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1

ICSN Collaborative Projects: Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation Rates Working Group  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

2

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

3

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

4

Comparison of early performance indicators for screening projects within the European Breast Cancer Network: 1989-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) was established by the first pilot projects for breast cancer screening, co-funded by the Europe Against Cancer programme. We report early performance indicators for these EBCN projects while taking into account their organizational setting. Out of 17 projects in the network, 10 projects from six European countries contributed aggregated data on number

M. J. M. Broeders; A. Scharpantgen; N. Ascunce; B. Gairard; A. H. Olsen; P. Mantellini; E. van Limbergen; B. Seradour; A. Ponti; L Salas Trejo; L. Nystrom

2005-01-01

5

Understanding the role of embarrassment in gynaecological screening: a qualitative study from the ASPIRE cervical cancer screening project in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective To define embarrassment and develop an understanding of the role of embarrassment in relation to cervical cancer screening and self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in Uganda. Design Cross-sectional, qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one interviews and focus groups. Participants 6 key-informant health workers and 16 local women, purposively sampled. Key informant inclusion criteria: Ugandan members of the project team. Focus group inclusion criteria: woman age 30–69?years, Luganda or Swahili speaking, living or working in the target Ugandan community. Exclusion criteria: unwillingness to sign informed consent. Setting Primary and tertiary low-resource setting in Kampala, Uganda. Results In Luganda, embarrassment relating to cervical cancer is described in two forms. ‘Community embarrassment’ describes discomfort based on how a person may be perceived by others. ‘Personal embarrassment’ relates to shyness or discomfort with her own genitalia. Community embarrassment was described in themes relating to place of study recruitment, amount of privacy in dwellings, personal relationship with health workers, handling of the vaginal swab and misunderstanding of HPV self-collection as HIV testing. Themes of personal embarrassment related to lack of knowledge, age and novelty of the self-collection swab. Overall, embarrassment was a barrier to screening at the outset and diminished over time through education and knowledge. Fatalism regarding cervical cancer diagnosis, worry about results and stigma associated with a cervical cancer diagnosis were other psychosocial barriers described. Overcoming psychosocial barriers to screening can include peer-to-peer education, drama and media campaigns. Conclusions Embarrassment and other psychosocial barriers may play a large role at the onset of a screening programme, but over time as education and knowledge increase, and the social norms around screening evolve, its role diminishes. The role of peer-to-peer education and community authorities on healthcare cannot be overlooked and can have a major impact in overcoming psychosocial and social barriers to screening. PMID:24727360

Teng, Flora F; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Steinberg, Malcolm; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

2014-01-01

6

Meetings of the International Cancer Screening Network  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Meetings of the International Cancer Screening

7

Breast Cancer Organization of Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

8

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

What is cervical cancer screening? Cervical cancer screening is used to find changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead to ... the FAQ Human Papillomavirus [HPV] Infection). How is cervical cancer screening done? Cervical cancer screening is simple and fast. ...

9

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

10

International Cancer Screening Network  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

11

Risks of Breast Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Cancer Treatment Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from ...

12

Breast Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Breast Cancer Screening HealthDay December 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breast Cancer Mammography Women's Health Transcript Mammography screening strategies based ...

13

[Lung cancer screening].  

PubMed

Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening. PMID:23830728

Sánchez González, M

2014-01-01

14

Endometrial Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... colon cancer , experts suggest yearly screening with transvaginal ultrasound, beginning as early as age 25. The use of tamoxifen to treat or prevent breast cancer increases the risk of endometrial cancer. TVU ...

15

Breast Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Risks of Breast Cancer Screening Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be ...

16

Oral Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cancer. ... other areas by the time they are found. No studies have shown that screening would decrease the ...

17

Screening for Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

2013-01-01

18

Breast cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiographic imaging of the breast began in the early years of the twentieth century. Continuous advances in film quality, energy sources, targets, grids, and filters have all contributed to superior image resolution. Federal quality standards now regulate screening mammography, and mass screening for breast cancer has become widely accepted in the United States. Wider application of screening has resulted in

Kathleen M. Harris; Victor G. Vogel

1997-01-01

19

Lung cancer screening: radiological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung Cancer Screening: Radiological Aspects Multiple lung cancer screening studies are currently being conducted to study whether lung cancer screening with Computed Tomography (CT) can decrease lung cancer mortality. This thesis addresses radiological methods that can increase efficacy and efficiency of lung cancer screening. Different imaging modalities were tested. Compared to CT, chest radiography (CXR) has the advantage of low

B. J. de Hoop

2010-01-01

20

ICSN Collaborative Projects: Biomarkers and Screening Working Group  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

21

Lung cancer screening.  

PubMed

The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. This recommendation is largely based on the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial. Both policy-level and clinical decision-making about LDCT screening must consider the potential benefits of screening (reduced mortality from lung cancer) and possible harms. Effective screening requires an appreciation that screening should be limited to individuals at high risk of death from lung cancer, and that the risk of harm related to false positive findings, overdiagnosis, and unnecessary invasive testing is real. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of screening will inform appropriate implementation, with the objective that an evidence-based and systematic approach to screening will help to reduce the enormous mortality burden of lung cancer. PMID:25369325

Tanoue, Lynn T; Tanner, Nichole T; Gould, Michael K; Silvestri, Gerard A

2015-01-01

22

Breast cancer screening.  

PubMed

Mammography remains the primary technique for breast cancer screening. Women with dense breast tissue may benefit from digital mammography and tomosynthesis, and women at high risk may benefit from magnetic resonance imaging. However, false-positive results are problematic. The North Carolina breast density law necessitates education about screening options for women with dense breasts. PMID:24663133

Freimanis, Rita I; Yacobozzi, Margaret

2014-01-01

23

Predictive Accuracy of the Liverpool Lung Project Risk Model for Stratifying Patients for Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background External validation of existing lung cancer risk prediction models is limited. Using such models in clinical practice to guide the referral of patients for computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer depends on external validation and evidence of predicted clinical benefit. Objective To evaluate the discrimination of the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) risk model and demonstrate its predicted benefit for stratifying patients for CT screening by using data from 3 independent studies from Europe and North America. Design Case–control and prospective cohort study. Setting Europe and North America. Patients Participants in the European Early Lung Cancer (EUELC) and Harvard case–control studies and the LLP population-based prospective cohort (LLPC) study. Measurements 5-year absolute risks for lung cancer predicted by the LLP model. Results The LLP risk model had good discrimination in both the Harvard (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.78]) and the LLPC (AUC, 0.82 [CI, 0.80 to 0.85]) studies and modest discrimination in the EUELC (AUC, 0.67 [CI, 0.64 to 0.69]) study. The decision utility analysis, which incorporates the harms and benefit of using a risk model to make clinical decisions, indicates that the LLP risk model performed better than smoking duration or family history alone in stratifying high-risk patients for lung cancer CT screening. Limitations The model cannot assess whether including other risk factors, such as lung function or genetic markers, would improve accuracy. Lack of information on asbestos exposure in the LLPC limited the ability to validate the complete LLP risk model. Conclusion Validation of the LLP risk model in 3 independent external data sets demonstrated good discrimination and evidence of predicted benefits for stratifying patients for lung cancer CT screening. Further studies are needed to prospectively evaluate model performance and evaluate the optimal population risk thresholds for initiating lung cancer screening. Primary Funding Source Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation. PMID:22910935

Raji, Olaide Y.; Duffy, Stephen W.; Agbaje, Olorunshola F.; Baker, Stuart G.; Christiani, David C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Field, John K.

2013-01-01

24

Screening of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the randomized controlled trials carried out in the late 1970s and the 1980s, mammographic screening was demonstrated to\\u000a have an impact in decreasing mortality from breast cancer. The evaluation of mammographic service screening programmes implemented\\u000a in several Western European countries in the late 1980s and the 1990s demonstrated that these programmes may have an even\\u000a higher effect on breast

Per Skaane

25

Current and projected annual direct costs of screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Concern over the cost of screening for asymptomatic prostate cancer by means of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has played an important role in PSA screening policy. However, little is known about the true costs of current PSA screening in Canada and how costs may change in the future. Methods: The authors performed a cost identification study from the perspective

Murray D. Krahn; Isra G. Levy

26

Cervical cancer screening in Serbia.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy in Serbia, after breast cancer, with 1089 new registered cases and an age-standardized incidence rate of 27.2 per 100,000 women in 2002. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with 452 deaths and an age-standardized death rate of 7.2 per 100,000 women. Compared with other European countries, the incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia is the highest. Regional differences in incidence are pronounced in Serbia with the lowest age-standardized incidence rate (16.6 per 100,000 women) registered in the Macvanski region and the highest in eastern Serbia and the region of Belgrade where the rates are double at 32.5-38.1 per 100,000 women. Cervical cancer prevention in Serbia has relied on opportunistic screening that is characterized by high coverage in younger and low coverage in middle-aged and older women. Screening of selected groups of women employed in large companies is performed annually by many regional hospitals but this approach has little effect on morbidity and mortality. Recently, the Ministry of Health nominated an Expert Group to develop and implement a national cervical cancer screening program. A number of pilot projects have been undertaken with the results used for development of a national programme for cervical cancer screening. This is expected to be finalized in 2007, and launched over a 3-years period in order to cover all women aged 25-64 in entire Serbia. PMID:17598502

Kesi?, Vesna; Jovi?evi?-Beki?, Ana; Vujnovi?, Melita

2007-04-01

27

Lung cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. First diagnosis only when disease has already reached the metastatic phase is the main reason for failure in treatment. To this regard, although low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) has proven to be effective in the early detection of lung cancer (providing both higher resectability and higher long-term survival rates), the capacity of annual CT screening to reduce lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers has yet to be demonstrated. Numerous ongoing large-scale randomised trials are under way in high-risk individuals with different study designs. The initial results should be available within the next 2 years. PMID:20424610

Pastorino, U

2010-01-01

28

Cancer screening in US workers.  

PubMed

Regular cancer screening can prevent the development of some cancers and increase patient survival for other cancers. We evaluated the reported cancer screening prevalence among a nationally representative sample of all US workers with data from the 2000 and 2005 Cancer Screening Supplements of the National Health Interview Survey. Overall, workers with the lowest rates of health insurance coverage (in particular, Hispanic workers, agricultural workers, and construction workers) reported the lowest cancer screening. There was no significant improvement from 2000 to 2005. PMID:19008502

Vidal, Liat; LeBlanc, William G; McCollister, Kathryn E; Arheart, Kristopher L; Chung-Bridges, Katherine; Christ, Sharon; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Lewis, John E; Lee, David J; Clark, John; Davila, Evelyn P; Fleming, Lora E

2009-01-01

29

Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

30

American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

2013-01-01

31

Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Other Types of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Overview of cancer screening, and screening and detection methods for many types of cancer, including bladder, endometrial, esophageal, stomach (gastric), liver, neuroblastoma, oral, ovarian, skin, and testicular cancer.

32

Cervical cancer screening in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the state of the art in cervical cancer screening in Greece by presenting the two regionally organised screening programmes that currently operate in the country. Both programmes were initiated in 1991 and are partly funded by the European Union. The Ormylia screening programme covers the population of Halkidiki (Northern Greece), a predominantly

E Riza; P Kyriakogianni-Psaropoulou; E Koumantakis; H Symiakaki; I Garas; A Linos

2000-01-01

33

Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 × 10-6, 6 × 10-4] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 × 10-3. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

Ramos, M.; Ferrer, S.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Verdú, G.; Salas, M. D.; Cuevas, M. D.

2005-02-01

34

Ovarian Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment In the United States, ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer ...

35

Cancer Screening Among Patients With Advanced Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Cancer screening has been integrated into routine primary care but does not benefit patients with limited life expectancy. Objective To evaluate the extent to which patients with advanced cancer continue to be screened for new cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants Utilization of cancer screening procedures (mammography, Papanicolaou test, prostate-specific antigen [PSA], and lower gastrointestinal [GI] endoscopy) was assessed in 87 736 fee-for-service Medicare enrollees aged 65 years or older diagnosed with advanced lung, colorectal, pancreatic, gastroesophageal, or breast cancer between 1998 and 2005, and reported to one of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tumor registries. Participants were followed up until death or December 31, 2007, whichever came first. A group of 87 307 Medicare enrollees without cancer were individually matched by age, sex, race, and SEER registry to patients with cancer and observed over the same period to evaluate screening rates in context. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with screening were also investigated. Main Outcome Measure For each cancer screening test, utilization rates were defined as the percentage of patients who were screened following the diagnosis of an incurable cancer. Results Among women following advanced cancer diagnosis compared with controls, at least 1 screening mammogram was received by 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.6%-9.1%) vs 22.0% (95% CI, 21.7%-22.5%); Papanicolaou test screening was received by 5.8% (95% CI, 5.6%-6.1%) vs 12.5% (95% CI, 12.2%-12.8%). Among men following advanced cancer diagnosis compared with controls, PSA test was received by 15.0% (95% CI, 14.7%-15.3%) vs 27.2% (95% CI, 26.8%-27.6%). For all patients following advanced diagnosis compared with controls, lower GI endoscopy was received by 1.7% (95% CI, 1.6%-1.8%) vs 4.7% (95% CI, 4.6%-4.9%). Screening was more frequent among patients with a recent history of screening (16.2% [95% CI, 15.4%-16.9%] of these patients had mammography, 14.7% [95% CI, 13.7%-15.6%] had a Papanicolaou test, 23.3% [95% CI, 22.6%-24.0%] had a PSA test, and 6.1% [95% CI, 5.2%-7.0%] had lower GI endoscopy). Conclusion A sizeable proportion of patients with advanced cancer continue to undergo cancer screening tests that do not have a meaningful likelihood of providing benefit. PMID:20940384

Sima, Camelia S.; Panageas, Katherine S.; Schrag, Deborah

2013-01-01

36

Updates in colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the field of colorectal cancer screening have led to updated guidelines from several national societies. Although various strategies have been illustrated to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, screening tests differ in their ability to detect neoplasia. While this is an issue for all lesions, it is a particular problem for non-polypoid or ‘flat’ colonic neoplasia, which has been recognized to be prevalent in Western countries. Guidelines also recommend the age at which screening is initiated and discontinued; however, emerging data suggest these thresholds may lead to missed lesions. Finally, evidence points to disparities in the availability and utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests, which may be successfully addressed through interventions that educate both patients and their providers. The focus of future efforts includes increasing adherence to recommended screening strategies. PMID:20948765

2009-01-01

37

Screening for Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... in women age 21 to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years or, for women ... the screening interval, screening with a combination of cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years. ...

38

Thermography in screening for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to determine whether thermography could be used to identify women with breast cancer or women at risk of developing the disease within five years. DESIGN--Women were screened for breast cancer and a documentary follow up was conducted five years later through general practitioner records. SETTING--The project involved Women resident in the Bath District

K L Williams; B H Phillips; P A Jones; S A Beaman; P J Fleming

1990-01-01

39

Lung Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped ...

40

Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs ...

41

ICSN Collaborative Projects: Audit Feedback on Reading Performance of Screening Mammograms  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

42

Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11

43

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Cancer Screening Martin L. Brown, Ph.D. Health Services and Economics Branch Applied Research Program Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences International Breast Cancer Screening Network Biennial Meeting May

44

Screening for “early” breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only means available today to reduce the mortality from breast cancer is by detection of localized disease. So doing involves mass screening of apparently well women. For best results, both the clinician and the radiologist must be involved and develop expertise because early cancers are often detectable on palpation alone or on mammography alone. Cooperation of the clinician and

Philip Strax

1977-01-01

45

ICSN Collaborative Projects: Colorectal Cancer Cost Working Group  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Collaborative Projects: Participation Rates

46

Screening for prostate cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

Weirich, Stephen A.

1993-01-01

47

Unique interactive projection display screen  

SciTech Connect

Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

Veligdan, J.T.

1997-11-01

48

Cancer Screening Adherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer is a devastating and debilitating disease. Each year more than 1.4 million people are diagnosed with non-skin cancers\\u000a and 565,650 lives are lost in the United States [1]. Primary prevention of cancer through behavioral modifications in risk\\u000a factors such as tobacco use, sun exposure, obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and alcohol consumption can reduce\\u000a the burden of cancer tremendously

Jennifer M. Gierisch; Lori A. Bastian

49

Colorectal Cancer Screening: Implementation of a public health programme  

Cancer.gov

Colorectal Cancer Screening Implementation of a public health programme An Expert Group on Colorectal Cancer Screening Cancer Society of Finland, Finnish Cancer Registry, Mass Screening Registry Aims of colorectal cancer screening • The main aim is

50

Colorectal Cancer Screenings (Coverage)  

MedlinePLUS

... you're 50 or older. Multi-target stool DNA test (like Cologuard™): Medicare covers this test once ... you pay nothing for a multi-target stool DNA test (like Cologuard™). If a screening colonoscopy or ...

51

Overview of the PLCO Cancer screening trial  

Cancer.gov

It’s one of the pressing questions of cancer research: Does screening reduce mortality? In 1993, the National Cancer Institute launched one of the largest cancer screening trials ever planned in the United States, in an effort to answer the question of screening efficacy in four cancers: prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian.

52

Uptake in cancer screening programmes.  

PubMed

For cancer screening programmes to bring about reductions in mortality, a substantial proportion of the population must participate. Programmes with low uptake can be ineffective and can promote inequalities in health-service provision. Strategies to promote uptake are multifaceted, reflecting differences in the cancers targeted, invitees, health-service contexts, and the tests themselves. Accordingly, there is no universal approach. Strategies should accommodate the many factors that can influence uptake and should incorporate the need to promote informed choice. Screening has the potential to cause harm, and there is an ethical imperative to seek out strategies that provide balanced information on cancer screening. Further research is needed to assess newer approaches to promoting uptake, such as IT-based programmes, and to identify strategies that are balanced, self-sustaining, and affordable. PMID:19573798

Weller, David P; Patnick, Julietta; McIntosh, Heather M; Dietrich, Allen J

2009-07-01

53

Screening for skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

2001-01-01

54

Screening to Detect Cancer-Colon and Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Barry Kramer summaries the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dr. Christine Berg discuss the results of the colorectal cancer arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

55

Colon cancer screening  

MedlinePLUS

... called a virtual colonoscopy . Other tests: Double-contrast barium enema is a special x-ray of the ... colon cancer: Colonoscopy every 10 years Double-contrast barium enema every 5 years Fecal occult blood test ( ...

56

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... often in black women than in white women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor ... Although most women with cervical cancer have the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection , not all women with an ...

57

Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of dying from cancer . False-positive test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ... by conditions other than cancer. False-negative test results can occur. Screening test results may appear to ...

58

Lung Cancer Screening Can Be Cost Effective  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung Cancer Screening Can Be Cost Effective, Study Reports ... November 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Screening Lung Cancer Smoking WEDNESDAY, Nov. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

59

Cervical cancer prevention using visual screening methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cervical cancer is only the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in women globally, it remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. The approach to cervical cancer prevention used in developed countries has failed in most of the world because widespread Pap smear screening and the evaluation by specialists of women who screen positive

Vanessa E. Cullins; Thomas C. Wright; Karen J. Beattie; Amy E. Pollack

1999-01-01

60

Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... pre-cancers are treated Next Topic Additional resources Cervical cancer prevention and screening: Financial issues Financial issues can ... to tell you up front. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program All states are making cervical ...

61

Cervical cancer screening in Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the state of the art in cervical cancer screening in Greece by presenting the two regionally organised screening programmes that currently operate in the country. Both programmes were initiated in 1991 and are partly funded by the European Union. The Ormylia screening programme covers the population of Halkidiki (Northern Greece), a predominantly rural area. The second programme covers the regions of Messinia and Ilia (Southern Greece). Both programmes are targeted at women aged 25-64 years of age and a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test is recommended every 2-3 years. Electoral and municipal registries are used to identify the target population and personal invitations are sent to the eligible women in the screening programme. The Ormylia programme is based at the Centre 'Our Lady Who Loves Mankind', whereas mobile units are used by the Messinia and Ilia programme. Slide reading for the Ormylia programme is performed in the cytology laboratory of Alexandra Hospital in Athens and epidemiological support is provided by the Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology (Medical School, University of Athens). A specifically designed database is used for data recording. Over 80% of the target population in the region have already been screened. Communication of results is by means of a personal letter upon a negative result and in person upon a suspicious result. Quality assurance in both programmes is based on the European protocol. These two programmes are the sole organised cervical cancer screening activities in Greece in the absence of a national programme. They employ well-trained personnel, they use modern equipment and have strict quality assurance procedures. PMID:11072209

Riza, E; Kyriakogianni-Psaropoulou, P; Koumantakis, E; Symiakaki, H; Garas, I; Linos, A

2000-11-01

62

Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Lung Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers are working on developing effective methods to screen for lung cancer. Currently, however, there is no generally accepted screening test for lung cancer. Several lung cancer screening methods being studied include tests of sputum (mucus brought up from the lungs by coughing), chest x-rays, and spiral (helical) CT scans.

63

Related Resources for Cervical Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

NCI has comprehensive research-based information on cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, genetics and supportive care. Our information specialists can answer questions related to cancer, including cervical cancer screening and treatment. You can contact us by phone, online chat, or e-mail.

64

Cancer screening with CT: dose controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computed tomographic (CT) cancer screening has seen a steady increase in interest with the introduction of multislice scanners. While the potential benefits of screening are obvious, radiation dose may pose a long-term risk for the screened individual. This article will discuss the basis for radiation risk estimation and give an overview of the current dose controversy surrounding CT screening. Given

Mathias Prokop

2005-01-01

65

Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women. The incidence and mortality rate of the disease have been declining over the past two decades because of early detection and treatment. Screening in persons at average risk should begin at 50 years of age; the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening after 75 years of age. Options for screening include high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing annually, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years with high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every three years, or colonoscopy every 10 years. In 2012, the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer updated its surveillance guidelines to promote the appropriate use of colonoscopy resources and reduce harms from delayed or unnecessary procedures; these guidelines provide recommendations for when to repeat colonoscopy based on findings. Adenomatous and serrated polyps have malignant potential and warrant early surveillance colonoscopy. Patients with one or two tubular adenomas that are smaller than 10 mm should have a repeat colonoscopy in five to 10 years. Repeat colonoscopy at five years is recommended for patients with nondysplastic serrated polyps that are smaller than 10 mm. Patients with three to 10 adenomas found during a single colonoscopy, an adenoma or serrated polyp that is 10 mm or larger, an adenoma with villous features or high-grade dysplasia, a sessile serrated polyp with cytologic dysplasia, or a traditional serrated adenoma are at increased risk of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance and should have a repeat colonoscopy in three years. More than 10 synchronous adenomas warrant surveillance colonoscopy in less than three years. Colonoscopy may be repeated in 10 years if distal, small (less than 10 mm) hyperplastic polyps are the only finding. PMID:25591210

Short, Matthew W; Layton, Miles C; Teer, Bethany N; Domagalski, Jason E

2015-01-15

66

PLCO Cancer Screening Trial Completes Recruitment  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), reached a significant milestone last month with the enrollment of its final participant

67

Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series  

SciTech Connect

A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammograpy was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening.

Woodard, E.D. (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY); Hempelmann, L.H.; Janus, J.; Logan, W.; Dean, P.

1982-01-01

68

Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series  

SciTech Connect

A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening.

Woodard, E.D.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Janus, J.; Logan, W.; Dean, P.

1982-01-01

69

Computer screens and brain cancer.  

PubMed

Concern has recently been expressed in Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. PMID:8867387

Wood, A W

1995-12-01

70

Transabdominal ultrasound screening for early ovarian cancer.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of ultrasonography in a screening procedure for early ovarian cancer. DESIGN--Prospective study of at least 5000 self referred women without symptoms of ovarian cancer. Each woman was scheduled to undergo three annual screenings (consisting of one or more scans) to detect grossly abnormal ovaries or non-regressing masses. SETTING--The ovarian screening clinic at King's College Hospital, London. SUBJECTS--5479 Self referred women without symptoms (aged 18-78, mean age 52). INTERVENTIONS--Women with a positive result on screening were referred for laparoscopy or laparotomy, or both. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Findings at surgery and from histology of abnormal ovaries. RESULTS--A total of 14,594 screenings (15,977 scans) were performed. A positive result was obtained at 338 screens (2.3%) comprising 326 subjects (5.9%). Five patients with primary ovarian cancer (four stage Ia, one stage Ib; two at first screening three at second) were identified (prevalence 0.09%). An additional four patients had metastatic ovarian cancer (three at first screening, one at second). The apparent detection rate was 100%. It was not possible to differentiate between the ultrasonic appearance of early malignant and benign tumours. The rate of false positive results for primary ovarian cancer was 3.5% at the first screening, 1.8% at the second, and 1.2% at the third. Overall the rate of false positive results was 2.3%; the specificity was 97.7% and the predictive value of a positive result on screening was 1.5%. The odds that a positive result on screening indicated the presence of an ovarian tumour, any ovarian cancer, or primary ovarian cancer were about one to two, one to 37, and one to 67 respectively. CONCLUSION--Ultrasonography can be used to screen women without symptoms for persistent ovarian masses that will include early ovarian cancer. PMID:2513964

Campbell, S.; Bhan, V.; Royston, P.; Whitehead, M. I.; Collins, W. P.

1989-01-01

71

Screening for Prostate Cancer: The Debate Continues  

PubMed Central

Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men, and it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death for males in the United States. Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen testing became widely used by the late 1980s, augmenting the digital rectal exam. This led to a decline in the percentage of prostate cancer cases that were metastatic at diagnosis and a decrease in prostate cancer mortality. But some argued it led to overtreatment of prostate cancers as well. Recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued recommendations against routine prostate cancer screening in asymptomatic patients. The recent recommendations have created much controversy among medical professionals, patient advocate groups, and the general public. Most prostate cancer screening recommendations from professional organizations agree that an informed discussion and review of each individual patient’s clinical situation should drive the decision to screen or not to screen, but the current USPSTF recommendations largely remove patient and provider autonomy in this regard. They do not contribute toward personalized screening based on individualized patient risk profiles, characteristics, and preferences. PMID:25031977

Matrana, Marc R.; Atkinson, Bradley

2013-01-01

72

Lung cancer screening, version 1.2015.  

PubMed

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Lung Cancer Screening provide recommendations for selecting individuals for lung cancer screening, and for evaluation and follow-up of nodules found during screening, and are intended to assist with clinical and shared decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates to the 2015 NCCN Guidelines for Lung Cancer Screening, which include a revision to the recommendation from category 2B to 2A for one of the high-risk groups eligible for lung cancer screening. For low-dose CT of the lung, the recommended slice width was revised in the table on "Low-Dose Computed Tomography Acquisition, Storage, Interpretation, and Nodule Reporting." PMID:25583767

Wood, Douglas E; Kazerooni, Ella; Baum, Scott L; Dransfield, Mark T; Eapen, George A; Ettinger, David S; Hou, Lifang; Jackman, David M; Klippenstein, Donald; Kumar, Rohit; Lackner, Rudy P; Leard, Lorriana E; Leung, Ann N C; Makani, Samir S; Massion, Pierre P; Meyers, Bryan F; Otterson, Gregory A; Peairs, Kimberly; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Pratt-Pozo, Christie; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Reid, Mary E; Rotter, Arnold J; Sachs, Peter B; Schabath, Matthew B; Sequist, Lecia V; Tong, Betty C; Travis, William D; Yang, Stephen C; Gregory, Kristina M; Hughes, Miranda

2015-01-01

73

Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.  

PubMed

Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

2015-01-01

74

Breast cancer screening disparities among ethnically diverse women in California : a latent profile analysis  

E-print Network

Screening for Breast Cancer………………………………………………………….14 Disparities in Screening Behavior……………………………………………………20 Methods…………………………………………………………………………………..cancer screening behavior. Utilizing statistical methods

Gerry, Arianna Aldridge

2011-01-01

75

Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Colon and Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Screening methods to find colon or rectal changes that may lead to cancer include laboratory tests such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), and imaging tests such as sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Screening by the latter two tests can find precancerous polyps which can be removed during the test and may find cancer early when it is most treatable.

76

Should We Screen for Cancer Genes?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpt from NOVA, learn about the advantages, disadvantages, and ethical implications of screening for genes associated with diseases, including those linked to breast and ovarian cancers.

2012-03-22

77

Cancer screening trials: nuts and bolts. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

In the United States, new screening tests can become widely used often without valid scientific evidence of benefit or proper assessment of harm. Consequently, it is important for new tests to undergo rigorous trials as quickly as possible before widespread community use precludes establishment of a proper control arm. As exemplified by the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, it is possible to evaluate several screening tests and cancers in the same trial to preserve resources.

78

Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer) cells form in the tissues of the endometrium. The endometrium is the innermost lining of the uterus . The ... the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. Cancer of the endometrium is different from cancer ...

79

Cervical cancer - screening and prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

80

Cancer Genome Anatomy Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Cancer Institute has launched the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to "achieve a comprehensive molecular characterization of normal, precancerous, and malignant cells." Sequenced genes are held as library entries in a database and are available for downloading (fasta format). Each cDNA library entry may include biological source, number of sequences, and library construction detail information. Thousands of gene sequences are available for over 15 cancers, including breast, colon, and prostrate. Contact information for donating or obtaining tissue samples for research purposes is provided.

1997-01-01

81

Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us  

Cancer.gov

Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

82

Awareness of cancer and cancer screening by Korean community residents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was through a survey of awareness of cancer and cancer screening of Korean community residents to identify the stereotypes of cancer and bases for development of improved screening programs for early detection. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were over 30 years and under 69 years old. The total was 2,700 persons which underwent structured telephone survey questionnaires considered with specific rates of gender, region, and age. For statistical analysis, PASW Statistics 17.0 WIN was utilized. Frequency analysis, the Chi-square (??) test for univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed. The awareness of cancer and cancer screening in subjects differed by gender, region and age. For the idea of cancer, women thought about death less than men (OR: 0.73, p<0.001). On the other hand, women had negative thoughts - fear/terror/suffering/pain/pain - more than their male counterparts (OR: 2.04, p<0.001). Next, for the idea of cancer screening, women recognized fear/terror more than men (OR: 1.38, p<0.01). The higher age, the more tension/anxiety/worry/burden/irritated/pressure (OR: 1.43, p<0.01, OR: 2.15, p<0.001, OR: 2.49, p<0.001)). People may be reminded of fear and death for cancer and of fear, terror, tension and anxiety for cancer screening. To change vague fear and negative attitudes of cancer could increase the rate of cancer screening as well as help to improve the quality of life for community cancer survivors and facilitate return to normal social life. Therefore, it is necessary to provide promotion and education to improve the awareness of cancer and cancer screening. PMID:24998568

Jo, Heui-Sug; Kwon, Myung Soon; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young

2014-01-01

83

Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project  

PubMed Central

Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS), followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB) for all epithelial abnormalities (EA). In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453), were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (34.4%), atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS) (15.3%), combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (41.0%), high grade SIL (5.2%) and invasive lesions (1%). CGB of EA (n = 281) showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%), atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM) (19.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN) (44.4%), CIN II (4.4%), CINIII (2.8%), endocervical lesions (5.2%), combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%), invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.02%) and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL) (0.02%). The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH revealed positivity for pan HPV in 65.9% of the studied biopsies (n = 217), with incorporation of the viral genome HPV 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33 in 11.1%, 33.3% and 17.1% respectively. Multiple HPVs infections were identified in 0.02%. Conclusion Pre-invasive high grade lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma represent 0.5% and 0.04% respectively in Egyptian women. HPV mostly 16/18 as a risk factor (p < 0.001), was frequently associated with mixed infections (p < 0.001) and bilharzial infestation (p < 0.001). PMID:17610742

Abd El All, Howayda S; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

2007-01-01

84

[Computed tomography screening for lung cancer].  

PubMed

Lung cancer screening has been the focus of intense interest since the publication in 2011 of the NLST trial (National Lung Screening Trial) showing a mortality reduction in smokers undergoing 3-year screening by chest computed tomography. Although these data appear promising, many issues remain to be resolved, such as high rate of false positive cases, risk of overdiagnosis, optimal intervals between screens, duration of the screening process, feasibility, and cost. Structured screening programs appear crucial to guarantee patient information, technical quality, and multidisciplinary management. Despite these uncertainties, several guidelines already state that screening should be performed in patients at risk, whereas investigators stress that more data are needed. How should the primary care physician deal with individual patients requests? This review provides some clues on this complex issue. PMID:23240295

Lazor, R; Cornuz, J; Lovis, A; Nicod, L P

2012-11-21

85

Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

2014-01-01

86

Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. Results. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist. PMID:25495570

Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

2015-02-01

87

Colorectal cancer screening practices in Saskatchewan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate current colorectal cancer (CRC) screening practices in Saskatchewan and identify barriers to screening with the goal of improving current practice. Design Survey of family physicians. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 773 family physicians were surveyed. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics, individual screening practices, and perceived barriers to screening. Results The response rate to the survey was 44.5%. When asked what method they used for fecal occult blood testing, almost 40% of respondents were either unsure or did not answer the question. Of those who did respond, 35.8% employed hemoccult testing following digital rectal examination, a practice not recommended for CRC screening. Screening guidelines for average-risk patients were generally well adhered to, with 79.9% of respondents recommending screening beginning at age 50. For screening patients at increased risk of CRC owing to family history, only 64.2% of respondents began screening 10 years before the age of the index patient at diagnosis. Physicians who were more likely to follow guidelines were female, in practice fewer than 10 years, trained in Canada, and practising in urban areas. More than 90% of family physicians agreed that a standard provincewide screening program would be beneficial. Conclusion We have identified considerable knowledge gaps with regard to CRC screening. There is confusion about which fecal occult blood tests are recommended for screening. Also, screening guidelines for patients with a family history of CRC are poorly understood. These findings suggest that better physician education about CRC screening is required. Introduction of a provincewide screening program should improve overall screening success. PMID:24336561

Deobald, Ray; Graham, Peter; Chad, Jennifer; Di Gregorio, Carlo; Johnstone, Jennifer; Balbuena, Lloyd; Kenyon, Chris; Lees, Mark

2013-01-01

88

Ultrasound for breast cancer screening and staging.  

PubMed

The question then arises whether and for whom BWBS should be recommended. As yet there are no scientific criteria on which to base an answer, and the examination should not be considered the standard of care until its benefits can be established prospectively. We know that mass screening mammography will detect occult cancers in two to seven of every 1000 women screened, depending on patient age and whether the screens are prevalence or incidence examinations. Should we expect a similar yield for survey US? Kopans commented that Kolb's cancer detection rate was lower than would be expected from a mammographic prevalence screen. This was not a reasonable comparison. These women all had negative findings on screening mammography and would normally be told to have repeat screening mammography 1 year later. Kolb's cancer detection rate using US was comparable to a mammographic incidence screen, so the cancer diagnoses of these fortunate women were advanced by 1 year. To maximize the yield, it is obvious that US has little to offer over mammography in women with fatty breasts because mammography is less likely to be falsely negative. The group of patients in whom incidental cancers would be expected to be found more commonly are those with dense breasts who also are at higher-than-average risk either because of a previous personal history of breast cancer (Fig. 2) or a significant family history. Because it would be impractical to consider BWBS for all women with radiographically dense breasts, it would be useful to know what its potential yield would be in the relatively smaller group of high-risk patients. Annual mammography remains the standard of care for breast cancer screening. However, in our practice in Vancouver, I suggest that high-risk women undergo mammography and US annually, recognizing that this goes beyond the standard of care. Instead of having both examinations simultaneously, I recommend that they alternate the two modalities at 6-month intervals. Theoretically, this could increase lead-time in the detection of occult cancers. The usefulness of this approach remains to be determined. BWBS for staging in women known to have breast cancer has tremendous promise and should be considered for any breast cancer patient with dense breast tissue in whom the finding of additional unsuspected foci would change the planned management. The cost of implementation would be substantial but considerably less than staging MRI. A large-scale study comparing these two modalities is needed, including assessment of the impact of identifying additional mammographically occult lesions on breast cancer mortality. PMID:12117185

Gordon, Paula B

2002-05-01

89

Breast cancer screening: controversy of impact.  

PubMed

Few medical issues have been as controversial--or as political, at least in the United States-as the role of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The advantages of finding a cancer early seem obvious. Indeed, randomized trials evaluating screening mammography demonstrate a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but the benefits are less than one would hope. Moreover, the randomized trials are themselves subject to criticism, including that they are irrelevant in the modern era because most were conducted before chemotherapy and hormonal therapy became widely used. In this article I chronicle the evidence and controversies regarding mammographic screening, including attempts to assess the relative contributions of screening and therapy in the substantial decreases in breast cancer mortality that have been observed in many countries over the last 20-25 years. I emphasize the trade-off between harms and benefits depending on the woman's age and other risk factors. I also discuss ways for communicating the associated risks to women who have to decide whether screening (and what screening strategy) is right for them. PMID:24074796

Berry, Donald A

2013-08-01

90

Breast cancer screening: Controversy of impact  

PubMed Central

Few medical issues have been as controversial—or as political, at least in the United States—as the role of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The advantages of finding a cancer early seem obvious. Indeed, randomized trials evaluating screening mammography demonstrate a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but the benefits are less than one would hope. Moreover, the randomized trials are themselves subject to criticism, including that they are irrelevant in the modern era because most were conducted before chemotherapy and hormonal therapy became widely used. In this article I chronicle the evidence and controversies regarding mammographic screening, including attempts to assess the relative contributions of screening and therapy in the substantial decreases in breast cancer mortality that have been observed in many countries over the last 20 to 25 years. I emphasize the trade-off between harms and benefits depending on the woman’s age and other risk factors. I also discuss ways for communicating the associated risks to women who have to decide whether screening (and what screening strategy) is right for them. PMID:24074796

Berry, Donald

2014-01-01

91

Colorectal Cancer Screening by Primary Care Physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care physicians (hereafter, physicians) play a critical role in the delivery of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the U.S. This study describes the CRC screening recommendations and practices of U.S. physicians and compares them to findings from a 1999–2000 national provider survey. Methods Data from 1266 physicians responding to the 2006–2007 National Survey of Primary Care Physicians' Recommendations and Practices for Breast, Cervical, Colorectal, and Lung Cancer Screening (cooperation rate=75%) were analyzed in 2008. Descriptive statistics were used to examine physicians' CRC screening recommendations and practices as well as the office systems used to support screening activities. Sample weights were applied in the analyses to obtain national estimates. Results Ninety-five percent of physicians routinely recommend screening colonoscopy to asymptomatic, average-risk patients; 80% recommend fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Only a minority recommend sigmoidoscopy, double-contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, or fecal DNA testing. Fifty-six percent recommend two screening modalities; 17% recommend one. Nearly all physicians who recommend endoscopy refer their patients for the procedure. Four percent perform sigmoidoscopy, a 25-percentage-point decline from 1999–2000. Although 61% of physicians reported that their practice had guidelines for CRC screening, only 30% use provider reminders; 15% use patient reminders. Conclusions Physicians' CRC screening recommendations and practices have changed substantially since 1999–2000. Colonoscopy is now the most frequently recommended test. Most physicians do not recommend the full menu of test options prescribed in national guidelines. Few perform sigmoidoscopy. Office systems to support CRC screening are lacking in many physicians' practices. Given ongoing changes in CRC screening technologies and guidelines, the continued monitoring of physicians' CRC screening recommendations and practices is imperative. PMID:19442479

Klabunde, Carrie N.; Lanier, David; Nadel, Marion R.; McLeod, Caroline; Yuan, Gigi; Vernon, Sally W.

2009-01-01

92

More than lung cancer: Automated analysis of low-dose screening CT scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking is a major health care problem and is projected to cause over 8 million deaths per year worldwide in the coming decades. To reduce lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers, several randomized screening trials were initiated in the past years using screening with low-dose Computed Tomography (CT). Recently, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which was performed in the

O. M. Mets

2012-01-01

93

Colorectal Cancer Screening: The Northern Trust Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer with resulting major mortality. In a bid to reduce the mortality, bowel cancer screening has been established in the United Kingdom. The screening programme was commenced in Northern Ireland in 2010 within the Northern Health and Social Care Trust, following its implementation in England and Scotland. This study aimed to look at early outcome data for bowel cancer screening in Northern Ireland and compare data with other regions in the UK. Design: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who tested faecal occult blood (FOB) positive and attended for pre-assessment between May 2010 and May 2011. Data was also collected from the computerised endoscopy database (Endoscribe®). Patient demographics, colonoscopic depth of insertion, findings and complications were documented. Subsequent surgical management, pathological staging and final outcome were also noted. Results: 182 patients attended for pre-assessment in the time frame and 178 patients proceeded to colonoscopy. The commonest pathology encountered was polyps, identified in 95 (52.7%) patients. Macroscopically 13 cancers were seen on endoscopy and a further two were found on post-operative histology of polyps that were not amenable to endoscopic resection. In addition, 5 malignant polyps were found on histological analysis of the excised polyps. The staging of cancers was favourable with 35% being Dukes’ A stage. Conclusion: Outcomes from the first year of colorectal cancer screening in the Northern Trust are in keeping with early results from previous studies in terms of cancer detection rates per colonoscopy and proportion of early stage cancers. However, the adenoma detection rate was higher than anticipated. PMID:24505151

Neely, David; Campbell, William; Davey, Philip; Rodgers, Colin; McCrory, David

2013-01-01

94

Lung cancer screening: Is there a future?  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with an average rate of 40-100/100,000 depending on the level of deprivation, and the rates are higher in smokers. The National Lung Screening Trial using three consecutive annual low-dose computed tomography scans is the first and largest screening study to show clear evidence of a significant reduction in lung cancer mortality in selected high-risk subjects. The many on-going European screening studies will generate information on the groups of subjects that may or may not benefit from screening (demographics, pack-years smoked, length of smoking, number of years from quitting etc.) and the required frequency and duration of the intervention. Smoking cessation remains the most important tool for general improvement in health outcomes and in particular lung cancer prevention. Early intervention for investigations of symptoms that are considered mild or common could also change the outcome. Doctors and patients must become increasingly aware that these common symptoms are also potentially symptoms of lung cancer and are not ‘normal’ even in smokers.

O'Brien, Mary ER

2014-01-01

95

Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. Enlarge Esophagoscopy. A thin, ...

96

Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer. PMID:23293721

Lambert, René

2012-01-01

97

Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

In this audio clip, Drs. Lisa Schwartz and Steven Woloshin of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy discuss the benefits and harms of cancer screening and highlight popular misconceptions about cancer screening statistics.

98

Breast cancer screening among Cambodian American women.  

PubMed

Our aim was to describe and identify factors associated with breast cancer screening among Cambodian American women. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,365 households using bilingual and bicultural interviewers. We found that low proportions of Cambodian American women were up to date on their clinical breast examinations (CBE; 42%) and mammograms (40%). More than 80% of women with female physicians have had at least one prior screening, and 52% have had the tests recently. Women with male Asian American physicians were less likely to have had screening as compared to women with female non-Asian physicians: ever had CBE (odds ratio [OR], 0.26); recent CBE (OR, 0.39); ever had mammogram (OR, 0.36); and recent mammogram (OR, 0.22). Breast cancer screening among Cambodian American women lags behind the general U.S. population. Tailored promotion efforts should address barriers and promote cancer screening by physicians, staff, and organizations serving this population. PMID:11198269

Tu, S P; Yasui, Y; Kuniyuki, A; Thompson, B; Schwartz, S M; Jackson, J C; Taylor, V M

2000-01-01

99

Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

Vahabi, Mandana

2005-01-01

100

Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

2005-01-01

101

Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices - Primary Care Physician Questionnaire  

Cancer.gov

Part 2. Attitudes Toward and Training In Colorectal Cancer Screening We are interested in your opinions about and training in colorectal cancer screening in this section. 12. In the U.S. today, many adults over the age of 50 are not screened for colorectal cancer.

102

Improving cervical cancer screening attendance in Finland.  

PubMed

High attendance is essential to cervical cancer screening results. Attendance in the Finnish program is currently at 70%, but extensive opportunistic screening occurs beside the organized. A shift from opportunistic to organized screening is imperative to optimize the costs and impact of screening and minimize potential harms. We evaluated the effect of reminder letters (1st reminder) and self-sampling test (2nd reminder) on program attendance. The study population consisted of 31,053 screening invitees in 31 Finnish municipalities. 8,284 non-attendees after one invitation received a reminder letter and 4,536 further non-attendees were offered a self-sampling option. Socioeconomic factors related to participation were clarified by combining screening data to data from Statistics Finland. Reminder letters increased participation from 72.6% (95% CI 72.1, 73.1) to 79.2% (95% CI 78.8, 79.7) and self-sampling further to 82.2% (95% CI 81.8, 82.7). Reminder letters with scheduled appointments resulted in higher increase than open invitations (10 vs. 6%). Screening of original non-attendees increased the yield of CIN3+ lesions by 24%. Non-attendance was associated with young age, immigrant background, lower education level and having never been married. We showed that a total attendance of well over 80% can be achieved within an organized program when the invitational protocol is carefully arranged. PMID:25178683

Virtanen, Anni; Anttila, Ahti; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Nieminen, Pekka

2015-03-15

103

Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening  

PubMed Central

AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66 patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food, etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD). RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%. Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory. It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer. PMID:15655813

Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei-Ping; Song, Liang; Zhu, Yi-Min

2005-01-01

104

Cancer Screening in Native Americans from the Northern Plains  

PubMed Central

Background Native Americans from the Northern Plains have the highest age-adjusted cancer mortality compared to Native Americans from any other region in the U.S. Purpose This study examined the utilization and determinants of cancer screening in a large sample of Native Americans from the Northern Plains. Methods A survey was administered orally to 975 individuals in 2004â2006 from three reservations and among the urban Native American community in the service region of the Rapid City Regional Hospital. Data analysis was conducted in 2007â2008. Results Forty-four percent of individuals reported ever receiving any cancer screening. Particularly low levels were found in breast, cervical, prostate, and colon cancer screening. In multivariate analyses, the strongest determinant of receiving cancer screening overall or cancer screening for a specific cancer site was recommendation for screening by a doctor or nurse. Other determinants associated with increased likelihood of ever having cancer screening included older age, female gender, and receiving physical exams more than once a year. Increased age was a determinant of breast cancer screening and receiving physical exams was associated with cervical cancer screening. Conclusions Cancer screening was markedly underutilized in this sample of Native Americans from the Northern Plains. Future research should evaluate the potential for improving cancer screening. PMID:20307807

Pandhi, Nancy; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Kanekar, Shalini; Petereit, Daniel G.; Smith, Maureen A.

2010-01-01

105

State of the Art Review: Colorectal Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S., the burden of this disease could be dramatically reduced by increased utilization of screening. Evidence-based recommendations and guidelines from national societies recommend screening all average risk adults starting at age fifty. However, the myriad of screening options and slight differences in screening recommendations between guidelines may lead to confusion among patients and their primary care providers. This goal of this review is to briefly summarize the colorectal cancer screening guidelines issued by three major organizations, compare their recommendations, and address emerging issues in colorectal cancer screening. PMID:23539676

Slomka, Teresa

2013-01-01

106

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.  

PubMed

It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

2014-11-01

107

Barriers to Planning and Conducting a Screening: Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

African American men participated in a screening initiative and completed the 22-item Barriers to Prostate Cancer Screening Checklist. Forty-three men received a digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) laboratory test. The age of the males was M = 56.4 (range = 45–76) years; 47% were compliant with the American Cancer Society annual screening guidelines for high-risk individuals. Nineteen men from the screened group completed a 22-item Response to Barriers Checklist. The barrier ranked a “big problem” for not getting a prostate exam, and the highest by 32% (n = 6) of the sample was “Too many things going on in their lives.” The lowest ranked problem by 100% of the participants was “Takes too long to get an appointment.” Two individuals reported taking the over-the-counter supplement, saw palmetto. It is important that when planning a health screening in the community, both barriers and advantages be evaluated during the planning and before the implementation phase of the project. PMID:15592249

McDOUGALL, GRAHAM J.; ADAMS, MARY LOUISE; VOELMECK, WAYNE F.

2014-01-01

108

Clinical Cancer Care Full screening services and diagnostics  

E-print Network

Clinical Cancer Care · Full screening services and diagnostics · Advanced treatments for all forms of cancer · Most frequent cancers at the Cancer Center: Breast 15% Gastrointestinal 13% Skin 17% Lung 13 treatment protocols that link the latest Cancer Center research to clinical care · Familial Cancer Program

Myers, Lawrence C.

109

Aggressiveness of breast cancers found with and without screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine how breast cancers found by mammographic screening differ from those found outside screening. DESIGN--Comparative cohort study. SETTING--Turku, southwestern Finland. PATIENTS--126 women aged 40-74 years with breast cancer detected during the first round of mammographic screening in 1987-90 and 125 women within the same age range with breast cancer detected outside screening during the same period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Primary

P. J. Klemi; H. Joensuu; S. Toikkanen; J. Tuominen; O. Räsänen; J. Tyrkkö; I. Parvinen

1992-01-01

110

Effectively Communicating Colorectal Cancer Screening Information to Primary Care Providers: Application for State, Tribe or Territory Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Patients are more likely to be screened for colorectal cancer if it is recommended by a health care provider. Therefore, it is imperative that providers have access to the latest screening guidelines. Purpose: This practice-based project sought to identify Kentucky primary care providers' preferred sources and methods of receiving…

Redmond, Jennifer; Vanderpool, Robin; McClung, Rebecca

2012-01-01

111

Colorectal Cancer Screening Activities in ICSN Countries  

Cancer.gov

Targeted Prevention Programs Branch Canberra, ACT, Australia Following the successful pilot program that ran from 2002-2004, a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program which uses immunochemical FOBT, followed by colonoscopy if indicated, will be introduced. The first phase of the program (2006-2008) will target people turning 55 or 65 years of age between 1 May 2006 and 30 June 2008 and those who participated in the pilot program.

112

Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC. PMID:25320506

Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

2014-01-01

113

Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. The underlying rationale for the trial is that screening for cancer may enable doctors to discover and treat the disease earlier. Numerous epidemiologic and ancillary studies are included to answer related crucial questions.

114

Attitudes to Colorectal Cancer Screening After Reading the Prevention Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the biggest barriers to increase colorectal cancer screening are negative attitudes to screening tests. These negative\\u000a attitudes might be evoked through reading cancer prevention information and impede the decision to get screened. Forty-two\\u000a adults aged ?50 years completed a 12-item attitude questionnaire after reading colorectal cancer prevention information. African-Americans\\u000a perceived that others had higher cancer risk than themselves whereas

Chiung-ju Liu; Tara Fleck; Joan Goldfarb; Casey Green; Elizabeth Porter

115

Cervical cancer screening among Chinese Americans  

PubMed Central

Study purpose Chinese women in North America have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and low levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing use. This study examined Pap testing barriers and facilitators among Chinese American women. Basic procedures A community-based, in-person survey of Chinese women was conducted in Seattle, Washington during 1999. Four hundred and thirty-two women in the 20–79 years age-group were included in this analysis. The main outcome measures were a history of at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing within the last 2 years. Main findings Nineteen percent of the respondents had never received cervical cancer screening and 36% had not been screened in the previous 2 years. Eight characteristics were independently associated with a history of at least one Pap smear: being married, thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concerns about embarrassment or cancer being discovered, having received a physician or family recommendation, having obtained family planning services in North America, and having a regular provider. The following characteristics were independently associated with recent screening: thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concern about embarrassment, having received a physician recommendation, having obtained obstetric services in North America, and having a regular provider. Principal conclusions Pap testing levels among the study respondents were well below the National Cancer Institute’s Year 2000 goals. The findings suggest that cervical cancer control interventions for Chinese are more likely to be effective if they are multifaceted. © 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:12102148

Taylor, Victoria M.; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping; Yasui, Yutaka; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Kuniyuki, Alan; Acorda, Elizabeth; Lin, Kathy; Hislop, Gregory

2006-01-01

116

Transvaginal Sonography as a Screening Method for the Detection of Early Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

From December 1987 to December 1993, 6470 women underwent screening with transvaginal sonography (TVS) as part of the University of Kentucky Ovarian Cancer Screening Project. Two groups of women were eligible to participate in this investigation: (i) asymptomatic postmenopausal patients or patients >50 years of age, and (ii) asymptomatic women >30 years of age with a family history of ovarian

P. D. Depriest; H. H. Gallion; E. J. Pavlik; R. J. Kryscio; J. R. van Nagell

1997-01-01

117

Effect of endoscopy screening on stage at gastric cancer diagnosis: results of the National Cancer Screening Programme in Korea.  

PubMed

Background:Although gastric cancer screening is common among countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer, there is little data to support the effectiveness of this screening. This study was designed to determine the differences in stage at diagnosis of gastric cancer according to the screening history and screening method (upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) vs endoscopy).Methods:The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP), a nationwide organised screening programme in Korea. The study cohort consisted of 19?168 gastric cancer patients who had been diagnosed in 2007 and who were invited to undergo gastric cancer screening via the NCSP between 2002 and 2007.Results:Compared with never-screened patients, the odds ratios for being diagnosed with localised gastric cancer in endoscopy-screened patients and UGIS-screened patients were 2.10 (95% CI=1.90-2.33) and 1.24 (95% CI=1.13-1.36), respectively.Conclusions:Screening by endoscopy was more strongly associated with a diagnosis of localised stage gastric cancer compared with screening by UGIS.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 9 December 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.608 www.bjcancer.com. PMID:25490528

Choi, K S; Jun, J K; Suh, M; Park, B; Noh, D K; Song, S H; Jung, K W; Lee, H-Y; Choi, I J; Park, E-C

2014-12-01

118

Screening for prostate cancer: a controversy or fact  

PubMed Central

Background: Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the most frequent malignancy in men and the second leading cause of death in the male population worldwide. The screening for prostate cancer allows early diagnosis of prostate malignancy before the individual presents with symptoms. The early stage of the disease is easier to manage by different therapeutic modalities. Aim: The aim of this review is to evaluate the reasons and facts for enthusiasm and positive approach towards the clinical decision about whether to screen or not male patients for early detection of prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a computerized MEDLINE search followed by a manual bibliographic review of cross-references. These reports were analyzed and the important findings were summarized. We analyzed the methods and schedule of screening, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the prostate cancer screening. Results: There were more than a hundred studies on prostate cancer screening performed but only a few are eligible for a decisive conclusion concerning the prostate cancer screening issue. We reviewed the screening methods, the schedule of screening, the advantages and disadvantages of prostate cancer screening. Conclusion: The role for prostate cancer screening is not established yet. Definite proof of screening should be assumed as a decrease in the death rate of that cancer due to screening activity. PMID:20981165

Stavridis, S; Saidi, S; Lekovski, Lj; Dohcev, S; Spasovski, G

2010-01-01

119

Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.  

PubMed

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:30-54. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:25581023

Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

2015-01-01

120

Selection and Specification of Rear-Projection Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics of the rear-projection screen are examined in detail. Numerical constants are provided that define these characteristics for practical screens and convert foot-candles to footlamberts. A procedure is given by which an optimum screen may be specified for a specific application. Contents include--(1) introduction, (2) projection

Vlahos, Petro

1961-01-01

121

Colon and Rectal Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... polyposis: Screening and management of patients and families" .) Inflammatory bowel disease — People with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease have an increased risk of colon cancer. The best screening plan ...

122

Breast and cervical cancer screening behaviours among colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed patterns and factors associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a cohort of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia between January 2001 and December 2005 were eligible for inclusion. Receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening was determined using administrative data. General-population age restrictions were used in the analysis (breast: 40–69 years; cervical: 21–75 years). Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to first screen. Results Of 318 and 443 colorectal cancer survivors eligible for the breast and cervical cancer screening analysis respectively, 30.1% [95% confidence interval (ci): 21.2% to 39.0%] never received screening mammography, and 47.9% (95% ci: 37.8% to 58.0%) never received cervical cancer screening during the study period. Receipt of screening before the colorectal cancer diagnosis was strongly associated with receipt of screening after diagnosis (hazard ratio for breast cancer screening: 4.71; 95% ci: 3.42 to 6.51; hazard ratio for cervical cancer screening: 6.83; 95% ci: 4.58 to 10.16). Conclusions Many colorectal cancer survivors within general-population screening age recommendations did not receive breast and cervical cancer screening. Future research should focus on survivors who meet age recommendations for population-based cancer screening. PMID:25302037

Corkum, M.; Urquhart, R.; Kephart, G.; Hayden, J.A.; Porter, G.

2014-01-01

123

The Pediatric Cancer Genome Project  

PubMed Central

The St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital–Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project (PCGP) is participating in the international effort to identify somatic mutations that drive cancer. These cancer genome sequencing efforts will not only yield an unparalleled view of the altered signaling pathways in cancer but should also identify new targets against which novel therapeutics can be developed. Although these projects are still deep in the phase of generating primary DNA sequence data, important results are emerging and valuable community resources are being generated that should catalyze future cancer research. We describe here the rationale for conducting the PCGP, present some of the early results of this project and discuss the major lessons learned and how these will affect the application of genomic sequencing in the clinic. PMID:22641210

Downing, James R; Wilson, Richard K; Zhang, Jinghui; Mardis, Elaine R; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ding, Li; Ley, Timothy J; Evans, William E

2013-01-01

124

The Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) Follow-up Study  

Cancer.gov

Study subjects were participants in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP), a breast cancer screening program conducted between 1973 and 1980. Sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the NCI, the BCDDP provided up to five annual breast examinations to 283,222 women at 29 screening centers in 27 cities throughout the United States.

125

Impact of Digital Mammography in Breast Cancer Screening: Initial Experience in a National Breast Screening Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full field digital mammography (FFDM) was introduced into the Irish National Breast Screening Program (INBSP) in 2005. The\\u000a aim of this study is to review the use of FFDM in a National Breast Screening Program and to compare the results to standard\\u000a screen-film mammography with respect to recall rate and cancer detection rate. All women who underwent breast cancer screening

N. Hambly; Niall Phelan; G. Hargaden; A. O’Doherty; F. Flanagan

2008-01-01

126

Lung cancer detected during a screening program using four-month chest radiographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-two lung cancers were detected in the Mayo Lung Project in patients undergoing chest radiography every four months for screening. Fifty patients had a peripheral nodule, 16 had a perihilar nodule, 20 had hilar or mediastinal enlargement, and six had pneumonitis. The peripheral cancers grew slowly. Ninety per cent were visible in retrospect for months or even years. Despite this,

J. R. Muhm; W. E. Miller; R. S. Fontana; D. R. Sanderson; M. A. Uhlenhopp

1983-01-01

127

Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

2014-01-01

128

Breast Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Vietnamese-American women underutilize breast cancer screening. Design An RCT was conducted comparing the effect of lay health workers (LHWs) and media education (ME) to ME alone on breast cancer screening among these women. Setting/participants Conducted in California from 2004 to 2007, the study included 1100 Vietnamese-American women aged ?40 years who were recruited through LHW social networks. Data were analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Intervention Both groups received targeted ME. The intervention group received two LHW educational sessions and two telephone calls. Main outcome measures Change in self-reported receipt of mammography ever, mammography within 2 years, clinical breast examination (CBE) ever, or CBE within 2 years. Results The LHW+ME group increased receipt of mammography ever and mammography in the past 2 years (84.1% to 91.6% and 64.7% to 82.1%, p<0.001) while the ME group did not. Both ME (73.1% to 79.0%, p<0.001) and LHW+ME (68.1% to 85.5%, p<0.001) groups increased receipt of CBE ever, but the LHW+ME group had a significantly greater increase. The results were similar for CBE within 2 years. In multivariate analyses, LHW+ME was significantly more effective than ME for all four outcomes, with ORs of 3.62 (95% CI=1.35, 9.76) for mammography ever; 3.14 (95% CI=1.98, 5.01) for mammography within 2 years; 2.94 (95% CI=1.63, 5.30) for CBE ever; and 3.04 (95% CI=2.11, 4.37) for CBE within 2 years. Conclusions Increased breast cancer screening by LHWs among Vietnamese-American women. Future research should focus on how LHWs work and whether LHW outreach can be disseminated to other ethnic groups. PMID:19765502

Nguyen, Tung T.; Le, Gem; Nguyen, Thoa; Le, Khanh; Lai, Ky; Gildengorin, Ginny; Tsoh, Janice; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; McPhee, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

129

Project Enlists Community Physicians in Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

To enable more patients and physicians to participate in clinical studies that advance cancer care, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting a pilot project, the Expanded Participation Project (EPP), to speed cancer research by broadening access to clinical trials

130

CRCHD SPN Project: East Harlem Partnership for Cancer Awareness  

Cancer.gov

The objective of the East Harlem Partnership for Cancer Awareness was to reduce barriers to screening among medically underserved urban minorities by identifying those barriers, developing and implementing educational programs and materials, and providing training in culturally appropriate cancer outreach and communication. The project utilized the Mount Sinai postdoctoral educational curriculum, research seminars, grant preparation workshops, and tutorials with senior faculty to develop collaborative research projects conducted by community partners and minority investigators.

131

Colorectal cancer screening uptake over three biennial invitation rounds in the English bowel cancer screening programme  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake over three biennial invitation rounds in the National Health Service (NHS) Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England. Methods We analysed data from the BCSP's Southern Hub for individuals (n=62?099) aged 60–64?years at the time of first invitation to screening with a follow-up period that allowed for two further biennial invitations. Data on sex, age and a neighbourhood-level measure of socioeconomic deprivation were used in the analysis. Outcomes included uptake of guaiac-based faecal occult blood (gFOB) test screening, inadequate gFOB screening (?1 test kit(s) returned but failed to complete further gFOB tests needed to reach a conclusive test result), test positivity, compliance with follow-up examinations (usually colonoscopy) and diagnostic outcomes. Results Overall gFOB uptake was 57.4% in the first, 60.9% in the second and 66.2% in third biennial invitation round. This resulted in 70.1% of the initial cohort having responded at least once, 60.7% at least twice and 44.4% three times. Participation in the first round was strongly predictive of participation in the second round (‘Previous Responders’: 86.6% vs ‘Previous Non-Responders’: 23.1%). Participation in the third round was highest among ‘Consistent Screeners’ (94.5%), followed by ‘Late Entrants’ (78.0%), ‘Dropouts’ (59.8%) and ‘Consistent Non-Responders’ (14.6%). Socioeconomic inequalities in uptake were observed across the three rounds, but sex inequalities decreased over rounds. Inadequate gFOB screening was influenced by screening history and socioeconomic deprivation. Screening history was the only significant predictor of follow-up compliance. Conclusions Screening history is associated with overall gFOB uptake, inadequate gFOB screening and follow-up compliance. Socioeconomic deprivation is also consistently associated with lower gFOB uptake and inadequate gFOB screening. Improving regular screening among identified ‘at-risk’ groups is important for the effectiveness of CRC screening programmes. PMID:24812001

Lo, Siu Hing; Halloran, Stephen; Snowball, Julia; Seaman, Helen; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

2015-01-01

132

Ovarian cancer screening—Current status, future directions?  

PubMed Central

Evidence of a mortality benefit continues to elude ovarian cancer (OC) screening. Data from the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial which used a screening strategy incorporating CA125 cut-off and transvaginal ultrasound has not shown mortality benefit. The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer (ROC) time series algorithm to interpret CA125, which has shown an encouraging sensitivity and specificity however the mortality data will only be available in 2015. The article explores the impact of growing insights into disease aetiology and evolution and biomarker discovery on future screening strategies. A better understanding of the target lesion, improved design of biomarker discovery studies, a focus on detecting low volume disease using cancer specific markers, novel biospecimens such as cervical cytology and targeted imaging and use of time series algorithms for interpreting markers profile suggests that a new era in screening is underway. PMID:24316306

Menon, Usha; Griffin, Michelle; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra

2014-01-01

133

Ovarian cancer screening--current status, future directions.  

PubMed

Evidence of a mortality benefit continues to elude ovarian cancer (OC) screening. Data from the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial which used a screening strategy incorporating CA125 cut-off and transvaginal ultrasound has not shown mortality benefit. The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer (ROC) time series algorithm to interpret CA125, which has shown an encouraging sensitivity and specificity however the mortality data will only be available in 2015. The article explores the impact of growing insights into disease aetiology and evolution and biomarker discovery on future screening strategies. A better understanding of the target lesion, improved design of biomarker discovery studies, a focus on detecting low volume disease using cancer specific markers, novel biospecimens such as cervical cytology and targeted imaging and use of time series algorithms for interpreting markers profile suggests that a new era in screening is underway. PMID:24316306

Menon, Usha; Griffin, Michelle; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra

2014-02-01

134

Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening: a systematic review.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT? This review, based on published papers, aims to describe the costs of prostate cancer screening and to examine whether prostate cancer screening is cost effective. The estimated cost per cancer detected ranged from €1299 in The Netherlands to US$44,355 in the USA. The estimated cost per life-year saved ranged from US$3000 to US$729,000, while the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was AU$291,817 and Can$371,100. The most appropriate data for economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening should be the cost per QALY gained. The estimated costs per QALY gained by prostate cancer screening were significantly higher than the cost-effectiveness threshold, suggesting that even when based on favorable randomized controlled trials in younger age groups, prostate cancer screening is still not cost effective. PMID:25675126

Lao, Chunhuan; Brown, Charis; Rouse, Paul; Edlin, Richard; Lawrenson, Ross

2015-02-01

135

Colon Cancer Screening The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Colon Cancer Screening The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly T HIS YEAR, IT IS ESTIMATED THAT THERE WILL be 55 170 colorectal cancer (CRC)­ related deaths, making it the second lead- ing cause of cancer nature of CRC, only about one third of patients are diagnosed as having the cancer at the localized stage

Ottino, Julio M.

136

Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cervical & vaginal cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... pay for them. Related resources National Cancer Institute—cervical cancer information CDC—cervical cancer information U.S. Preventive Services ...

137

Trends in Adherence to Recommended Cancer Screening: The US Population and Working Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Over the past decade the United States (US) has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade. Materials and Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history. Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors. Conclusion: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors increases. PMID:23293767

Clarke, Tainya C.; Soler-Vila, Hosanna; Fleming, Lora E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Lee, David J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

2012-01-01

138

Behavioral economics: "nudging" underserved populations to be screened for cancer.  

PubMed

Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D

2015-01-01

139

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-10-10

140

Behavioral Economics: “Nudging” Underserved Populations to Be Screened for Cancer  

PubMed Central

Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; McBride, Timothy D.

2015-01-01

141

Factors determining early adherence to a lung cancer screening protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung cancer screening using computed tomography (CT) is effective in detecting early stage disease. However, concerns regarding adherence have been raised. The current authors conducted a retrospective observational study of 641 asymptomatic smokers enrolled in a lung cancer screening programme between 2000 and 2003. Adherent subjects were compared with nonadherent subjects with regard to lung function, sex, age, motivation for

U. Montes; L. M. Seijo; A. Campo; A. B. Alcaide; G. Bastarrika; J. J. Zulueta

2007-01-01

142

Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening

Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

2012-01-01

143

Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Dorothy Lane, of Stony Brook University, investigated whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

144

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2013-10-01

145

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

146

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2011-10-01

147

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2012-10-01

148

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

... 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2014-10-01

149

Understanding Cancer Screening Service Utilization by Somali Men in Minnesota.  

PubMed

This study examined factors that influence use of cancer screening by Somali men residing in Minnesota, USA. To better understand why recent immigrants are disproportionately less likely to use screening services, we used the health belief model to explore knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes surrounding cancer screening. We conducted a qualitative study comprised of 20 key informant interviews with Somali community leaders and 8 focus groups with Somali men (n = 44). Somali men commonly believe they are protected from cancer by religious beliefs. This belief, along with a lack of knowledge about screening, increased the likelihood to refrain from screening. Identifying the association between religion and health behaviors may lead to more targeted interventions to address existing disparities in cancer screening in the growing US immigrant population. PMID:24817627

Sewali, Barrett; Pratt, Rebekah; Abdiwahab, Ekland; Fahia, Saeed; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

2014-05-11

150

Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

2012-01-01

151

Breast cancer screening methods: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Breast cancer remains a major health problem among Canadian women. Efforts directed at primary prevention of the disease are limited. Secondary prevention through screening appears to be the most promising intervention available in controlling the disease. In recent years, there have been ongoing debates over the effectiveness of available breast screening modalities (breast self-examination [BSE], clinical breast examination [CBE], and screening mammography). In this article I provide an overview of evidence related to each of the three breast screening modalities. The evidence shows that screening mammography and proper examination of breasts can be useful in reducing breast cancer mortality. PMID:14742116

Vahabi, Mandana

2003-11-01

152

Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis—European recommendations  

PubMed Central

In Europe, colorectal cancer is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths, accounting for approximately 436,000 incident cases and 212,000 deaths in 2008. The potential of high-quality screening to improve control of the disease has been recognized by the Council of the European Union who issued a recommendation on cancer screening in 2003. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based European Guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have recently been developed by experts in a pan-European project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document consists of ten chapters and an extensive evidence base. The content of the chapter dealing with pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis is presented here in order to promote international discussion and collaboration leading to improvements in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider scientific community. PMID:21061133

Quirke, Phil; Risio, Mauro; Lambert, René; von Karsa, Lawrence

2010-01-01

153

Intracellular Mechanics-Based Drug Screening for Cancer Metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007 alone, close to 1.5 million new cancer cases and over half of a million deaths from cancer are projected to occur in US. In general, cancer is much easier to be successfully treated before metastasis; the five-year survival rates for most of the cancers in the metastatic stage are lower than 10%. The origin of cancer is due to genomic instability; however, the genomics or proteomics studies focus on this phenomenon cannot thoroughly elucidate how cancer metastasis proceeds. During this process, cancer cells protrude and conquer their physical barriers, resist shear stress, establish anchorages and finally settle in a new environment. Each development in this process involves mechanical forces. Thus, whether force generation and cancer cells' mechanical properties can be integrated into the current mainstream of cancer research and offer new insight is worthy of being investigated. To measure the change of cell mechanics, specifically intracellular mechanics, a tool that least disrupts the probed cell's behavior and, simultaneously, can obtain real time quantitative measurement is necessary. To satisfy these criteria, we have developed a technique, ballistic intracellular nanorheology (BIN), in which we trace and analyze the trajectories of nanospheres that have been ballistically bombarded into the cytoplasm of individual cells. This technique allows us to probe the effects of chemical or mechanical stimuli on intracellular mechanics in various types of cells, on culture dishes or in a three-dimensional matrix. BIN is, currently, the first and only method available that can be applied to perform such tasks. Using this technique, we have gained detailed information about how the cytoskeletal remodeling pathways control the intracellular mechanics. We have also obtained information on the tempo-correlation between agonists and intracellular mechanics and how cells utilize their intracellular mechanics to react extracellular shear stress. These studies have set the framework for us to understand the mechanical mechanism of cancer cell metastasis on a molecular level. In this talk, I will describe the working principal using this technique to screen cancer drugs that prevent cancer metastasis.

Tseng, Yilder

2008-03-01

154

Components necessary for high-quality lung cancer screening: american college of chest physicians and american thoracic society policy statement.  

PubMed

Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819

Mazzone, Peter; Powell, Charles A; Arenberg, Douglas; Bach, Peter; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard

2015-02-01

155

Evaluating Progress in Cancer Screening | A Model for Screening and Risk Factor Surveillance  

Cancer.gov

ARP sponsored the first Cancer Control Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS CCS) in 1987. Since 2000, the NHIS CCS has been co-sponsored by the NCI and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NHIS CCS was and remains the national gold standard for monitoring diffusion of and access to cancer screening. The CCS also covers diet, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco use and control, genetic testing, family history of cancer, cancer risk assessment, and cancer survivorship.

156

Mammographic Screening And Mortality From Breast Cancer: The Malmö Mammographic Screening Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective—To determine whether mortality from breast cancer could be reduced by repeated mammographic screening. Design—Birth year cohorts of city population separately randomised into study and control groups. Setting—Screening clinic outside main hospital. Patients—Women aged over 45; 21 088 invited for screening and 21 195 in control group. Interventions—Women in the study group were invited to attend for mammographic screening

Ingvar Andersson; Knut Aspegren; Lars Janzon; Torsten Landberg; Karin Lindholm; Folke Linell; Otto Ljungberg; Jonas Ranstam; Baldur Sigfússon

1988-01-01

157

Estimating time and travel costs incurred in clinic based screening: flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—To identify the characteris- tics of mode of travel to screening clinics; to estimate the time and travel costs incurred in attending; to investigate whether such costs are likely to bias screening compliance. Setting—Twelve centres in the trial of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, drawn from across Great Britain. Method—Analysis of 3525 questionnaires completed by screening subjects while attending

Emma Frew; Jane L Wolstenholme; Wendy Atkin; David K Whynes

1999-01-01

158

Clinical outcome data for symptomatic breast cancer: the breast cancer clinical outcome measures (BCCOM) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Data collection for screen-detected breast cancer in the United Kingdom is fully funded, which has led to improvements in clinical practice. However, data on symptomatic cancer are deficient, and the aim of this project was to monitor the current practice.Methods:A data set was designed together with surrogate outcome measures to reflect best practice. Data from cancer registries initially required the

T Bates; O Kearins; I Monypenny; C Lagord; G Lawrence

2009-01-01

159

3-D breast cancer screening reduces recall rates  

Cancer.gov

Tomosynthesis, or 3-dimensional (3-D) mammography, significantly reduced the number of patients being recalled for additional testing after receiving a mammogram, a Yale Cancer Center study found. The study appears in the journal Radiology. Digital mammography is considered the mainstay for breast cancer screening. However, it is not a perfect test, and many women are asked to come back for additional testing that often turns out not to show cancer. These additional screening tests increase patient anxiety.

160

Toxicoepigenomics and cancer: implications for screening.  

PubMed

Scientists have long considered genetics to be the key mechanism that alters gene expression because of exposure to the environment and toxic substances (toxicants). Recently, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as an alternative explanation for alterations in gene expression resulting from such exposure. The fact that certain toxic substances that contribute to tumor development do not induce mutations probably results from underlying epigenetic mechanisms. The field of toxicoepigenomics emerged from the combination of epigenetics and classical toxicology. High-throughput technologies now enable evaluation of altered epigenomic profiling in response to toxins and environmental pollutants. Furthermore, differences in the epigenomic backgrounds of individuals may explain why, although whole populations are exposed to toxicants, only a few people in a population develop cancer. Metals in the environment and toxic substances not only alter DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications but also affect enzymes involved in posttranslational modifications of proteins and epigenetic regulation, and thereby contribute to carcinogenesis. This article describes different toxic substances and environmental pollutants that alter epigenetic profiling and discusses how this information can be used in screening populations at high risk of developing cancer. Research opportunities and challengers in the field also are discussed. PMID:25421670

Verma, Mukesh

2015-01-01

161

RNA Interference Genetic Screen Suggests New Targets for Cancer Therapies  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the NCI have developed a new method to identify genes that keep cancer cells active and that could be potential targets of anticancer therapies. The method uses RNA interference, a technology for silencing genes, to screen cancer cells for genes that, when silenced, cause cancer cells to die or stop dividing.

162

Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients with DM. In a pooled risk analysis weighting published meta-analytic relative risk (RR) for individual cancer by differences in their incidence rates, we found a population RR of 0.97 (95 % CI, 0.75–1.25) in men and 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.16–1.44) in women. All meta-analyses showed an increased relative risk for cancer in diabetic men, except studies of prostate cancer, in which a protective effect was observed. The relationship between diabetes and cancer appears to be complex, and at present, a clear temporal relationship between the two conditions cannot be defined. DM also impacts negatively on cancer-related survival outcomes and cancer screening rates. The overwhelming evidence for lower cancer screening rates, increased incidence of certain cancers, and poorer prognosis after cancer diagnosis in diabetic patients dictates a need for improved cancer care in diabetic individuals through improved screening measures, development of risk assessment tools, and consideration of cancer prevention strategies in diabetic patients. Part two of this review focuses on the biological and pharmacological mechanisms that may account for the association between DM and cancer. PMID:22552844

Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

2014-01-01

163

Screening MRI for women at high risk for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Recognition of the limitations of mammography in screening women at high risk for breast cancer stimulated clinical trials to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to mammography. Based on the results of these trials, there is increased interest in offering screening MRI to high-risk women after discussion of the potential benefits and risks. The benefits include increased cancer detection with MRI and significantly more cancers detected prior to nodal metastases. The risks include false-positive exams, which lead to additional imaging and/or benign biopsies. This article will review the findings from published clinical trials and provide guidelines for implementation of an MRI screening program. PMID:16916001

Lehman, Constance D

2006-08-01

164

Breast cancer diagnosis by screening mammography: early results of the Central Sydney Area Health Service Breast X-ray Programme.  

PubMed

The Central Sydney Area Health Service (CSAHS) Breast X-ray Programme is a pilot mammography screening project for breast cancer detection funded by the NSW Government. Screening by two-view mammography is carried out in a mobile van and is offered free to women aged over 45 years living in the CSAHS region, the inner western suburbs of Sydney. In the first 18 months of operation from March 1988, 7193 women were screened: 99 women underwent excision biopsy and 53 cancers were diagnosed. This is an overall detection rate of seven cancers per thousand women screened. Sixty per cent of the cancers were impalpable to the examining surgeon; 19% of all cancers were shown to have axillary node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. These results compare well with those of the major European screening studies. PMID:1986190

Rickard, M T; Lee, W; Read, J W; Scott, A J; Stephen, D D; Grace, J

1991-01-21

165

Beyond Mammography: New Frontiers in Breast Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer screening remains a subject of intense and, at times, passionate debate. Mammography has long been the mainstay of breast cancer detection and is the only screening test proven to reduce mortality. Although it remains the gold standard of breast cancer screening, there is increasing awareness of subpopulations of women for whom mammography has reduced sensitivity. Mammography has also undergone increased scrutiny for false positives and excessive biopsies, which increase radiation dose, cost and patient anxiety. In response to these challenges, new technologies for breast cancer screening have been developed, including; low dose mammography; contrast enhanced mammography, tomosynthesis, automated whole breast ultrasound, molecular imaging and MRI. Here we examine some of the current controversies and promising new technologies that may improve detection of breast cancer both in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as women with dense breasts. We propose that optimal breast cancer screening will ultimately require a personalized approach based on metrics of cancer risk with selective application of specific screening technologies best suited to the individual’s age, risk, and breast density. PMID:23561631

Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Mooney, Blaise P.; Flowers, Chris I.; Gatenby, Robert A

2014-01-01

166

Assessing the breast cancer risk distribution for women undergoing screening in British Columbia.  

PubMed

Breast cancer risk estimations are both informative and useful at the population level, with many screening programs relying on these assessments to allocate resources such as breast MRI. This cross-sectional multicenter study attempts to quantify the breast cancer risk distribution for women between the ages of 40 to 79 years undergoing screening mammography in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The proportion of women at high breast cancer risk was estimated by surveying women enrolled in the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) for known breast cancer risk factors. Each respondent's 10-year risk was computed with both the Tyrer-Cuzick and Gail risk assessment models. The resulting risk distributions were evaluated using the guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (United Kingdom). Of the 4,266 women surveyed, 3.5% of women between the ages of 40 to 79 years were found to have a high 10-year risk of developing breast cancer using the Tyrer-Cuzick model (1.1% using the Gail model). When extrapolated to the screening population, it was estimated that 19,414 women in the SMPBC are considered to be at high breast cancer risk. These women may benefit from additional MRI screening; preliminary analysis suggests that 4 to 5 additional MRI machines would be required to screen these high-risk women. However, the use of different models and guidelines will modify the number of women qualifying for additional screening interventions, thus impacting the MRI resources required. The results of this project can now be used to inform decision-making groups about resource allocation for breast cancer screening in BC. PMID:23963801

Weisstock, Christina R; Rajapakshe, Rasika; Bitgood, Christabelle; McAvoy, Steven; Gordon, Paula B; Coldman, Andrew J; Parker, Brent A; Wilson, Christine

2013-10-01

167

Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from

Elizabeth D. Woodard; Louis H. Hempelmann; Joyce Janus; Wende Logan; Peter Dean

1982-01-01

168

Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening for Rarely or Never Screened Rural Appalachian Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Women who have not had a Papanicolaou test in five years or more have increased risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. This study compares Appalachian women whose last screening was more than one year ago but less than five years ago with those not screened for the previous five years or more. Methods Using PRECEDE/PROCEED as a guide, factors related to obtaining Pap tests were examined using cross-sectional data from 345 Appalachian Kentucky women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify predictors of screening. Results Thirty-four percent of participants were rarely- or never-screened. In multiple logistic regression analyses, several factors increased those odds, including belief that cervical cancer has symptoms, and not having a regular source of medical care. Conclusion The findings from this study may lead to the development of effective intervention and policies that increase cervical cancer screening in this population. PMID:21317514

Hatcher, Jennifer; Studts, Christina R.; Dignan, Mark; Turner, Lisa M.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

169

Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results. PMID:21633635

Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B

2011-01-01

170

Cancer screening and prevention in low-resource settings.  

PubMed

Less-developed-region countries (LDCs) are seeing a rapid rise in cancer incidence owing to changing lifestyles, infections, environmental carcinogens and increasing longevity. LDCs have poor resources to deal with cancers, leading to high mortality rates. Investment in nationally implementable and sustainable cancer prevention and screening strategies would be more appropriate for LDCs. This Science and Society article outlines the burden of preventable cancers in selected LDCs and discusses evidence on cost-effective and widely implementable prevention and screening strategies. PMID:25355377

Shastri, Aditi; Shastri, Surendra Srinivas

2014-12-01

171

Stochastic dominance for project screening and selection under uncertainty  

E-print Network

At any given moment, engineering and chemical companies have a host of projects that they are either trying to screen to advance to the next stage of research or select from for implementation. These choices could range ...

Adeyemo, Adekunle M

2013-01-01

172

Barriers to cancer screening among orthodox jewish women.  

PubMed

The increased risk of genetic cancer mutations for Ashkenazi Jews is well known. However, little is known about the cancer-related health behaviors of a subset of Ashkenazi Jews, Orthodox Jews, who are a very religious and insular group. This study partnered with Rabbinical leadership and community members in an Orthodox Jewish community to investigate barriers to cancer screening in this community. Orthodox Jewish women were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to elicit their perspectives on barriers to cancer screening. A total of five focus groups were conducted, consisting of 3-5 members per group, stratified by age and family history of cancer. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using conventional content analysis. The resulting themes identified as barriers to cancer screening were: preservation of hidden miracles, fate, cost, competing priorities, lack of culturally relevant programming, lack of information, and fear. These results provide a unique perspective on barriers to cancer screening in a high risk but understudied population. Findings from this study may serve to inform culturally appropriate cancer education programs to overcome barriers to screening in this and other similar communities. PMID:24845763

Tkatch, Rifky; Hudson, Janella; Katz, Anne; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Vichich, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Albrecht, Terrance L

2014-12-01

173

Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

2005-01-01

174

Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs ...

175

Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results  

PubMed Central

Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

2014-01-01

176

Molecular Analysis of Nipple Fluid for Breast Cancer Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of sensitivity and specificity of image-based breast cancer screening has urged the exploration of alternate screening modalities. Nipple fluid, which contains breast epithelial cells, is produced in small amounts in the breast ducts of nonlactating women and can be collected by noninvasive vacuum aspiration. After administration of nasal oxytocin, nipple aspiration yields sufficient material for molecular analysis in the

Karijn P. M. Suijkerbuijk; Elsken van der Wall; Marc Vooijs; Paul J. van Diest

2008-01-01

177

[Screening for prostate cancer: present status and future perspectives].  

PubMed

In Japan, about three fourth municiparities and 90% human dry dock (a thorough medical checkup) institutions provide a prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing as a screening tool for early detection of prostate cancer. However, the exposure of screening for prostate cancer is very low compared to developed Western countries. The merits of introducing PSA-based screening could be cause-specific mortality reduction and prevention of developing metastatic disease, which was recently confirmed by prospective randomized controlled trials. On the other hand, some men participating in the screening program may be of drawbacks in terms of overdetection and overtreatment. Therefore, providing a fact sheet on screening for prostate cancer and also providing an optimal screening system including more accurate cancer detection, minimally invasive treatment and active surveillance strategy, which can reduce overdetection, overtreatment, and loss of QOL due to treatment, would be very important. The merits of PSA screening will increase and the drawbacks will decrease in the future due to progress in the diagnostic modalities and treatment strategies. At present, a baseline consensus is to conduct PSA-based screening according to well-balanced guidelines published by the Japanese Urological Association. PMID:25518358

Ito, Kazuto

2014-12-01

178

BREAST CANCER SCREENING METHODS: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer remains a major health problem among Canadian women. Efforts directed at primary prevention of the disease are limited. Secondary prevention through screening appears to be the most promising intervention available in controlling the disease. In recent years, there have been ongoing debates over the effectiveness of available breast screening modalities (breast self-examination [BSE], clinical breast examination [CBE], and

Mandana Vahabi

2003-01-01

179

Colorectal cancer screening: The role of CT colonography  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography colonography (CTC) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has two roles: one present and the other potential. The present role is, without any further discussion, the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy. The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. However, despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC screening of average-risk individuals by different scientific societies including the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology, and the US Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, other entities, such as the US Preventive Services Task Force, have considered the evidence insufficient to justify its use as a mass screening method. Medicare has also recently denied reimbursement for CTC as a screening test. Nevertheless, multiple advantages exist for using CTC as a CRC screening test: high accuracy, full evaluation of the colon in virtually all patients, non-invasiveness, safety, patient comfort, detection of extracolonic findings and cost-effectiveness. The main potential drawback of a CTC screening is the exposure to ionizing radiation. However, this is not a major issue, since low-dose protocols are now routinely implemented, delivering a dose comparable or slightly superior to the annual radiation exposure of any individual. Indirect evidence exists that such a radiation exposure does not induce additional cancers. PMID:20731011

Laghi, Andrea; Iafrate, Franco; Rengo, Marco; Hassan, Cesare

2010-01-01

180

Screening for Cancer by Residents in an Internal Medicine Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of cancer screening by internal medicine residents in an inner-city clinic revealed that screening was more frequent for male patients, and breast examinations and Pap smears were performed on less than a third of female patients, suggesting a need for more intensive early-detection education of residents. (MSE)

Lynch, Garrett R.; Prout, Marianne N.

1986-01-01

181

ACOG Practice Bulletin Number 131: Screening for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The incidence of cervical cancer in the United States has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women. By 2008, it had been reduced to 6.6 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease from 5.55 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 2.38 per 100,000 women in 2008 (1). The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that there will be 12,170 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States in 2012, with 4,220 deaths from the disease (2). Cervical cancer is much more common worldwide, particularly in countries without screening programs, with an estimated 530,000 new cases of the disease and 275,000 resultant deaths each year (3, 4). When cervical cancer screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed (5, 6). New technologies for cervical cancer screening continue to evolve as do recommendations for managing the results. In addition, there are different risk-benefit considerations for women at different ages, as reflected in age-specific screening recommendations. The ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) have recently updated their joint guidelines for cervical cancer screening (7), and an update to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations also has been issued (8). The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence regarding screening for cervical cancer. PMID:23090560

2012-11-01

182

A Community Capacity-Enhancement Approach to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Older Women of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Screening Older Minority Women project, the authors applied a community capacity-enhancement approach to promoting breast and cervical cancer screening among older women of color. Members of informal support networks were recruited for this health promotion intervention to empower Latina and African American women to engage in positive…

Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A.

2006-01-01

183

Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate in screening and to suggest ways that information about screening and HPV might reach a wider Greenlandic population. Conclusion Women living through the process of cervical disease, treatment and follow-up develop knowledge about HPV, cervical cell changes, cervical disease and their connection, which, if used to inform cervical screening programmes, will improve the quality of information about HPV, cervical cancer and screening participation. This includes that verbal and written information given at the point of screening and diagnosis needs to be complemented by visual imagery. PMID:23984277

Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle; Bradley, Stephen K.; Møller, Suzanne

2013-01-01

184

Screening for breast cancer with MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast MRI has emerged as an extremely powerful tool in breast imaging. The use of breast MRI for cancer detection has the potential to change our current algorithms in the detection of breast cancer. By being able to detect cancer that is occult on conventional imaging, such as mammography and sonography, MRI can detect early breast cancer that was previously

Elizabeth A Morris

2003-01-01

185

[Lung cancer screening with low dose CT requires careful consideration.  

PubMed

Results from the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) show a significant reduction in lung cancer and all-cause mortality in a high risk population screened with annual low-dose CT. Handling of pulmonary nodules, false positive tests, overdiagnosis, psychosocial consequences and cost-efficiency etc. are all aspects that require careful consideration. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on these issues. Before a recommendation can be made, we need an overall evaluation of both the benefits and harms in CT screening for lung cancer. PMID:25316363

Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem; Bach, Karen Skjøldstrup; Brodersen, John; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Døssing, Martin; Hansen, Hanne; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Larsen, Klaus Richter; Mortensen, Jann; Rasmussen, Jakob Fraes; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler; Seersholm, Niels; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Thorsen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Philip; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

2014-10-13

186

Colonoscopy screening reduces risk of advanced colorectal cancer  

Cancer.gov

A new study led by a researcher at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (home to the Abramson Cancer Center) adds support to current medical recommendations stating that screening colonoscopy substantially reduces an average-risk adult’s likelihood of being diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) in either the right or left side of the colon.

187

Successes and challenges in population-based cancer screening.  

PubMed

Cancer Care Ontario's (CCO's) organized breast, colorectal and cervical cancer screening programs are in different stages of development and maturity. Headed by clinical and scientific leads, the programs reflect a deep understanding of how to design, evaluate and report on programs based on evidence and best practice. Guided by a CCO-Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care ("the Ministry") joint committee and supported by recent investments in information technology infrastructure, the programs provide high-quality cancer screening to Ontario's eligible population. PMID:25562129

Spayne, Mary; Rabeneck, Linda; Guerriero, Lynn

2015-01-01

188

[Screening methods for colorectal cancer can be improved.  

PubMed

Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency of the screening programme. Current research into improve-ments of screening of CRC includes biological markers identified in blood. Combining blood-based biological markers with clinical and demographical parameters have shown promising results, which may improve the present approach to screening. PMID:25350810

Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk; Vilandt, Jesper; Klærke, Michael; Andersen, Jens; Nielsen, Knud T; Khalid, Ali; Laurberg, Søren; Andersen, Claus L; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

2014-03-10

189

Screening for prostate cancer in the US? Reduce the harms and keep the benefit.  

PubMed

While the benefit of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based screening is uncertain, a significant proportion of screen-detected cases is overdiagnosed. In order to make screening worthwhile, it is necessary to find policies that minimize overdiagnosis, without significantly increasing prostate cancer mortality (PCM). Using a microsimulation model (MISCAN) we project the outcomes of 83 screening policies in the US population, with different start and stop ages, screening frequencies, strategies where the PSA value changes the screening frequency, and strategies in which the PSA threshold (PSAt) increases with age. In the basecase strategy, yearly screening 50-74 with a PSAt of 3, the lifetime risk of PCM and overdiagnosis equals, respectively, 2.4 and 3.8%. The policies that reduce overdiagnosis the most (for maximum PCM increases relative to basecase of 1%, 3%, and 5%, respectively) are with a PSAt of 3, (1) yearly screening 50-74 where, if PSA <1 at age 65 or older, frequency becomes 4 years, with 3.6% (5.9% reduction), (2) 2-year screening 50-72, with 2.9% (24.3% reduction), and (3) yearly screening 50-70 (PSAt of 4 after age 66), with 2.2% (43.4% reduction). Stopping screening at age 70 is a reasonable way to reduce the harms and keep the benefit. Decreasing the stopping age has a larger effect on overdiagnosis reduction than reducing the screen frequency. Screening policies where the frequency of screening depends on PSA result or in which the PSAt changes with age did not substantially improve the balance of harms and benefits relative to simple yearly screening. PMID:25123412

de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

2015-04-01

190

Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

2013-01-01

191

International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project Breast cancer is  

E-print Network

International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project NEED Breast cancer is emerging as a uniquely on molecularly- driven research and to design models that adequately serve the study of breast cancer risk scientists and public health experts is dedicated to research on the primary prevention of breast cancer

Ginzel, Matthew

192

Is prostate cancer screening cost-effective? A microsimulation model of prostate-specific antigen-based screening for British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer may reduce mortality, but it incurs considerable risk of over diagnosis and potential harm to quality of life. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PSA screening, with and without adjustment for quality of life, for the British Columbia (BC) population. We adapted an existing natural history model using BC incidence, treatment, cost and mortality patterns. The modeled mortality benefit of screening derives from a stage-shift mechanism, assuming mortality reduction consistent with the European Study of Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer. The model projected outcomes for 40-year-old men under 14 combinations of screening ages and frequencies. Cost and utility estimates were explored with deterministic sensitivity analysis. The incremental cost-effectiveness of regular screening ranged from $36,300/LYG, for screening every four years from ages 55 to 69 years, to $588,300/LYG, for screening every two years from ages 40 to 74 years. The marginal benefits of increasing screening frequency to 2 years or starting screening at age 40 years were small and came at significant cost. After utility adjustment, all screening strategies resulted in a loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); however, this result was very sensitive to utility estimates. Plausible outcomes under a range of screening strategies inform discussion of prostate cancer screening policy in BC and similar jurisdictions. Screening may be cost-effective, but the sensitivity of results to utility values suggests individual preferences for quality versus quantity of life should be a key consideration. PMID:24443367

Pataky, Reka; Gulati, Roman; Etzioni, Ruth; Black, Peter; Chi, Kim N; Coldman, Andrew J; Pickles, Tom; Tyldesley, Scott; Peacock, Stuart

2014-08-15

193

Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with

Carla Oliveira; Gianpaolo Suriano; Paulo Ferreira; Paulo Canedo; Pardeep Kaurah; Rita Mateus; Ana Ferreira; António C Ferreira; Maria Oliveira; Céu Figueiredo; Fátima Carneiro; Gisela Keller; David Huntsman; José Machado; Raquel Seruca

2004-01-01

194

Cancer Molecular Analysis Project: Weaving a rich cancer research tapestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cancer Molecular Analysis Project (CMAP) of the NCI is integrating diverse cancer research data to elucidate fundamental etiologic processes, enable development of novel therapeutic approaches, and facilitate the bridging of basic and clinical science.

Kenneth H Buetow; Richard D Klausner; Howard Fine; Richard Kaplan; Dinah S Singer; Robert L Strausberg

2002-01-01

195

Offering Lung Cancer Screening to High-Risk Medicare Beneficiaries Saves Lives and Is Cost-Effective: An Actuarial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. Objective To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Methods Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Results Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ?30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life-year saved. Conclusion If all eligible Medicare beneficiaries had been screened and treated consistently from age 55 years, approximately 358,134 additional individuals with current or past lung cancer would be alive in 2014. LDCT screening is a low-cost and cost-effective strategy that fits well within the standard Medicare benefit, including its claims payment and quality monitoring. PMID:25237423

Pyenson, Bruce S.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

2014-01-01

196

Primary care physicians' awareness and adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCervical cancer screening guidelines were created to help healthcare professionals in appropriate screening utilizing the PAP test. However, significant variation in cervical cancer screening among primary care physicians has been noted. Knowledge of the awareness of and adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines by primary care physicians will help determine how best to disseminate and educate these physicians regarding the

Penelope Holland-Barkis; Samuel N. Forjuoh; Glen R. Couchman; Charles Capen; Terry G. Rascoe; Michael D. Reis

2006-01-01

197

Cervical cancer screening among Cambodian-American women.  

PubMed

Southeast Asian women have higher invasive cervical cancer incidence rates and lower Pap testing frequencies than most other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, there is little information about the cervical cancer screening behavior of Cambodian-American women. Cambodian residents of Seattle were surveyed in person during late 1997 and early 1998. The PRECEDE model was used to guide the development of items that assessed predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors associated with cervical cancer screening participation. The estimated overall survey response was 72%. Four hundred thirteen women completed our questionnaire. Approximately one-quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and over one-half (53%) had not been screened recently. The following variables were positively associated with a history of at least one Pap smear: younger age, greater number of years since immigration, belief about Pap testing for postmenopausal women, prenatal care in the United States, and physician recommendation. Women who believed in karma were less likely to have ever been screened for cervical cancer than those who did not. Six variables independently predicted recent screening: age; beliefs about regular checkups, cervical cancer screening for sexually inactive women, and the prolongation of life; having a female doctor; and a previous physician recommendation for Pap testing. The study findings indicate that culturally specific approaches might be effective in modifying the cervical cancer screening behavior of immigrant women. Programs targeting Cambodian-Americans are likely to be more effective if they are multifaceted and simultaneously address predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors. PMID:10385145

Taylor, V M; Schwartz, S M; Jackson, J C; Kuniyuki, A; Fischer, M; Yasui, Y; Tu, S P; Thompson, B

1999-06-01

198

Sanford-Burnham study with high-throughput screen finds compounds that regulate cancer cell invasion:  

Cancer.gov

Metastasis—the spread of cancer from the place where it first started to another place in the body—is the most common reason that cancer treatments fail. To metastasize, some types of cancer cells rely on invadopodia, cellular membrane projections that act like feet, helping them “walk” away from the primary tumor and invade surrounding tissues. To determine how cells control invadopodia formation, scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) screened a collection of pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that either promote or inhibit the process.

199

Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

2014-01-01

200

Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... early stage. These screening tests include the following: Barium -meal photofluorography: A series of x-rays of ... stomach . The patient drinks a liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) which coats the ...

201

Prostate Cancer Screening in Tyrol, Austria: Experience and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This article summarizes the experience and results of different prostate carcinoma screening projects using total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and percent free PSA as the initial test. Methods: The twelve projects studied included: (1) a mass screening study using PSA as the initial test in 21,079 volunteers; (2) an investigation of the usefulness of normal and age-referenced PSA cut-offs in

W. Horninger; A. Reissigl; H. Rogatsch; H. Volgger; M. Studen; H. Klocker; G. Bartsch

1999-01-01

202

Physician Recommendation and Patient Adherence for Colorectal Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Physician recommendation is one of the strongest, most consistent predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Little is known regarding characteristics associated with patient adherence to physician recommendations in community and academic based primary care settings. Methods Data were analyzed from 975 patients, aged 50 and over, recruited from 25 primary care practices in New Jersey. Chi-square and generalized estimate equation (GEE) analyses determined independent correlates of receipt of and adherence to physician recommendation for CRC. Results Patients reported high screening rates for CRC (59%). More than three-quarters of patients reported either screening or having received a screening recommendation (82%). Men (P=.0425), non-smokers (P=.0029), and patients who were highly educated (P=.0311) were more likely to receive a CRC screening recommendation. Patients more likely to adhere to CRC screening recommendations were older adults (P<.0001), non-smokers (P=.0005), those who were more highly educated (P=.0365), Hispanics (P=.0325), and those who were married (P<.0001). Conclusions Community and academic primary care clinicians appropriately recommended screening to high risk patients with familial risk factors. However, they less frequently recommended screening to others (i.e., women and smokers) also likely to benefit. To further increase CRC screening, clinicians must systematically recommend screening to all patients who may benefit. PMID:23136316

Hudson, Shawna V.; Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Hahn, Karissa A.; Shaw, Eric K.; Hemler, Jennifer; Crabtree, Benjamin F.

2013-01-01

203

Acceptability of cervical cancer screening in rural Mozambique.  

PubMed

In Zambézia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 101 women was undertaken in two rural communities in north-central Mozambique. We assessed a woman's willingness to be screened, knowledge about CC symptoms and treatment, and her recommendations for best methods to deliver information to other women. After the interview, we offered CC screening. Fully 86% of women accepted VIA screening when it was offered, but uptake was 100% at one clinic and only 68% at another. The cause of CC was thought to be associated with promiscuous activity (49%) and curses placed on the woman (42%). All women in one rural Mozambique clinic and two-thirds at a second clinic underwent CC screening. Knowledge about CC screening was significantly associated with uptake, suggesting educational campaigns need to be undertaken. However, educators need to be cautious about linking screening with high-risk behaviors, as women who understood the link trended toward refusing screening. PMID:22307215

Audet, Carolyn M; Silva Matos, Carla; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D; Sidat, Mohsin

2012-06-01

204

Implementation of gastric cancer screening - The global experience.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is still an important global healthcare problem, and in absolute figures it is going to remain at the present level in foreseeable future. In general, survival of patients with GC is poor mainly due to advanced-stage diagnosis. Early-stage GC can be cured by endoscopic resection or less invasive surgical treatment. Unfortunately, there is no appropriate screening strategy available for global application. This article provides a description of established national and regional GC screening programs and the screening modalities used. This review also summarizes current approaches to develop cancer-screening biomarkers. Although candidates with initial promising results have been suggested, moving discovery into clinical practice is still a major challenge. Well-designed biomarker studies, with systematic validation steps, are needed to decrease the burden of this fatal disease. PMID:25439074

Leja, M?rcis; You, Weicheng; Camargo, M Constanza; Saito, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

205

Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and management  

PubMed Central

The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research in the field of esophageal cancer. PMID:25395880

Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.; Dunkin, Brian J.

2014-01-01

206

Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool  

PubMed Central

Background Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Conclusions Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening exams. PMID:23930245

Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

2013-01-01

207

Organization of cervical cancer screening in Campinas and surrounding region, São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer screening remains a challenge in developing countries due to a complex array of problems. This paper aimed to describe the experience with organization of cervical cancer screening in three districts of Campinas and the surrounding region in São Paulo State, Brazil, and to report the resulting data. The program was organized in a pyramid format, and the health care hierarchy was defined according to the complexity and total number of medical procedures. Screening has been extended currently to 88 municipalities, of which 51 are equipped with colposcopy and eight have facilities for treating advanced cervical cancer. The standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer in Campinas was 14.2/100,000 women per year in 1993-1995, and the standardized mortality rate per district ranged from 2.7 to 3.0 per 100,000 women in 1997-1998. This project has clearly shown that hierarchical and decentralized organization of health procedures is a necessary condition for achieving the goals of an effective cervical cancer screening program. PMID:16917588

Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Pinotti, José A; Jorge, Jessé P Neves; Westin, Maria Cristina A; Tambascia, Julia K; Montemor, Eliana B L

2006-09-01

208

European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST.  

PubMed

Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their trials at August 2010, which included 32,000 people, inclusion of UKLS pilot trial will reach 36,000. An interim analysis is planned, but the final mortality data testing is scheduled for 2015. PMID:23893464

Field, John K; van Klaveren, Rob; Pedersen, Jesper H; Pastorino, Ugo; Paci, Eugino; Becker, Nikolauss; Infante, Maurizo; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J

2013-10-01

209

Advances in CT Colonography for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

CT colonography (CTC) is a validated colorectal cancer test that provides an additional minimally-invasive screening option which is likely to be preferred by some patients. Important examination prerequisites include adequate colonic cleansing and distention. Tagging of residual material aids in the differentiation of true polyps from stool. Low radiation dose technique should be employed routinely for screening studies. Readers must be skilled in the use of both 2D and 3D interpretation methods. PMID:23459511

Yee, Judy; Weinstein, Stefanie; Morgan, Tara; Alore, Patrick; Aslam, Rizwan

2013-01-01

210

Randomized mammographic screening for breast cancer in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1981 a randomized single-view mammographic screening for breast cancer was started in the south of Stockholm. The screened population in the first round numbered 40,318 women, and 20,000 women served as a well-defined control group. The age groups represented were 40–64 years, and 80.7% of the invited women participated in the study. The first round disclosed 128 breast

J. Frisell; U. Glas; L. Hellström; A. Somell

1986-01-01

211

Organised cervical cancer screening still leads to higher coverage than spontaneous screening in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

In The Netherlands, early detection of cervical cancer by programme and spontaneous screening has been common practice for more than two decades. Both types of screening are mainly performed by general practitioners. Therefore, the question is raised of whether programme screening still enhances screening uptake. To answer this question, we analysed the national health interview survey in the years 1992-1996. The coverage rate, defined as the percentage of women with at least one smear taken in the previous 5 years, was 91% for women invited for programme screening compared with 68% for women not invited. The performance of the organised programme in reducing excessive screening, i.e. smears taken in excess of the recommended age and interval range, was not clear and the effect seemed small. Furthermore, we found that half the non-attenders were 'protected' by a recent smear or a hysterectomy, and of the unprotected women, 72% showed a positive attitude towards the programme. We conclude that even after a long history of cervical cancer screening, an organised programme is still required to ensure a high coverage. PMID:9893635

Bos, A B; van Ballegooijen, M; van Gessel-Dabekaussen, A A; Habbema, J D

1998-09-01

212

Programs and Projects  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects National Lung Screening Trial (NLST/LSS) Lung Screening Feasibility Study (LSS) Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) International Prostate Screening Trials Evaluation Group (IPSTEG) Early Detection

213

Yale study estimates that screening has prevented half a million colorectal cancers  

Cancer.gov

An estimated half a million cancers were prevented by colorectal cancer screening in the United States from 1976 to 2009, report researchers from the Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale Cancer Center.

214

variantGPS: SNP500Cancer Project  

Cancer.gov

The SNP500Cancer is part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project and is specifically designed to generate resources for the identification and characterization of genetic variation in genes important in cancer. CGAP is dedicated to the development of technology, including both assays and utilization of technical platforms.

215

Project Safety Net: A Health Screening Outreach and Assessment Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Safety Net identifies low-income urban frail elderly and provides comprehensive geriatric assessment and referral. During 8-month period, 814 older persons were screened including high proportions who were widowed (51%) and who lived alone (66%). Effectiveness of program remains to be determined in randomized clinical trials. (Author/NB)

Reuben, David B.; And Others

1993-01-01

216

Medical Student Response to a Class Lipid-Screening Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical students at the State University of New York's Downstate Medical Center initiated and carried out a voluntary project to screen lipids (cholesterol) to identify known coronary risk factors. The incidence of coronary disease factors among these students and the response of students with high cholesterol levels are reported. (Authors/PP)

Lum, Gifford; And Others

1982-01-01

217

A Comparative Review of Thermography as a Breast Cancer Screening Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer of women in North America. Despite advances in treatment that have reduced mortality, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer induced death. Several well established tools are used to screen for breast cancer including clinical breast exams, mammograms, and ultrasound. Thermography was first introduced as a screening tool in 1956

Deborah A. Kennedy; Tanya Lee; Dugald Seely

2009-01-01

218

Survey of Health Plan Policies and Programs for Colorectal Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

The Survey of Health Plan Policies and Programs for Colorectal Cancer Screening is a nationwide study that will provide important information about how screening for colorectal cancer is being conducted in U.S. health plans.

219

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

2013-01-01

220

04-12-2013 DCEG Seminar: Lingen - Oral Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

April 12, 2013 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM EPN Room CDEF + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Mark W. Lingen, DDS, Ph.D., FRCPath.Professor, Departments of Pathology, Medicine and Radiation & Cellular OncologyUniversity of ChicagoTitle: Oral cancer screening

221

Markov Models for the Simulation of Cancer Screening Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents some mathematical models which optimize, from medico-economics point of view, the natural evolution of the cervical lesions and their evolution when the woman attends a cervical cancer screening program. A new index, MEI, constructed by using vectorial optimization, is given.

Chiorean, Ioana; Lup?a, Liana; Neamţiu, Luciana

2008-09-01

222

Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

Simon, Cassandra E.

2006-01-01

223

SVM Based Feature Screening Applied To Hierarchical Cervical Cancer Detection  

E-print Network

to cervical cancer detection in multispectral PAP smear images that has been recently proposed by the authors feature screening method. 1 Introduction Finding abnormal cells in PAP smear images is a "needle Segmentation Intensity Normalization Image Preprocessing Multispectral PAP Smear Images Candidate Region

224

Cervical Cancer Screening Among Chinese Immigrants in Seattle, Washington  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chinese American women have high rates of invasive cervical cancer, compared to the general population. However, little is known about the Pap testing behavior of ethnic Chinese immigrants. Methods We conducted a community-based survey of Chinese immigrants living in Seattle, Washington, during 1999. Two indicators of cervical cancer screening participation were examined: at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing in the last 2 years. Results The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample for this analysis included 647 women. Nearly one quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and only 60% had been screened recently. Factors independently associated with cervical cancer screening use included marital status, housing type, and age at immigration. Conclusion Our findings confirm low levels of cervical cancer screening among Chinese immigrants to North America. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Pap testing intervention programs for less acculturated Chinese women should be developed, implemented, and evaluated. PMID:16228798

Do, H. Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping

2006-01-01

225

Mass screening for breast cancer with sonomammography: a prospective study.  

PubMed

A prospective study was performed to assess the reliability of sonographic mammography in mass screening for breast lesions and diagnosis of small, presumably early, breast cancers. 1350 women underwent a sonomammographic examination of the breasts. Sonomammographic images were described in terms of their elementary constituents. Final diagnosis was obtained through cytological, and, when indicated, histological analysis. This ultimately led to the diagnosis of 13 breast cancers. Statistical analysis of the elementary sonomammographic image data using a logistic regression found two criteria to be highly associated with cancer. These were: (1) jagged aspect of the margins extending to the anterior or posterior walls; (2) major axis of the lesion not parallel to the skin surface. When combined, these two criteria have a 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. The conclusions of the present study were validated for the screening of young women and may be applied to the screening of small lesions. However, these conclusions should be restricted to tumors 5 mm or more in diameter and of the common histological type, i.e. the infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Within these limitations, sonographic mammography can be considered a reliable technique for mass screening for breast cancer. PMID:3208967

Rotten, D; Levaillant, J M; Le Floch, J P; Constancis, E; André, J M

1988-07-01

226

Intention to receive cancer screening in Native Americans from the Northern Plains  

PubMed Central

Background Native Americans are disproportionately affected by cancer morbidity and mortality. This study examined intention to receive cancer screening in a large sample of Native Americans from the Northern Plains, a region with high cancer mortality rates. Methods A survey was administered orally to 975 individuals in 2004–2006 from three reservations and among the urban Native American community in the service region of the Rapid City Regional Hospital. Data analysis was conducted in 2009. Results About 63% of the sample planned to receive cancer screening. In multivariate analyses, individuals who planned to receive cancer screening were women, responsible for four or more people, received physical examinations at least yearly and had received prior cancer screening. They also were more likely to hold the belief that most people would go through cancer treatment even though these treatments can be emotionally or physically uncomfortable. About 90% of those who did not plan to receive cancer screening would be more likely to intend to receive cancer screening if additional resources were available. Conclusions In an area of high cancer morbidity and mortality, over one-third of screening eligible individuals did not plan to receive cancer screening. Future research should evaluate the potential for improving cancer screening rates through interventions that seek to facilitate increased knowledge about cancer screening and access to cancer screening services in the community. PMID:21132524

Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Kanekar, Shalini; Petereit, Daniel G.; Karki, Chitra; Smith, Maureen A.

2011-01-01

227

[The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing. PMID:25294268

Castells, Antoni

2014-09-01

228

What is lacking in current decision aids on cancer screening?  

PubMed Central

Recent guidelines on cancer screening have given not only more screening options but also conflicting recommendations. Thus, patients, with their clinicians’ support, must decide whether to get screened or not, which modality to use, and how often to get screened. Decision aids could potentially lead to better shared decision making regarding screening between the patient and the clinician. We reviewed 73 decision aids on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers. The goal of this review was to assess the effectiveness of such decision aids, examine areas in need for more research, and determine how the decision aids can be currently applied in the real world setting. Most studies used sound study design. Significant variation existed in setting, theoretical framework, and measured outcomes. Just over a third of the decision aids included an explicit values clarification. Other than knowledge, little consistency was noted in which patient attributes were measured as outcomes. Few studies actually measured shared decision making. Little information was available on the feasibility and outcomes of integrating decision aids into practice. We discuss the implications for future research, as well as what the clinicians can do now to incorporate decision aids into their practice. PMID:23504675

Jimbo, Masahito; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Hawley, Sarah; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Nease, Donald E.; Ruffin, Mack T.

2013-01-01

229

Diagnostic evaluation following a positive lung screening chest radiograph in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer mortality. One of the aims of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) was to determine if annual screening chest radiographs reduce lung cancer mortality. We enrolled 154,900 individuals, aged 55–74 years; 77,445 were randomized to the intervention arm and received an annual chest radiograph for 3 or 4 years. Participants with a positive screen underwent diagnostic evaluation under guidance of their primary physician. Methods of diagnosis or exclusion of cancer, interval from screen to diagnosis, and factors predicting diagnostic testing were evaluated. One or more positive screens occurred in 17% of participants. Positive screens resulted in biopsy in 3%, with 54% positive for cancer. Biopsy likelihood was associated with a mass, smoking, age, and family history of lung cancer. Diagnostic testing stopped after a chest radiograph or computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in over half. After a second or subsequent positive screen, evaluation stopped after comparison to prior radiographs in over half. Of 308 screen-detected cancers, the diagnosis was established by thoracotomy/thoracoscopy in 47.7%, needle biopsy in 27.6%, bronchoscopy in 20.1% and mediastinoscopy in 2.9%. Eighty-four percent of screen-detected lung cancers were diagnosed within 6 months. Diagnostic evaluations following a positive screen were conducted in a timely fashion. Lung cancer was diagnosed by tissue biopsy or cytology in all cases. Lung cancer was excluded during evaluation of positive screening examinations by clinical or radiographic evaluation in all but 1.4% who required a tissue biopsy. PMID:23993734

Hocking, William G.; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Commins, John; Oken, Martin M.; Kvale, Paul A.; Hu, Ping; Ragard, Lawrence R.; Riley, Tom L.; Pinsky, Paul; Beck, Thomas M.; Prorok, Philip C.

2013-01-01

230

[Implementation of performance indicators in the czech breast cancer screening programme -? results of the regular monitoring].  

PubMed

The Czech organised breast cancer screening programme was initiated in 2002. Collection of data on screening mammography examinations, subsequent dia-gnostic procedures, and final dia-gnosis is an indispensable part of the programme. Data collection is obligatory for all accredited centres, in accordance with regulations issued by the Czech Ministry of Health. This contribution aims to demonstrate the recent results of quality monitoring of the accredited centres. Quality indicators, whose definition complies with international standards, involve the womens participation, the volume of performed examinations, the accuracy of screening mammography, the use of preoperative dia-gnostics, and the proportion of early detected tumours. Our evaluation documents a continuous improvement in quality of the Czech mammography screening programme, which is thereby in full agreement with international recommendations on quality assurance.Key words: breast neoplasms -? mass screening -? mammography -? health care quality indicators This study was supported by the project 36/14//NAP "Development and implementation of metho-dology for the evaluation of effectiveness of personalised invitations of citizens to cancer screening programmes" as part of the program--me of the Czech Ministry of Health "National action plans and conceptions". The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or?services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE "uniform requirements" for biomedical papers.Submitted: 18. 9. 2014Accepted: 24. 10. 2014. PMID:25494896

Májek, O; Barto?ková, H; Daneš, J; Skovajsová, M; Dušek, L

2014-01-01

231

Potential of Computer-Aided Diagnosis to Improve CT Lung Cancer Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) has rekindled hope that effective lung cancer screening might yet be found. Screening is justified when there is evidence that it will extend lives at reasonable cost and acceptable levels of risk. A screening test should detect all extant cancers while avoiding unnecessary workups. Thus optimal screening modalities have both high sensitivity

Noah Lee; Andrew F. Laine; Guillermo Márquez; Jeffrey M. Levsky; John K. Gohagan

2009-01-01

232

An Examination of Differential Follow-Up Rates in Cervical Cancer Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that follow-up rates for women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results vary by age, ethnicity, and initial screening results in California's Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program. The sample consisted of women in the screening program who received an abnormal cervical screening result (N = 1,738). Bivariate and logistic regression

Patrick Fox; Pam Arnsberger; Xiulan Zhang

1997-01-01

233

Breast Cancer Screening in Albania During 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Aim: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of breast cancer among women who showed up and participated in the breast cancer screening program during October 2007-October 2008 in Tirana, the Albanian capital city. Methods: A breast cancer prevention and treatment campaign was undertaken in Tirana, Albania, in 2007 which included also mammography examination for the early detection of breast cancer. All women residing in Tirana municipality were invited to undergo a mammography examination free of charge. Results: A total number of 5224 women underwent mammography examination during October 2007 – October 2008 time period in Tirana. The highest number of mammography tests were performed in October 2008 (1284 tests), followed by June 2008 with 746 mammography examinations realized. In general, the prevalence of breast cancer positive mammography readings where higher among women older than 60 years, followed by the 51-60 and 41-50 years age-groups. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that, among 5224 examined women during a one-year period, 1.9% had a positive reading in mammography. This is one of the few reports large-scale breast cancer screening in Albania. The increasing of breast cancer rates necessitates implementation of multi-directional programs to prevent, early diagnose and control this condition in Albanian women. PMID:24511273

Kopeci, Aurel; Çanaku, Dorina; Muja, Herion; Petrela, Kreshnik; Mone, Iris; Qirjako, Gentiana; Hyska, Jolanda; Preza, Krenar

2013-01-01

234

Family history in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.  

PubMed

Family history (FH) is one of the few known risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). There is also new evidence about mortality reduction in screening of PC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Therefore, we conducted a prospective study in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate the impact of FH on outcomes of PC screening. Of the 80,144 men enrolled, 31,866 men were randomized to the screening arm and were invited for screening with PSA test (cut-off 4 ng/ml) every 4 years. At the time of each invitation, FH of PC (FH) was assessed through a questionnaire. The analysis covered a follow-up of 12 years from randomization for all men with data on FH. Of the 23,702 (74.3%) invited men attending screening, 22,756 (96.0%) provided information of their FH. Altogether 1,723 (7.3%) men reported at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with PC and of them 235 (13.6%) were diagnosed with PC. Men with a first-degree FH had increased risk for PC (risk ratio (RR) 1.31, p?cancer (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-2.15). Risk for low-grade (Gleason 2-6) tumors was increased (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.69), but it was decreased for Gleason 8-10 tumors (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). PSA test performance (sensitivity and specificity) was slightly inferior for FH positives. No difference in PC mortality was observed in terms of FH. Our findings provide no support for selective PSA screening targeting men with FH of PC. PMID:25274038

Saarimäki, Lasse; Tammela, Teuvo L; Määttänen, Liisa; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula M; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi

2015-05-01

235

What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as the evidentiary foundation for an implementation guideline. Poor reporting, lack of precision and consistency in defining operational elements, and insufficient consideration of context and differences among populations are areas for additional research. PMID:21958556

2011-01-01

236

Experiences and Unmet Needs of Women Undergoing Pap Smear Cervical Cancer Screening: Impact on Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in South Eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient?=?0.78, P?=?0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16?±?0.94 vs 2.52?±?0.77, P?=?0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria. PMID:24980966

Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

2014-07-01

237

Supplementary Figure 1 Screening for cancer stem cell marker(s)  

E-print Network

.s., not significant. Nature Methods doi:10.1038/nmeth.3112 #12;Supplementary Figure 3 Screening for cancer stem cellSupplementary Figure 1 Screening for cancer stem cell marker(s) (a) Flow cytometry analysis of CD;Supplementary Figure 2 Screening for cancer stem cell marker(s) (a) Representative cytometry plots for side

Cai, Long

238

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive  

E-print Network

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive of the evidence for screening for prostate cancer1 and made a clear recommendation against screening. By giving by the benefits in terms of reduced prostate cancer mortality is open to reasonable doubt. As such, we can

El Zarki, Magda

239

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2013-10-01

240

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2011-10-01

241

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2012-10-01

242

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

243

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2014-10-01

244

Costs and Benefits of Different Strategies to Screen for Cervical Cancer in Less-Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: About 80% of cervical cancers occur in less- developed countries. This disproportionate burden of cervi- cal cancer in such countries is due mainly to the lack of well-organized screening programs. Several cervical cancer screening strategies have been proposed as more cost- effective than cytology screening. We compared the costs and benefits of different strategies and their effectiveness in saving

Jeanne S. Mandelblatt; William F. Lawrence; Lynne Gaffikin; Khunying Kobchitt Limpahayom; Pisake Lumbiganon; Suwanna Warakamin; Jason King; Bin Yi; Patricia Ringers; Paul D. Blumenthal

2002-01-01

245

Health Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors Receiving Screening Mammography  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cancer-related behavioral risk factors among female cancer survivors, relative to women without a previous diagnosis of cancer. Methods In a large cohort of 19,948 women presenting for screening mammography, questionnaires on health behaviors were administered. Results 18,510 had detailed history on health behaviors and previous cancer history. Overall 2,713 (14.7%) reported a previous cancer history. We found statistically significant results indicating cancer survivors were less likely than those with no cancer history to: report their overall health as “excellent” (13.6% vs. 21.5%), to engage in moderate or strenuous exercise (56.5% vs. 63.3%), and to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (57.4% vs. 60.2%). Conversely, cancer survivors were more likely to be current smokers (6.3% vs. 5.5%) rate their overall health as “poor” (15.8% vs. 9.1%), and to report more weight gain over time. Among cancer survivors, differences also emerged by type of primary cancer. For example, cervical cancer survivors (n=370) were most likely to report being current smokers (15.7%) and regular alcohol users (71.7%) compared to other survivors. Ovarian (n=185) and uterine (n=262) cancer survivors most frequently reported being obese (41% and 34.4% respectively). Cervical cancer survivors reported the largest weight gain (4.9 lbs at 5 yrs and 13.4 lbs at 10 yrs). Conclusions These results suggest opportunities for tailored behavioral health risk factor interventions for specific populations of cancer survivors. PMID:21293247

Rausch, Sarah M.; Millay, Shannon; Scott, Chris; Pruthi, Sandhya; Clark, Matthew M.; Patten, Christi; Stan, Daniela; Sellers, Thomas; Vachon, Celine

2010-01-01

246

Considering culture in physician-- patient communication during colorectal cancer screening.  

PubMed

Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients' and their physicians' understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/ indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients' definitions of provider-patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician-patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

Ge Gao; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P; Pasick, Rena

2009-06-01

247

Interventions to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Integrative Review  

PubMed Central

Behavior change interventions to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening have targeted people in community and primary care settings, health care providers, and health systems. Randomized controlled trials provide the strongest evidence of intervention efficacy. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate trials of CRC screening interventions published between 1997 and 2007 and to identify knowledge gaps and future directions for research. Thirty-three randomized trials that met inclusion criteria were evaluated using a modified version of the TREND criteria. Significant intervention effects were reported in six out of ten trials focused on increasing fecal occult blood testing, four of seven trials focused on sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy completion, and nine of 16 focused on completion of any screening test. Several effective interventions to promote CRC screening were identified. Future trials need to use theory to guide interventions, examine moderators and mediators, consistently report results, and use comparable outcome measures. PMID:22261002

Rawl, Susan M.; Menon, Usha; Burness, Allison; Breslau, Erica S.

2012-01-01

248

Correlates of colorectal cancer screening among residents of Ohio Appalachia.  

PubMed

There is an excess burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Appalachian region of the United States, which could be reduced by increased uptake of CRC screening tests. Thus, we examined correlates of screening among Appalachian residents at average-risk for CRC. Using a population-based sample, we conducted interviews with and obtained medical records of Appalachian Ohio residents 51-75 years between September 2009 and April 2010. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified correlates of being within CRC screening guidelines by medical records. About half of participants were within CRC screening guidelines. Participants who were older (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.07), had higher income ($30,000-$60,000, OR = 1.92, 95 % CI 1.29, 2.86; ?$60,000, OR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19, 2.72), a primary care provider (OR = 4.22, 95 % CI 1.33, 13.39), a recent check-up (OR = 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.99), had been encouraged to be screened (OR = 1.57, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.22), had been recommended by their doctor to be screened (OR = 6.68, 95 % CI 3.87, 11.52), or asked their doctor to order a screening test (OR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.36, 3.69) had higher odds of being screened within guidelines in multivariable analysis. Findings suggest that access to and utilization of healthcare services, social influence, and patient-provider communication were the major factors associated with CRC screening. Researchers and healthcare providers should develop and implement strategies targeting these barriers/facilitators to improve CRC screening rates and reduce the CRC burden among residents of Appalachia. PMID:23529450

Paskett, Electra D; Llanos, Adana A; Young, Gregory S; Pennell, Michael L; Lee, Chul-joo; Katz, Mira L

2013-08-01

249

ICSN Data - Organization of Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

250

Breast cancer screening: stages of adoption among Cambodian American women  

PubMed Central

Background Little information is available on the breast cancer screening behavior of Cambodian American women. Methods We identified households from multiple sources using Cambodian surnames and conducted a cross-sectional survey, administered by bilingual and bicultural interviewers. Breast cancer screening stages of adoption were examined based on concepts from the transtheoretical model of behavioral change. Results Our response rate was 73% (398 women in clinical breast exam (CBE) analysis, and 248 in mammography analysis) with approximately 25% each in the maintenance stage. We found significant associations between screening stage with physician characteristics. Asian American female physician increased the likelihood of being in the maintenance stage (CBE, OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.8–37.1; mammogram, OR = 74.7, 95% CI 8.3–674.6), compared to Asian American male physician with precontemplation/contemplation stage as our referent outcome. Conclusion Results from this study support the need to promote regular breast cancer screening among Cambodian American women. © 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:12088201

Tu, Shin-Ping; Yasui, Yutaka; Kuniyuki, Alan; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Jackson, J. Carey; Taylor, Vicky M.

2006-01-01

251

How to evaluate emerging technologies in cervical cancer screening?  

PubMed Central

Excellent recommendations exist for studying therapeutic and diagnostic questions. We observe that good guidelines on assessment of evidence for screening questions are currently lacking. Guidelines for diagnostic research (STARD), involving systematic application of the reference test (gold standard) to all subjects of large study populations, are not pertinent in situations of screening for disease that is currently not yet present. A five-step framework is proposed for assessing the potential use of a biomarker as a screening tool for cervical cancer: 1) correlation studies establishing a trend between the rate of biomarker expression and severity of neoplasia; 2) diagnostic studies in a clinical setting where all women are submitted to verification by the reference standard; 3) biobank-based studies with assessment in archived cytology samples of the biomarker in cervical cancer cases and controls; 4) prospective cohort studies with baseline assessment of the biomarker and monitoring of disease; 5) randomised intervention trials aiming to observe reduced incidence of cancer (or its surrogate, severe dysplasia) in the experimental arm at subsequent screening rounds. The 5-phases framework should guide researchers and test developers in planning assessment of new biomarkers and protect clinicians and stakeholders against premature claims for insufficiently evaluated products. PMID:19626591

Arbyn, Marc; Ronco, Guglielmo; Cuzick, Jack; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Castle, Philip E.

2009-01-01

252

After Breast Cancer Pooling Project  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

253

Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

2015-01-01

254

New opportunities for screening and early detection of bladder cancer.  

PubMed

In the United States, over 51,000 new cases of urinary bladder tumors are diagnosed annually. Approximately 75-85% of all newly diagnosed cases are superficial transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs). Incidence is highest (80% of the cases) in the 50-79 year age group. Recent studies have reported that 21-25% of risk for bladder cancer among United States white males is due to occupational exposure. The DuPont Chambers Works in Deepwater, New Jersey, was a major producer of two chemicals now known to be human bladder carcinogens (beta-naphthylamine and benzidine) as well as two suspected human bladder carcinogens [ortho-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene- bis,2-chloroaniline (MOCA)]. Between 1954 and 1982, DuPont screened 1723 exposed employees annually at the Chambers Works using the Papanicolaou test for urinary cytology and microscopic urinalysis. A review of the prior screening program found that employees who developed bladder cancer during this time period were approximately twice as likely to have had hematuria than those comparably exposed who did not develop bladder cancer. Building on this finding, a three-year screening study evaluated a home self-test for microscopic hematuria to aid early detection of treatable urologic conditions among exposed workers at this chemical plant. Every six months, subjects tested their urine at home for 14 consecutive days, for the presence of blood. A high degree of adherence to our protocol (over 92% completed and returned the self-testing record) as well as high compliance with repeat screening (85% returned for screening in subsequent quarters) demonstrated good acceptance and performance of the recommended schedule of self-testing. Through the first 7 periods of screening, two new cases and one recurrence of TCC of the bladder were detected. PMID:1305676

Mason, T J; Walsh, W P; Lee, K; Vogler, W

1992-01-01

255

Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP)

Aliki Christou; Judith M Katzenellenbogen; Sandra C Thompson

2010-01-01

256

Breast and cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women: a literature review using the health belief model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to review published studies that examined factors influencing breast and cervical cancer screening behavior in Hispanic women, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and manual search were used to identify articles. Cancer screening barriers common among Hispanic women include fear of cancer, fatalistic views on cancer, linguistic barriers, and culturally

LaToya T Austin; Farah Ahmad; Mary-Jane McNally; Donna E Stewart

2002-01-01

257

Screening for prostate cancer--how to manage in 2006?  

PubMed

National Societies usually recommend screening for Prostate Cancer (PC) with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination annually beginning at age 50. In high risk population including men with a family history of PC or African population screening should start at age of 45 years. PSA has been widely used to detect PC despite the fact that PSA is not specific for PC. Over the years serum PSA level of greater than 4.0 ng/ml was considered the treshold to perform prostate biopsy, searching for PC. In 2005 the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) demonstrated that the cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml for PSA is not anymore adapted due to the fact that this survey found in 15% of men with PSA < or = 4.0 ng/ml a prostate cancer on sextant biopsies. Today the value of PSA and the cut-off for Prostate biopsy is questionned suggesting that PSA level higher than 2.6 ng/ml must be the case to propose Prostate Biopsy. Catalona confirms that approximately 25% to 30% of men with PSA 2.6 to 4.0 ng/ml have prostate cancer. Schröder and Gosselaar assert that screening for PC at low PSA levels (< 4.0 ng/ml) risks to detect clinically insignificant cancers which are no threat to man. So far in the year 2006 screening for PC demonstrates accumulating evidences of efficacy but persistent uncertainty. The major question for an urologist at work when facing a young men searching early diagnosis of PC is: at which level of PSA do we have to perform rectal biopsy? PMID:16673588

Lobel, B

2005-01-01

258

Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening.  

PubMed

Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health. PMID:25105588

Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon

2014-09-01

259

Understanding Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening in Chuukese Women in Hawai‘i  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the primary cause of death due to cancer in women in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. The Chuukese population is the fastest growing segment of the Micronesian community in Hawai‘i. Little is known about the health beliefs or practices of this population in Hawai‘i. The purpose of this project was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Chuukese women in Hawai‘i regarding cervical cancer prevention and screening. Methods Research assistants from the Chuukese community were recruited and trained as members of the research team. A culturally sensitive survey tool was developed and piloted by the research team and used to interview ten key informants from the Chuukese community in Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Results There is limited knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the association with human papillomavirus (HPV). This may be indicative of a lack of health information in general. Fear, privacy concerns, lack of awareness and cultural beliefs represent the main barriers mentioned when discussing cervical cancer. Education, done in a group setting with other women, is the most recommended method of informing this community and improving preventive and screening services for cervical cancer in these women. PMID:20539995

Kawamoto, Crissy T

2010-01-01

260

Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium  

Cancer.gov

Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium International Breast Cancer Scr eening Network Biennial Meeting Kathleen Cronin Statistical Research and Applications Branch National Cancer Institute May

261

High-speed spectral nanocytology for early cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Abstract. High-throughput partial wave spectroscopy (HTPWS) is introduced as a high-speed spectral nanocytology technique that utilizes the field effect of carcinogenesis to perform minimally invasive cancer screening on at-risk populations. HTPWS uses fully automated hardware and an acousto-optic tunable filter to scan slides at low magnification, to select cells, and to rapidly acquire spectra at each spatial pixel in a cell between 450 and 700 nm, completing measurements of 30 cells in 40 min. Statistical quantitative analysis on the size and density of intracellular nanostructures extracted from the spectra at each pixel in a cell yields the diagnostic biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). Linear correlation between Ld and the length scale of nanostructures was measured in phantoms with R2=0.93. Diagnostic sensitivity was demonstrated by measuring significantly higher Ld from a human colon cancer cell line (HT29 control vector) than a less aggressive variant (epidermal growth factor receptor knockdown). Clinical diagnostic performance for lung cancer screening was tested on 23 patients, yielding a significant difference in Ld between smokers and cancer patients, p=0.02 and effect size=1.00. The high-throughput performance, nanoscale sensitivity, and diagnostic sensitivity make HTPWS a potentially clinically relevant modality for risk stratification of the large populations at risk of developing cancer. PMID:24193949

Chandler, John E.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Maneval, Charles D.; White, Craig A.; Levenson, Richard M.; Backman, Vadim

2013-01-01

262

High-speed spectral nanocytology for early cancer screening.  

PubMed

High-throughput partial wave spectroscopy (HTPWS) is introduced as a high-speed spectral nanocytology technique that utilizes the field effect of carcinogenesis to perform minimally invasive cancer screening on at-risk populations. HTPWS uses fully automated hardware and an acousto-optic tunable filter to scan slides at low magnification, to select cells, and to rapidly acquire spectra at each spatial pixel in a cell between 450 and 700 nm, completing measurements of 30 cells in 40 min. Statistical quantitative analysis on the size and density of intracellular nanostructures extracted from the spectra at each pixel in a cell yields the diagnostic biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). Linear correlation between Ld and the length scale of nanostructures was measured in phantoms with R2=0.93. Diagnostic sensitivity was demonstrated by measuring significantly higher Ld from a human colon cancer cell line (HT29 control vector) than a less aggressive variant (epidermal growth factor receptor knockdown). Clinical diagnostic performance for lung cancer screening was tested on 23 patients, yielding a significant difference in Ld between smokers and cancer patients, p=0.02 and effect size=1.00. The high-throughput performance, nanoscale sensitivity, and diagnostic sensitivity make HTPWS a potentially clinically relevant modality for risk stratification of the large populations at risk of developing cancer. PMID:24193949

Chandler, John E; Subramanian, Hariharan; Maneval, Charles D; White, Craig A; Levenson, Richard M; Backman, Vadim

2013-11-01

263

Evaluating teaching techniques in the Hmong breast and cervical cancer health awareness project.  

PubMed

Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage and have low literacy and experienced care that are not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male participants?=?30 and female participants?=?120). Teach-back method was used to assess the participants' understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants' responses. The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people's understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly, all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations. PMID:24488558

Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

2014-06-01

264

A new emissive projection display technology and a high contrast DLP projection display on black screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Sun Innovations demonstrates an innovative emissive projection display (EPD) system. It is comprised of a fully transparent fluorescent screen with a UV image projector. The screen can be applied to glass windows or windshield, without affecting visible light transmission. The UV projector can be based on either a DLP (digital light processor) or a laser scanner display engine. For a DLP based projector, a discharge lamp coupled to a set of UV filters can be applied to generate a full color video image on the transparent screen. UV or blue-ray laser diodes of different wavelengths can be combined with scanning mirrors to generate a vector display for full windshield display applications. This display combines the best of both worlds of conventional projection and emissive display technologies. Like a projection display, the screen has no pixel structure and can be manufactured roll to roll; the display is scalable. Like an emissive display (e.g. plasma or CRT), the quality of the image is superior, with very large viewing angles. It also offers some unique features. For example, in addition to a fully transparent display on windows or windshields, it can be applied to a black substrate to create the first front projection display on true "black" screen that has superior image contrast at low projection power. This fundamentally new display platform can enable multiple major commercial applications that can not be addressed by any of the existing display technologies.

Sun, Ted X.; Cheng, Botao

2011-03-01

265

Screening for HPV Outperforms Pap Test for Cervical Cancer Published on Cancer Network (http://www.cancernetwork.com)  

E-print Network

,000 in the HPV-screened groups, compared with 36 women per 100,000 in the groups screened by Pap smear. Guglielmo and not on the specific protocol, the authors stated. The Pap smear procedure takes a sample of cells from the cervixScreening for HPV Outperforms Pap Test for Cervical Cancer Published on Cancer Network (http

Serfling, Robert

266

Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates amongst female Cambodian, Somali, and Vietnamese immigrants in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Minority women, particularly immigrants, have lower cancer screening rates than Caucasian women, but little else is known about cancer screening among immigrant women. Our objective was to assess breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates among immigrant women from Cambodia, Somalia, and Vietnam and explore screening barriers. METHODS: We measured screening rates by systematic chart review (N = 100)

Ponnila S Samuel; Jane P Pringle; Nathaniel W James IV; Susan J Fielding; Kathleen M Fairfield

2009-01-01

267

Colorectal Cancer Screening Activities in ICSN Countries, June 2006  

Cancer.gov

Following the successful pilot program that ran from 2002-2004, the Australian government has allocated funding to phase in a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program, using an immunochemical FOBT, followed by colonoscopy if indicated. The first phase of the program (2006-2008) will target people turning 55 or 65 years of age between 1 May 2006 and 30 June 2008 and those who participated in the Pilot Program.

268

Risk-specific optimal cancer screening schedules: an application to breast cancer early detection  

PubMed Central

The optimal schedules for breast cancer screening in terms of examination frequency and ages at examination are of practical interest. A decision-theoretic approach is explored to search for optimal cancer screening programs which should achieve maximum survival benefit while balancing the associated cost to the health care system. We propose a class of utility functions that account for costs associated with screening examinations and value of survival benefit under a non-stable disease model. We consider two different optimization criteria: optimize the number of screening examinations with equal screening intervals between exams but without a pre-fixed total cost; and optimize the ages at which screening should be given for a fixed total cost. We show that an optimal solution exists under each of the two frameworks. The proposed methods may consider women at different levels of risk for breast cancer so that the optimal screening strategies will be tailored according to a woman’s risk of developing the disease. Results of a numerical study are presented and the proposed models are illustrated with various data inputs. We also use the data inputs from the Health Insurance Plan of New York (HIP) and Canadian National Breast Screening Study (CNBSS) to illustrate the proposed models and to compare the utility values between the optimal schedules and the actual schedules in the HIP and CNBSS trials. Here, the utility is defined as the difference in cure rates between cases found at screening examinations and cases found between screening examinations while accounting for the cost of examinations, under a given screening schedule. PMID:22162743

Ahern, Charlotte Hsieh; Cheng, Yi; Shen, Yu

2011-01-01

269

CRCHD SPN Project: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Project: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network INVESTIGATOR: Allan Hubbell, M.D. INSTITUTION: Pacific

270

Utilization patterns of cervical cancer screening in Italy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to identify the use of cervical cancer screening and sociodemographic determinants associated with proper screening, overscreening, and underscreening in the Italian target population. Cross-sectional data from the national last available survey 'Health and use of health care in Italy,' conducted between December 2004 and September 2005, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk factors associated independently with Pap test utilization. Our final sample included 36?161 women aged 25-64 years. Among women who reported having a Pap smear at least once, 20?920 (81.6%) repeated the Pap smear after the first one: 15?454 (74.3%) more than once every 3 years ('OVER' screening) and 2599 (12.4%) less than once every 3 years ('UNDER' screening). Among the independent risk factors associated with 'OVER' screening were higher social class [odds ratio (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.39], being a former smoker (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28), and having had two or more pregnancies in the last 5 years (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.70), whereas 'UNDER' screening was associated with the age group of 55-64 years (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.76-2.53) and being divorced (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.02-1.71). Improving Pap test compliance according to the proper timing is important for future reduction in cervical cancer mortality. PMID:24977627

Barbadoro, Pamela; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Di Tondo, Elena; Vallorani, Sarah; Mazzarini, Giorgia; Prospero, Emilia

2014-06-27

271

Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer: Screening, clinical, molecular and genetic findings.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer, the commonest of endocrine malignancies, continues increasing in incidence being the 5th more prevalent cancer among women in the United States in 2012. Familial thyroid cancer has become a well-recognized, unique, clinical entity in patients with thyroid cancer originating from follicular cells, that is, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. Hereditary nonmedullary thyroid cancer may occur as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes (familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner's syndrome, Cowden's disease, Carney's complex type 1, Werner's syndrome, and papillary renal neoplasia) or as a primary feature (familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer [FNMTC]). Although there is some controversy, some epidemiologic and clinical kindred studies have shown that FNMTC is associated with more aggressive disease than sporadic cases, with higher rates of multicentric tumours, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal invasion, and shorter disease-free survival. This way, preventing screening will allow earlier detection, more timely intervention, and hopefully improved outcomes for patients and their families. On the other hand, in the last years, an important number of genetic studies on FNMTC have been published, trying to determine its genetic contribution. However, the genetic inheritance of FNMTC remains unclear; but it is believed to be autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. This paper provides an extensive overview of FNMTC from several points of view. Firstly, the impact of early detection on prognosis, secondly, the management and follow-up of FNMTC patients, and finally, the role of susceptibility loci, microRNAs (miRNAs) and telomerases in recently identified isolated cases of FNMTC. PMID:25218916

Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Parrilla, Pascual; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

2014-12-01

272

[Depression and advanced cancer: agreement between different screening strategies].  

PubMed

Depression is a frequent problem in advanced cancer patients. However, there is no systematic screening for depression in the majority of cancer center resulting in underdiagnosed depression among cancer patients. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of agreement between self-reported depression by the patient and the physician and nurse assessment using the same tools. One of the secondary objectives was to estimate the possibility of a systematic and repeated (at one month) assessment. We used two scales for depression screening: the Brief Edinburg Depression Scale (BEDS) and the depression item of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Twenty-nine patients were included and eight of them (28%) had a BEDS score >6 and benefited from the initiation or modification of their antidepressant treatment. At visit 2, 15 patients were seen again and BEDS score was found ?6 for all of them. A moderate concordance was found between assessment using the BEDS by patient and physician's (?=0.519) and low agreement was found between physician and nurse regardless of the tool used (? from 0.071 to 0.313). Researches with larger cohorts are now needed to confirm the benefits of depression's screening in this frail population and also to assess available strategies. PMID:24556283

Rhondali, Wadih; Chirac, Anne; Celles, Laurent; Filbet, Marilène

2014-02-01

273

Annex to Quirke et al. Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis: annotations of colorectal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidisciplinary, evidence-based European Guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have\\u000a recently been developed by experts in a pan-European project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.\\u000a The full guideline document includes a chapter on pathology with pan-European recommendations which take into account the\\u000a diversity and heterogeneity of health care systems across the EU. The

Phil Quirke; René Lambert; Lawrence von Karsa; Mauro Risio

2011-01-01

274

Body mass index and colon cancer screening: The road ahead  

PubMed Central

Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies.

Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

2015-01-01

275

Primary Care Practice Organization Influences Colorectal Cancer Screening Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify primary care practice characteristics associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening performance, controlling for patient-level factors. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary care director survey (1999–2000) of 155 VA primary care clinics linked with 38,818 eligible patients' sociodemographics, utilization, and CRC screening experience using centralized administrative and chart-review data (2001). Study Design Practices were characterized by degrees of centralization (e.g., authority over operations, staffing, outside-practice influence); resources (e.g., sufficiency of nonphysician staffing, space, clinical support arrangements); and complexity (e.g., facility size, academic status, managed care penetration), adjusting for patient-level covariates and contextual factors. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Chart-based evidence of CRC screening through direct colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or consecutive fecal occult blood tests, eliminating cases with documented histories of CRC, polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease. Principal Findings After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization, patients were significantly more likely to be screened for CRC if their primary care practices had greater autonomy over the internal structure of care delivery (p<.04), more clinical support arrangements (p < .03), and smaller size (p < .001). Conclusions Deficits in primary care clinical support arrangements and local autonomy over operational management and referral procedures are associated with significantly lower CRC screening performance. Competition with hospital resource demands may impinge on the degree of internal organization of their affiliated primary care practices. PMID:17489907

Yano, Elizabeth M; Soban, Lynn M; Parkerton, Patricia H; Etzioni, David A

2007-01-01

276

Body mass index and colon cancer screening: The road ahead.  

PubMed

Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies. PMID:25663756

Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

2015-02-01

277

Adherence of Low-income Women to Cancer Screening Recommendations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND African-American and low-income women have lower rates of cancer screening and higher rates of late-stage disease than do their counterparts. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of primary care, health insurance, and HMO participation on adherence to regular breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. DESIGN Random-digit-dial and targeted household telephone survey of a population-based sample. SETTING Washington, D.C. census tracts with ?30% of households below 200% of federal poverty threshold. PARTICIPANTS Included in the survey were 1,205 women over age 40, 82% of whom were African American. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Adherence was defined as reported receipt of the last 2 screening tests within recommended intervals for age. RESULTS The survey completion rate was 85%. Overall, 75% of respondents were adherent to regular Pap smears, 66% to clinical breast exams, 65% to mammography, and 29% to fecal occult blood test recommendations. Continuity with a single primary care practitioner, comprehensive service delivery, and higher patient satisfaction with the relationships with primary care practitioners were associated with higher adherence across the 4 screening tests, after considering other factors. Coordination of care also was associated with screening adherence for women age 65 and over, but not for the younger women. Compared with counterparts in non-HMO plans, women enrolled in health maintenance organizations were also more likely to be adherent to regular screening (e.g., Pap, odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 3.17; clinical breast exam, OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.44; mammogram, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.31; fecal occult blood test, OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.83.) CONCLUSIONS Organizing healthcare services to promote continuity with a specific primary care clinician, a comprehensive array of services available at the primary care delivery site, coordination among providers, and better patient-practitioner relationships are likely to improve inner-city, low-income women's adherence to cancer screening recommendations. PMID:11841530

O'Malley, Ann S; Forrest, Christopher B; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

2002-01-01

278

Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa

2014-01-01

279

Using an Ocean of Data, Researchers Model Real-Life Benefits of Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Using the results of screening trials, the NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network is trying to estimate the true benefit of cancer screening in the general population and identify the optimal way to implement screening within the health care system.

280

The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening

Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

2012-01-01

281

Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths  

Cancer.gov

Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

282

Identification of inhibitors of ovarian cancer stem-like cells by high-throughput screening  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian cancer stem cells are characterized by self-renewal capacity, ability to differentiate into distinct lineages, as well as higher invasiveness and resistance to many anticancer agents. Since they may be responsible for the recurrence of ovarian cancer after initial response to chemotherapy, development of new therapies targeting this special cellular subpopulation embedded within bulk ovarian cancers is warranted. Methods A high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign was performed with 825 compounds from the Mechanistic Set chemical library [Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)/National Cancer Institute (NCI)] against ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSC) using a resazurin-based cell cytotoxicity assay. Identified sets of active compounds were projected onto self-organizing maps to identify their putative cellular response groups. Results From 793 screening compounds with evaluable data, 158 were found to have significant inhibitory effects on ovarian CSC. Computational analysis indicates that the majority of these compounds are associated with mitotic cellular responses. Conclusions Our HTS has uncovered a number of candidate compounds that may, after further testing, prove effective in targeting both ovarian CSC and their more differentiated progeny. PMID:23078816

2012-01-01

283

75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...screened according to guidelines. Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other common cancers, particularly breast and cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other...

2010-01-15

284

Professionals' role in implementing a cervical cancer screening program.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the awareness, motivation, and readiness of medical staff to take part in a cervical cancer screening program (CSP), with the ultimate aim of increasing the response rate to invitation letters and improving CSP effectiveness and coverage. Certified gynecologists (GYNs) and general practitioners (GPs) practicing in the national and private healthcare systems in Latvia were given specially designed multiple-choice questionnaires. Of 213 questionnaires distributed to GYNs, 74% were completed (32% response rate of all 486 GYNs in Latvia). GPs were sent 933 questionnaires, 24% were returned (15% response rate of all 1,455 GPs in Latvia). GPs registered for 10 years or more knew significantly less about prevention and screening for cervical cancer compared to GYNs registered for the same amount of time (p = 0.05). This finding was not seen among the GYNs (p = 0.782). In the entire study group, the average score for correct answers was 5.97 (SD 2.602). Knowledge in the GP group was significantly lower (5.03, SD 2.243) than in the GYN group (7.22, SD 2.527, p < 0.001). Irrespective of specialization and place of work, knowledge was evaluated as poorer with an increase in age (RR = 0.950; p < 0.001). The knowledge, awareness, and perception of GYNs regarding cervical cancer prevention and screening in Latvia is sufficient but not good, and that of GPs is poor. Doctors would like to learn more about preventing cervical cancer. PMID:25527039

Viberga, Ilze; Engele, Ludmila; Kojalo, Una; Santare, Daiga

2014-01-01

285

Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

2014-09-01

286

The correlation between gastric cancer screening method and the clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A gastric cancer (GC) screening program using gastrofiberscopy (GFS) or double contrast upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS),\\u000a as a public policy, has been used in Korea since 1996. The aim of this study was to assess whether there have been major changes\\u000a in clinicopathologic features of GC by introducing GC screening.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: We reviewed the medical records of 1478 consecutive

Ji-Youn Han; Hyehyun Son; Won Chul Lee; Byung Gil Choi

2003-01-01

287

Minority Women and Breast Cancer Screening: The Role of Cultural Explanatory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammography and clinical breast exams are effective secondary prevention techniques for reducing the morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer. Although minority women have higher mortality rates due to breast cancer, they are less likely than white women to use screening procedures. This paper provides a complementary understanding of the use of breast cancer screening among minority women by drawing

Shireen S. Rajaram; Anahita Rashidi

1998-01-01

288

A focus group study of factors influencing African-American men's prostate cancer screening behavior.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to identify the factors perceived by African-American men as influencing their behavior relative to prostate cancer screening. A total of 49 African-American men, age 40 and above, participated in 10 focus group discussions in Florida. Data collection was between October 12, 2001 and March 9, 2002 in Tallahassee, Tampa, and Miami. Data analysis was conducted using a comprehensive ethnographical analysis, including the use of an ethnographical retrieval program, Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (QSR NUD*IST 4.0) software. Factors identified as influencing prostate cancer screening participation by African-American men were impediments to prostate cancer screening; positive outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; social influence; negative outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; resources or opportunities that facilitate prostate cancer screening; prostate cancer knowledge; perceived susceptibility to prostate cancer; perceived threat of prostate cancer; perceived severity of prostate cancer; positive health activities; illness experience; and prostate cancer screening intervention message concept, message source, and message channel. The results of this study may offer an excellent guide to designing effective, culturally sensitive, and relevant interventions, which would increase African-American men's participation in prostate cancer screening. PMID:15233488

Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John; Emanuel, Angela; LaRose-Pierre, Margareth; Brown, James; Nash, Rowena

2004-01-01

289

Time-Domain Microwave Cancer Screening: Optimized Pulse Shaping Applied to Realistically Shaped Breast Phantoms  

E-print Network

Time-Domain Microwave Cancer Screening: Optimized Pulse Shaping Applied to Realistically Shaped detection ability of a time- domain microwave radar system for breast cancer screening fed with two efficiency. Index Terms -- cancer detection, microwave imaging, phantoms, pulse shaping methods, radar

Coates, Mark

290

Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

2015-01-01

291

Breast cancer mortality in participants of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program started in 1996. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report using individual-based data on invitation and participation to analyze breast cancer mortality among screened and nonscreened women in the program. Methods Information on dates of invitation, attendance, breast cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, and cause of death was linked by using unique 11-digit personal identification numbers assigned all inhabitants of Norway at birth or immigration. In total, 699,628 women ages 50 to 69 years without prior a diagnosis of breast cancer were invited to the program from 1996 to 2009 and were followed for breast cancer through 2009 and death through 2010. Incidence-based breast cancer mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were compared between the screened and nonscreened cohorts using a Poisson regression model. The MRRs were adjusted for calendar period, attained age, years since inclusion in the cohorts, and self-selection bias. RESULTS The crude breast cancer mortality rate was 20.7 per 100,000 women-years for the screened cohort compared with 39.7 per 100,000 women-years for the nonscreened cohort, resulting in an MRR of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.59). The mortality reduction associated with attendance in the program was 43% (MRR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.64) after adjusting for calendar period, attained age, years after inclusion in the cohort, and self-selection bias. CONCLUSIONS After 15 years of follow-up, a 43% reduction in mortality was observed among women who attended the national mammographic screening program in Norway. PMID:23720226

Hofvind, Solveig; Ursin, Giske; Tretli, Steinar; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Møller, Bjørn

2013-01-01

292

Aid-Assisted Decision-Making and Colorectal Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Shared decision-making (SDM) is a widely recommended yet unproven strategy for increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake. Previous trials of decision aids to increase SDM and CRC screening uptake have yielded mixed results. Purpose To assess the impact of decision aid–assisted SDM on CRC screening uptake. Design RCT. Setting/participants The study was conducted at an urban, academic safety-net hospital and community health center between 2005 and 2010. Participants were asymptomatic, average-risk patients aged 50–75 years due for CRC screening. Intervention Study participants (n=825) were randomized to one of two intervention arms (decision aid plus personalized risk assessment or decision aid alone) or control arm. The interventions took place just prior to a routine office visit with their primary care providers. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was completion of a CRC screening test within 12 months of the study visit. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of test completion and mediators of the intervention effect. Analysis was completed in 2011. Results Patients in the decision-aid group were more likely to complete a screening test than control patients (43.1% vs 34.8%; p=0.046) within 12 months of the study visit; conversely, test uptake for the decision aid and decision aid plus personalized risk assessment arms was similar (43.1% vs 37.1%; p=0.15). Assignment to the decision-aid arm (AOR 1.48; 95% CI=1.04, 2.10), black race (AOR 1.52, 95% CI=1.12, 2.06) and a preference for a patient-dominant decisionmaking approach (AOR, 1.55; 95% CI=1.02, 2.35) were independent determinants of test completion. Activation of the screening discussion and enhanced screening intentions mediated the intervention effect. Conclusions Decision aid–assisted SDM has a modest impact on CRC screening uptake. A decision aid plus personalized risk assessment tool is no more effective than a decision aid alone. PMID:23159252

Schroy, Paul C.; Emmons, Karen M.; Peters, Ellen; Glick, Julie T.; Robinson, Patricia A.; Lydotes, Maria A.; Mylvaganam, Shamini R.; Coe, Alison M.; Chen, Clara A.; Chaisson, Christine E.; Pignone, Michael P.; Prout, Marianne N.; Davidson, Peter K.; Heeren, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

293

Patterns and determinants of breast and cervical cancer non-screening among Appalachian women  

PubMed Central

Breast and cervical cancer account for nearly one-third of new cancer cases and one-sixth of cancer deaths. Cancer, the second leading cause of all deaths in the US, will claim the lives of nearly 800,000 women this year, which is particularly unfortunate because effective modes of early detection could significantly reduce mortality from breast and cervical cancer. We examined patterns of non-screening among Appalachian women. In-person interviews were conducted with 222 Appalachian women who fell outside of screening recommendations for timing of Pap tests and mammograms. These women, from six Appalachian counties, were participating in a group-randomized, multi-component trial aimed at increasing adherence to cancer screening recommendations. Results indicated that participants who were rarely or never screened for breast cancer were also likely to be rarely or never screened for cervical cancer. In addition, four key barriers were identified as independently and significantly associated with being rarely or never screened for both cervical and breast cancer. An improved understanding of cancer screening patterns plus the barriers underlying lack of screening may move us closer to developing effective interventions that facilitate women’s use of screening. PMID:23937729

Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Studts, Christina R.; Hatcher-Keller, Jenna; Buelt, Eliza; Adams, Elwanda

2013-01-01

294

Removing Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Act of 2014 (S 2348 / 113th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

The bill aims to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to waive coinsurance under Medicare for colorectal cancer screening tests, regardless of whether therapeutic intervention is required during the screening. This would provide for full coverage

295

Removing Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Act of 2013 (HR 1070; 113th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

H.R.1070 would amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to waive coinsurance under Medicare for colorectal cancer screening tests, regardless of whether therapeutic intervention is required during the screening. Rep. Charles Dent (R-PA) introduced

296

Monitoring diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP  

Cancer.gov

Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP Julietta Patnick ICSN 2008 Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Screening: Principles • Maintenance of minimum

297

Barriers and Facilitators of Prostate Cancer Screening among Filipino Men in Hawai’i  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawai’i. Design Exploratory, qualitative. Setting Community-based settings in Hawai’i. Sample 20 Filipino men, 40 years old or older Methods Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis performed for emergent themes. Main Research Variables Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally-relevant interventional strategies Findings Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek healthcare when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friend who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally-relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from health professionals and cancer survivors; radio/television commercials and newspaper articles targeted to the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano and/or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by Filipino multilingual, male healthcare professionals. Conclusions Culturally-relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Implications for Nursing Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men. PMID:21356660

Conde, Francisco A.; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F.; Misola, Jane

2013-01-01

298

Plasma methylated septin 9: a colorectal cancer screening marker.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a slow-developing cancer (10-15 years) with one of the highest frequencies in the world's population. Many countries have implemented various CRC screening programs, but have not achieved the desired compliance. Colonoscopy - considered the gold standard for CRC screening - has its limitations as well as the other techniques used, such as irrigoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, fecal blood and hemoglobin tests. The biomarker septin 9 has been found to be hypermethylated in nearly 100% of tissue neoplasia specimens and detected in circulating DNA fractions of CRC patients. A commercially available assay for septin 9 has been developed with moderate sensitivity (?70%) and specificity (?90%) and a second generation assay, Epi proColon 2.0 (Epigenomics AG), shows increased sensitivity (?92%). The performance of the assay proved to be independent of tumor site and reaches a high sensitivity of 77%, even in early cancer stages (I and II). Furthermore, septin 9 was recently used in follow-up studies for detection of early recurrence of CRC. This article evaluates the opportunities, known limitations and future perspectives of the recently introduced Epi proColon(®) 2.0 test, which is based on the detection of aberrantly methylated DNA of the v2 region of the septin 9 gene in plasma. PMID:25429690

Molnár, Béla; Tóth, Kinga; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tulassay, Zsolt

2015-02-01

299

Is Screening for Cancer Worth While? Results from a Well-woman Clinic for Cancer Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,768 women were screened for breast and cervical cancer in the year May 1968 to April 1969. Clinical examination followed the completion of a simple questionary. Investigations included thermography and mammography of the breast and cytology of the cervical and vaginal smears. Breast cancer was detected in 15 patients (0·85% or 8·5 per 1,000) and none was aware of any

J. B. Davey; W. P. Greening; J. A. McKinna

1970-01-01

300

Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

2014-01-01

301

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

302

Lung Cancer Screening Trial Shows Mortality Benefit from Low-Dose CT  

Cancer.gov

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

303

Design of the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial are to determine in screenees ages 55–74 at entry whether screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (60-cm sigmoidoscope) can reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, whether screening with chest X-ray can reduce mortality from lung cancer, whether screenng men with digital rectal examination (DRE) plus serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) can reduce

Philip C. Prorok; Gerald L. Andriole; Robert S. Bresalier; Saundra S. Buys; David Chia; E. David Crawford; Ronald Fogel; Edward P. Gelmann; Fred Gilbert; Marsha A. Hasson; Richard B. Hayes; Christine Cole Johnson; Jack S. Mandel; Albert Oberman; Barbara O'Brien; Martin M. Oken; Sameer Rafla; Douglas Reding; Wilmer Rutt; Joel L. Weissfeld; Lance Yokochi; John K. Gohagan

2000-01-01

304

Personalizing Age of Cancer Screening Cessation Based on Comorbidity: Model estimates of harms and benefits  

PubMed Central

Background Harms and benefits of cancer screening depend on age and comorbidity, yet reliable estimates are lacking. Objective To estimate the harms and benefits of cancer screening by age and comorbidity to inform decisions about screening cessation. Design Collaborative modeling with seven well-established cancer simulation models and common data on average and comorbidity level-specific life expectancy from SEER-Medicare. Setting US population. Patients US cohorts aged 66–90 years in 2010 with average health or one of four comorbidity levels (linked to specific conditions): none, mild, moderate, or severe. Intervention Mammography, prostate-specific antigen testing, or fecal immunochemical testing. Measurements Lifetime cancer deaths prevented and life-years gained (benefits); false-positive tests and overdiagnosed cancers (harms). For each comorbidity level: the age at which harms and benefits of screening were similar to that for individuals with average health undergoing screening at age 74. Results Screening 1000 women with average life expectancy at age 74 for breast cancer resulted in 79–96 (range across models) false-positives, 0.5–0.8 overdiagnosed cancers, and 0.7–0.9 breast cancer deaths prevented. While absolute numbers of harms and benefits differed across cancer sites, the ages at which to cease screening were highly consistent across models and cancer sites when based on harm-benefit ratios comparable to screening average-health individuals at age 74. For individuals with no, mild, moderate, and severe comorbidities, screening until ages of 76, 74, 72, and 66, respectively, resulted in similar harms and benefits as for average-health individuals. Limitations Comorbidity only influenced life expectancy. Conclusion Comorbidity is an important determinant of harms and benefits of screening. Estimates of screening benefits and harms by comorbidity can inform discussions between providers and their older patients about personalizing decisions about when to stop cancer screening. Primary Funding Source National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health PMID:25023249

Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Gulati, Roman; Mariotto, Angela B; Schechter, Clyde B; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Knudsen, Amy B; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Heijnsdijk, Eveline AM; Pabiniak, Chester; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Rutter, Carolyn M; Kuntz, Karen M; Feuer, Eric J; Etzioni, Ruth; de Koning, Harry J; Zauber, Ann G; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

2014-01-01

305

Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban African American Clinic Patients: Differences by Gender and Screening Status  

PubMed Central

African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in increasing screening rates among African Americans if tailored to gender and screening status. PMID:20443096

Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.

2010-01-01

306

Ratio of 11-desoxy 17-oxosteroids to creatinine in a population screened for breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

During a population-based screening project for breast cancer, almost 15,000 women aged 50 years and over have provided a 12 h (overnight) sample of urine for research purposes. In 3,789 women the excretion of 11-desoxy-17-oxosteroids (DOOS) and creatinine was measured. Results were analysed in terms of urinary concentrations and of a ratio between DOOS and creatinine. Age had an effect on DOOS, creatinine and their ratio. Body weight and body surface area had an effect on creatinine excretion and therefore on the ratio. The following variables did not have an appreciable effect on the above-mentioned ratio: a family history of breast cancer, parity and age at first pregnancy, menopause and oestrogenic drugs, and parenchymal pattern of the breast as observed on the xeromammogram. Breast cancer was found at first screening in 106 out of 14,697 women. In 100 of these cases DOOS and creatinine were measured. Excretion values expressed as the ratio between the two, allowing for body surface area, did not differ materially from those of 100 age-matched controls. These results lead the authors to the conclusion that the determination of androgen metabolite excretion in women over 50 years of age is of no help in selecting a group at high risk of breast cancer. PMID:444408

Poortman, J.; van der Smissen, J.; Collette, H. J.; de Waard, F.

1979-01-01

307

Cervical Cancer Participation Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

308

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

309

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

310

A record linkage process of a cervical cancer screening database.  

PubMed

This paper aims at to present the integration of the files of the Brazilian Cervical Cancer Information System (SISCOLO) in order to identify all women in the system. SISCOLO has the exam as the unit of observation and the women are not uniquely identified. It has two main tables: histology and cytology, containing the histological and cytological examinations of women, respectively. In this study, data from June 2006 to December 2009 were used. Each table was linked with itself and with the other through record linkage methods. The integration identified 6236 women in the histology table and 1,678,993 in the cytology table. 5324 women from the histology table had records in the cytology table. The sensitivities were above 90% and the specificities and precisions near 100%. This study showed that it is possible to integrate SISCOLO to produce indicators for the evaluation of the cervical cancer screening programme taking the woman as the unit of observation. PMID:22341207

Freire, Sergio Miranda; de Almeida, Rosimary Terezinha; Cabral, Maria Deolinda Borges; Bastos, Ediane de Assis; Souza, Rômulo Cristovão; da Silva, Mariá Gonçalves Pereira

2012-10-01

311

Automated Recommendation for Cervical Cancer Screening and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

2014-01-01

312

ICSN Data - Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

313

Large Portion of Late-Stage Breast Cancers Associated With Absence of Screening  

Cancer.gov

Increasing mammography screening rates and investing in research to improve breast cancer detection technologies should be top priorities, according to authors of a study published in the October 20, 2004, Journal of the National Cancer Institute

314

Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes of African Immigrants and Refugees  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

315

Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests.  

E-print Network

Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family...

Nobbenhuis, Marielle AE; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Moskovic, Eleanor; Lennard, Fiona; Pharoah, Paul; Jacobs, Ian; Ward, Ann; Barton, Desmond PJ; Ind, Thomas EJ; Shepherd, John H; Bridges, Jane E; Gore, Martin; Haracopos, Chris; Shanley, Susan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Thomas, Sarah; Eeles, Rosalind A

2011-11-23

316

ICSN Data - Policies on Age Groups, Screening Intervals, & Detection Methods  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Characteristics

317

Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women. A total of 260 women were administered with questionnaires which were both self and interviewer administered. These were analysed using SPSS version 11. Results: Respondents exhibited a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening (43.5%); however, their knowledge of risk factors was poor. There was generally good attitude to cervical cancer screening (80.4%), but their level of practice was low (15.4%). Conclusions: There was a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Nigerian market women in this study, their practice of cervical cancer screening was poor. PMID:24403709

Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Sabitu, Kabiru; Idris, Suleiman Hadejia; Ahmed, Rukaiya

2013-01-01

318

Factors influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee  

PubMed Central

This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n=334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

2014-01-01

319

Factors influencing breast cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee.  

PubMed

This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n = 334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P < .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P < .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

2014-10-01

320

[Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT - Danish and international results.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the cancer type that causes the largest number of deaths in Denmark. With advances in medical imaging and widespread use of computed tomography (CT), it is possible to detect even small abnormalities in lung tissue. This has led to a great interest in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT and launching of randomised screening trials worldwide. This paper gives an overview of the current lung cancer screening trials in Denmark and internationally and focuses on main lung cancer findings and mortality results. PMID:25316371

Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem; Bach, Karen Skjøldstrup; Brodersen, John; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Døssing, Martin; Hansen, Hanne; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Larsen, Klaus Richter; Mortensen, Jann; Rasmussen, Jakob Fraes; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler; Seersholm, Niels; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Thorsen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Philip; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

2014-10-13

321

A Screening Technique for Prostate Cancer by Hair Chemical Analysis and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of cancer may not only substantially reduce the overall health care costs but also reduce the long term morbidity\\u000a and death from cancer. Although there are screening techniques available for prostate cancer, they all have practical limitations.\\u000a In this paper, a new screening technique for prostate cancer is discussed. This technique applies artificial intelligence\\u000a on the chemical analytical

Ping Wu; Kok Liang Heng; Shuo Wang Yang; Yi Feng Chen; Ravuru Subramanyam Mohan; Peter Huat Chye Lim

1999-01-01

322

A framework for improving the quality of cancer care: the case of breast and cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed

This commentary presents a conceptual framework, Quality in the Continuum of Cancer Care (QCCC), for quality improvement studies and research. Data sources include review of relevant literature (cancer care, quality improvement, organizational behavior, health services evaluation, and research). The Detecting Early Tumors Enables Cancer Therapy (DETECT) project is used to apply the QCCC model to evaluate the quality of secondary prevention. Cancer care includes risk assessment, primary prevention, screening, detection, diagnosis, treatment, recurrence surveillance, and end-of-life care. The QCCC model represents a systematic approach for assessing factors that influence types of cancer care and the transitions between them, the factors at several levels (community, plan and practice setting) that potentially impact access and quality, and the strategies groups and organizations can consider to reduce potential failures. Focusing on the steps and transitions in care where failures can occur can facilitate more organized systems and medical practices that improve care, establish meaningful measures of quality that promote improved outcomes, and enhance interdisciplinary research. PMID:12540497

Zapka, Jane G; Taplin, Stephen H; Solberg, Leif I; Manos, M Michele

2003-01-01

323

CT Screening for Lung Cancer: Value of Expert Review of Initial Baseline Screenings.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Appropriate radiologic interpretation of screening CT can minimize unnecessary workup and intervention. This is particularly challenging in the baseline round. We report on the quality assurance process we developed for the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program. MATERIALS AND METHODS. After initial training at the coordinating center, radiologists at 10 participating institutions and at the center independently interpreted the first 100 baseline screenings. The radiologist at the institutions had access to the center interpretations before issuing the final reports. After the first 100 screenings, the interpretations were jointly discussed. This report summarizes the results of the initial 100 dual interpretations at the 10 institutions. RESULTS. The final institution interpretations agreed with the center in 895 of the 1000 interpretations. Compared with the center, the frequency of positive results was higher at eight of the 10 institutions. The most frequent reason of discrepant interpretations was not following the protocol (n = 55) and the least frequent was not identifying a nodule (n = 3). CONCLUSION. The quality assurance process helped focus educational programs and provided an excellent vehicle for review of the protocol with participating physicians. It also suggests that the rate of positive results can be reduced by such measures. PMID:25349980

Xu, Dong Ming; Lee, In Jae; Zhao, Shijun; Rowena, Yip; Farooqi, Ali; Cheung, Edson H; Connery, Cliff P; Frumiento, Carmine; Glassberg, Robert M; Herzog, Gary; Peeke, Jeffrey; Scheinberg, Paul; Shah, Palmi; Taylor, Jana; Welch, Laura; Widmann, Mark; Yoder, Mark; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

2015-02-01

324

Use of screening tests, diagnosis wait times, and wait-related satisfaction in breast and prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding factors relating to the perception of wait time by patients is key to improving the patient experience. Methods We surveyed 122 breast and 90 prostate cancer patients presenting at clinics or listed on the cancer registry in Newfoundland and Labrador and reviewed their charts. We compared the wait time (first visit to diagnosis) and the wait-related satisfaction for breast and prostate cancer patients who received regular screening tests and whose cancer was screening test–detected (“screen/screen”); who received regular screening tests and whose cancer was symptomatic (“screen/symptomatic”); who did not receive regular screening tests and whose cancer was screen test–detected (“no screen/screen”); and who did not receive regular screening tests and whose cancer was symptomatic (“no screen/symptomatic”). Results Although there were no group differences with respect to having a long wait (greater than the median of 47.5 days) for breast cancer patients (47.8% screen/screen, 54.7% screen/symptomatic, 50.0% no screen/ screen, 40.0% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.814), a smaller proportion of the screen/symptomatic patients were satisfied with their wait (72.5% screen/ screen, 56.4% screen/symptomatic, 100% no screen/ screen, 90.9% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.048). A larger proportion of screen/symptomatic prostate cancer patients had long waits (>104.5 days: 41.3% screen/screen, 92.0% screen/symptomatic, 46.0% no screen/screen, 40.0% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.011) and a smaller proportion of screen/ symptomatic patients were satisfied with their wait (71.2% screen/screen, 30.8% screen/symptomatic, 76.9% no screen/screen, 90.9% no screen/symptomatic; p = 0.008). Conclusions Diagnosis-related wait times and satisfaction were poorest among patients who received regular screening tests but whose cancer was not detected by those tests. PMID:24940104

Mathews, M.; Ryan, D.; Gadag, V.; West, R.

2014-01-01

325

Lead times and overdetection due to prostate-specific antigen screening: estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Screening for prostate cancer advances the time of diagnosis\\u000a (lead time) and detects cancers that would not have been diagnosed in the\\u000a absence of screening (overdetection). Both consequences have considerable\\u000a impact on the net benefits of screening. METHODS: We developed simulation\\u000a models based on results of the Rotterdam section of the European\\u000a Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer

Gerrit Draisma; Rob Boer; Suzie J. Otto; Cruijsen-Koeter van der I. W; Ronald A. M. Damhuis; F. H. Schröder; Koning de H. J

2003-01-01

326

Colon cancer screening and surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Accordingly, the duration and anatomic extent of the disease have been known to affect the development of IBD-related CRC. When CRC occurs in patients with IBD, unlike in sporadic CRC, it is difficult to detect the lesions because of mucosal changes caused by inflammation. In addition, the tumor types vary with ill-circumscribed lesions, and the cancer is difficult to diagnose and remedy at an early stage. For the diagnosis of CRC in patients with IBD, screening endoscopy is recommended 8 to 10 years after the IBD diagnosis, and surveillance colonoscopy is recommended every 1 to 2 years thereafter. The recent development of targeted biopsies using chromoendoscopy and relatively newer endoscopic techniques helps in the early diagnosis of CRC in patients with IBD. A total proctocolectomy is advisable when high-grade dysplasia or multifocal low-grade dysplasia is confirmed by screening endoscopy or surveillance colonoscopy or if a nonadenoma-like dysplasia-associated lesion or mass is detected. Currently, pharmacotherapies are being extensively studied as a way to prevent IBD-related CRC. PMID:25505716

Bae, Song I; Kim, You Sun

2014-11-01

327

Consistency in Attitudes Across Cancer Screenings in Medically Underserved Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

While a wide range of behavioral and psychosocial literature explores attitudes and beliefs towards cancer screenings, fewer studies examine attitudes across cancer screening types. We draw on quantitative and qualitative findings from a 4-year prospective study based at a community health center serving diverse, low-income patients. Methods included self-report surveys (n=297), medical chart abstraction, and several qualitative methods with a subsample of participants. Participants included white, African–American, Vietnamese, and Latino patients who were diagnosed with diabetes, hypertension, or both. Patients’ attitudes (both positive and negative) towards cancer screening types were remarkably consistent across cancer screening types. These effects were stronger among men than women. Never having had a cancer screening was generally associated with more unfavorable attitudes towards all screenings. Qualitative interviews indicate the importance of information circulated through social networks in shaping attitudes towards cancer screenings. Condensed abstract: In a multi-method study of attitudes towards cancer screening among medically underserved patients in a primary care setting, we found that attitudes (both positive and negative) were remarkably consistent across cancer screening types. PMID:22105657

Vivian, James; Orzech, Kathryn M.; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Armin, Julie

2014-01-01

328

Cancer Cases from ACRIN Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial: Radiologist Analysis with Use of a Logistic Regression Model1  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine which factors contributed to the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) cancer detection results. Materials and Methods: This project was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Seven radiologist readers reviewed the film hard-copy (screen-film) and digital mammograms in DMIST cancer cases and assessed the factors that contributed to lesion visibility on both types of images. Two multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyze the combined and condensed visibility ratings assigned by the readers to the paired digital and screen-film images. Results: Readers most frequently attributed differences in DMIST cancer visibility to variations in image contrast—not differences in positioning or compression—between digital and screen-film mammography. The odds of a cancer being more visible on a digital mammogram—rather than being equally visible on digital and screen-film mammograms—were significantly greater for women with dense breasts than for women with nondense breasts, even with the data adjusted for patient age, lesion type, and mammography system (odds ratio, 2.28; P < .0001). The odds of a cancer being more visible at digital mammography—rather than being equally visible at digital and screen-film mammography—were significantly greater for lesions imaged with the General Electric digital mammography system than for lesions imaged with the Fischer (P = .0070) and Fuji (P = .0070) devices. Conclusion: The significantly better diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography, as compared with screen-film mammography, in women with dense breasts demonstrated in the DMIST was most likely attributable to differences in image contrast, which were most likely due to the inherent system performance improvements that are available with digital mammography. The authors conclude that the DMIST results were attributable primarily to differences in the display and acquisition characteristics of the mammography devices rather than to reader variability. PMID:19703878

Pisano, Etta D.; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Cole, Elodia B.; Marques, Helga S.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Blevins, Meredith; Conant, Emily F.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Baum, Janet K.; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Jong, Roberta A.; Koomen, Marcia A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lee, Yeonhee; Pavic, Dag; Yoon, Sora C.; Padungchaichote, Wittaya; Gatsonis, Constantine

2009-01-01

329

Factors associated with breast cancer screening in Asian Indian women in metro-Detroit.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined social factors related to breast cancer screening in Asian Indian women in the Midwestern US. This cross-sectional, community-based survey utilized constructs of the Health Belief Model to examine factors associated with breast cancer screening among Asian Indian women in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan. Of the 160 participants, 63.8% reported receiving both a clinical breast exam and mammogram within the past 2 years. Women were more likely to screen for breast cancer if they had a college education, lived in the US for more years, perceived that breast cancer screening is useful in detecting breast cancer early, agreed that mammography was important, and received a recommendation by a healthcare provider to get a mammogram. These findings highlight the need for further research on regional differences in breast cancer screening knowledge, behaviors and predictors among Asian Pacific Islanders subgroups such as Asian Indian women who recently immigrated to the US. PMID:19629691

Boxwala, Fatema I; Bridgemohan, Areeta; Griffith, Derek M; Soliman, Amr S

2010-08-01

330

Factors Associated with Breast Cancer Screening in Asian Indian Women in Metro-Detroit  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined social factors related to breast cancer screening in Asian Indian women in the Midwestern US. This cross-sectional, community-based survey utilized constructs of the Health Belief Model to examine factors associated with breast cancer screening among Asian Indian women in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan. Of the 160 participants, 63.8% reported receiving both a clinical breast exam and mammogram within the past 2 years. Women were more likely to screen for breast cancer if they had a college education, lived in the US for more years, perceived that breast cancer screening is useful in detecting breast cancer early, agreed that mammography was important, and received a recommendation by a healthcare provider to get a mammogram. These findings highlight the need for further research on regional differences in breast cancer screening knowledge, behaviors and predictors among Asian Pacific Islanders subgroups such as Asian Indian women who recently immigrated to the US. PMID:19629691

Boxwala, Fatema I.; Bridgemohan, Areeta; Griffith, Derek M.; Soliman, Amr S.

2014-01-01

331

Screening for lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Lung cancer is a substantial public health problem in western countries. Previous studies have examined different screening strategies for lung cancer but there have been no published systematic reviews. Methods: A systematic review of controlled trials was conducted to determine whether screening for lung cancer using regular sputum examinations or chest radiography or computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. The primary outcome was lung cancer mortality; secondary outcomes were lung cancer survival and all cause mortality. Results: One non-randomised controlled trial and six randomised controlled trials with a total of 245 610 subjects were included in the review. In all studies the control group received some type of screening. More frequent screening with chest radiography was associated with an 11% relative increase in mortality from lung cancer compared with less frequent screening (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23). A non-statistically significant trend to reduced mortality from lung cancer was observed when screening with chest radiography and sputum cytological examination was compared with chest radiography alone (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.03). Several of the included studies had potential methodological weaknesses. Controlled studies of spiral CT scanning have not been reported. Conclusions: The current evidence does not support screening for lung cancer with chest radiography or sputum cytological examination. Frequent chest radiography might be harmful. Further methodologically rigorous trials are required before any new screening methods are introduced into clinical practice. PMID:12947138

Manser, R; Irving, L; Byrnes, G; Abramson, M; Stone, C; Campbell, D

2003-01-01

332

CRCHD PNP Project: Moffitt Cancer Center Patient Navigator Program  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD PNP Project: Moffitt Cancer Center Patient Navigator Program  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research PNP Project Listing Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) Participating Research Sites Moffitt Cancer Center Patient Navigator Program

333

Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Learning Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As people with learning disabilities now live longer, they will experience the same age-related illnesses as the general population and cancer is a prime example of this. In women, cancer screening is used to detect early on-set of cancer of the breast and abnormalities of the cervix which might, if left untreated, develop into cancer.…

Willis, Diane S.; Kennedy, Catriona M.; Kilbride, Lynn

2008-01-01

334

The Ottawa County project: a report of a tuberculosis screening project in a small mining community.  

PubMed Central

Following a retrospective review of tuberculosis cases reported from Ottawa County, Oklahoma, from 1969 through 1973, a selective tuberculosis screening project was implemented. Screening of a "target group" of the population, 519 former miners, greater than or equal to 50 years of age, resulted in the discovery of abnormal chest X-rays in 182; (103 with silicosis, 36 with silicotuberculosis, 12 with inactive tuberculosis, and 31 with other abnormalities). Eighty-five of these persons had positive tuberculin skin tests. Preventive therapy was recommended for 50, and 36 completed the prescribed course of treatment. Eight new bacteriologically confirmed cases of tuberculosis were found and treated. A large number of persons (1,904) residing in the same area who were not part of the target group were also screened for tuberculosis. This group contained a large number of positive tuberculin reactors but very few were candidates for isoniazid preventive therapy. Thirteen persons in this group had abnormal chest X-rays consistent with inactive tuberculosis but 12 had been identified and given preventive therapy before the project began. These data suggest that selective approaches to screening for tuberculosis in a community which are based on an in-depth retrospective review of the tuberculosis case register can be highly successful. PMID:426159

Burke, R M; Schwartz, L P; Snider, D E

1979-01-01

335

Cost-Effectiveness of Liver Cancer Screening in Adults at High Risk for Liver Cancer in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was conducted in order to determine the most cost-effective strategy, in terms of interval and age range, forliver cancer screening in the high-risk population of Korea. Materials and Methods A stochastic modelwas used to simulate the cost-effectiveness ofliver cancer screening by combined ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein testing when varying both screening intervals and age ranges. The effectiveness of these screening strategies in the high-risk population was defined as the probability of detecting preclinical liver cancer, and costwas based on the direct cost ofthe screening and confirmative tests. Optimal cost-effectiveness was determined using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Among the 36 alternative strategies, one-year or two-year interval screening for men aged between 50 and 80 years, six-month or one-year interval screening for men aged between 40 and 80 years, and six-month interval screening for men aged between 30 and 80 years were identified as non-dominated strategies. For women, identified non-dominated strategies were: one-year interval screening between age 50 and 65 years, one-year or six-month interval screening between age 50 and 80 years, six-month interval screening between age 40 and 80 years, and six-month interval screening between age 30 and 80 years. Conclusion In Korea, a one-year screening interval for men aged 50 to 80 years would be marginally cost-effective. Further studies should be conducted in order to evaluate effectiveness of liver cancer screening, and compare the cost effectiveness of different liver cancer screening programs with a final outcome indicator such as qualityadjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years. PMID:25038757

Lee, Young Hwa; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Kim, Youn Nam; Nam, Chung Mo; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun

2014-01-01

336

Overdetection, overtreatment and costs in prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has shown to reduce prostate cancer mortality in the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial. Overdetection and overtreatment are substantial unfavourable side effects with consequent healthcare costs. In this study the effects of introducing widespread PSA screening is evaluated. Methods: The MISCAN model was used to simulate prostate cancer growth and detection in a simulated cohort of 100?000 men (European standard population) over 25 years. PSA screening from age 55 to 70 or 75, with 1, 2 and 4-year-intervals is simulated. Number of diagnoses, PSA tests, biopsies, treatments, deaths and corresponding costs for 100?000 men and for United Kingdom and United States are compared. Results: Without screening 2378 men per 100?000 were predicted to be diagnosed with prostate cancer compared with 4956 men after screening at 4-year intervals. By introducing screening, the costs would increase with 100% to €60?695?000. Overdetection is related to 39% of total costs (€23?669?000). Screening until age 75 is relatively most expensive because of the costs of overtreatment. Conclusion: Introduction of PSA screening will increase total healthcare costs for prostate cancer substantially, of which the actual screening costs will be a small part. PMID:19904272

Heijnsdijk, E A M; der Kinderen, A; Wever, E M; Draisma, G; Roobol, M J; de Koning, H J

2009-01-01

337

Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

Thomas, Eileen

2006-01-01

338

A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

2013-01-01

339

Receipt of Cancer Screening Services: Surprising Results for Some Rural Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas. Methods: We utilized the 2008…

Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.; Bellinger, Jessica D.

2012-01-01

340

Self-Reported Cancer Screening among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries: A Rural-Urban Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined the rural-urban disparity of screening for breast cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) among the elder Medicare beneficiaries and assessed rurality's independent impact on receipt of screening. Methods: Using 2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we applied weighted logistic regression to estimate the overall rural-urban…

Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya; Zhang, Ning; Fiscella, Kevin; Noyes, Katia

2012-01-01

341

Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

2012-01-01

342

Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

2014-01-01

343

Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP) have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control me- chanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alterna- tives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC) is

Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Patricia Alonso; José Antonio Ruiz-Moreno; Mauricio Hernández-Avila

2003-01-01

344

Examining regional variation in the use of cancer screening in Germany.  

PubMed

The detection of cancer in its early latent stages can improve a patient's chances of recovery and thereby reduce the overall burden of the disease. Cancer screening services are, however, only used by a small part of the population and utilization rates vary widely amongst the 402 German districts. This study examines to which extent geographic variation in the use of cancer screening can be explained by accessibility of these services and by spillover effects between adjacent areas, while controlling for a wide range of covariates. District level data on cancer screening utilization rates were calculated for breast, cervical, prostate, skin, and colorectal cancers using German data provided by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung - KBV) between 2008 and 2011. We estimated the impact of health service variables on cancer screening utilization using spatial and non-spatial regression models. Spatial autocorrelation in the residuals was estimated using Moran's I statistic. After controlling for socioeconomic and other regional covariates, screening rates for breast, prostate, skin, and colorectal cancers are significantly higher in areas with higher physician density. The utilization of Pap-tests, skin cancer screening and colonoscopies is inversely related with average travel time to physicians. The coefficients for the spatial lag are significant and positive in all models. The positive spatial lags indicate that screening utilization rates are determined by knowledge spillovers between neighboring districts. In terms of public policy, our study demonstrates the potential to increase the use of cancer screening services through improving knowledge regarding cancer screening and by ensuring patient access to cancer screening services. PMID:24727534

Vogt, Verena; Siegel, Martin; Sundmacher, Leonie

2014-06-01

345

Impact of Risk Factors on Different Interval Cancer Subtypes in a Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Programme  

PubMed Central

Background Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. Methods We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000–2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%), 235 false-negatives (23.2%), 172 minimal-signs (17.2%) and 114 occult tumors (11.3%). Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. Results A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR?=?2.71, 95%CI: 2.28–3.23); this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR?=?8.79, 95%CI: 6.24–12.40) than for true interval cancer (HR?=?2.26, 95%CI: 1.59–3.21). A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR?=?2.11, 95%CI: 1.60–2.78), previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR?=?1.83, 95%CI: 1.23–2.71). High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR?=?4.92, 95%CI: 2.58–9.38), followed by true intervals (RRR?=?1.67, 95%CI: 1.18–2.36) and false-negatives (RRR?=?1.58, 95%CI: 1.00–2.49). Conclusion The role of women's characteristics differs among interval cancer subtypes. This information could be useful to improve effectiveness of breast cancer screening programmes and to better classify subgroups of women with different risks of developing cancer. PMID:25333936

Blanch, Jordi; Sala, Maria; Ibáñez, Josefa; Domingo, Laia; Fernandez, Belén; Otegi, Arantza; Barata, Teresa; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Ferrer, Joana; Castells, Xavier; Rué, Montserrat; Salas, Dolores

2014-01-01

346

Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening in Asian and Latina University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventative screening in the form of clinical breast examinations remains among the best protections against breast cancer. Despite the benefits that regular examinations confer, many women fail to obtain screening tests. Because ethnic minority women are particularly unlikely to undergo regular screening, and experience increased mortality and…

Regan, Pamela C.; Durvasula, Ramani S.

2008-01-01

347

Consensus Recommendations for Advancing Breast Cancer: Risk Identification and Screening in Ethnically Diverse Younger Women  

E-print Network

cancer in average risk women under age 40 Screening methodcancer and the imperfections of clinical risk assessment for the disease, improved in- dividualized screening methodscancer due to known hereditary mutations in tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Better screening methods

Stojadinovic, Alexander

2011-01-01

348

Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

2012-01-01

349

Reasons Women Do Not Attend Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. With an improved compliance with screening a larger reduction of cervical cancer incidence would be within reach. We aimed at investigating why certain women do not attend Pap smear screening and at validating the reliability of self-reported screening.Methods. In 1998 in the county of Uppsala, Sweden, information was collected through telephone interviews with 430 nonattendees and 514 attendees to

Sonja Eaker; Hans-Olov Adami; Pär Sparén

2001-01-01

350

Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a review of current status  

PubMed Central

Screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT) represents an exciting new development in the struggle to improve outcomes for people with lung cancer. Randomised controlled evidence demonstrating a 20% relative lung cancer mortality benefit has led to endorsement of screening by several expert bodies in the US and funding by healthcare providers. Despite this pivotal result, many questions remain regarding technical and logistical aspects of screening, cost-effectiveness and generalizability to other settings. This review discusses the rationale behind screening, the results of on-going trials, potential harms of screening and current knowledge gaps. PMID:24163745

Bowman, Rayleen V.; Yang, Ian A.; Fong, Kwun M.; Berg, Christine D.

2013-01-01

351

Asian-Islamic Women and Breast Cancer Screening: A SocioCultural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores religious and socio-cultural issues relevant to breast cancer screening practices among older immigrant Asian-Islamic women in the U.S. Some of the Islamic tenets that facilitate breast cancer screening include cleanliness, prevention and individual responsibility in health promotion, diet and eating habits, and exercise, and those that hinder screening practice include gender and modesty considerations and patriarchal marital

Shireen S. Rajaram; Anahita Rashidi

1999-01-01

352

Predictors of breast cancer screening behavior in women with a strong family history of the disease.  

PubMed

This study applied the self-regulation model to examine cognitive and emotional predictors of screening in unaffected women with a strong family history of breast cancer. 748 unaffected female members of an Australian registry of multiple-case breast cancer families formed the sample. Participants completed a baseline psychosocial questionnaire and a screening questionnaire 3 years later. Multinomial logistic regression was employed to determine predictors of under- and over-screening according to national guidelines. At follow-up 16% of women under-screened and 10% over-screened with mammography; 55% under-screened with clinical breast examination (CBE); and 9% over-screened with breast self-examination (BSE). Of the women found screening according to guidelines for mammography 72% reported ever having received specific recommendations for mammography screening from a health professional. Compared to appropriate screeners, under-screeners on mammography were less likely to have received a screening recommendation (as were under-screeners on CBE), were younger and reported lower perceived breast cancer risk, but were at higher relative risk (RR) of breast cancer and were more likely to report elevated depression. Over-screeners on mammography were more likely to be younger and have a lower RR of breast cancer. Over-screeners on BSE reported elevated cancer-specific anxiety, were less likely to be university educated and more likely to have received a recommendation for BSE. Under- and over-screening is common in women with a strong family history of breast cancer. Evaluation of interventions targeting perceived risk of breast cancer, anxiety and depression are needed to ensure women obtain accurate advice from relevant specialists and enact screening recommendations. PMID:20364401

Price, Melanie A; Butow, Phyllis N; Charles, Margaret; Bullen, Tracey; Meiser, Bettina; McKinley, Joanne M; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

2010-11-01

353

American Indian Breast Cancer Project: Educational Development and Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of Pathways to Health, a breast cancer education program targeting American Indian women in California. Discusses initial focus group results concerning belief in breast cancer risk, barriers to cancer screening and treatment, culturally sensitive issues, and illness beliefs. Describes…

Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Casken, John

1999-01-01

354

Geographic variations in access and utilization of cancer screening services: examining disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native Elders  

E-print Network

Despite recommendations for cancer screening for breast and colorectal cancer among the Medicare population, preventive screenings rates are often lower among vulnerable populations such as the small but rapidly growing older American Indian...

Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

2014-06-09

355

A novel case-control design to estimate the extent of over-diagnosis of breast cancer due to organised population-based mammography screening.  

PubMed

Debate about the extent of breast cancer over-diagnosis due to mammography screening has continued for over a decade, without consensus. Estimates range from 0 to 54%, but many studies have been criticized for having flawed methodology. In this study we used a novel study design to estimate over-diagnosis due to organised mammography screening in South Australia (SA). To estimate breast cancer incidence at and following screening we used a population-based, age-matched case-control design involving 4,931 breast cancer cases and 22,914 controls to obtain OR for yearly time intervals since women's last screening mammogram. The level of over-diagnosis was estimated by comparing the cumulative breast cancer incidence with and without screening. The former was derived by applying ORs for each time window to incidence rates in the absence of screening, and the latter, by projecting pre-screening incidence rates. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess potential biases. Over-diagnosis was estimated to be 8% (95%CI 2-14%) and 14% (95%CI 8-19%) among SA women aged 45 to 85 years from 2006-2010, for invasive breast cancer and all breast cancer respectively. These estimates were robust when applying various sensitivity analyses, except for adjustment for potential confounding assuming higher risk among screened than non-screened women, which reduced levels of over-diagnosis to 1% (95%CI 5-7%) and 8% (95%CI 2-14%) respectively when incidence rates for screening participants were adjusted by 10%. Our results indicate that the level of over-diagnosis due to mammography screening is modest and considerably lower than many previous estimates, including others for Australia. PMID:25098753

Beckmann, Kerri R; Lynch, John W; Hiller, Janet E; Farshid, Gelareh; Houssami, Nehmat; Duffy, Stephen W; Roder, David M

2015-03-15

356

Diabetes Screening in Inmates: A Quality Improvement Pilot Project.  

E-print Network

?? Implementation and adherence to screening recommendations of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) clinical practice guidelines are associated with earlier diagnosis and treatment. Standardized T2D screening… (more)

Castro, Mary Ellen

2014-01-01

357

Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

1993-01-01

358

Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.  

PubMed

The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

2002-08-01

359

Perceived Barriers and Benefits to Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans in North Carolina: How Does Perception Relate to Screening Behavior?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated perceived barriers and benefits, as conceptualized by the Health Belief Model, in relation to screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) among African- American adults participating in a church-based health promotion program. CRC is one of the most common cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer death for men and women. Screening can be effective at detecting

Aimee S. James; Marci Kramish Campbell; Marlyn Allicock Hudson

2002-01-01

360

Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

2013-01-01

361

Colorectal cancer screening practices in Alabama: a survey of primary care physicians.  

PubMed

In order to inform efforts to increase screening rates for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a survey of Alabama primary care physicians regarding CRC screening practices, educational preferences, and perceptions of obstacles to screening. A mail survey of 2,378 Alabama physicians in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Obstetrics & Gynecology was conducted. Many physicians are not fully up-to-date with current CRC screening practices that could improve patient compliance with screening guidelines. One example is the potential use of high-sensitivity stool tests, such as the fecal immunochemical test, instead of the no longer recommended low-sensitivity guaiac fecal occult blood tests. In addition, enhanced multimedia and web-based approaches to educating physicians and patients could be more fully utilized. Further, greater use of health information technologies could increase screening rates. Enhancing primary care physicians' knowledge of screening modalities and increasing their use of electronic technology could significantly improve colorectal cancer screening outcomes. PMID:22829231

Chapman, Kathryn; Nicholls, Keith; Sullivan, Margaret M; Crutchfield, Susan; Shaw, Thomas; Perkins, Allen; Reed, Eddie

2012-12-01

362

Johns Hopkins study finds obese white women less likely to seek colon cancer screening  

Cancer.gov

A new study by Johns Hopkins researchers shows that obese white women may be less likely than normal-weight counterparts and African-Americans of any weight or gender to seek potentially lifesaving colon cancer screening tests. Results of this study follow the same Johns Hopkins group’s previous research suggesting that obese white women also are less likely to arrange for mammograms, which screen for breast cancer, and Pap smears, which search for early signs of cervical cancer.

363

Identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in lung cancer screening computed tomographic scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Smoking is a major risk factor for both cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Computed tomography (CT)-based lung cancer screening may provide an opportunity to detect additional individuals with COPD at an early stage. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low-dose lung cancer screening CT scans can be used to identify participants with COPD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Single-center prospective

O. M. Mets; C. F. Buckens; P. Zanen; I. Isgum; B. van Ginneken; M. Prokop; H. A. Gietema; J. W. Lammers; R. Vliegenthart; M. Oudkerk; R. J. van Klaveren; H. J. de Koning; W. P. Th. Mali; P. A. de Jong

2011-01-01

364

Determinants of non-compliance to recommendations on breast cancer screening among women participating in the French E3N  

E-print Network

breast cancer cases are detected through screening programmes and others are not. Methods: The generalDeterminants of non-compliance to recommendations on breast cancer screening among women of the frequency of non-compliance to recommendations on breast cancer screening were computed in women over

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed or referred with cervical cancer in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital have advanced disease. Plans are underway for systematic screening programmes based on visual inspection, as Pap smear screening is not feasible for this low resource country. Effectiveness of population screening programmes requires

Twaha Mutyaba; Elisabeth Faxelid; Florence Mirembe; Elisabete Weiderpass

2007-01-01

366

Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

367

Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

2009-01-01

368

High Prevalence of Screen Detected Prostate Cancer in West Africans: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana. Materials and Methods We randomly selected 1,037 healthy men 50 to 74 years old from Accra, Ghana for prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. Men with a positive screen result (positive digital rectal examination or prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml) underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies. Results Of the 1,037 men 154 (14.9%) had a positive digital rectal examination and 272 (26.2%) had prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml, including 166 with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. A total of 352 men (33.9%) had a positive screen by prostate specific antigen or digital rectal examination and 307 (87%) underwent biopsy. Of these men 73 were confirmed to have prostate cancer, yielding a 7.0% screen detected prostate cancer prevalence (65 patients), including 5.8% with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. Conclusions In this relatively unscreened population in Africa the screen detected prostate cancer prevalence is high, suggesting a possible role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology and the disparity in prostate cancer risk between black and white American men. Further studies are needed to confirm the high prostate cancer burden in African men and the role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:24747091

Hsing, Ann W.; Yeboah, Edward; Biritwum, Richard; Tettey, Yao; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Adjei, Andrew; Netto, George J.; Yu, Kai; Li, Yan; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Chia, David; Partin, Alan; Thompson, Ian M.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Niwa, Shelley; Tarone, Robert; Hoover, Robert N.

2015-01-01

369

Overdiagnosis in Low-Dose Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Screening for lung cancer has the potential to reduce mortality, but in addition to detecting aggressive tumors, screening will also detect indolent tumors that otherwise may not cause clinical symptoms. These overdiagnosis cases represent an important potential harm of screening because they incur additional cost, anxiety, and morbidity associated with cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE To estimate overdiagnosis in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We used data from the NLST, a randomized trial comparing screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) vs chest radiography (CXR) among 53 452 persons at high risk for lung cancer observed for 6.4 years, to estimate the excess number of lung cancers in the LDCT arm of the NLST compared with the CXR arm. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We calculated 2 measures of overdiagnosis: the probability that a lung cancer detected by screening with LDCT is an overdiagnosis (PS), defined as the excess lung cancers detected by LDCT divided by all lung cancers detected by screening in the LDCT arm; and the number of cases that were considered overdiagnosis relative to the number of persons needed to screen to prevent 1 death from lung cancer. RESULTS During follow-up, 1089 lung cancers were reported in the LDCT arm and 969 in the CXR arm of the NLST. The probability is 18.5% (95% CI, 5.4%–30.6%) that any lung cancer detected by screening with LDCT was an overdiagnosis, 22.5% (95% CI, 9.7%–34.3%) that a non-small cell lung cancer detected by LDCT was an overdiagnosis, and 78.9% (95% CI, 62.2%–93.5%) that a bronchioalveolar lung cancer detected by LDCT was an overdiagnosis. The number of cases of overdiagnosis found among the 320 participants who would need to be screened in the NLST to prevent 1 death from lung cancer was 1.38. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE More than 18% of all lung cancers detected by LDCT in the NLST seem to be indolent, and overdiagnosis should be considered when describing the risks of LDCT screening for lung cancer. PMID:24322569

Patz, Edward F.; Pinsky, Paul; Gatsonis, Constantine; Sicks, JoRean D.; Kramer, Barnett S.; Tammemägi, Martin C.; Chiles, Caroline; Black, William C.; Aberle, Denise R.

2014-01-01

370

Initial experience with a free, high-volume, low-dose CT lung cancer screening program.  

PubMed

The National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated a significant mortality benefit for patients at high risk for lung cancer undergoing serial low-dose CT. Currently, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and several United States-based professional associations recommend CT Lung screening for high-risk patients. In the absence of established reimbursement, the authors modeled and implemented a free low-dose CT lung cancer screening program to provide equitable access to all eligible patients. Elements of the program reported in this article include a decentralized referral network, centralized program coordination, structured reporting, and a patient data management system. The experience and initial results observed in this clinical setting closely match the performance metrics of the National Lung Screening Trial with regard to cancer detection and incidental findings rates. To eliminate health care disparities a vigorous lobbying effort will be needed to expedite reimbursement and make CT lung screening equally available to all patients at high-risk. PMID:23623708

McKee, Brady J; McKee, Andrea B; Flacke, Sebastian; Lamb, Carla R; Hesketh, Paul J; Wald, Christoph

2013-08-01

371

The Impact of Insurance Coverage during Insurance Reform on Diagnostic Resolution of Cancer Screening Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

We examined the impact of Massachusetts insurance reform on the care of women at six community health centers with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening to investigate whether stability of insurance coverage was associated with more timely diagnostic resolution. We conducted Cox proportional hazards models to predict time from cancer screening to diagnostic resolution, examining the impact of 1) insurance status at time of screening abnormality, 2) number of insurance switches over a three-year period, and 3) insurance history over a three-year period. We identified 1,165 women with breast and 781 with cervical cancer screening abnormalities. In the breast cohort, Medicaid insurance at baseline, continuous public insurance, and losing insurance predicted delayed resolution. We did not find these effects in the cervical cohort. These data provide evidence that stability of health insurance coverage with insurance reform nationally may improve timely care after abnormal cancer screening in historically underserved women. PMID:24583491

Kapoor, Alok; Battaglia, Tracy A.; Isabelle, Alexis P.; Hanchate, Amresh D.; Kalish, Richard L.; Bak, Sharon; Mishuris, Rebecca G.; Shroff, Swati M.; Freund, Karen M.

2015-01-01

372

Colon Cancer: Prevalence, Screening, Gene Expression and Mutation, and Risk Factors and Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon cancer detection at an early stage and identifying susceptible individuals can result in reduced mortality from this prevalent cancer. Genetic events leading to the development of this cancer involve a multistage progression of adenoma polyps to invasive metastatic carcinomas. Currently, there is no satisfactory screening method that is highly specific, sensitive, or reliable. Dietary patterns associated with the greatest

Farid E. Ahmed

2003-01-01

373

Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening  

E-print Network

Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer the risk of colon carcinogenesis and colonoscopy-free screening for colorectal cancer CRC . © 2006 Society; enhanced backscattering; low coherence; elas- tic light scattering; spectroscopy; colorectal cancer. Paper

Ottino, Julio M.

374

Support Vector Machine Approach for Cancer Detection Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Screening Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support Vector Machine is used to classify data obtained from Amplified Fragment length Polymorphism screening of gastric cancer and normal tissue samples. Using the electrophoresis peak intensity measurements of the amplified fragments of the cancer and normal tissues, SVM was able to distinguish gastric cancer from normal tissue samples with a senssitivity of 0.98 and specificity of 0.75. As AFLP

Waiming Kong; Lawrence Tham; Kee Yew Wong; Patrick Tan

2004-01-01

375

Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

2012-01-01

376

Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence in the United States: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased dramatically since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Nevertheless, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2013 predicted more than 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States. Given that some subpopulations in the United States are at a higher risk for cervical cancer than others, efforts to increase screening adherence are warranted. Many studies have explored the demographics of underscreened women, but no systematic reviews of screening demographics in adult US women were identified in the past 10 years, after release of the 2002 ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Knowledge of adherence to these guidelines becomes important as new guidelines were developed and released in 2012. The purpose of this systematic review of relevant studies was to identify factors that predict the use of cervical cancer screening in US women. Variables found to be significantly associated with adherence to screening included education, financial status, acculturation, psychosocial issues, and marital status. Using this information, nurse practitioners and other providers can target specific at-risk populations to increase screening by educating women about the need for cervical cancer screening and ensuring access to methods for prevention and early detection of the disease. PMID:25032031

Limmer, Karen; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Dains, Joyce

2014-01-01

377

Effect of Payment Incentives on Cancer Screening in Ontario Primary Care  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of pay for performance despite its widespread use. We assessed whether the introduction of a pay-for-performance scheme for primary care physicians in Ontario, Canada, was associated with increased cancer screening rates and determined the amounts paid to physicians as part of the program. METHODS We performed a longitudinal analysis using administrative data to determine cancer screening rates and incentive costs in each fiscal year from 1999/2000 to 2009/2010. We used a segmented linear regression analysis to assess whether there was a step change or change in screening rate trends after incentives were introduced in 2006/2007. We included all Ontarians eligible for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening. RESULTS We found no significant step change in the screening rate for any of the 3 cancers the year after incentives were introduced. Colon cancer screening was increasing at a rate of 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3% to 3.7%) per year before the incentives were introduced and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.7% to 5.7%) per year after. The cervical and breast cancer screening rates did not change significantly from year to year before or after the incentives were introduced. Between 2006/2007 and 2009/2010, $28.3 million, $31.3 million, and $50.0 million were spent on financial incentives for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The pay-for-performance scheme was associated with little or no improvement in screening rates despite substantial expenditure. Policy makers should consider other strategies for improving rates of cancer screening. PMID:25024239

Kiran, Tara; Wilton, Andrew S.; Moineddin, Rahim; Paszat, Lawrence; Glazier, Richard H.

2014-01-01

378

Effectiveness of the public health policy for breast cancer screening in Finland: population based cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of screening for breast cancer as a public health policy. DESIGN: Follow up in 1987-92 of Finnish women invited to join the screening programme in 1987-9 and of the control women (balanced by age and matched by municipality of residence), who were not invited to the service screening. SETTING: Finland. SUBJECTS: Of the Finnish women born in 1927-39, 89893 women invited for screening and 68862 controls were followed; 1584 breast cancers were diagnosed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio of deaths from breast cancer among the women invited for screening to deaths among those not invited. RESULTS: There were 385 deaths from breast cancer, of which 127 were among the 1584 incident cases in 1987-92. The rate ratio of death was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 1.09). The effect was larger and significant (0.56; 0.33 to 0.95) among women aged under 56 years at entry. 20 cancers were prevented (one death prevented per 10000 screens). CONCLUSIONS: A breast screening programme can achieve a similar effect on mortality as achieved by the trials for breast cancer screening. However, it may be difficult to justify a screening programme as a public health policy on the basis of the mortality reduction only. Whether to run a screening programme as a public health policy also depends on its effects on the quality of life of the target population and what the resources would be used for if screening was not done. Given all the different dimensions in the effect, mammography based breast screening is probably justifiable as a public health policy. PMID:9093096

Hakama, M.; Pukkala, E.; Heikkilä, M.; Kallio, M.

1997-01-01

379

Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines against the most important oncogenic types, namely HPV16 and 18. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24331748

Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

2013-12-29

380

Evolving role of computed tomographic colonography in colon cancer screening and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a relatively new imaging modality for the examination of patients for colorectal polyps and cancer. It has been validated in its accuracy for the detection of colon cancer and larger polyps (more than likely premalignant). CTC, however, is not widely accepted as a primary screening modality in the United States at present by many third-party payers, including Medicare, and its exact role in screening is evolving. Moreover, there has been opposition to incorporating CTC as an accepted screening instrument, especially by gastroenterologists. Heretofore, optical colonoscopy has been the mainstay in this screening. We discuss these issues and the continuing controversies concerning CTC. PMID:23038488

Friedel, David M; Iqbal, Shahzad; Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Babich, Jay P; Georgiou, Nicholas; Katz, Douglas S

2012-10-01

381

Impact of false-positive mammography on subsequent screening attendance and risk of cancer  

E-print Network

Research article Impact of false-positive mammography on subsequent screening attendance and risk of cancer Jenny McCann1, Diane Stockton2 and Sara Godward1 1Cancer Intelligence Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, UK 2Scottish Cancer... Ilwaine GM: Tailored written invitations for a second round breast screening: a randomised controlled trial. J Med Screen 1994, 1:245-258. 7. Orton M, Fitzpatrick F, Fuller A, Mant D, Mlynek C, Thorogood M: Factors affecting women’s response to an invitation...

McCann, Jenny; Stockton, Diane; Godward, Sara

2002-07-17

382

Panel Calls for Reducing Colorectal Cancer Deaths by Striking Down Barriers to Screening  

Cancer.gov

Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other types of cancer, particularly breast and cervical. Although the screening rates in the target population--adults over age 50--have increased from 20-30 percent in 1997 to nearly 55 percetn in 2008--the rates are still too low. An NIH state-of-the-science panel was convened this week to identify ways to further increase the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening in the United States.

383

Developing a hand-held Pap test card to improve cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed

We identified an educational deficit among clients at a community health clinic regarding the latest cervical cancer screening recommendations. A literature search on Pap testing and problems with compliance or screening indicated multiple barriers to cervical cancer screening. Education, health promotion and the use of a hand-held health card/record were identified as methods to educate women regarding cervical cancer prevention. We developed a hand-held Pap test card to be similar to an immunization card. The card was designed to fulfill the needs of both clients and practitioners. PMID:24939198

Prendergast, Mary B; Hunter, Lauren P

2014-01-01

384

Confronting confirmation bias about breast cancer screening with the four Cs.  

PubMed

The tendency to resist evidence that doesn't support our own beliefs is a type of confirmation bias. Recent changes to recommendations for breast cancer screening underscore the need for nurses to maintain awareness of most recent and reliable evidence, evaluate women's family histories and encourage women to mitigate modifiable risks and make well-informed decisions. When advising women about breast cancer screening, nurses can employ an approach based on the four Cs: (1) commit to staying up-to-date with evidence; (2) convey understanding; (3) communicate the evidence and answer questions; and (4) collaborate with women on their plan for breast cancer screening. PMID:24548494

Guimond, Mary Elizabeth

2014-01-01

385

Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.  

PubMed

Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

2014-10-01

386

Investigation of a 3D head-mounted projection display using retro-reflective screen.  

PubMed

We propose a compact head-worn 3D display which provides glasses-free full motion parallax. Two picoprojectors placed on the viewer's head project images on a retro-reflective screen that reflects left and right images to the appropriate eyes of the viewer. The properties of different retro-reflective screen materials have been investigated, and the key parameters of the projection - brightness and cross-talk - have been calculated. A demonstration system comprising two projectors, a screen tracking system and a commercial retro-reflective screen has been developed to test the visual quality of the proposed approach. PMID:25089403

Héricz, Dalma; Sarkadi, Tamás; Lucza, Viktor; Kovács, Viktor; Koppa, Pál

2014-07-28

387

Variation in detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) during screening mammography A survey within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN)  

PubMed Central

Background There is concern about detection of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) in screening mammography. DCIS accounts for a substantial proportion of screen detected lesions but its effect on breast cancer mortality is debated. The International Cancer Screening Network conducted a comparative analysis to determine variation in DCIS detection. Patients and Methods Data were collected during 2004–2008 on number of screening examinations, detected breast cancers, DCIS cases, and Globocan 2008 breast cancer incidence rates derived from national or regional cancer registers. We calculated screen-detection rates for breast cancers and DCIS. Results Data were obtained from 15 screening settings in 12 countries; 7,176,050 screening examinations; 29,605 breast cancers; and 5,324 DCIS cases. The ratio between highest and lowest breast cancer incidence was 2.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.76–3.00); 2.97 (95% CI 2.51–3.51) for detection of breast cancer; and 3.49 (95% CI 2.70–4.51) for detection of DCIS. Conclusions Considerable international variation was found in DCIS detection. This variation could not be fully explained by variation in incidence nor in breast cancer detection rates. It suggests the potential for wide discrepancies in management of DCIS resulting in overtreatment of indolent DCIS or undertreatment of potentially curable disease. Comprehensive cancer registration is needed to monitor DCIS detection. Efforts to understand discrepancies and standardize management may improve care. PMID:24041876

Lynge, Elsebeth; Ponti, Antonio; James, Ted; Májek, Ond?ej; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Anttila, Ahti; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Frigerio, Alfonso; Kawai, Masaaki; Scharpantgen, Astrid; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Vidal, Carmen; Ederra, Maria; Salas, Dolores; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Tomatis, Mariano; Kerlikowske, Karla; Taplin, Stephen

2013-01-01

388

Using community engagement to inform and implement a community-randomized controlled trial in the anishinaabek cervical cancer screening study.  

PubMed

Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN) women in particular, endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening - the Papinacolaou (Pap) test - and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS) is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada, and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women's health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities. PMID:24600584

Wood, Brianne; Burchell, Ann N; Escott, Nicholas; Little, Julian; Maar, Marion; Ogilvie, Gina; Severini, Alberto; Bishop, Lisa; Morrisseau, Kyla; Zehbe, Ingeborg

2014-01-01

389

Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models. PMID:24153450

Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

2014-02-01

390

Personality and Gastric Cancer Screening Attendance: ?A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Miyagi Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the associations between personality subscales and attendance at gastric cancer screenings in Japan. Methods A total of 21,911 residents in rural Japan who completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and a questionnaire on various health habits including the number of gastric cancer screenings attended were included in the primary analysis. We defined gastric cancer screening compliance as attendance at gastric cancer screening every year for the previous 5 years; all other patterns of attendance were defined as non-compliance. We defined gastric cancer screening visiting as attendance at 1 or more screenings during the previous 5 years; lack of attendance was defined as non-visiting. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric cancer screening compliance and visiting according to 4 score levels that corresponded to the 4 EPQ-R subscales (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie). Result Extraversion had a significant linear, positive association with both compliance and visiting (trend, P < 0.001 for both). Neuroticism had a significant linear, inverse association with compliance (trend, P = 0.047), but not with visiting (trend, P = 0.21). Psychoticism had a significant linear, inverse association with both compliance and visiting (trend, P < 0.001 for both). Lie had no association with either compliance or visiting. Conclusion The personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were significantly associated with gastric cancer screening attendance. A better understanding of the association between personality and attendance could lead to the establishment of effective campaigns to motivate people to attend cancer screenings. PMID:19164872

Arai, Shizuha; Nakaya, Naoki; Kakizaki, Masako; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Fukao, Akira; Tsuji, Ichiro

2009-01-01

391

Cost-Effectiveness of CT Screening for Lung Cancer in the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Introduction A randomized trial has demonstrated that lung cancer screening reduces mortality. Identifying participant and program characteristics that influence the cost-effectiveness of screening will help translate trial results into benefits at the population level. Methods Six U.S. cohorts (males and females aged 50, 60, or 70) were simulated in an existing patient-level lung cancer model. Smoking histories reflected observed U.S. patterns. We simulated lifetime histories of 500,000 identical individuals per cohort in each scenario. Costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained ($/QALY) were estimated for each program: CT screening; stand-alone smoking cessation therapies (4–30% 1-year abstinence); and combined programs. Results Annual screening of current and former smokers aged 50–74 cost between $126,000–$169,000/QALY (minimum 20 pack-years of smoking) or $110,000–$166,000/QALY (40 pack-year minimum), compared to no screening and assuming background quit rates. Screening was beneficial but had a higher cost per QALY when the model included radiation-induced lung cancers. If screen participation doubled background quit rates, the cost of annual screening (at age 50, 20 pack-year minimum) was below $75,000/QALY. If screen participation halved background quit rates, benefits from screening were nearly erased. If screening had no effect on quit rates, annual screening cost more but provided fewer QALYs than annual cessation therapies. Annual combined screening/cessation therapy programs at age 50 cost $130,500–$159,700/QALY, compared to annual stand-alone cessation. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness of CT screening will likely be strongly linked to achievable smoking cessation rates. Trials and further modeling should explore the consequences of relationships between smoking behaviors and screen participation. PMID:21892105

McMahon, Pamela M.; Kong, Chung Yin; Bouzan, Colleen; Weinstein, Milton C.; Cipriano, Lauren E.; Tramontano, Angela C.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Weeks, Jane C.; Gazelle, G. Scott

2011-01-01

392

Lung Cancer Screening With Low-dose Computed Tomography: An Analysis of the MEDCAC Decision.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. However, among the top 4 deadliest cancers, lung cancer is the only one not subject to routine screening. Optimism for an effective lung cancer-screening examination soared after the release of the National Lung Screening Trial results in November 2011. Since then, nearly 40 major medical societies and organizations have endorsed low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. In December 2013, the United States Preventive Services Task Force also endorsed LDCT. However, the momentum for LDCT screening slowed in April 2014 when the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee (MEDCAC) panel concluded that there was not enough evidence to justify the annual use of LDCT scans for the detection of early lung cancer. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of lung cancer, the National Lung Screening Trial study results, and the growing national endorsement of LDCT from a variety of key stakeholder organizations. We subsequently analyze and offer our evidence-based counterpoints to the major assumptions underlying the MEDCAC decision. PMID:25286290

Parker, Mark S; Groves, Robert C; Fowler, Alpha A; Shepherd, Ray W; Cassano, Anthony D; Cafaro, Patricia L; Chestnut, Geoffrey T

2015-01-01

393

Comparison of breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns in a common cohort of South Asian women in England  

PubMed Central

Background Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004) of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002) were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5). South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057) compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969) for non-Asians (p < 0.001). Women in both groups who consistently chose to undertake breast cancer screening in rounds 1, 2 and 5 were more likely to complete round 1 bowel cancer screening. However, the likelihood of completion of bowel cancer screening was still significantly lower for South Asians; 49.5% vs. 82.3% for non-Asians, p < 0.001. South Asian women who undertook breast cancer screening in only one round were no more likely to complete bowel cancer screening than those who decided against breast cancer screening in all three rounds. In contrast, similar women in the non-Asian population had an increased likelihood of completing the new bowel cancer screening test. The likelihood of continued uptake of mammography after undertaking screening in round 1 differed between South Asian religio-linguistic groups. Noticeably, women in the Muslim population were less likely to continue to participate in mammography than those in other South Asian groups. Conclusions Culturally appropriate targeted interventions are required to reduce observed disparities in cancer screening uptakes. PMID:20423467

2010-01-01

394

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening Among the Bhutanese Refugee Community in Omaha, Nebraska  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231

Haworth, Rebecca J.; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka

2014-01-01

395

Screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer in high risk population  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is a serious growing health issue in developed countries. For patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the five year survival rate is below 5%. One major important reason leads to the poor survival rate is lack of early detection of pancreatic cancer. Over 80% of the patients are diagnosed in advanced disease stages. Screening for pancreatic cancer is a desirable option for high risk individuals to allow early detection and treatment of curable pancreatic neoplasms at a pre-invasive stage. This article highlights the need, endpoint, population, method, diagnostic yield, and the problems of current screening programs. PMID:24605033

Chang, Ming-Chu; Wong, Jau-Min; Chang, Yu-Ting

2014-01-01

396

CA-125 change over time shows promise as screening tool for early detection of ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Evaluating its change over time, CA-125, the protein long-recognized for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, now shows promise as a screening tool for early-stage disease, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The updated findings are published in Cancer; preliminary data were first presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. If a larger study shows survival benefit, the simple blood test could offer a much-needed screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages – even in the most aggressive forms – in post-menopausal women at average risk for the disease.

397

Portuguese women's knowledge and health beliefs about cervical cancer and its screening.  

PubMed

Currently little is known about Portuguese women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. In-depth, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five females were recruited, the age range was 30 to 60. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented. PMID:23461350

Laranjeira, Carlos António

2013-01-01

398

News Note: Not all doctors comply with practice guidelines for recommending colorectal cancer screenings  

Cancer.gov

A study of nearly 1,300 primary care physicians in the United States found that only about 20 percent of those doctors recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screenings tests to their patients in accordance with current practice guidelines.

399

UCLA researchers develop new screening system to find brain cancer stem cell killers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed and used a high-throughput molecular screening approach that identifies and characterizes chemical compounds that can target the stem cells that are responsible for creating deadly brain tumors.

400

UCSF study examines risk reduction and screening for ovarian cancer among women following BRCA testing  

Cancer.gov

Following BRCA testing, many women who are non-BRCA carriers undergo risk-reducing procedures and additional ovarian cancer screenings, despite limited data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions among the general population.

401

Genome wide screen identifies microsatellite markers associated with acute adverse effects following radiotherapy in cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background The response of normal tissues in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy varies, possibly due to genetic differences underlying variation in radiosensitivity. Methods Cancer patients (n = 360) were selected retrospectively from the RadGenomics project. Adverse effects within 3 months of radiotherapy completion were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria; high grade group were grade 3 or more (n = 180), low grade group were grade 1 or less (n = 180). Pooled genomic DNA (gDNA) (n = 90 from each group) was screened using 23,244 microsatellites. Markers with different inter-group frequencies (Fisher exact test P < 0.05) were analyzed using the remaining pooled gDNA. Silencing RNA treatment was performed in cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Results Forty-seven markers had positive association values; including one in the SEMA3A promoter region (P = 1.24 × 10-5). SEMA3A knockdown enhanced radiation resistance. Conclusions This study identified 47 putative radiosensitivity markers, and suggested a role for SEMA3A in radiosensitivity. PMID:20701746

2010-01-01

402

New York State Cancer Registration Project  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Brenda Edwards, of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), worked with the New York State Department of Health and Long Island cancer registrars to review state cancer registration and reporting procedures for breast cancer.

403

A nationwide population-based skin cancer screening in Germany: Proceedings of the first meeting of the International Task Force on Skin Cancer Screening and Prevention (September 24 and 25, 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin cancer incidence is increasing worldwide in white populations and mortality rates have not declined throughout most of the world. An extraordinarily high proportion of at-risk individuals have yet to be screened for melanoma but guidelines from esteemed bodies do not currently endorse population-based screening. Evidence for the effectiveness of skin cancer screening is imperative. To this end, scientists in

Alan C. Geller; Rüdiger Greinert; Craig Sinclair; Martin A. Weinstock; Joanne Aitken; Mathieu Boniol; Marcus Capellaro; Jean-Francois Doré; Mark Elwood; Suzanne W. Fletcher; Richard Gallagher; Sara Gandini; Allan C. Halpern; Alexander Katalinic; Robin Lucas; Ashfag A. Marghoob; Sandra Nolte; Joachim Schüz; Margaret A. Tucker; Beate Volkmer; Eckhard Breitbart

2010-01-01

404

Colorectal Cancer Screening of Californian Adults of Mexican Origin as a Function of Acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Californian Latinos have lower rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compared to non-Latino whites, which may account\\u000a in part for disparities in colorectal incidence trends. Methods Participants, 603 Mexican-American men and 893 women aged 50 and older who had not been diagnosed with colon cancer, reported\\u000a CRC screening behavior on the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. A 7-item acculturation

Marilyn Johnson-Kozlow

2010-01-01

405

Etiologic and early marker studies in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, which is randomizing 74,000 screening arm participants (37,000 men, 37,000 women; ages 55–74) and an equal number of nonscreened controls, is a unique setting for the investigation of the etiology of cancer and other diseases and for the evaluation of potential molecular markers of early disease. At entry,b aseline information is

Richard B. Hayes; Douglas Reding; William Kopp; Amy F. Subar; Narayan Bhat; Nathaniel Rothman; Neil Caporaso; Regina G. Ziegler; Christine Cole Johnson; Joel L. Weissfeld; Robert N. Hoover; Patricia Hartge; Cindy Palace; John K. Gohagan

2000-01-01

406

Understanding Prostate Cancer Screenings among African American Men: Combining the Behavioral Science and Anthropological Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper synthesizes the perspectives from behavioral science and medical anthropology to discuss factors affecting prostate\\u000a cancer screenings among African American men. It argues that the hegemonic health behavior model historically used to frame\\u000a prostate cancer screenings without considering the context in which African American men are embedded. By the same token,\\u000a the sociocultural perspective tends to articulate the cultural

Hung-Yi Lu

2007-01-01

407

Beliefs and Attitudes as Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening: A Community-Based Study in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The investigation of cervical cancer screening acceptance in relation to health beliefs and attitudes presents a challenge in a multiethnic population such as Singapore?s, where the uptake is currently suboptimal in high-risk groups. This study attempts to identify cognitive barriers to screening activity in order to suggest possible directions for cervical cancer prevention efforts. Methods. A cross-sectional survey consisting

A. Seow; M. L. Wong; W. C. S. Smith; H. P. Lee

1995-01-01

408

Trends in cancer of the cervix uteri in Sweden following cytological screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in cervical cancer incidence following the introduction of screening have mostly been studied using cross-sectional data and not analysed separately for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinomas. Using Swedish nationwide data on incidence and mortality, we analysed trends during more than 3 decades and fitted Poisson-based age-period-cohort models, and also investigated whether screening has reduced the incidence of adenocarcinomas of

R Bergström; P Sparén; H-O Adami

1999-01-01

409

A genomic screen for genes upregulated by demethylation and histone deacetylase inhibition in human colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant hypermethylation of gene promoters is a major mechanism associated with inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes in cancer. We previously showed this transcriptional silencing to be mediated by both methylation and histone deacetylase activity, with methylation being dominant. Here, we have used cDNA microarray analysis to screen for genes that are epigenetically silenced in human colorectal cancer. By screening over 10,000

Hiromu Suzuki; Edward Gabrielson; Wei Chen; Ramaswamy Anbazhagan; Manon van Engeland; Matty P. Weijenberg; James G. Herman; Stephen B. Baylin

2002-01-01

410

Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized european study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer was initiated in the early 1990s to evaluate the effect of screening with prostate-specific-antigen(PSA) testing on death rates from prostate cancer. Methods We identified 182,000 men between the ages of 50 and 74 years through registries in seven European countries for inclusion in our study. The men were randomly assigned

Fritz H. Schröder; Jonas Hugosson; Monique J. Roobol; Teuvo L. J. Tammela; Stefano Ciatto; Vera Nelen; Maciej Kwiatkowski; Marcos Lujan; Hans Lilja; Marco Zappa; Louis J. Denis; Franz Recker; A. B. Määpttänen; C. H. Bangma; G. Aus; A. Villers; X. Rébillard; Van Kwast van T. D; B. G. Blijenberg; S. M. Moss; Koning de H. J; A. Auvinen

2009-01-01

411

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Institute develops nomogram to determine individualized estimates of screen-detected prostate cancer overdiagnosis  

Cancer.gov

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Institute researchers have developed a nomogram that incorporates age, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis, so that an individual's risk that a screen-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed can be estimated.

412

Cost-effectiveness model for colon cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The relative efficacy and effectiveness of different colon screening programs has not been assessed. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a model for comparing several colon screening programs and to determine the key variables that impact program effectiveness. Methods: Five screening programs were compared: annual fecal occult blood test (FOBT) alone, flexible sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy

David A. Lieberman

1995-01-01

413

Comparing Benefits from Many Possible Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Programs: Extrapolating from the National Lung Screening Trial Using Comparative Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that in current and former smokers aged 55 to 74 years, with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking history and who had quit smoking no more than 15 years ago, 3 annual computed tomography (CT) screens reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 20% relative to 3 annual chest X-ray screens. We compared the benefits achievable with 576 lung cancer screening programs that varied CT screen number and frequency, ages of screening, and eligibility based on smoking. Methods and Findings We used five independent microsimulation models with lung cancer natural history parameters previously calibrated to the NLST to simulate life histories of the US cohort born in 1950 under all 576 programs. ‘Efficient’ (within model) programs prevented the greatest number of lung cancer deaths, compared to no screening, for a given number of CT screens. Among 120 ‘consensus efficient’ (identified as efficient across models) programs, the average starting age was 55 years, the stopping age was 80 or 85 years, the average minimum pack-years was 27, and the maximum years since quitting was 20. Among consensus efficient programs, 11% to 40% of the cohort was screened, and 153 to 846 lung cancer deaths were averted per 100,000 people. In all models, annual screening based on age and smoking eligibility in NLST was not efficient; continuing screening to age 80 or 85 years was more efficient. Conclusions Consensus results from five models identified a set of efficient screening programs that include annual CT lung cancer screening using criteria like NLST eligibility but extended to older ages. Guidelines for screening should also consider harms of screening and individual patient characteristics. PMID:24979231

McMahon, Pamela M.; Meza, Rafael; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Black, William C.; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Erdogan, Ayca; ten Haaf, Kevin; Hazelton, William; Holford, Theodore R.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Clarke, Lauren; Kong, Chung Yin; Choi, Sung Eun; Munshi, Vidit N.; Han, Summer S.; van Rosmalen, Joost; Pinsky, Paul F.; Moolgavkar, Suresh

2014-01-01

414

Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and purchasing power parity. Results Cervical cytology laboratory processing costs were I$1.57–3.37 using the quantity and price method compared to I$1.58–3.02 from the face validation method. HPV DNA processing costs were I$6.07–6.59. Rural laboratory transport costs for cytology were I$0.12–0.64 and I$0.14–0.74 for HPV DNA laboratories. Under assumptions of lower resource efficiency, these estimates increased to I$0.42–0.83 and I$0.54–1.06. Estimates of the value of an hour of patient time using only formal sector participation were I$0.07–4.16, increasing to I$0.30–4.80 when informal and unpaid labor was also included. The value of patient time for traveling, waiting, and attending a screening visit was I$0.68–17.74. With the total cost of screening for cytology and HPV DNA testing ranging from I$4.85–40.54 and I$11.30–48.77 respectively, the cost of the laboratory transport, processing, and patient time accounted for 26–66% and 33–65% of the total costs. From a payer perspective, laboratory transport and processing accounted for 18–48% and 25–60% of total direct medical costs of I$4.11–19.96 and I$10.57–28.18 respectively. Conclusion Cost estimates of laboratory processing, sample transport, and patient time account for a significant proportion of total cervical cancer screening costs in five developing countries and provide important inputs for CEAs of alternative screening modalities. PMID:16887041

Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Goldie, Sue J

2006-01-01

415

Antenatal maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: results of a demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To assess the implementation of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in practice, using individual risk estimates based on maternal age and the three serum markers: alpha fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol, and human chorionic gonadotrophin. DESIGN--Demonstration project of Down's syndrome screening; women with a risk estimate at term of 1 in 250 or greater were classified as \\

N. J. Wald; A. Kennard; J. W. Densem; H. S. Cuckle; T. Chard; L. Butler

1992-01-01

416

Health promotion at NHS breast cancer screening clinics in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Suboptimal diets, sedentary lifestyles, overweight and obesity expose two-thirds of women in England aged over 50 to a heightened risk of lifestyle-related morbidities. The UK's NHS Breast Cancer Screening Programme now reaches 75% of all women aged 53-64 but provides only mammography screening. This cross-sectional survey of 413 women attending two NHS breast screening clinics in North Yorkshire found

BERNADETTE FISHER; DAWN DOWDING; KATE E. PICKETT; FIONA FYLAN

2007-01-01

417

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake: Does Time Perspective Play a Role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the role of time perspective in explaining inequalities in colorectal cancer screening attendance. We tested a path model predicting that (a) socioeconomic status (SES) would be associated with consideration of future consequences (CFC), (b) CFC would be associated with perceived benefits\\/barriers, and (c) barriers and benefits would be associated longitudinally with screening attendance. Method: Data for

Katriina L. Whitaker; Anna Good; Anne Miles; Katie Robb; Jane Wardle; Christian von Wagner

2011-01-01

418

Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening

Kaopua, Lana Sue

2008-01-01

419

Fecal DNA testing compared with conventional colorectal cancer screening methods: a decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Fecal DNA testing is an emerging tool to detect colorectal cancer (CRC). Our aims were to estimate the clinical and economic consequences of fecal DNA testing vs. conventional CRC screening. Methods: Using a Markov model, we estimated CRC incidence, CRC mortality, and discounted cost\\/life-year gained for screening by fecal DNA testing (F-DNA), fecal occult blood testing (FOBT)

Kenneth Song; A. Mark Fendrick; Uri Ladabaum

2004-01-01

420

News Notes: Two Proteins May Be Key to Screening for Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified an improved method of screening high-risk patients for one of the most common types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly if the patient has a history of hepatitis. By changing the threshold of one commonly used screening test and adding a second, complementary test, researchers were able to accurately identify more early stage HCC cases.

421

Use of Cancer Screening Practices by Hispanic Women: Analyses by Subgroup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study compares the use of three cancer screening practices (Pap smear, mammogram, and clinical breast examination) 3 years prior to interview among five subgroups of Hispanic women, and examines whether sociodemographic; access; health behavior, perception, and knowledge; and acculturation factors predict screening practices for any subgroup.Methods. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with data pooled from

Ruth E. Zambrana; Nancy Breen; Sarah A. Fox; Mary Lou Gutierrez-Mohamed

1999-01-01

422

The Association of Social Support and Education with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…

Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.

2015-01-01

423

Cross-Cultural Validation of the Preventive Health Model for Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Australian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between…

Flight, Ingrid H.; Wilson, Carlene J.; McGillivray, Jane; Myers, Ronald E.

2010-01-01

424

The MISCAN-COLON simulation model for the evaluation of colorectal cancer screening.  

PubMed

A general model for evaluation of colorectal cancer screening has been implemented in the microsimulation program MISCAN-COLON. A large number of fictitious individual life histories are simulated in each of which several colorectal lesions can emerge. Next, screening for colorectal cancer is simulated, which will change some of the life histories. The demographic characteristics, the epidemiology and natural history of the disease, and the characteristics of screening are defined in the input. All kinds of assumptions on the natural history of colorectal cancer and screening and surveillance strategies can easily be incorporated in the model. MISCAN-COLON gives detailed output of incidence, prevalence and mortality, and the results and effects of screening. It can be used to test hypotheses about the natural history of colorectal cancer, such as the duration of progressive adenomas, and screening characteristics, such as sensitivity of tests, against empirical data. In decision making about screening, the model can be used for evaluation of screening policies, and for choosing between competing policies by comparing their simulated incremental costs and effectiveness outcomes. PMID:10066353

Loeve, F; Boer, R; van Oortmarssen, G J; van Ballegooijen, M; Habbema, J D

1999-02-01

425

Cancer screening rates comparable for those with and without rheumatoid arthritis  

Cancer.gov

New research from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Mass., shows that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients do not receive fewer cancer screening tests than the general population. Results of the study, published in Arthritis & Rheumatism, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology, found that RA and non-RA patients receive routine screening for breast, cervical, and colon cancer at similar rates. Previous research had reported that cancer is one of the main causes of death for RA patients and patients with chronic disease, and that those patients may not receive preventive medical services including regular screenings for cancer. Brigham and Women's Hospital is part of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center.

426

A Comparison of Breast and Cervical Cancer Legislation and Screening in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina  

PubMed Central

We identified legislation (1989–2005) relating to breast and cervical cancer in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina and examined its impact on screening rates for these cancers and on Black-White disparities in screening rates. Legislation was identi-fied using the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) State Cancer Legislative Database (SCLD) Program. Screening rates were identified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Georgia and North Carolina enacted more laws on breast and cervical cancer than did South Carolina. The laws specifically intended to increase breast and cervical cancer screening were mandates requiring that insurance policies cover such screening; Georgia and North Carolina enacted such laws, but South Carolina did not. However, we were unable to demonstrate an effect of these laws on either screening rates or disparities. This may reinforce the importance of evidence-based health promotion programs to increase screening. PMID:22643558

Miles-Richardson, Stephanie; Blumenthal, Daniel; Alema-Mensah, Ernest

2013-01-01

427

Women’s views on overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To elicit women’s responses to information about the nature and extent of overdiagnosis in mammography screening (detecting disease that would not present clinically during the woman’s lifetime) and explore how awareness of overdiagnosis might influence attitudes and intentions about screening. Design Qualitative study using focus groups that included a presentation explaining overdiagnosis, incorporating different published estimates of its rate (1–10%, 30%, 50%) and information on the mortality benefit of screening, with guided group discussions Setting Sydney, Australia Participants Fifty women aged 40–79 years with no personal history of breast cancer and with varying levels of education and participation in screening. Results Prior awareness of breast cancer overdiagnosis was minimal. Women generally reacted with surprise, but most came to understand the issue. Responses to overdiagnosis and the different estimates of its magnitude were diverse. The highest estimate (50%) made some women perceive a need for more careful personal decision making about screening. In contrast, the lower and intermediate estimates (1–10% and 30%) had limited impact on attitudes and intentions, with many women remaining committed to screening. For some women, the information raised concerns, not about whether to screen but whether to treat a screen detected cancer or consider alternative approaches (such as watchful waiting). Information preferences varied: many women considered it important to take overdiagnosis into account and make informed choices about whether to have screening, but many wanted to be encouraged to be screened. Conclusions Women from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds could comprehend the issue of overdiagnosis in mammography screening, and they generally valued information about it. Effects on screening intentions may depend heavily on the rate of overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis will be new and counterintuitive for many people and may influence screening and treatment decisions in unintended ways, underscoring the need for careful communication. PMID:23344309

2013-01-01

428

Clinical perspectives on colorectal cancer screening at latino-serving federally qualified health centers.  

PubMed

Purpose. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal cancer. Method. We conducted one-on-one interviews among 17 clinic personnel at four Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Center networks in Oregon. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded, and themes were grouped by influences at three levels: the patient, the organization, and the external environment. Results. Estimated proportions of eligible patients who are underscreened for colorectal cancer ranged from 20% to 70%. Underscreening was thought to occur among low-income, underinsured, and undocumented patients and patients having multiple health concerns. Limited funding to pay for follow-up testing in patients with positive screens was cited as the key factor contributing to underscreening. Conclusions. We identified health care provider perceptions about the underutilization of screening services for colorectal cancer; our findings may inform future efforts to promote guideline-appropriate cancer screening. PMID:24952378

Coronado, Gloria D; Petrik, Amanda F; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M

2015-02-01

429

Colon Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Colorectal Cancer: Incidence and Mortality

430

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

431

Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening: the importance of length of observation period and lead time  

PubMed Central

Background Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is a controversial topic. One difficulty in estimation of overdiagnosis is the separation of overdiagnosis from lead time that is the advance in the time of diagnosis of cancers, which confers an artificial increase in incidence when a screening programme is introduced. Methods We postulated a female population aged 50-79 with a similar age structure and age-specific breast cancer incidence as in England and Wales before the screening programme. We then imposed a two-yearly screening programme; screening women aged 50-69, to run for twenty years, with exponentially distributed lead time with an average of 40 months in screen-detected cancers. We imposed no effect of the screening on incidence other than lead time. Results Comparison of age- and time-specific incidence between the screened and unscreened populations showed a major effect of lead time, which could only be adjusted for by follow-up for more than two decades and including ten years after the last screen. From lead time alone, twenty-year observation at ages 50-69 would confer an observed excess incidence of 37%. The excess would only fall below 10% with 25 years or more follow-up. For the excess to be nullified, we would require 30 year follow-up including observation up to 10 years above the upper age limit for screening. Conclusion Studies using shorter observation periods will overestimate overdiagnosis by inclusion of cancers diagnosed early due to lead time among the nominally overdiagnosed tumours. PMID:23680223

2013-01-01

432

MRI breast screening in high-risk women: cancer detection and survival analysis.  

PubMed

Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival. PMID:24687378

Evans, D Gareth; Gareth, Evans D; Kesavan, Nisha; Nisha, Kesavan; Lim, Yit; Yit, Lim; Gadde, Soujanye; Soujanye, Gadde; Hurley, Emma; Emma, Hurley; Massat, Nathalie J; Maxwell, Anthony J; Ingham, Sarah; Sarah, Ingham; Eeles, Rosalind; Rosalind, Eeles; Leach, Martin O; Howell, Anthony; Anthony, Howell; Duffy, Stephen W; Stephen, Duffy

2014-06-01

433

Measuring the Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening: The Importance of Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  As evidence mounts for effectiveness, an increasing proportion of the United States population undergoes colorectal cancer\\u000a screening. However, relatively little is known about rates of follow-up after abnormal results from initial screening tests.\\u000a This study examines patterns of colorectal cancer screening and follow-up within the nation's largest integrated health care\\u000a system: the Veterans Health Administration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We obtained information about patients

David A. Etzioni; Elizabeth M. Yano; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Martin L. Lee; Clifford Y. Ko; Robert H. Brook; Patricia H. Parkerton; Steven M. Asch

2006-01-01

434

Cervix cancer screening in Croatia within the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week.  

PubMed

Croatia still has opportunistic screening and the organized national screening has been planned. The European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week was held twice in Croatia, in January 2008 and 2009. Within the first one in 2008, information campaign "For All Women" via mass media was held, and women were invited to the organized free gynecological examination and Papanicolaou test (Pap test) in the University Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zagreb University Hospital Center. Following invitation 481 women attended the testing; the median age was 55 years. There were more women aged > or = 50 (n = 353), with the highest participation in the age group 55-59 years (n = 94). Some women came because of subjective symptoms (n = 10), but the majority of them came only for testing (n = 471). According to history of previous cytological testing, 400 women have had > or = 1 negative findings, 71 women have had > or = 1 positive findings, 9 women attended Pap test for the first time, and 1 woman does not know about previous testing. Cervical cytology was abnormal in 35 women (7.28%), the median age was 42 years with the highest proportion in the age group 30-34 years (n = 7); among all of them 21 women (60%) had no abnormal Pap test previously. The findings were: Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance--ASC-US (n = 9), ASC cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion--ASC-H (n = 1), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia--CIN 1 (n = 13), CIN 2 (n = 1), CIN 3 (n = 6), carcinoma planocellulare (n = 2), atypical glandular cells--AGC-favor reactive endocervical cells (n = 3). Among women aged < or = 49 there were 20.47% abnormal findings and among those aged > or = 50, 2.55%. According to 21 positive Pap tests previously, among women aged < or = 49 there were 30.71% while among those aged > or = 50 there were 9.07%. Within the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week in 2009, employed women from one national company were invited by internal information to the same procedure. A smaller group of younger asymptomatic women came for testing (n = 53), median age 39 years. According to history of previous cytological testing, 50 women have had > or = 1 negative findings, 3 women have had > or = 1 positive findings. In this study, Pap test was positive in 3.77% (n = 2). National screening programme should be focused on the participation of all personally invited women, especially younger age groups and under-screened women. Well designed information campaign should be implemented in national screening programme. PMID:20698138

Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Mahovli?, Vesna; Ovanin-Raki?, Ana; Barisi?, Ana; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Babi?, Damir; Corusi?, Ante; Oreskovi?, Slavko

2010-06-01

435

Cervicography screening for cervical cancer among 8460 women in a high-risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cervicography was evaluated as a primary screening method for cervical cancer. Study Design: Cervigrams of 8460 women were taken on enrollment into a population-based study of cervical neoplasia. Cervicography results were compared with a referent diagnosis determined by histologic analysis and 3 cytologic tests, and with the performance of conventional cytologic evaluation. Results: Cervicography identified all 11 cancers, whereas

Diana L. Schneider; Rolando Herrero; Concepción Bratti; Mitchell D. Greenberg; Allan Hildesheim; Mark E. Sherman; Jorge Morales; Martha L. Hutchinson; Thomas V. Sedlacek; Attila Lorincz; Laurie Mango; Sholom Wacholder; Mario Alfaro; Mark Schiffman

1999-01-01

436

Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

2007-01-01

437

Computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast cancer on full field digital and screening film mammograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) as a new breast imaging modality has potential to detect more breast cancers or to detect them at smaller sizes and earlier stages compared with screening film mammography (SFM). However, its performance needs verification, and it would pose new problems for the development of CAD methods for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Performance evaluation of CAD

Xuejun Sun; Wei Qian; Xiaoshan Song; Yuyan Qian; Dansheng Song; Robert A. Clark

2003-01-01

438

Nursing Perspectives on Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health care disparities have been documented in cancer screenings of adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities nurses were surveyed to better understand and improve this deficiency. Two thirds of respondents believed that adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities received fewer cancer

Tyler, Carl V.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.; Panaite, Vanessa; Council, Linda

2010-01-01