. Results There was no statistically significant difference in socio-demographic characteristics or smoking habits between the two groups. Responses to the COS-LC collected before the incidence round were statistically significantly different on the scales ‘anxiety’, ‘behaviour’, ‘dejection’, ‘self-blame’, ‘focus on airway symptoms’ and ‘introvert’, with the control group reporting higher negative psychosocial consequences. Furthermore, the participants in both the control and the screen groups exhibited a mean increase in negative psychosocial consequences when their responses from the prevalence round were compared with their responses from the first incidence round. Conclusions Participation in a randomised controlled trial on lung cancer screening has negative psychosocial consequences for the apparently healthy participants—both the participants in the screen group and the control group. This negative impact was greatest for the control group. PMID:22382119

  20. Biomarkers in cancer screening: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhir; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi

    2002-08-01

    The last three decades have witnessed a rapid advancement and diffusion of technology in health services. Technological innovations have given health service providers the means to diagnose and treat an increasing number of illnesses, including cancer. In this effort, research on biomarkers for cancer detection and risk assessment has taken a center stage in our effort to reduce cancer deaths. For the first time, scientists have the technologies to decipher and understand these biomarkers and to apply them to earlier cancer detection. By identifying people at high risk of developing cancer, it would be possible to develop intervention efforts on prevention rather than treatment. Once fully developed and validated, then the regular clinical use of biomarkers in early detection and risk assessment will meet nationally recognized health care needs: detection of cancer at its earliest stage. The dramatic rise in health care costs in the past three decades is partly related to the proliferation of new technologies. More recent analysis indicates that technological change, such as new procedures, products and capabilities, is the primary explanation of the historical increase in expenditure. Biomarkers are the new entrants in this competing environment. Biomarkers are considered as a competing, halfway or add-on technology. Technology such as laboratory tests of biomarkers will cost less compared with computed tomography (CT) scans and other radiographs. However, biomarkers for earlier detection and risk assessment have not achieved the level of confidence required for clinical applications. This paper discusses some issues related to biomarker development, validation and quality assurance. Some data on the trends of diagnostic technologies, proteomics and genomics are presented and discussed in terms of the market share. Eventually, the use of biomarkers in health care could reduce cost by providing noninvasive, sensitive and reliable assays at a fraction of the cost of definitive technology, such as CT scan. The National Cancer Institute's Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) has begun an innovative, investigator-initiated project to improve methods for detecting the biomarkers of cancer cells. The EDRN is a consortium of more than 32 institutions to link discovery of biomarkers to the next steps in the process of developing early detection tests. These discoveries will lead to early clinical validation of tests with improved accuracy and reliability. PMID:12163714

  1. MicroRNAs as non-invasive screening biomarkers of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    SAPLACAN, ROBERTA MARIA MANZAT; MIRCEA, PETRU ADRIAN; BALACESCU, LOREDANA; BALACESCU, OVIDIU

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-associated deaths in the world. Early detection would be greatly enhanced if accurate and cost-effective diagnostic biomarkers for this disease were accessible. The development of such a blood test will evidently lower the screening costs in regards of colorectal cancer detection. Lately, it has been suggested that microRNA diagnostic biomarkers are feasible new screening methods for colorectal cancer. This review summarizes the diagnostic potential of circulating microRNA biomarkers in relation with colorectal cancer, as well as current methods to detect them.

  2. The Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model A Risk Assessment Tool

    E-print Network

    Druzdzel, Marek J.

    increasingly complex with the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and newer screening (CxCa) screening have grown increasingly complex with the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV

  3. Recruitment strategies in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: the first six years. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Simpson NK, Johnson CC, Ogden SL, Gamito E, Trocky N, McGuire C, Martin J, Barrow S, Lamerato L, Flickinger LM, Broski KG, Engelhard D, Hilke C, Bonk J, Gahagan B, Gren LH, Childs J, Lappe K, Fouad M, Thompson J, Sullivan D, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Project Team. Control Clin Trials. 2000 Dec 01. 21. 6 Suppl. 356S-78S.

  4. Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  6. Factors Associated With Colorectal Cancer Screening Among the US Urban Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The author examined the prevalence and predictors of colorectal cancer screening among the urban Japanese population of the United States. Methods. A sample of Japanese residents of major US metropolitan areas completed a self-administered mailed survey. Results. Physician recommendation, acculturation, and perceived psychological costs were consistent predictors of screening for colorectal cancer. Gender and marital status were related to screening via fecal occult blood testing; age, susceptibility, and health insurance were related to sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy screening. Conclusions. Colorectal cancer screening among the urban Japanese population could be increased with interventions seeking to promote physician recommendations for screening, alleviate perceived psychological costs among patients, and improve physician–patient communication. PMID:15117706

  7. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Ricciardi, Alessandro; Cohet, Catherine; Palazzo, Fabio; Furnari, Giacomo; Valle, Sabrina; Largeron, Nathalie; Federici, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively). Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening. PMID:19243586

  8. Is screening and surveillance for early detection of gastric cancer needed in Korean Americans?

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang Ha; Bang, Sung Jo; Ende, Alexander R; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-11-01

    The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korean Americans is over five times higher than that in non-Hispanic whites, and is similar to the incidence of colorectal cancer in the overall United States population. In Korea, the National Cancer Screening Program recommends endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series for people aged 40 years and older every 2 years. However, the benefit of gastric cancer screening in Korean Americans has not been evaluated. Based on epidemiologic studies, Korean Americans appear to have more similar gastric cancer risk factors to Koreans as opposed to Americans of European descent, though the risk of gastric cancer appears to decrease for subsequent generations. Therefore, in accordance with recent recommendations regarding screening for gastric cancer in Korea, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Korean Americans should be considered, especially in those with known atrophic gastritis/intestinal metaplasia or a family history of gastric cancer. In the future, additional studies will needed to assess whether a screening program for gastric cancer in Korean Americans will result in a survival benefit. PMID:26552450

  9. Is screening and surveillance for early detection of gastric cancer needed in Korean Americans?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwang Ha; Bang, Sung Jo; Ende, Alexander R.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korean Americans is over five times higher than that in non-Hispanic whites, and is similar to the incidence of colorectal cancer in the overall United States population. In Korea, the National Cancer Screening Program recommends endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series for people aged 40 years and older every 2 years. However, the benefit of gastric cancer screening in Korean Americans has not been evaluated. Based on epidemiologic studies, Korean Americans appear to have more similar gastric cancer risk factors to Koreans as opposed to Americans of European descent, though the risk of gastric cancer appears to decrease for subsequent generations. Therefore, in accordance with recent recommendations regarding screening for gastric cancer in Korea, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Korean Americans should be considered, especially in those with known atrophic gastritis/intestinal metaplasia or a family history of gastric cancer. In the future, additional studies will needed to assess whether a screening program for gastric cancer in Korean Americans will result in a survival benefit. PMID:26552450

  10. Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence in the United States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Limmer, Karen; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Dains, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased dramatically since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Nevertheless, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2013 predicted more than 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States. Given that some subpopulations in the United States are at a higher risk for cervical cancer than others, efforts to increase screening adherence are warranted. Many studies have explored the demographics of underscreened women, but no systematic reviews of screening demographics in adult US women were identified in the past 10 years, after release of the 2002 ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Knowledge of adherence to these guidelines becomes important as new guidelines were developed and released in 2012. The purpose of this systematic review of relevant studies was to identify factors that predict the use of cervical cancer screening in US women. Variables found to be significantly associated with adherence to screening included education, financial status, acculturation, psychosocial issues, and marital status. Using this information, nurse practitioners and other providers can target specific at-risk populations to increase screening by educating women about the need for cervical cancer screening and ensuring access to methods for prevention and early detection of the disease. PMID:25032031

  11. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Francisco; Lopez, Felipe; Brambila, Carlos; Burkhart, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy-to-use job aid developed for this project proved useful for screening clients' needs and reducing providers' reluctance to discuss family planning with clients and offer contraceptive services. Such family planning screening devices can be useful in traditional settings where both providers and clients shy away from discussing family planning issues. PMID:15132752

  12. The Impact of Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Deprivation on Outcomes in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, David; McMillan, Donald C.; Grant, Yasmin; Crighton, Emilia M.; Horgan, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based colorectal cancer screening has been shown to reduce cancer specific mortality and is used across the UK. Despite evidence that older age, male sex and deprivation are associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer, uptake of bowel cancer screening varies across demographic groups. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age, sex and deprivation on outcomes throughout the screening process. Methods A prospectively maintained database, encompassing the first screening round of a faecal occult blood test screening programme in a single geographical area, was analysed. Results Overall, 395 096 individuals were invited to screening, 204 139 (52%) participated and 6 079 (3%) tested positive. Of the positive tests, 4 625 (76%) attended for colonoscopy and cancer was detected in 396 individuals (9%). Lower uptake of screening was associated with younger age, male sex and deprivation (all p<0.001). Only deprivation was associated with failure to proceed to colonoscopy following a positive test (p<0.001). Despite higher positivity rates in those that were more deprived (p<0.001), the likelihood of detecting cancer in those attending for colonoscopy was lower (8% most deprived vs 10% least deprived, p?=?0.003). Conclusion Individuals who are deprived are less likely to participate in screening, less likely to undergo colonoscopy and less likely to have cancer identified as a result of a positive test. Therefore, this study suggests that strategies aimed at improving participation of deprived individuals in colorectal cancer screening should be directed at all stages of the screening process and not just uptake of the test. PMID:23776606

  13. In-office cancer-screening education of primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Eckert, G; Epstein, A; Mourad, L; Helmick, F

    1994-01-01

    In a demonstration project, education representatives were trained to perform "academic detailing" of cancer control information for physicians and for staff members of family physicians' offices. One-hour visits were arranged at specific times so as to avoid disruption of patient care activities. The representatives led discussions of salient tissues regarding early detection of cancer at three sites (breast, colon-rectum, and prostate) and left relevant patient education materials. Seventeen visits were made to 11 practices involving 22 physicians and 85 staff members. Ten items were selected as evidence of favorable cancer control activities: ashtrays had been removed from the waiting room, patient information was displayed in a wall rack, medical records contained a method for prompting the physician about preventive or screening services that were due to be performed, a recall system reminded patients of services that were due to be performed, the receptionist was involved, the nurse was involved, American Cancer Society (ACS)-recommended services were used or had been added, the physician talked to other physicians about the visit discussions, services or materials had been requested from the local ACS unit, and staff members or physicians had volunteered to serve the ACS. The compliance rate was 35% at baseline. At post-intervention assessment, the compliance rate had increased by 35%, for a final compliance rate of 70%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7522508

  14. Effectiveness of the public health policy for breast cancer screening in Finland: population based cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Hakama, M.; Pukkala, E.; Heikkilä, M.; Kallio, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of screening for breast cancer as a public health policy. DESIGN: Follow up in 1987-92 of Finnish women invited to join the screening programme in 1987-9 and of the control women (balanced by age and matched by municipality of residence), who were not invited to the service screening. SETTING: Finland. SUBJECTS: Of the Finnish women born in 1927-39, 89893 women invited for screening and 68862 controls were followed; 1584 breast cancers were diagnosed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio of deaths from breast cancer among the women invited for screening to deaths among those not invited. RESULTS: There were 385 deaths from breast cancer, of which 127 were among the 1584 incident cases in 1987-92. The rate ratio of death was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 1.09). The effect was larger and significant (0.56; 0.33 to 0.95) among women aged under 56 years at entry. 20 cancers were prevented (one death prevented per 10000 screens). CONCLUSIONS: A breast screening programme can achieve a similar effect on mortality as achieved by the trials for breast cancer screening. However, it may be difficult to justify a screening programme as a public health policy on the basis of the mortality reduction only. Whether to run a screening programme as a public health policy also depends on its effects on the quality of life of the target population and what the resources would be used for if screening was not done. Given all the different dimensions in the effect, mammography based breast screening is probably justifiable as a public health policy. PMID:9093096

  15. Factors influencing behavioral intention regarding prostate cancer screening among older African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Thomas, Shirley A.; Davis, Shawna D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with perceptions of prostate cancer screening among African-American men aged > or = 55 years based upon items developed using the Preventive Health model (PHM). RESEARCH APPROACH: Focus group research and thematic coding using content analysis. SETTING: A large midwestern, private, nonprofit health system. PARTICIPANTS: African-American men aged > or = 55 years. Focus group 1 included 10 men who ranged in age from 55-87 years, with a mean age of 73.4 years. The 11 participants in focus group 2 ranged in age from 55-81 years, with a mean age of 68.7 years. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: Focus group questions were developed based on the conceptual framework of the PHM. African-American men aged > or = 55 years were randomly selected from the patient population of the healthcare system to participate in one of two focus groups. Content analysis was used to code the focus group transcripts. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Self-reported perceptions of prostate cancer screening. FINDINGS: Major themes emerging from the focus groups related to prostate cancer screening include: lack of knowledge regarding cancer, fear of cancer, confusion between prostate cancer screening and prostate cancer diagnostic tests, encouragement by others as motivation for cancer screening, intergenerational transfer of health information, lack of health insurance coverage as a barrier to prostate cancer screening and treatment, and limited availability of screening clinic hours during nonworking hours. INTERPRETATION: The information gained from this study could be used to develop interventions promoting informed and shared decision-making by patients and their providers regarding prostate cancer screening. PMID:16623062

  16. Incorporating a Smoking Cessation Intervention into Lung Cancer Screening Programs: Preliminary Studies.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, Charlotte J; Tomko, Catherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Kramer, Jenna A; Abrams, David B; Anderson, Eric D; Taylor, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    Two preliminary studies assessed whether telephone counseling (TC) is a feasible smoking cessation intervention following lung cancer screening. Seven older smokers undergoing lung cancer screening (pack years = 61.5) completed three TC sessions, which incorporated the screening result as motivation to quit. Participation (87.5%) and retention (85.7%) rates were good, and four smokers quit smoking (three of whom received abnormal results). We conducted four focus groups with 16 current and former older smokers (pack years = 55). Most believed that an abnormal scan would motivate them to quit and expressed interest in TC. TC may be feasible and potentially efficacious within lung screening programs. PMID:26600242

  17. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  18. Effort Required in Eligibility Screening for Clinical Trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Screening for cancer therapeutic trials is especially expensive due to the need to involve professional staff (e.g., oncology research nurses) in the screening process. The costs of screening a patient for trial eligibility in this cancer center study ranged from $129 to $336. Factors that led to this variability included trial phase (with early-phase research producing the highest costs), study complexity, and patient characteristics. Researchers should collect information on the cost of screening to assist in negotiating reimbursement with research sponsors.

  19. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers. PMID:24698810

  20. A new CAD approach for improving efficacy of cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei; Li, Lihua; Pu, Jiantao; Kang, Yan; Lure, Fleming; Tan, Maxine; Qiu, Yuchen

    2015-03-01

    Since performance and clinical utility of current computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of detecting and classifying soft tissue lesions (e.g., breast masses and lung nodules) is not satisfactory, many researchers in CAD field call for new CAD research ideas and approaches. The purpose of presenting this opinion paper is to share our vision and stimulate more discussions of how to overcome or compensate the limitation of current lesion-detection based CAD schemes in the CAD research community. Since based on our observation that analyzing global image information plays an important role in radiologists' decision making, we hypothesized that using the targeted quantitative image features computed from global images could also provide highly discriminatory power, which are supplementary to the lesion-based information. To test our hypothesis, we recently performed a number of independent studies. Based on our published preliminary study results, we demonstrated that global mammographic image features and background parenchymal enhancement of breast MR images carried useful information to (1) predict near-term breast cancer risk based on negative screening mammograms, (2) distinguish between true- and false-positive recalls in mammography screening examinations, and (3) classify between malignant and benign breast MR examinations. The global case-based CAD scheme only warns a risk level of the cases without cueing a large number of false-positive lesions. It can also be applied to guide lesion-based CAD cueing to reduce false-positives but enhance clinically relevant true-positive cueing. However, before such a new CAD approach is clinically acceptable, more work is needed to optimize not only the scheme performance but also how to integrate with lesion-based CAD schemes in the clinical practice.

  1. Women's lay knowledge of cervical cancer/cervical screening: accounting for non-attendance at cervical screening clinics.

    PubMed

    Neilson, A; Jones, R K

    1998-09-01

    An assessment of women's knowledge of cervical screening and cervical cancer was considered important as up to 92% of those dying from this form of cancer had never been tested. What were the reasons which determined their non-attendance? Issues to be addressed were reactions to invitation, women's knowledge of screening, and the possible factors which they envisaged as being associated with cervical cancer. Other issues to be considered were practical problems associated with attendance, and preference for the sex and professional status of the health professionals involved; 187 women in a general practitioner practice in Lothian, Scotland were targeted by questionnaire. As with other studies in this field 50% of those contacted were ineligible for a variety of reasons. Seventy-two women completed the questionnaire, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Although the majority of women felt the invitation to attend screening was clear and easy to understand, there was a lack of knowledge with regard to both the screening itself and the possible causes of cervical cancer. The main 'causes' were seen as higher sexual activity among those aged under 37 and smoking and a virus by those over 37. The majority of women showed preference for a female professional to take the smear. Practical problems of time and venue were not considered insurmountable. The main reasons cited for non-compliance were the fear and dislike of the test itself. PMID:9756225

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer in African Americans: determinants and rationale for an earlier age to commence screening.

    PubMed

    Carethers, John M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective approach to reduce morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of CRC in populations. Current recommendations for asymptomatic populations begin screening at age 50 years, after which ~95% of cancers occur. Determinants that modify timing and frequency for screening include: personal/family history of adenomas or CRC, age of onset of lesions, and presence or potential to harbor high-risk conditions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or Lynch syndrome. Although race, like family history, is heritable, it has not engendered inclusion in systematic screening recommendations despite multiple studies demonstrating disparity in the incidence and mortality from CRC, and the potential for targeted screening to reduce disparity. African Americans, when compared to Caucasians, have lower CRC screening utilization, younger presentation for CRC, higher CRC prevalence at all ages, and higher proportion of CRCs before age 50 years (~11 vs. 5%); are less likely to transmit personal/family history of adenomas or CRC that may change screening age; show excess of high-risk proximal adenomas, matched with 7-15% excess right-sided CRCs that lack microsatellite instability; show higher frequencies of high-risk adenomas for every age decile; and demonstrate genetic biomarkers associated with metastasis. These epidemiological and biological parameters put African Americans at higher risk from CRC irrespective of socioeconomic issues, like IBD, FAP, and Lynch patients. Including race as a factor in national CRC screening guidelines and commencing screening at an age earlier than 50 years seems rational based on the natural history and aggressive behavior in this population. PMID:25540085

  3. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-02-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models. PMID:24153450

  4. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting. PMID:26136839

  5. Receipt of Cervical Cancer Screening in Female Veterans: Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Weitlauf, Julie; Jones, Surai; Xu, Xiangyan; Finney, John W.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Sawaya, George F.; Frayne, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated receipt of cervical cancer screening in a national sample of 34,213 women veterans using Veteran Health Administration (VHA) facilities between 2003 and 2007 and diagnosed with either: 1) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 2) depression; or 3) no psychiatric illness. Methods Our study featured a cross sectional design in which logistic regression analyses compared receipt of recommended cervical cancer screening for all three diagnostic groups. Results Cervical cancer screening rates varied minimally by diagnostic group: 77% of women with PTSD vs. 75% with depression vs. 75% without psychiatric illness were screened during the study observation period, P < .001. However, primary care use was associated with differential odds of screening in women with vs. without psychiatric illness (PTSD or depression), and findings held after even after adjustment for age, income and physical comorbidities (Wald Chi Square (2): 126.59, P < .0001). Specifically, among low users of primary care services, women PTSD or depression were more likely than those without psychiatric diagnoses to receive screening, but among high users of primary care services, they were less likely to receive screening. Conclusions Psychiatric illness (PTSD or depression) had little to no effect on receipt of cervical cancer screening. Our finding that high use of primary care services was not associated with comparable odds of screening in women with vs. without psychiatric illness suggests that providers caring for women with PTSD or depression and high use of primary care services should be especially attentive to their preventive health care needs. PMID:23660429

  6. Value of screening endoscopy in evaluation of esophageal, gastric and colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Tae H; Mathew, Michelle A; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers are deadly diseases that continue to plague our world today. The value of screening endoscopy in evaluating these types of cancers is a critical area of discussion due to a potential reduction in morbidity and mortality. This article describes how to identify a good screening test and explains what are important criteria in the field of screening endoscopy. Furthermore, the current status and progress of screening endoscopy for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer will be evaluated and discussed. Mass screening programs have not been implemented for esophageal and gastric carcinomas in those with average or low risk populations. However, studies of high-risk populations have found value and a cost-benefit in conducting screening endoscopy. Colorectal cancer, on the other hand, has had mass screening programs in place for many years due to the clear evidence of improved outcomes. As the role of endoscopy as a screening tool has continued to develop, newer technology and techniques have emerged to improve its utility. Many new image enhancement techniques and computer processing programs have shown promise and may have a significant role in the future of endoscopic screening. These developments are paving the way for improving the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of endoscopy in the field of gastroenterology. PMID:26361416

  7. Value of screening endoscopy in evaluation of esophageal, gastric and colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Ro, Tae H; Mathew, Michelle A; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-09-01

    Esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers are deadly diseases that continue to plague our world today. The value of screening endoscopy in evaluating these types of cancers is a critical area of discussion due to a potential reduction in morbidity and mortality. This article describes how to identify a good screening test and explains what are important criteria in the field of screening endoscopy. Furthermore, the current status and progress of screening endoscopy for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer will be evaluated and discussed. Mass screening programs have not been implemented for esophageal and gastric carcinomas in those with average or low risk populations. However, studies of high-risk populations have found value and a cost-benefit in conducting screening endoscopy. Colorectal cancer, on the other hand, has had mass screening programs in place for many years due to the clear evidence of improved outcomes. As the role of endoscopy as a screening tool has continued to develop, newer technology and techniques have emerged to improve its utility. Many new image enhancement techniques and computer processing programs have shown promise and may have a significant role in the future of endoscopic screening. These developments are paving the way for improving the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of endoscopy in the field of gastroenterology. PMID:26361416

  8. Reasons for non-participation in the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Declan T; Treanor, Charlene; McMullan, Colin; Owen, Tracy; Graham, Adele; Anderson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the reasons why some people do not participate in bowel cancer screening so that steps can be taken to improve informed decision-making. Design Qualitative study, using focus groups with thematic analysis of data to identify, analyse and report patterns. Transcripts were repeatedly read and inductively coded using a phenomenological perspective, and organised into key themes. Setting Belfast and Armagh, two areas of Northern Ireland with relatively low uptake of bowel cancer screening. Participants Ten women and 18 men in three single-gender focus groups (two male and one female), each with 9–10 participants. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling from the general public and were eligible for, but had not taken part in, the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Results Key themes identified were fear of cancer; the test procedure; social norms; past experience of cancer and screening; lack of knowledge or understanding about bowel cancer screening; and resulting behaviour towards the test. Fear about receiving bad news and reluctance to conduct the test themselves were reactions that participants seemed willing to overcome after taking part in open discussion about the test. Conclusions We identified barriers to participation in bowel cancer screening and used these insights to develop new materials to support delivery of the programme. Some of the issues raised have been identified in other UK settings, suggesting that knowledge about barriers, and strategies to improve uptake, may be generalisable. PMID:26353870

  9. Available web-based teaching resources for health care professionals on screening for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Insua, Angel; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Rapidis, Alexander; Diz, Pedro; Seoane, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify websites with adequate information on oral cancer screening for healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to assess both their quality and contents. Study Design: Websites were identified using Google and HON medical professional search engines using the terms “screening for oral cancer”. The first 100 sites retrieved by each engine were analysed using the DISCERN questionnaire (reliability), the V instrument (contents on oral cancer) and further by the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Grade Level and the Flesch Reading Ease (readability). Results: The overall rating showed minimal shortcomings in the quality of the information in the websites. The coverage and correctness of information on “visual examination” was rated as fair/good, whereas updating of contents resulted very variable (eg: 81% for visual examination and 18.2% for molecular biomarkers). These results permitted to rank the websites housing relevant information for oral cancer. Top ranking websites were affiliated to the Oral Cancer Foundation (USA), WHO Collaborating Centre for oral cancer (UK) whose webpage is entitled “Oral Cancer Education and Research”, and the Clinical Guidelines maintained by the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Canada) and the British Dental Association (UK) respectively. Conclusions: There are web-based, HCP-addressed, resources on screening for oral cancer housing heterogeneous information both in quality and contents. The use of specific evaluation tools permits the selection of reliable websites on this topic with a potential to improve the existing educational gaps among HCPs. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, screening, secondary prevention, internet, teaching resources, continuous education. PMID:25475775

  10. Endoscopic gastric cancer screening and surveillance in high-risk groups.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Ju

    2014-11-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major cancer problem world-wide and future incidence will likely increase due to rapidly aging population demographics. Population-based screening is being undertaken in Korea and Japan, where gastric cancer incidence rates are high, and seems to be effective in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. However, such strategies are difficult to implement in countries with a low incidence or limited resources. Thus, screening strategies should be directed towards high-risk population subgroups. Gastric cancer has a relatively long mean sojourn time, and prognosis of early-stage disease is excellent. In general population, screening at 2-year interval in Korea seems to be effective for early-stage diagnosis. In subjects with atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia, surveillance is recommended at 1 to 3 years intervals according to European and Japanese recommendation. Screening intervals for family members with sporadic gastric cancer has not yet been adequately evaluated, but 1-year interval is recommended for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer family-members. Gastric cancer patients treated by endoscopic resection are the highest-risk group, and 1-year interval surveillance can detect most metachronous gastric cancers at an early stage. Future gastric cancer surveillance strategies using endoscopy should be guided by risk-stratification assessment, and further refinement of optimal surveillance intervals is needed. PMID:25505714

  11. Portuguese women's knowledge and health beliefs about cervical cancer and its screening.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2013-01-01

    Currently little is known about Portuguese women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. In-depth, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five females were recruited, the age range was 30 to 60. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented. PMID:23461350

  12. Reduction in interval cancer rates following the introduction of two-view mammography in the UK breast screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Dibden, A; Offman, J; Parmar, D; Jenkins, J; Slater, J; Binysh, K; McSorley, J; Scorfield, S; Cumming, P; Liao, X-H; Ryan, M; Harker, D; Stevens, G; Rogers, N; Blanks, R; Sellars, S; Patnick, J; Duffy, S W

    2014-01-01

    Background: The introduction of two-view mammography at incident (subsequent) screens in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) has led to an increased number of cancers detected at screen. However, the effect of two-view mammography on interval cancer rates has yet to be assessed. Methods: Routine screening and interval cancer data were collated from all screening programmes in the United Kingdom for women aged 50–64, screened between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2005. Interval cancer rates were compared based on whether two-view mammography was in use at the last routine screen. Results: The reduction in interval cancers following screening using two-view mammography compared with one view was 0.68 per 1?000 women screened. Overall, this suggests the introduction of two-view mammography at incident screen was accompanied by a 15–20% reduction in interval cancer rates in the NHSBSP. Conclusion: The introduction of two-view mammography at incident screens is associated with a reduction in incidence of interval cancers. This is consistent with previous publications on a contemporaneous increase in screen-detected cancers. The results provide further evidence of the benefit of the use of two-view mammography at incident screens. PMID:24366303

  13. Increasing cervical cancer screening for a multiethnic population of women in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Fornos, Laura B; Urbansky, Kathleen A; Villarreal, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. Precancers can be identified and treated through cervical screenings. The HPV vaccine prevents precancers from becoming cancers. The aim of the A Su Salud Cervical Cancer Prevention Program was to apply well-understood health promotion techniques and increase the rate of cervical cancer screening among a high-risk, multiethnic, low-income population in South Texas. Qualitative research was used to identify uptake barriers and tailor media messaging. Using existing resources, we applied evidence-based strategies in novel ways that changed personal behaviors, leading to cancer screening, risk reduction, and early detection. We created a database to track a cohort of 32,807 women and measured cervical cancer screenings over 3 years. Our analysis revealed an increase in cervical cancer screenings after use of highly targeted automated telephone reminders and media dissemination on multiple platforms. Those women at low risk for cervical cancer obtained the highest proportion of Pap tests. This innovative, theory-based program increased overall Pap tests up to 9% among women enrolled in a safety net hospital financial assistance plan. This study fills a gap in research on Pap test compliance in uninsured, mostly Hispanic women by building on cultural strengths and tailored messaging. PMID:24170274

  14. Image quality assurance in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial network of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; Gierada, David S; Clark, Kenneth W; Blaine, G James

    2005-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial is evaluating the effectiveness of low-dose spiral CT and conventional chest X-ray as screening tests for persons who are at high risk for developing lung cancer. This multicenter trial requires quality assurance (QA) for the image quality and technical parameters of the scans. The electronic system described here helps manage the QA process. The system includes a workstation at each screening center that de-identifies the data, a DICOM storage service at the QA Coordinating Center, and Web-based systems for presenting images and QA evaluation forms to the QA radiologists. Quality assurance data are collated and analyzed by an independent statistical organization. We describe the design and implementation of this electronic QA system, emphasizing issues relating to data security and privacy, the various obstacles encountered in the installation of a common system at different participating screening centers, and the functional success of the system deployed. PMID:15924251

  15. News Note: Not all doctors comply with practice guidelines for recommending colorectal cancer screenings

    Cancer.gov

    A study of nearly 1,300 primary care physicians in the United States found that only about 20 percent of those doctors recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screenings tests to their patients in accordance with current practice guidelines.

  16. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of Cancer Stem Cells by High-Throughput Screening

    E-print Network

    Onder, Tamer T.

    Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe ...

  17. Prostate-specific antigen-based population screening for prostate cancer: current status in Japan and future perspective in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, clinical trials on prostate cancer screening demonstrated a limited benefit for patient survival. In the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, the rate of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains very low compared with Western countries, and the benefits of population-based screening remain unclear. This review describes the current status of population screening and diagnosis for prostate cancer in Japan and discusses the efficacy of population screening for the Asian population. Since the 1990s, screening systems have been administered by each municipal government in Japan, and decreases in the prostate cancer mortality rate are expected in some regions where the exposure rate to PSA screening has increased markedly. A population-based screening cohort revealed that the proportion of metastatic disease in cancer detected by screening gradually decreased according to the increased exposure rate, and a decreasing trend in the proportion of cancer with high serum PSA levels after population screening was started. The prognosis of the prostate cancer detected by population screening was demonstrated to be more favorable than those diagnosed outside of the population screening. Recent results in screening cohorts demonstrated the efficacy of PSA. These recent evidences regarding population-based screening in Japan may contribute to establishing the optimal prostate cancer screening system in Asian individuals. PMID:25578935

  18. Correlations Among Poverty, Behavioral Factors, Cancer Screening, and Age-Adjusted Cancer Mortality Rates Using State-Level Data

    Cancer.gov

    129 Table 7.1. Correlations Among Poverty, Behavioral Factors, Cancer Screening, and Age-Adjusted Cancer Mortality Rates Using State-Level Data: United States, 1990?1999 (N = 51) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

  19. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening to prevent gastric cancer in China in anticipation of clinical trial results

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jennifer M.; Kuntz, Karen M.; Ezzati, Majid; Goldie, Sue J.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection, the leading causal risk factor, can reduce disease progression, but the long-term impact on cancer incidence is uncertain. Using the best available data, we estimated the potential health benefits and economic consequences associated with H. pylori screening in a high-risk region of China. An empirically calibrated model of gastric cancer was used to project reduction in lifetime cancer risk, life-expectancy and costs associated with (i) single lifetime screening (age 20, 30 or 40); (ii) single lifetime screening followed by rescreening individuals with negative results and (iii) universal treatment for H. pylori (age 20, 30 or 40). Data were from the published literature and national and international databases. Screening and treatment for H. pylori at age 20 reduced the mean lifetime cancer risk by 14.5% (men) to 26.6% (women) and cost less than $1,500 per year of life saved (YLS) compared to no screening. Rescreening individuals with negative results and targeting older ages was less cost-effective. Universal treatment prevented an additional 1.5% to 2.3% of risk reduction, but incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeded $2,500 per YLS. Screening young adults for H. pylori could prevent one in every 4 to 6 cases of gastric cancer in China and would be considered cost-effective using the GDP per capita threshold. These results illustrate the potential promise of a gastric cancer screening program and provide rationale for urgent clinical studies to move the prevention agenda forward. PMID:18823009

  20. American Indian Breast Cancer Project: Educational Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Casken, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of Pathways to Health, a breast cancer education program targeting American Indian women in California. Discusses initial focus group results concerning belief in breast cancer risk, barriers to cancer screening and treatment, culturally sensitive issues, and illness beliefs. Describes…

  1. Integrating Men’s Health and Masculinity Theories to Explain Colorectal Cancer Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review paper, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men’s CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men’s health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men’s CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions which target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors. PMID:23813927

  2. Exploratory Study of Breast Cancer Screening Practices of Urban Women: A Closer Look at Who Is and Is Not Getting Screened.

    PubMed

    Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    Several initiatives have been embarked upon over the past decade to encourage breast cancer screening and follow-up among women who reside in urban communities. With these efforts, data revealed that many women do not receive the recommended breast cancer screening. Studies have been published in scientific literature that explored barriers faced by women relative to breast cancer screening. But, only a few reports have been published of efforts initiated to define the limits of characteristics of women who have and women who have not been screened. This cross-sectional exploratory study was designed to examine the breast cancer screening practices of women 40-74 years of age and older who reside in a densely populated metropolitan community of S.E. Wisconsin, and to identify and compare the characteristics of women who report breast cancer screening and with characteristics of women who report no breast cancer screening. The organizing framework for this study was derived from the United States Department of Health and Human Services Determinants of Health Model. An investigator-designed instrument was used to assess the influence of age, family history of breast cancer insurance status, characteristics of residential neighborhood and local access to breast care on breast cancer screening. While the majority of the women surveyed reported breast cancer screening, less than half of the women reported screening that was consistent with recommended breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e. annual mammography and annual clinical breast examination). Deficits in breast cancer screening were noted most among women who were uninsured, with no knownfamily history of breast cancer, who resided in low income neighborhoods, inner-city neighborhoods and neighborhoods without facilities for primary breast care. The results of this study demonstrate the needfor clinicians, health care administrators and advocates committed to breast cancer detection and control within targeted communities. They must carefully assess the impact of individual, social and structural factors on breast cancer screening, and the need to design initiatives specifically targeted to women who have received less than optimal or no breast cancer screening. PMID:26197633

  3. Advanced practice registered nurses, physician assistants and cancer prevention and screening: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For more than two decades, integration of team-based approaches in primary care, including physicians, advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants (APRN/PA), have been recommended for improving healthcare delivery, yet little is known about their roles in cancer screening and prevention. This study aims to review the current literature on the participation and roles of APRN/PAs in providing cancer screening and prevention recommendations in primary care settings in the United States. Methods We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL to identify studies published in 1990–2011 reporting on cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening and smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity recommendations by APRN/PAs in the United States. A total of 15 studies met all of our eligibility criteria. Key study, provider, and patient characteristics were abstracted as were findings about APRN/PA recommendations for screening and prevention. Results Most studies were cross-sectional, showed results from within a single city or state, had relatively small sample sizes, reported non-standardized outcome measures. Few studies reported any patient characteristics. APRN/PAs are involved in recommending cancer screening and prevention, although we found variation across screening tests and health behavior recommendations. Conclusions Additional research on the cancer prevention and screening practices of APRN/PAs in primary care settings using standardized outcome measures in relation to evidence-based guidelines may help strengthen primary care delivery in the United States. PMID:24521264

  4. Rural-Urban Differences in Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alejandro G; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Schnell, Paulette; Soliman, Amr S

    2015-12-01

    Nebraska ranks 36th nationally in colorectal cancer screening. Despite recent increases in CRC screening rates, rural areas in Nebraska have consistently shown lower rates of CRC screening uptake, compared to urban areas. The objective of this study was to investigate reasons for lower CRC screening rates among Nebraska residents, especially among rural residents. We developed a questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs to identify factors associated with the use of CRC screening. The questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to adults aged 50-75 years in an urban community in the east and a rural community in the west regions of the state. Multiple logistic regression models were created to assess the effects of HBM constructs, rural residence, and demographic factors on CRC screening use. Of the 1200 surveys mailed, 393 were returned (rural n = 200, urban n = 193). Rural respondents were more likely to perceive screening cost as a barrier. Rural residents were also more likely to report that CRC cannot be prevented and it would change their whole life. In multiple regression models, rural residence, perceived embarrassment, and perceived unpleasantness about screening were significantly associated with reduced odds of receiving colonoscopy. Older age (62 years and older), having a personal doctor, and perceived risk of getting CRC were significantly associated with increased odds of receiving colonoscopy. Interventions to increase uptake of colorectal cancer screening in rural residents should be tailored to acknowledge unique perceptions of screening methods and barriers to screening. PMID:25910484

  5. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaopua, Lana Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  7. Removing Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening (H.R. 1220 / S. 624; 114th Congress)

    Cancer.gov

    The bill would require a waiver of coinsurance under Medicare for colorectal cancer screening tests, regardless of whether therapeutic intervention is required during the screening. S. 624 was introduced by Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH) on 3/3/2015

  8. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening with primary human papillomavirus testing in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Burger, E A; Ortendahl, J D; Sy, S; Kristiansen, I S; Kim, J J

    2012-01-01

    Background: New screening technologies and vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the necessary cause of cervical cancer, may impact optimal approaches to prevent cervical cancer. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of alternative screening strategies to inform cervical cancer prevention guidelines in Norway. Methods: We leveraged the primary epidemiologic and economic data from Norway to contextualise a simulation model of HPV-induced cervical cancer. The current cytology-only screening was compared with strategies involving cytology at younger ages and primary HPV-based screening at older ages (31/34+ years), an option being actively deliberated by the Norwegian government. We varied the switch-age, screening interval, and triage strategies for women with HPV-positive results. Uncertainty was evaluated in sensitivity analysis. Results: Current cytology-only screening was less effective and more costly than strategies that involve switching to primary HPV testing in older ages. For unvaccinated women, switching at age 34 years to primary HPV testing every 4 years was optimal given the Norwegian cost-effectiveness threshold ($83?000 per year of life saved). For vaccinated women, a 6-year screening interval was cost-effective. When we considered a wider range of strategies, we found that an earlier switch to HPV testing (at age 31 years) may be preferred. Conclusions: Strategies involving a switch to HPV testing for primary screening in older women is expected to be cost-effective compared with current recommendations in Norway. PMID:22441643

  9. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Preventive Health Model for Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flight, Ingrid H.; Wilson, Carlene J.; McGillivray, Jane; Myers, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between…

  10. The Association of Social Support and Education with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…

  11. Patient perceptions of stool DNA testing for pan-digestive cancer screening: A survey questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Hillman, Shauna L; Harris, Ann M; Sinicrope, Pamela S; Devens, Mary E; Ahlquist, David A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore patient interest in a potential multi-organ stool-DNA test (MUST) for pan-digestive cancer screening. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and mailed to 1200 randomly-selected patients from the Mayo Clinic registry. The 29-item survey questionnaire included items related to demographics, knowledge of digestive cancers, personal and family history of cancer, personal concern of cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening behavior, interest in MUST, importance of test features in a cancer screening tool, and comparison of MUST with available CRC screening tests. All responses were summarized descriptively. ?2 and Rank Sum Test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS: Completed surveys were returned by 434 (29% aged 50-59, 37% 60-69, 34% 70-79, 52% women). Most participants (98%) responded they would use MUST. In order of importance, respondents rated multi-cancer detection, absence of bowel preparation, safety and noninvasiveness as most attractive characteristics. For CRC screening, MUST was preferred over colorectal-only stool-DNA testing (53%), occult blood testing (75%), colonoscopy (84%), sigmoidoscopy (91%), and barium enema (95%), P < 0.0001 for each. Among those not previously screened, most (96%) indicated they would use MUST if available. Respondents were confident in their ability to follow instructions to perform MUST (98%). Only 9% of respondents indicated that fear of finding cancer was a concern with MUST, and only 3% indicated unpleasantness of stool sampling as a potential barrier. CONCLUSION: Patients are receptive to the concept of MUST, preferred MUST over conventional CRC screening modalities and valued its potential feature of multi-cancer detection. PMID:24803808

  12. NCG 4.0: the network of cancer genes in the era of massive mutational screenings of cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    An, Omer; Pendino, Vera; D’Antonio, Matteo; Ratti, Emanuele; Gentilini, Marco; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.

    2014-01-01

    NCG 4.0 is the latest update of the Network of Cancer Genes, a web-based repository of systems-level properties of cancer genes. In its current version, the database collects information on 537 known (i.e. experimentally supported) and 1463 candidate (i.e. inferred using statistical methods) cancer genes. Candidate cancer genes derive from the manual revision of 67 original publications describing the mutational screening of 3460 human exomes and genomes in 23 different cancer types. For all 2000 cancer genes, duplicability, evolutionary origin, expression, functional annotation, interaction network with other human proteins and with microRNAs are reported. In addition to providing a substantial update of cancer-related information, NCG 4.0 also introduces two new features. The first is the annotation of possible false-positive cancer drivers, defined as candidate cancer genes inferred from large-scale screenings whose association with cancer is likely to be spurious. The second is the description of the systems-level properties of 64 human microRNAs that are causally involved in cancer progression (oncomiRs). Owing to the manual revision of all information, NCG 4.0 constitutes a complete and reliable resource on human coding and non-coding genes whose deregulation drives cancer onset and/or progression. NCG 4.0 can also be downloaded as a free application for Android smart phones. Database URL: http://bio.ieo.eu/ncg/ PMID:24608173

  13. Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Goldie, Sue J

    2006-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and purchasing power parity. Results Cervical cytology laboratory processing costs were I$1.57–3.37 using the quantity and price method compared to I$1.58–3.02 from the face validation method. HPV DNA processing costs were I$6.07–6.59. Rural laboratory transport costs for cytology were I$0.12–0.64 and I$0.14–0.74 for HPV DNA laboratories. Under assumptions of lower resource efficiency, these estimates increased to I$0.42–0.83 and I$0.54–1.06. Estimates of the value of an hour of patient time using only formal sector participation were I$0.07–4.16, increasing to I$0.30–4.80 when informal and unpaid labor was also included. The value of patient time for traveling, waiting, and attending a screening visit was I$0.68–17.74. With the total cost of screening for cytology and HPV DNA testing ranging from I$4.85–40.54 and I$11.30–48.77 respectively, the cost of the laboratory transport, processing, and patient time accounted for 26–66% and 33–65% of the total costs. From a payer perspective, laboratory transport and processing accounted for 18–48% and 25–60% of total direct medical costs of I$4.11–19.96 and I$10.57–28.18 respectively. Conclusion Cost estimates of laboratory processing, sample transport, and patient time account for a significant proportion of total cervical cancer screening costs in five developing countries and provide important inputs for CEAs of alternative screening modalities. PMID:16887041

  14. Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The systematic review on which this paper is based provided evidence for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to update their guideline regarding screening for cervical cancer. In this article we highlight three questions covered in the full review that pertain to the effectiveness of screening for reducing cervical cancer mortality and incidence as well as optimal timing and frequency of screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central from 1995 to 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies with comparison groups. Eligible studies included women aged 15 to 70 years who were screened using conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology or human papillomavirus DNA tests. Relevance screening, data extraction, risk of bias analyses and quality assessments were performed in duplicate. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model on the one body of evidence that could be pooled. Results From the 15,145 screened citations, 27 papers (24 studies) were included; five older studies located in a United States Preventive Services Task Force review were also included. A randomized controlled trial in India showed even a single lifetime screening test significantly decreased the risk of mortality from and incidence of advanced cervical cancer compared to no screening (mortality: risk ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.90; incidence: relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.75). Cytology screening was shown to be beneficial in a cohort study that found testing significantly reduced the risk of being diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer compared to no screening (risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.63). Pooled evidence from a dozen case–control studies also indicated a significant protective effect of cytology screening (odds ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.30, 0.41). This review found no conclusive evidence for establishing optimal ages to start and stop cervical screening, or to determine how often to screen; however the available data suggests substantial protective effects for screening women 30 years and older and for intervals of up to five years. Conclusions The available evidence supports the conclusion that cervical screening does offer protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. PMID:23706117

  15. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in the US-Mexico Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Beti; Vilchis, Hugo; Moran, Crystal; Copeland, Wade; Holte, Sarah; Duggan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic women living on the US-México border experience health disparities, are less likely to access cervical cancer screening services, and have a higher rate of cervical cancer incidence compared to women living in non-border areas. Here we investigate the effects of an intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs, known as lay health educators or Promotores de Salud in Spanish) on rates of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women who were out of compliance with recommended screening guidelines. Methods Hispanic women out of compliance with screening guidelines, attending clinics in southern New México (NM), were identified using medical record review. All eligible women were offered the intervention. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011, and data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants - 162 Hispanic women, resident in NM border counties, aged 29-80 years, who had not had a Pap test within the past 3 years. Intervention - A CHW-led, culturally appropriate, computerized education intervention. Main outcome measures - The percentage of women who underwent cervical cancer screening within 12 months of receiving the intervention. Change in knowledge of, and attitudes towards cervical cancer and screening as assessed by a baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Results 76.5% of women had a Pap test after the intervention. Women displayed increased knowledge about cervical cancer screening and about HPV. Conclusions A culturally appropriate promotora-led intervention is successful in increasing cervical cancer screening in at-risk Hispanic women on the US-México border. PMID:24689544

  16. Effectiveness of gastric cancer screening programs in South Korea: Organized vs opportunistic models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Jin; Heo, Chae; Kim, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Jae Yeol; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcome and effectiveness of two screening programs, National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opportunistic screening (OS), for the detection of gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 45??654 subjects underwent upper endoscopy as part of the NCSP or OS at the Chung-Ang University Healthcare System in Korea between January 2007 and December 2010. The study population was comprised of subjects over the age of 40 years. More specifically, subjects who took part in the NCSP were Medicaid recipients and beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Corporation. Still photographs from the endoscopies diagnosed as gastric cancer were reviewed by two experienced endoscopists. RESULTS: The mean age of the screened subjects was 55 years for men and 54 years for women. A total of 126 cases (0.28%) of gastric cancer were detected from both screening programs; 100 cases (0.3%) from NCSP and in 26 cases (0.2%) from OS. The proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) detected in NCSP was higher than that in OS (74.0% vs 53.8%, P = 0.046). Among the 34??416 screenees in NCSP, 6585 (19.1%) underwent upper endoscopy every other year as scheduled. Among the 11??238 screenees in OS, 3050 (27.1%) underwent upper endoscopy at least once every two years during the study period. The detection rate of gastric cancer was found to be significantly higher during irregular follow-up than during regular follow-up in both screening programs (0.3% vs 0.2%, P = 0.036). A higher incidence of EGC than advanced gastric cancer was observed during regular follow-up compared with irregular follow-up. CONCLUSION: Compliance to the screening program is more important than the type of screening system used. PMID:23430471

  17. MRI breast screening in high-risk women: cancer detection and survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth; Gareth, Evans D; Kesavan, Nisha; Nisha, Kesavan; Lim, Yit; Yit, Lim; Gadde, Soujanye; Soujanye, Gadde; Hurley, Emma; Emma, Hurley; Massat, Nathalie J; Maxwell, Anthony J; Ingham, Sarah; Sarah, Ingham; Eeles, Rosalind; Rosalind, Eeles; Leach, Martin O; Howell, Anthony; Anthony, Howell; Duffy, Stephen W; Stephen, Duffy

    2014-06-01

    Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival. PMID:24687378

  18. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsu-Yin; Liu, Yi-Lan; Chung, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS) on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population. PMID:23304529

  19. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. IARC Working Group on evaluation of cervical cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A collaborative study of screening programmes in eight countries was performed to estimate the risks of cervical cancer associated with different screening policies. Most of the data came from centrally organised screening programmes. Relative protection was higher in women who had had two or more negative results of screening tests than in those who had had only one negative smear, particularly in the first five years after the last test. There was little difference in the protection afforded by screening every year compared with every three years, but screening only once every five or 10 years offered appreciably less protection. The age of the women did not affect the sensitivity of the test or the sojourn time of the disease (the length of the detectable preclinical phase during which abnormal cytology could be picked up if a smear were taken); invasive cancer in women under 25 was rare. Centrally organised screening programmes were more effective than uncoordinated screening. Screening programmes should be aimed principally at women aged 35-60 but should start some years before the age of 35, and the intervals between screening should be three years or less. PMID:3092971

  20. Colonoscopic screening and follow-up for colorectal cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Zhang, Zi-Qi; Zhu, Cheng; Wang, Meng-Wei; Zhao, Dong-Hai; Fu, Yong-He; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Ya-Hong; Wu, Ben-Yan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To improve the prevention and treatment of senile patients with colorectal cancer by evaluating the importance of colonoscopy in clinical screening and follow-up. METHODS: Clinical screening of colonoscopy was performed for 2196 patients aged 60-90 years old according to the protocol, and 1740 of them (79.2%) were followed-up. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer was found in 52 patients, and the detectable rate was 2.4%. Among them, 19 were diagnosed as early colorectal cancer, accounting for 36.5% of the detected colorectal cancer. Among the followed-up patients, early colorectal cancer was found in 9, accounting for 45.0% of the detected colorectal cancer. The resectable rate and 5 years survival rate of colorectal cancer were 97.7% and 80.9% respectively. The incidence of complication was 0.05%, and the successful rate of cecum intubation was 98.9%. CONCLUSION: Colonoscopic screening and follow-up of the elderly for colorectal cancer and pre-cancerous lesion (adenomatoid polyp) can increase the detectable rate of early colorectal cancer and improve its prevention and treatment. PMID:11925605

  1. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing burden of cancers. Such efforts can be further amplified by making use of effective cancer screening programs for early detection of cancers at their most treatable stage. However, compared with non-aboriginal Canadians, many aboriginal Canadians lack equal access to cancer screening and prevention programs. In this paper, we discuss disparities in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations in Canada. We begin with the relevant definitions and a theoretical perspective of disparity in health care in aboriginal populations. A framework of health determinants is proposed to explain the pathways associated with an increased risk of cancer that are potentially avoidable. Major challenges and knowledge gaps in relation to cancer care for aboriginal populations are addressed, and we make recommendations to eliminate disparities in cancer control and prevention. PMID:26715875

  2. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  3. Nursing Perspectives on Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carl V.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.; Panaite, Vanessa; Council, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Health care disparities have been documented in cancer screenings of adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities nurses were surveyed to better understand and improve this deficiency. Two thirds of respondents believed that adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities received fewer cancer

  4. Time-Domain Microwave Cancer Screening: Optimized Pulse Shaping Applied to Realistically Shaped Breast Phantoms

    E-print Network

    Coates, Mark

    Time-Domain Microwave Cancer Screening: Optimized Pulse Shaping Applied to Realistically Shaped that this pulse shaping technique is beneficial in both improving the tumor response and increasing the system efficiency. Index Terms -- cancer detection, microwave imaging, phantoms, pulse shaping methods, radar

  5. Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations

    Cancer.gov

    Family History Screening to Detect Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Conceptual and Economic Considerations Scott D. Ramsey, M.D., Ph.D. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA) Wylie Burke, M.D.., Ph.D.

  6. News Note: Screening for ovarian cancer shows no reduction in mortality

    Cancer.gov

    Simultaneous screening with a blood test for the biomarker CA-125 along with a transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), compared with usual care, did not reduce ovarian cancer mortality in American women. These results, from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored trial, also show that diagnostic evaluation following a false-positive result was associated with potentially harmful complications.

  7. Cancer Screening Practices among Amish and Non-Amish Adults Living in Ohio Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Mira L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Paskett, Electra D.; Harley, Amy; Reiter, Paul L.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Westman, Judith A.; Clinton, Steven K.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Amish, a unique community living in Ohio Appalachia, have lower cancer incidence rates than non-Amish living in Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer screening rates among Amish compared to non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia and a national sample of adults of the same race and ethnicity in an effort…

  8. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  9. Colon Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Colorectal Cancer: Incidence and Mortality

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  11. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other preventive services, in... Colorectal Cancer Screening Notice is hereby given by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the ``NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening'' to be...

  12. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  13. A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer remains the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. Special events such as health fairs, screening days or cultural festivals are employed often for community education about cancer screening. A previous systematic review of the published literature was conducted in 2012-2013. The purpose of this study was to conduct a grey literature component of special events that promote breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. Methods We conducted a grey literature search of dissertations/theses and conference abstracts. The theses/dissertations were restricted to those: 1) written in English, 2) published from January 1990 to December 2011, 3) examined at least one of the predefined categories of special events, 4) involved cancer screening for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer, 5) included outcome data, and 6) conducted in the United States. A review of U.S. public health and cancer conference abstracts, that were readily available and had focused on at least of 3 cancer types and included outcome data, was conducted. Data were abstracted on the purpose, location, primary audience(s), activities conducted, screening provided onsite or referrals, and evaluation results. Results The grey literature review found 6 special events. The types of events found added to the numbers found in the systematic review, especially receptions or parties and cultural festivals/events. All focused on increasing breast and cervical cancer screening except one that focused on breast cancer only. The reach of these events was targeted at mostly minorities or underserved communities. Common evidence-based strategies were group education, small media, and reducing structural barriers. Group education involved presentations from physicians, lay-health advisors, or cancer survivors, while reducing structural barriers included activities such as providing screening appointment sign-ups at the event or providing transportation for event participants. Mammogram screening rates ranged from 6.8% to 60% and Pap tests from 52% to 70%. Conclusions Further evaluation of special events to promote cancer screening will prove their effectiveness. A grey literature review can augment a systematic review of published literature. Additional data about these events through the grey literature offered additional insights into the goals, intervention components and outcomes of interventions. PMID:24942822

  14. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation. PMID:25579107

  15. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology or cotesting (cytology in combination with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for health care providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation. PMID:25574659

  16. Effect of Health Care System Distrust on Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether health care system distrust is a barrier to breast and cervical cancer screening and whether different dimensions of distrust—values and competence—have different impacts on cancer screening. Methods. We utilized data on 5268 women aged 18 years and older living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and analyzed their use of screening services via logistic and multinomial logistic regression. Results. High levels of health care system distrust were associated with lower utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening services. The associations differed by dimensions of distrust. Specifically, a high level of competence distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of having Papanicolaou tests, and women with high levels of values distrust were less likely to have breast examinations within the recommended time period. Independent of other covariates, individual health care resources and health status were associated with utilization of cancer screening. Conclusions. Health care system distrust is a barrier to breast and cervical cancer screening even after control for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Rebuilding confidence in the health care system may improve personal and public health by increasing the utilization of preventive health services. PMID:21566035

  17. Screening and functional analysis of a differential protein profile of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FU-JUN; WANG, XUE-BO; CAO, AI-GUO

    2014-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the enriched functions of proteins and to identify potential biomarkers in human breast cancer, the present study constructed a differentially expressed protein profile by screening immunohistochemistry maps of human breast cancer proteins. A total of 1,688 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in human breast cancer, including 773 upregulated and 915 downregulated proteins. Of these proteins, secreted and membrane proteins were screened and clustered, and more enriched biological functions and pathways were presented in the upregulated protein profiles. Furthermore, altered serum levels of peroxiredoxin (PRDX)2, PRDX6, cathepsin (CTS)B and CTSD were detected by ELISA assay. The present study provides a novel global mapping of potential breast cancer biomarkers that could be used as background to identify the altered pathways in human breast cancer, as well as potential cancer targets. PMID:24932247

  18. Fecal DNA testing for colorectal cancer screening: Molecular targets and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Amaninder; Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Oikonomou, Katerina G; Moshenyat, Yitzchak

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of colorectal cancer with effective screening is essential for reduction of cancer-specific mortality. The addition of fecal DNA testing in the armamentarium of screening methods already in clinical use launches a new era in the noninvasive part of colorectal cancer screening and emanates from a large number of previous and ongoing clinical investigations and technological advancements. In this review, we discuss the molecular rational and most important genetic alterations hallmarking the early colorectal carcinogenesis process. Also, representative DNA targets-markers and key aspects of their testing at the clinical level in comparison or/and association with other screening methods are described. Finally, a critical view of the strengths and limitations of fecal DNA tests is provided, along with anticipated barriers and suggestions for further exploitation of their use. PMID:26483873

  19. Who are the under- and never- screened for cancer in Ontario: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Observed breast, cervical and colon cancer screening rates are below provincial targets for the province of Ontario, Canada. The populations who are under- or never-screened for these cancers have not been described at the Ontario provincial level. Our objective was to use qualitative methods of inquiry to explore who are the never- or under-screened populations of Ontario. Methods Qualitative data were collected from two rounds of focus group discussions conducted in four communities selected using maps of screening rates by dissemination area. The communities selected were archetypical of the Ontario context: urban, suburban, small city and rural. The first phase of focus groups was with health service providers. The second phase of focus groups was with community members from the under- and never- screened population. Guided by a grounded theory methodology, data were collected and analyzed simultaneously to enable the core and related concepts about the under- and never-screened to emerge. Results The core concept that emerged from the data is that the under- and never-screened populations of Ontario are characterized by diversity. Group level characteristics of the under- and never- screened included: 1) the uninsured (e.g., Old Order Mennonites and illegal immigrants); 2) sexual abuse survivors; 3) people in crisis; 4) immigrants; 5) men; and 6) individuals accessing traditional, alternative and complementary medicine for health and wellness. Under- and never-screened could have one or multiple group characteristics. Conclusion The under- and never-screened in Ontario comprise a diversity of groups. Heterogeneity within and intersectionality among under- and never-screened groups adds complexity to cancer screening participation and program planning. PMID:24885998

  20. The Challenges of Implementing Screening Programs Across Cancer Types

    Cancer.gov

    Basic Principles of Screening ( Wilson and Jungner, 1968) 1. The condition being screened for should be an important health problem. 2. There should be an accepted treatment for patients with recognized disease. 3. Facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be available. 4. There should be a suitable test or examination, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. 5. The test should be acceptable to the population. Principles of Screening (Cont’d) 6.

  1. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. Design A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. Participants A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Setting Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. Results The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Conclusions Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment; keeping the environment positive and comfortable; maintaining patient dignity; sharing control whenever possible; explaining procedures; and using laughter to reduce power imbalance through shared humanity. PMID:26246075

  2. Identification and screening of 416 patients with chronic hepatitis at high risk to develop hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Curley, S A; Izzo, F; Gallipoli, A; de Bellis, M; Cremona, F; Parisi, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors performed a prospective trial to screen patients with chronic hepatitis B or C virus (HBV, HCV) infections to (1) determine the incidence of asymptomatic hepatocellular cancer and (2) identify the subgroups at highest risk to develop hepatocellular cancer. METHODS: Four hundred sixteen patients with chronic hepatitis of more than 5 years' duration were evaluated (340 HCV, 69 HBV, 7 both). All underwent hepatic ultrasound and measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein every 3 months. Liver biopsy was performed on entry into the study to determine the severity of hepatitis-related liver injury. RESULTS: Initial screening identified asymptomatic hepatocellular cancer in 33 patients (7.9%). Three additional liver cancers were detected during the 1st year of follow-up, bringing the overall incidence to 8.6%. Treatment with curative intent was possible in 22 of these patients (61.1%), whereas 14 (38.9%) had advanced disease. Thirty-five of these hepatocellular cancers occurred in a subset of 140 patients (25% incidence) with liver biopsies showing severe chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, or both, and one hepatocellular cancer occurred among the 276 patients (0.4%) with histologically less severe liver injury (p < 0.0001, chi square test). CONCLUSIONS: This screening study in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection demonstrates (1) that the yield of asymptomatic hepatocellular cancer on initial screening is 7.9% and (2) that patients with severe chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, or both are at extremely high risk to develop hepatocellular cancer (25%). On the basis of these results and the finding of a significant number of small; treatable hepatocellular cancers (61.1%), the authors recommend hepatocellular cancer screening every 3 months for the subset of high-risk patients. PMID:7677466

  3. Risk modeling and screening for BRCA1 mutations among Filipino breast cancer patients

    E-print Network

    Nato, A Q J

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene, type 1(BRCA1) has been thought to be responsible for approx 45% of families with multiple breast carcinomas and for approx 80% of breast and ovarian cancer families. In this study, we investigated 34 familial Filipino breast cancer (BC) patients to: (a) estimate breast cancer risks and BRCA1/2 mutation carrier probabilities using risk assessment and prior probability models, respectively; (b) screen for putative polymorphisms at selected smaller exons of BRCA1 by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis; (c) screen for truncated mutations at BRCA1 exon 11 by radioactive protein truncation test (PTT); and (d) estimate posterior probabilities upon incorporation of screening results. SSCP analysis revealed 8 unique putative polymorphisms. Low prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exon 2, 5, 17, and 22 may indicate probable mutations. Contrastingly, high prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exons 13, 15, and 16 may suggest true polymorphisms whi...

  4. Culturally competent training program: a key to training lay health advisors for promoting breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-12-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese- English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis based on questionnaires completed by 79 LHAs indicated that the breast cancer screening training program significantly increased LHAs' knowledge and self-efficacy (p < .01, t test, two-tailed) and LHAs had a positive perception with regard to the training manual. Regression analysis found that LHAs who were younger, employed, and demonstrated a positive perception of the training manual tended to have higher self-efficacy in promoting breast cancer screening (R(2) = .30). This study suggests that a culturally competent training program effectively increases LHAs' self-efficacy. The findings have implications for developing effective LHA training programs in Asian American communities where LHA interventions are rarely implemented. PMID:17965228

  5. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  6. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  7. Sources of information that promote breast and cervical cancer knowledge and screening among native Hawaiians in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline H; Mouttapa, Michele; Ichinose, Travers Y; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Ueda, Dawn; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2010-12-01

    Breast and cervical cancers are the second and fourth leading causes of cancer death among Asian and Pacific Islander women. Despite screening exams that can detect these cancers early and increase survival, racial and ethnic populations continue to be disproportionately affected. This study examined the sources of information and their impacts on cancer screening compliance among native Hawaiians in Orange County, California. A community-based participatory research approach was used to conceive, design, implement, and analyze data. A relatively small proportion of the study's native Hawaiian women were compliant with recommended breast and cervical cancer screenings, and their screening rates were below the national Healthy People 2010 standards. Knowledge of screening procedures, seeking advice from a doctor, and obtaining information from internet medical sites were associated with higher rates of compliance with cancer-screening procedures. PMID:20237883

  8. Breast cancer detection among young survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma with screening magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tieu, Minh Thi; Cigsar, Candemir; Ahmed, Sameera; Ng, Andrea; Diller, Lisa; Millar, B-A; Crystal, Pavel; Hodgson, David C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have received chest radiotherapy are at increased risk of breast cancer. Guidelines for early breast cancer screening among these survivors are based on little data regarding clinical outcomes. This study reports outcomes of breast cancer screening with MRI and mammography (MMG) after childhood HL. METHODS We evaluated the results of breast MRI and MMG screening among 96 female survivors of childhood HL treated with chest radiotherapy. Outcomes measured included imaging sensitivity and specificity, breast cancer characteristics, and incidence of additional imaging and breast biopsy. RESULTS Median age at first screening was 30 years, and the median number of MRI screening rounds was 3. Ten breast cancers were detected in 9 women at a median age of 39 years (range, 24-43 years). Half were invasive and half were preinvasive. The median size of invasive tumors was 8 mm (range, 3-15 mm), and none had lymph node involvement. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening modalities were as follows: for MRI alone, 80% and 93.5%, respectively; MMG alone, 70% and 95%, respectively; both modalities combined, 100% and 88.6%, respectively. All invasive tumors were detected by MRI. Additional investigations were required in 52 patients, (54%), and 26 patients (27%) required breast biopsy, with 10 patients requiring more than 1 biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Screening including breast MRI with MMG has high sensitivity and specificity in pediatric HL survivors, with breast cancers detected at an early stage, although it is associated with a substantial rate of additional investigations. Cancer 2014;120:2507–2513. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Screening female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma for breast cancer with MRI and mammography detected tumors at an earlier stage than prior studies of mammography alone, although a substantial proportion of women required additional tests for benign imaging findings. The 5-year cumulative incidence of invasive or preinvasive tumors after initiating screening was 10.8%. PMID:24888639

  9. Determinants of Mammography Screening Participation in Adult Childhood Cancer Survivors: Results From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Cheryl L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Montgomery, Michele; Hudson, Melissa M; Mertens, Ann C; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To identify treatment, intrapersonal, and provider factors that influence childhood cancer survivors' adherence to recommended mammography screening.Design: Secondary analysis of data derived from three consecutive surveys within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.Sample: Female childhood cancer survivors: N = 335, X age = 30.92, X years after diagnosis = 21.79.Methods: T tests and structural equation modeling.Main Research Variables: Mammogram recency, health concerns, affect, motivation, and survivor-provider interaction.Findings: Forty-three percent of the variance was explained in mammogram recency. Survivors most likely to follow the recommended mammogram schedule were directly influenced by cancer treatment exposure to mantle radiation (p = 0.01), less intrinsic motivation (p = 0.01), positive affect (p = 0.05), recent visits to an oncology clinic (p = 0.01), discussion of subsequent cancer risks with a physician (p = 0.001), perceptions of more severe late effects (p = 0.05), age (40 years or older) (p cancer risks and follow-up strategies.Conclusions: Perceived symptoms, motivation, affect, provider influences, readiness for medical follow-up, and knowledge of treatment exposures are potential modifiable targets for intervention to support mammography screening in childhood cancer survivors at risk.Implications for Nursing: (a) Provide written summaries of treatment exposures and recommended schedule of mammography screening at the end of cancer treatment and throughout follow-up; (b) identify and address survivor symptoms and concerns that may negate screening; and (c) enhance motivation for screening by tailoring personal risk information to health concerns, affect, and readiness for follow-up. PMID:19596651

  10. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was consistently associated with lower likelihood of screening, although less so for immigrant patients. This study highlights certain physician characteristics that are associated with cancer screening for eligible patients, including immigrant patients, and that should be considered when designing physician-targeted interventions. We have also highlighted an ethnic community, South Asians, which requires particular attention, both among its patients and its primary care providers. Future research should further explore the reasons for these findings. PMID:25430885

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection Both Down in U.S.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dr. Richard Greenberg, chief of urologic oncology at Fox Chase Cancer Center, in Philadelphia. "Specifically, younger men ... Tenn.; Richard Greenberg, M.D., chief, urologic oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia; Nov. 17, 2015, Journal ...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  13. Massive Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in a High-Risk Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Lü, Lingshuang; Peng, Xianzhen; Wang, Min; Xu, Guisheng; Hua, Zhaolai; Wang, Jianping; Xue, Hengchuan; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to describe the findings from a massive endoscopic screening program in a high-risk area of China and to evaluate the prognosis of patients diagnosed through endoscopic screening compared with those diagnosed at usual hospital visits because of illness. Methods In 2006, an early detection and treatment program was initiated in Yangzhong county, China. Local residents aged 40–69 years were eligible for free endoscopic screening. Endoscopic examination was performed with Lugol’s iodine staining, followed by biopsies. Patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer were referred for treatment and followed to assess their long-term survival status. Results From 2006 through 2012, we screened 12453 participants, including 5334 (42.8%) men and 7119 (57.2%) women. The average age was 52.8±8.0 years. We detected 166 patients with upper digestive tract cancers, including 106 cancers in the esophagus (detection rate: 0.85%) and 60 cancers in the stomach (detection rate: 0.48%). Of these patients, 98.11% with esophageal cancer and 100% with gastric cancer were defined as at the early stage. In the process of follow-up, 17 patients died from cancer-related causes, and the median survival time was greater than 85 months. The overall survival rates for 1, 3 and 5 years were 98.0%, 90.0% and 89.0%, respectively. A significant positive effect was observed for the long-term survival of patients diagnosed through massive endoscopic screening. Conclusions In a high-risk population, massive endoscopic screening can identify early stage carcinoma of esophageal and gastric cancers and improve patients’ prognosis through early detection and treatment. PMID:26699332

  14. Estimation of validity of mass screening program for gastric cancer in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, R; Tsukuma, H; Ubukata, T; Nakanishi, K; Fujimoto, I; Kawashima, T; Yamazaki, H; Oshima, A

    1990-03-01

    To assess the validity of mass screening tests for gastric cancer conducted with three types of radiographic techniques, i.e., photofluorography by a mirror camera, photofluorography by an image intensifier, and direct radiography, 105,122 persons who underwent a total of 272,667 screening tests during 1970 through 1982 were followed through December 31, 1983 by means of a record linkage to the Osaka Cancer Registry, Osaka, Japan. The results of 1 year's follow-up from screening were defined as the gold standard and test performance values were calculated. Sensitivity of screening with photofluorography by a mirror camera, photofluorography by an image intensifier, and direct radiography was 90%, 89%, and 91%, and specificity was 86%, 92%, and 91%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristics curve for screening with photofluorography by an image intensifier resembled that for direct radiography and these two curves were located somewhat to the left of the curve for screening with photofluorography by a mirror camera. The authors conclude that the validity of screening with photofluorography by an image intensifier is almost equivalent to that of screening with direct radiography and both are superior to that of screening with photofluorography by a mirror camera. PMID:2302674

  15. CISNET: Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Modeling to guide public health research and priorities Home About Modeling Approach Cancer Sites Breast Colorectal Esophageal Lung Prostate Resources About Funding

  16. CISNET: A Genetic Screening Policy Model for Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Modeling to guide public health research and priorities Home About Modeling Approach Cancer Sites Breast Colorectal Esophageal Lung Prostate Resources About Funding

  17. CISNET: Colorectal Cancer Screening: Evaluating Trends and Outcomes

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Modeling to guide public health research and priorities Home About Modeling Approach Cancer Sites Breast Colorectal Esophageal Lung Prostate Resources About Funding

  18. Applying operations research to optimize a novel population management system for cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Zai, Adrian H; Kim, Seokjin; Kamis, Arnold; Hung, Ken; Ronquillo, Jeremiah G; Chueh, Henry C; Atlas, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize a new visit-independent, population-based cancer screening system (TopCare) by using operations research techniques to simulate changes in patient outreach staffing levels (delegates, navigators), modifications to user workflow within the information technology (IT) system, and changes in cancer screening recommendations. Materials and methods TopCare was modeled as a multiserver, multiphase queueing system. Simulation experiments implemented the queueing network model following a next-event time-advance mechanism, in which systematic adjustments were made to staffing levels, IT workflow settings, and cancer screening frequency in order to assess their impact on overdue screenings per patient. Results TopCare reduced the average number of overdue screenings per patient from 1.17 at inception to 0.86 during simulation to 0.23 at steady state. Increases in the workforce improved the effectiveness of TopCare. In particular, increasing the delegate or navigator staff level by one person improved screening completion rates by 1.3% or 12.2%, respectively. In contrast, changes in the amount of time a patient entry stays on delegate and navigator lists had little impact on overdue screenings. Finally, lengthening the screening interval increased efficiency within TopCare by decreasing overdue screenings at the patient level, resulting in a smaller number of overdue patients needing delegates for screening and a higher fraction of screenings completed by delegates. Conclusions Simulating the impact of changes in staffing, system parameters, and clinical inputs on the effectiveness and efficiency of care can inform the allocation of limited resources in population management. PMID:24043318

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening for Average-Risk North Americans: An Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Steven J.; Hilsden, Robert J.; Au, Flora; Dowden, Scot; Manns, Braden J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) fulfills the World Health Organization criteria for mass screening, but screening uptake is low in most countries. CRC screening is resource intensive, and it is unclear if an optimal strategy exists. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of CRC screening in average risk North American individuals considering all relevant screening modalities and current CRC treatment costs. Methods and Findings An incremental cost-utility analysis using a Markov model was performed comparing guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) annually, fecal DNA every 3 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy or computed tomographic colonography every 5 years, and colonoscopy every 10 years. All strategies were also compared to a no screening natural history arm. Given that different FIT assays and collection methods have been previously tested, three distinct FIT testing strategies were considered, on the basis of studies that have reported “low,” “mid,” and “high” test performance characteristics for detecting adenomas and CRC. Adenoma and CRC prevalence rates were based on a recent systematic review whereas screening adherence, test performance, and CRC treatment costs were based on publicly available data. The outcome measures included lifetime costs, number of cancers, cancer-related deaths, quality-adjusted life-years gained, and incremental cost-utility ratios. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. Annual FIT, assuming mid-range testing characteristics, was more effective and less costly compared to all strategies (including no screening) except FIT-high. Among the lifetimes of 100,000 average-risk patients, the number of cancers could be reduced from 4,857 to 1,782 and the number of CRC deaths from 1,393 to 457, while saving CAN$68 per person. Although screening patients with FIT became more expensive than a strategy of no screening when the test performance of FIT was reduced, or the cost of managing CRC was lowered (e.g., for jurisdictions that do not fund expensive biologic chemotherapeutic regimens), CRC screening with FIT remained economically attractive. Conclusions CRC screening with FIT reduces the risk of CRC and CRC-related deaths, and lowers health care costs in comparison to no screening and to other existing screening strategies. Health policy decision makers should consider prioritizing funding for CRC screening using FIT. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21124887

  20. The Pan-Cancer Proteomic Landscape of The Cancer Genome Atlas Projects - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos The Pan-Cancer Proteomic Landscape of The Cancer Genome Atlas Projects - Rehan Akbani The Pan-Cancer Proteomic Landscape of The Cancer Genome Atlas Projects - Rehan Akbani, TCGA Scientific Symposium