Sample records for cancer screening project

  1. South Africa project provides cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L

    1997-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the five leading causes of death among women aged 45-59 years in the developing world, and the most common type of cancer among South African women, accounting for about 25% of all cancer-related mortality. The Philani Cervical Cancer Prevention Project, located in Site C of Khayelitsha, a settlement outside of Cape Town, is now screening women to prevent development of the disease. The Philani Project is a demonstration study for a larger cervical cancer prevention project. AVSC International is providing technical and management assistance as one of the project's five collaborators. Working out of a mobile clinic parked next to an outpatient treatment center, the project is comparing the use of Pap smears and four other screening approaches in a low-resource situation in order to develop protocols for similar programs. Now in its second year, the Philani project has enrolled 1600 previously unscreened women over age 35 years. Follow-up and treatment are provided. 80% of women identified with a problem through screening and in need of colposcopy return for follow-up and treatment. However, the number of women who return voluntarily for follow-up is continuously increasing due to the staff's attention to providing community education about cervical screening. About 9% of clients were found to have abnormalities of the cervix with the potential to progress to a malignancy, and 8 cases of outright cervical cancer have been detected. Community outreach, innovative programs, and coordinated efforts are discussed. PMID:12293924

  2. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Lung Cancer Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Meetings of the International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Meetings of the International Cancer Screening

  6. Beyond mammography screening: quality assurance in breast cancer diagnosis (The QuaMaDi Project)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Katalinic; C Bartel; H Raspe; I Schreer

    2007-01-01

    As many breast cancer cases are detected outside mammographic screening, a multidisciplinary quality management (QuaMaDi) project involving gynaecologists, double reading by radiologists. and centralised assessment, documentation, evaluation and feedback was implemented into routine breast cancer diagnosis in part of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) with a population of 365 000 women. A cohort of 59 514 patients eligible for diagnostic mammography was examined

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes ...

  8. International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

  9. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described. PMID:24335688

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rectum small intestine colon (large intestine) What Is Colorectal Cancer? Colorectal cancer is cancer that occurs in the ... or older, start getting screened now. Who Gets Colorectal Cancer? • Both men and women can get it. • It ...

  11. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  12. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening. PMID:23830728

  13. Mass screening for cervical cancer in Norway: evaluation of the pilot project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tone Bjørge; Anne B. Gunbjørud; Olav A. Haugen; Gry B. Skare; Claes Tropé; Steinar Ø. Thoresen

    1995-01-01

    The Norwegian Department of Health and Social Affairs initiated a national screening program for cervical cancer in 1990, with all women aged 25 to 70 years to be offered cervical screening every three years. During the first three years of the program (November 1991–October 1994), all spontaneous cervical cytology in Norway was recorded at the Norwegian Cancer Registry. In addition,

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... available from the NCI Web site . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. ... cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer may ...

  15. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the patient’s preferences, prostate cancer risk, health, and life expectancy. Doctors should not screen for prostate cancer using ... than 69 years, or any man with a life expectancy less than 10 to 15 years. What are ...

  16. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Follow-up tests may detect endometrial cancer. Transvaginal ultrasound No studies have shown that screening by transvaginal ... of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative ...

  17. Evaluation of screening programmes for gynaecological cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hakama, M.; Chamberlain, J.; Day, N. E.; Miller, A. B.; Prorok, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    A workshop of the Project on Evaluation of Screening Programmes of the International Union against Cancer (UICC) was held in Lyon, France. on November 20-22, 1984. The focus of the workshop was on screening for gynaecological cancer, especially for cancer of the cervix uteri. This report summarizes the presentations, conclusions and recommendations from the workshop. PMID:4063143

  18. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 17 PM You are here: Home Recommendations for Primary Care Practice Published Recommendations Recommendation Summary Cervical Cancer: Screening ... are one-page documents that provide guidance to primary care clinicians for using recommendations in practice. This summary ...

  19. Screening for ovarian cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian J Jacobs; Usha Menon; Nicola D MacDonald; Adam N Rosenthal

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is predominantly a disease of postmenopausal women which presents at a late stage and has an overall 5-year surv ival of less than 30%. If detected at stage I, survival is dramatically increased and this would suggest that screening for ovarian cancer may reduce mortality. However, the inaccessibility of the ovaries and the absence of a confirmed premalignant

  20. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Leggett, B A; Hewett, D G

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in Australia, and screening to detect it an earlier stage is cost-effective. Furthermore, detection and removal of precursor polyps can reduce incidence. Currently, there are limited data to determine the screening rate in Australia, but it is certainly lower than the 80% screening rate considered desirable. Whether colonoscopy is used as the screening test or to follow up positive results of an initial non-invasive test, it plays a fundamental role. Despite high sensitivity and specificity, it is expensive and invasive with measurable risk and is not acceptable as an initial test to many participants. It does not provide complete protection, and interval cancers between planned colonoscopies are associated with proximal location, origin in sessile serrated adenomas and operator-dependent factors. An essential component of colorectal screening is the measurement of colonoscopy quality indicators, such as caecal intubation and adenoma detection rates, which are known to be associated with the rate of interval cancer. The non-invasive screening test currently recommended in Australia is biennial testing for faecal occult blood between the ages of 50 and 75 using a faecal immunochemical test, with positives evaluated by colonoscopy. This is provided through the National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme, currently for those at the ages of 50, 55, 60 and 65 years, with full implementation of biennial screening by 2020. To improve screening in Australia, the most fruitful approach may be to acknowledge that there is a choice of screening tests and to focus on the goal of improving overall participation rate and being able to measure this. PMID:25582937

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Screening methods used to find cervical changes that may lead to cervical cancer include the Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Such screening tests may find cancers early, when they are most treatable. Women who have never been screened or who have not been screened in the past 5 years face a greater risk of developing invasive cervical cancer.

  2. Predictive Accuracy of the Liverpool Lung Project Risk Model for Stratifying Patients for Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Olaide Y.; Duffy, Stephen W.; Agbaje, Olorunshola F.; Baker, Stuart G.; Christiani, David C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Field, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Background External validation of existing lung cancer risk prediction models is limited. Using such models in clinical practice to guide the referral of patients for computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer depends on external validation and evidence of predicted clinical benefit. Objective To evaluate the discrimination of the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) risk model and demonstrate its predicted benefit for stratifying patients for CT screening by using data from 3 independent studies from Europe and North America. Design Case–control and prospective cohort study. Setting Europe and North America. Patients Participants in the European Early Lung Cancer (EUELC) and Harvard case–control studies and the LLP population-based prospective cohort (LLPC) study. Measurements 5-year absolute risks for lung cancer predicted by the LLP model. Results The LLP risk model had good discrimination in both the Harvard (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.78]) and the LLPC (AUC, 0.82 [CI, 0.80 to 0.85]) studies and modest discrimination in the EUELC (AUC, 0.67 [CI, 0.64 to 0.69]) study. The decision utility analysis, which incorporates the harms and benefit of using a risk model to make clinical decisions, indicates that the LLP risk model performed better than smoking duration or family history alone in stratifying high-risk patients for lung cancer CT screening. Limitations The model cannot assess whether including other risk factors, such as lung function or genetic markers, would improve accuracy. Lack of information on asbestos exposure in the LLPC limited the ability to validate the complete LLP risk model. Conclusion Validation of the LLP risk model in 3 independent external data sets demonstrated good discrimination and evidence of predicted benefits for stratifying patients for lung cancer CT screening. Further studies are needed to prospectively evaluate model performance and evaluate the optimal population risk thresholds for initiating lung cancer screening. Primary Funding Source Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation. PMID:22910935

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage. PMID:25631198

  4. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries. The consortium meets once every two to three years, and began as a small group of 16 collaborators in 1997.

  5. Review article Lung cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J R C ELLIS; F V GLEESON

    2001-01-01

    Prior attempts to screen for lung cancer using chest radiography and sputum cytology have proved unsuccessful. Recent reports have investigated the role of spiral CT in early lung cancer detection and have suggested that screening would be of value. Prior to the introduction of a national lung cancer screening programme, it would be essential to demonstrate that this would reduce

  6. Breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Sirovich, B E; Sox, H C

    1999-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials involving nearly 500,000 women on two continents have confirmed the early promise that screening mammography can reduce breast cancer mortality. The observed benefits of mammographic screening, however, are not the same in all women. The mortality reduction in women over age 70 is unknown, and women aged 40 to 49 do not appear to benefit from mammographic screening to the same extent as those over age 50. The reasons for this disparity are incompletely understood, but it depends in part upon differing tumor biology and mammographic test characteristics in younger women. Even if relative survival benefits were equal for women under and over age 50, absolute reduction in risk would remain considerably lower for younger women, a disparity that would not be corrected by improved screening technology or adjustment of interscreening intervals. The authors' review of the evidence leads them to strongly support mammographic screening of women aged 50 to 69 at an interval not longer than 2 years. The authors also feel it is reasonable to screen women over age 70 who have a favorable life expectancy. They conclude, however, that the evidence does not support a blanket recommendation in favor of screening women aged 40 to 49. Instead, they advocate a well-informed conversation between physician and patient regarding the present knowledge and the risks and benefits of screening for each individual woman. Definitive answers await the results of ongoing RCTs designed to study the survival benefit conferred by screening women aged 40 to 49. Disagreement will undoubtedly persist regarding which recommendations should determine private practice and public policy. PMID:10572546

  7. [Colorectal cancer screening: situation and prospect].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunguang; Liu, Qian; Dai, Min

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in China and the incidence has been increasing during the decades. It is reported to take decades for adenoma to transform to carcinoma, which is known as the main CRC pre-cancer lesion. It is important to carry out mass screening in the average risk populations to find the pre-cancer lesion and early cancer, which was the key approach to improve CRC survival. Fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening methods, which have been shown to reduce CRC mortality. It still needs to be confirmed in random clinical trials that the value of colonoscopy in CRC screening. In China, the most CRC screening experience was drawn from the works in Zhejiang province in 1970s. Consequently, the Chinese CRC treatment and guideline was founded to provide standard for the CRC screening project. PMID:26081698

  8. Current and projected annual direct costs of screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray D. Krahn; Isra G. Levy

    Background: Concern over the cost of screening for asymptomatic prostate cancer by means of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has played an important role in PSA screening policy. However, little is known about the true costs of current PSA screening in Canada and how costs may change in the future. Methods: The authors performed a cost identification study from the perspective

  9. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  10. CRN - Cancer Screening Research: PROTECTS Study

    Cancer.gov

    The PROTECTS Project is comprised of two sub-studies. One of these sub-studies, described below, addresses whether breast cancer screening before the age of 50 is efficacious, and examines the efficacy stratified by average or increased breast cancer risk. The other sub-study examines the use of prophylactic mastectomy in a defined population.

  11. Ovarian Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Progress Annual ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  12. Community collaboration to increase foreign-born women¿s participation in a cervical cancer screening program in Sweden: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevailing inequities in healthcare have been well addressed in previous research, especially screening program participation, but less attention has been paid to how to overcome these inequities. This paper explores a key factor of a successful improvement project: collaboration with local doulas to raise cervical cancer screening participation by more than 40 percent in an area with a large number of foreign-born residents. Methods Data was collected through two focus group discussions with the doulas in order to design interventions and debrief after interventions had been carried out in the community. Various tools were used to analyze the verbal data and monitor the progress of the project. Results Three major themes emerged from the focus group discussions: barriers that prevent women from participating in the cervical cancer screening program, interventions to increase participation, and the role of the doulas in the interventions. Conclusions This paper suggests that several barriers make participation in cervical cancer screening program more difficult for foreign-born women in Sweden. Specifically, these barriers include lack of knowledge concerning cancer and the importance of preventive healthcare services and practical obstacles such as unavailable child care and language skills. The overarching approach to surmount these barriers was to engage persons with a shared cultural background and mother tongue as the target audience to verbally communicate information. The doulas who helped to identify barriers and plan and execute interventions gained increased confidence and a sense of pride in assisting to bridge the gap between healthcare providers and users. PMID:25106490

  13. Ethical issues in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Leonie; Bretthauer, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In many countries, colorectal cancer screening is currently an established population screening program due to the evidence on its reduction of colorectal cancer mortality. There is general consensus that colorectal cancer screening meets the screening criteria as proposed by Wilson and Jungner. However, as for all population screening programs, colorectal cancer screening also has disadvantages and thereby entails ethical issues. There are the general issues concerning the introduction of screening programs (e.g. medicalization, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, information provision to screenees), evaluation of cancer screening programs (e.g. lead time and length bias), chosen screening method (e.g. false-positive and false-negative test results, reduction of all-cause mortality, choice between different screening methods). The different colorectal cancer screening methods and the ethical issues concerning colorectal cancer screening will be discussed in this review. PMID:24810192

  14. Breast Cancer Screening Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. Source for graph data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cancer ...

  15. Screening for Skin Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Helfand; Susan M. Mahon; Karen B. Eden; Paul S. Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

    We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality

  16. Colorectal cancer screening in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Zavada, Filip; Dusek, Ladislav; Muzik, Jan; Seifert, Bohumil; Fric, Premysl

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent malignant disease in Europe. Every year, 412?000 people are diagnosed with this condition, and 207?000 patients die of it. In 2003, recommendations for screening programs were issued by the Council of the European Union (EU), and these currently serve as the basis for the preparation of European guidelines for CRC screening. The manner in which CRC screening is carried out varies significantly from country to country within the EU, both in terms of organization and the screening test chosen. A screening program of one sort or another has been implemented in 19 of 27 EU countries. The most frequently applied method is testing stool for occult bleeding (fecal occult blood test, FOBT). In recent years, a screening colonoscopy has been introduced, either as the only method (Poland) or the method of choice (Germany, Czech Republic). PMID:20014454

  17. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    Covell, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions. PMID:26132924

  18. Screening for skin cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

    2001-01-01

    Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

  19. Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with lower incomes and those without insurance. Federal law Coverage of cervical cancer screening tests is mandated ... says. They also are not covered by state laws, including those about cervical cancer screening. Women who ...

  20. Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Young, Patrick E.; Womeldorph, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Many, if not most, cases arise from premalignant lesions (adenomas) which may be identified and removed prior to becoming frankly malignant. For over a decade, colonoscopy has been the preferred modality for both CRC screening and prevention in the US. Early reports suggested that colonoscopic screening imparted a 90% risk reduction for colorectal cancer. Subsequent studies showed that estimate to be overly optimistic. While still an outstanding CRC screening and detection tool, colonoscopy has several important limitations. Some of these limitations relate to the mechanics of the procedure such as the risk of colonic perforation, bleeding, adverse consequences of sedation, and the inability to detect all colonic polyps. Other limitations reflect issues with patient perception regarding colonoscopy which, at least in part, drive patient non-adherence to recommended testing. This review examines the literature to address several important issues. First, we analyze the effect of colonoscopy on CRC incidence and mortality. Second, we consider the patient-based, periprocedural, and intraprocedural factors which may limit colonoscopy as a screening modality. Third, we explore new techniques and technologies which may enhance the efficacy of colonoscopy for adenoma detection. Finally, we discuss the short and long-term future of colonoscopy for CRC screening and the factors which may affect this future. PMID:23459594

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The risk was greatest the first year after diagnosis . Follow-up tests, such as a biopsy, may be done to diagnose cancer. If a PSA test is higher than normal, a biopsy of the prostate may be done. Complications from a biopsy of ...

  2. Lung cancer screening: identifying the high risk cohort

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Michael W.; Raji, Olaide Y.

    2015-01-01

    Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a viable screening tool for early lung cancer detection and mortality reduction. In practice, the success of any lung cancer screening programme will depend on successful identification of individuals at high risk in order to maximise the benefit-harm ratio. Risk prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors have been recognised as a method of identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. Identification of individuals at high risk will facilitate early diagnosis, reduce overall costs and also improve the current poor survival from lung cancer. This review summarises the current methods utilised in identifying high risk cohorts for lung cancer as proposed by the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) risk model, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial risk models and the prediction model for lung cancer death using quintiles. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of CT screening and future perspective for selecting high risk individuals is discussed. PMID:25984362

  3. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  4. Breast Cancer: Screening for a Cure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Haigh

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, an estimated 275,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with breast cancer and 41,000 patients died of this disease. 1 Because breast cancer is a common disease and early stage cancers detected by mammography are more successfully treated, mam- mogram screening programs have been instrumental in reducing breast cancer mortality. The morbidity of breast cancer treatment has

  5. CT Screening for Lung Cancer: Update 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia I. Henschke; D AVID F. YANKELEVITZ; David F. Yankelevitz

    2009-01-01

    Screening is the pursuit of the early diagnosis of cancer before symptoms occur. The purpose of early diagnosis istoprovideearlytreatment,whichpotentiallyprevents death from the cancer. The usefulness of screening de- pends on how early the cancer can be diagnosed and how many deaths can be prevented by early treatment as compared with later symptom-prompted diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the Early

  6. Organizational Factors and the Cancer Screening Process

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Jane; Edwards, Heather; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer screening is a process of care consisting of several steps and interfaces. This article reviews what is known about the association between organizational factors and cancer screening rates and examines how organizational strategies can address the steps and interfaces of cancer screening in the context of both intraorganizational and interorganizational processes. We reviewed 79 studies assessing the relationship between organizational factors and cancer screening. Screening rates are largely driven by strategies to 1) limit the number of interfaces across organizational boundaries; 2) recruit patients, promote referrals, and facilitate appointment scheduling; and 3) promote continuous patient care. Optimal screening rates can be achieved when health-care organizations tailor strategies to the steps and interfaces in the cancer screening process that are most critical for their organizations, the providers who work within them, and the patients they serve. PMID:20386053

  7. CRN - Cancer Screening Research: Ovarian Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The objective of this project is to describe end of life care and factors that may be associated with care (or lack of it) for women who die of ovarian cancer. An important goal of this study is to examine end-of-life care among a group of these patients who are diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. A special focus of this project is the experience of end-of-life care in managed care organizations.

  8. [Can we and must we organize cervical cancer screening in France? Results of the pilot project "EVE" in the department of Bas-Rhin].

    PubMed

    Fender, M; Schaffer, P; Dellenbach, P

    1998-11-01

    EVE is a pilot project for cervical cancer screening whose aim is to test the feasibility of organized screening in the French liberal health system with a consensus of medical participants. After three and a half years, 74.8% of women aged 25 to 64 had had at least one smear. Coverage varies with age, from 89% between 25 and 29 to 56% between 55 and 60. Only 8% of smears are taken by General Practitioners. There is a tendency to space out smears because only 14% of women had had a second smear within one year and 41.1% within 2 years. On the other hand more then 20% percent of women do not return after 3 years. Pathological smears represent 1.94% of all smears. For these, a questionnaire is sent to the physician in order to get information on follow-up. This enables cytologic/histologic correlation. The histologic exam reveals a pathological lesion in 95% of cytologies consistent with invasive cancer, 91% of those consistent with high grade lesions and 70% of those consistent with low grade lesions. PMID:9921438

  9. The Latina Breast Cancer Screening SacleBeliefs about breast cancer and breast cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelinn A. Borrayo; Patricia González; Randall Swaim; AL Marcus; Estevan Flores; Paula Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    The Latina Breast Cancer Screening (LBCS) was developed to measure Latinas’ culturally-shared health beliefs about breast cancer and breast cancer screening. A 60-item LBCS scale was tested with 288 participants and reduced to 35 items using principal components analyses. The 35-item LBCS scale and other measures were administered to a second sample of 147 participants to establish the scale’s validity

  10. Implementation of HPV-testing for cervical cancer screening in programmatic contexts: The Jujuy demonstration project in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Arrossi, Silvina; Thouyaret, Laura; Laudi, Rosa; Marín, Oscar; Ramírez, Josefina; Paolino, Melisa; Herrero, Rolando; Campanera, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present results of programmatic introduction of HPV testing with cytologic triage among women 30 years and older in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, including description of the planning phase and results of program performance during the first year. We describe the project implementation process, and calculate key performance indicators using SITAM, the national screening information system. We also compare disease detection rates of HPV testing in 2012 with cytology as performed during the previous year. HPV testing with cytology triage was introduced through a consensus-building process. Key activities included establishment of algorithms and guidelines, creating the HPV laboratory, training of health professionals, information campaigns for women and designing the referral network. By the end of 2012, 100% (n?=?270) of public health care centers were offering HPV testing and 22,834 women had been HPV tested, 98.5% (n?=?22,515) were 30+. HPV positivity among women over 30 was 12.7%, 807 women were HPV+ and had abnormal cytology, and 281 CIN2+ were identified. CIN2+ detection rates was 1.25 in 2012 and 0.62 in 2011 when the program was cytology based (p?=?0.0002). This project showed that effective introduction of HPV testing in programmatic contexts of low-middle income settings is feasible and detects more disease than cytology. PMID:25807897

  11. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. PMID:23378235

  12. Cancer screening test use - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Susan A; White, Mary C; Thompson, Trevor D; Klabunde, Carrie N

    2015-05-01

    Regular breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with timely and appropriate follow-up and treatment reduces deaths from these cancers. Healthy People 2020 targets for cancer screening test use have been established, based on the most recent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data are used to monitor progress toward the targets. CDC used the 2013 NHIS, the most recent data available, to examine breast, cervical, and CRC screening use. Although some demographic subgroups attained targets, screening use overall was below the targets with no improvements from 2010 to 2013 in breast, cervical, or CRC screening use. Cervical cancer screening declined from 2010 to 2013. Increased efforts are needed to achieve targets and reduce screening disparities. PMID:25950253

  13. Lung Cancer Screening: Subsequent Evidences of National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6.7% decrease in all-cause mortality. The NLST is the only trial showing positive results in a high-risk population, such as in patients with old age and heavy ever smokers. Lung cancer screening using a low-dose chest computed tomography might be beneficial for the high-risk group. However, there may also be potential adverse outcomes in terms of over diagnosis, bias and cost-effectiveness. Until now, lung cancer screening remains controversial. In this review, we wish to discuss the evolution of lung cancer screening and summarize existing evidences and recommendations. PMID:25237375

  14. Cancer screening in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy

    2011-09-01

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening. PMID:21695529

  15. Cancer Screening in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Non–AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening. PMID:21695529

  16. New Technologies for Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alaina J.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2013-01-01

    New technologies for cervical cancer screening seek to provide an accurate, efficient, and cost-effective way of identifying women at risk for cervical cancer. Current screening uses HPV DNA testing combined with cytology and requires multiple visits at a great cost to the patient and the society. New methods for screening include HPV diagnostics (detection of either the presence of HPV or integration of the virus into the host cell), proliferation, and detection of epigenetic changes, either in the host or virus. These methods show promise in changing the way that current cervical cancer screening is undertaken in both low and high-resource settings. PMID:22119058

  17. Breast cancer screening. First Nations communities in New Brunswick.

    PubMed Central

    Tatemichi, Sue; Miedema, Baukje; Leighton, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine use of breast cancer screening and barriers to screening among women in First Nations communities (FNCs). DESIGN: Structured, administered survey. SETTING: Five FNCs in New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-three (96%) of 138 eligible women between the ages of 50 and 69 years. INTERVENTIONS: After project objectives, methods, and expected outcomes were discussed with community health representatives, we administered a 32-item questionnaire on many aspects of breast cancer screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of use of mammography and other breast cancer screening methods, and barriers to screening. RESULTS: Some 65% of participants had had mammography screening within the previous 2 years. Having mammography at recommended intervals and clinical breast examinations (CBEs) yearly were significantly associated with having had a physician recommend the procedures (P < .001). A family history of breast cancer increased the odds of having a mammogram 2.6-fold (P < .05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 6.54). Rates of screening differed sharply by whether a family physician was physically practising in the community or not (P < .05, odds ratio 2.68, 95% CI 1.14 to 6.29). CONCLUSION: Women in FNCs in one health region in New Brunswick have mammography with the same frequency as off-reserve women. A family physician practising part time in the FNCs was instrumental in encouraging women to participate in breast cancer screening. PMID:12113195

  18. Interval Cancers in Prostate Cancer Screening: Comparing 2- and 4Year Screening Intervals in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer, Gothenburg and Rotterdam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique J. Roobol; Anna Grenabo; Fritz H. Schröder; Jonas Hugosson

    Background The incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially since it became common practice to screen asymptomatic men for the disease. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) was initiated in 1993 to determine how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening affects prostate cancer mortality. Variations in the screening algorithm, such as the interval between screening rounds, likely influence

  19. Interval cancers in prostate cancer screening: Comparing 2- and 4-year screening intervals in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer, Gothenburg and Rotterdam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Roobol; A. Grenabo; F. H. Schröder; J. Hugosson

    2007-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially since it became common practice to screen asymptomatic men for the disease. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) was initiated in 1993 to determine how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening affects prostate cancer mortality. Variations in the screening algorithm, such as the interval between screening rounds, likely influence

  20. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing. This study compares screening of 50,000 women in 10 Latin American countries for visual, cytological, and molecular triage methods, or combination of these methods, for their performance and cost-effectiveness among women participating in HPV-based screening programs.

  1. Cervical cancer prevention: immunization and screening 2015.

    PubMed

    Thaxton, Lauren; Waxman, Alan G

    2015-05-01

    Both primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer are now available. Immunizations against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 have the potential to prevent 70% of cancers of the cervix plus a large percentage of other lower anogenital tract cancers. Screening guidelines were recently changed to recommend cotesting with cytology plus an HPV test. The addition of HPV testing increases the sensitivity and negative predictive value of screening over the Papanicolaou (Pap) test alone. PMID:25841595

  2. Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

  3. Mammography screening in the Netherlands: delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer after breast cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L E M Duijm; J H Groenewoud; F H Jansen; J Fracheboud; M van Beek; H J de Koning; LEM Duijm

    2004-01-01

    In a prospective study we determined the frequency and causes of delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer after suspicious screening mammography. We included all women aged 50–75 years who underwent biennial screening mammography in the southern breast cancer screening region of the Netherlands between 1 January 1996 and 1 January 2002. Clinical data, breast imaging reports, biopsy results and

  4. Lung Cancer Screening Overdiagnosis: Reports of Overdiagnosis in Screening for Lung Cancer Are Grossly Exaggerated.

    PubMed

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  5. Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

  6. Lung cancer screening: rationale and background

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The poor outcome in symptomatic lung cancer patients and the much better prognosis when lung cancer is diagnosed and treated at early asymptomatic stages call for screening. As lung cancer predominantly affects smokers and individuals exposed to other carcinogens, screening programs need not include the whole population but only these risk groups. Every screening program will tend to better identify the more indolent tumours that grow slowly enough to be detected by screening before symptoms develop, whereas aggressive fast-growing tumours may present as interval cancers despite screening (length-time bias). Some malignant tumours detected with screening may never cause the person’s death due to competing causes for death, particularly in heavy smokers, such as cardiovascular disease or other cancers (overdiagnosis bias). If a cancer is still lethal despite detection through screening, the affected individual may live longer with the diagnosis of cancer but not longer altogether (lead-time bias). It is likely that this will have a negative effect on that individual’s quality of life. Participation in screening programs may have beneficial as well as adverse effects on smoking habits; in the worst case it may encourage people to continue smoking. Trials assessing chest radiography or sputum microscopy have not demonstrated a reduction in lung cancer mortality through screening, probably because the tests were not sensitive enough. computed tomography promises better sensitivity. Other modern tests such as fibre optic bronchoscopy, analysis of molecular markers or genetic testing in serum, sputum or exhaled air are not yet ready for clinical practice. PMID:22185788

  7. Breast cancer screening in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Panieri, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Diagnosing breast cancer early and efficiently is a critical component of any strategy aimed at decreasing breast cancer mortality in developing countries. In this chapter, I evaluate the evidence behind screening strategies and its controversies. The effect of breast-cancer screening has never been formally evaluated in developing countries, and data from the major screening trials need to be viewed in this context. Screening asymptomatic women by means of breast self-examination, clinical examination or mammography can play a significant role in decreasing breast-cancer mortality in developing countries. Major programmes should not be implemented, however, until adequate diagnostic and therapeutic facilities are in place. The most fundamental interventions in early detection, diagnosis, surgery, radiation therapy, and drug therapy must be integrated, organised and resourced appropriately within existing healthcare structures. PMID:22222136

  8. Comparison of screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers in the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Gill, M D; Bramble, M G; Rees, C J; Lee, T J W; Bradburn, D M; Mills, S J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) offers biennial faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) followed by colonoscopy after positive results. Colorectal cancers (CRCs) registered with the Northern Colorectal Cancer Audit Group database were cross-referenced with the BCSP database to analyse their screening history. Methods: The CRCs in the screening population between April 2007 and March 2010 were identified and classified into four groups: control (diagnosed before first screening invite), screen-detected, interval (diagnosed between screening rounds after a negative FOBt), and non-uptake (declined screening). Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and survival were compared between groups. Results: In all, 511 out of 1336 (38.2%) CRCs were controls; 825 (61.8%) were in individuals invited for screening of which 322 (39.0%) were screen detected, 311 (37.7%) were in the non-uptake group, and 192 (23.3%) were interval cancers. Compared with the control and interval cancer group, the screen-detected group had a higher proportion of men (P=0.002, P=0.003 respectively), left colon tumours (P=0.007, P=0.003), and superior survival (both P<0.001). There was no difference in demographics, tumour location/stage, or survival between control and interval groups. Conclusion: The FOBt is better at detecting cancers in the left colon and in men. The significant numbers of interval cancers weren't found to have an improved outcome compared with the non-screened population. PMID:22782347

  9. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  10. Beyond MQSA: Measuring the quality of breast cancer screening programs

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, Garth H.; Murphy, Anne Marie; Orsi, Jennifer M.; Dupuy, Danielle M.; Grabler, Paula M.; Weldon, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A high quality screening mammography program should find breast cancer when it exists, when it’s small, and ensure that suspicious findings receive prompt follow-up. The Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) guidelines related to tracking outcomes are insufficient for assessing quality of care. We used data from a quality improvement project to determine whether mammography screening facilities could show that they met certain quality benchmarks beyond those required by MQSA. METHODS Participating facilities (N=52) provided aggregate data on screening mammograms conducted in calendar year 2009 and corresponding diagnostic follow-up, including lost to follow-up and timing of diagnostic imaging and biopsy, cancer detection rates, and the proportion of cancers detected as minimal and early stage tumors. RESULTS The percentage of institutions meeting each benchmark varied from 27% to 83%. Facilities with American College of Surgeons or National Comprehensive Cancer Network designation were more likely to meet benchmarks pertaining to cancer detection and early detection, and Disproportionate Share facilities were less likely to meet benchmarks pertaining to timeliness of care. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest a combination of care quality issues and incomplete tracking of patients. To accurately measure quality of the breast cancer screening process, it is critical that there be complete tracking of patients with abnormal screening mammograms so that results can be interpreted solely in terms of quality of care. The Mammography Quality Standards Act guidelines for tracking outcomes and measuring quality indicators should be strengthened to better assess quality of care. PMID:24261339

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Randomized Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. By using screening tests for cancer, doctors may be able to discover and treat cancers that might otherwise kill a person.

  12. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Lydecker, Alison D.; Ireland, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate cervical cancer screening practices and barriers to screening in a sample of lesbians. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 225 self-identified lesbians who completed an online questionnaire. Results Of the respondents, 71% reported receiving a Pap screening test in the past 24 months (routine screeners), and 29% reported receiving a Pap screening test >24 months ago or never (nonroutine screeners). Routine screeners were more likely to be older (p?screening tests and were less knowledgeable about screening guidelines (p?cancer. Conclusions Many lesbians do not screen for cervical cancer at recommended rates. Nonroutine screeners perceive fewer benefits, more barriers, and more discrimination and are less knowledgeable about screening guidelines than routine screeners. PMID:20095905

  13. Breast cancer screening: its impact on clinical medicine.

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, H. J.; van Oortmarssen, G. J.; van Ineveld, B. M.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is generally accepted as an effective means of reducing breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women. In this analysis the impact of nationwide screening on clinical medicine and the effects for the women involved are quantified. Effect estimates are based on results from screening trials in Utrecht (DOM-project) and Nijmegen, and on bi-annual screening of women aged 50-70. The consequences for health care are based on generally accepted assessment and treatment policies. The number of assessment procedures for non-palpable lesions will increase by 12% per year in the build-up period, and will remain slightly higher. The total number of biopsies in a real population is expected to decrease. Screening will lead to a shift in primary treatment modalities, as 15% of mastectomies will be replaced by breast conserving therapy. The temporary increase in the demand for primary treatment in the first years will be followed by a decrease in the demand for treating women with advanced disease. Favourable effects outweigh the inevitable unfavourable effects, with high quality screening and an appropriate invitation system. Breast cancer screening can also be recommended after considering other consequences than mortality reduction. PMID:2310681

  14. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the type of cells that become malignant (cancerous): Squamous cell carcinoma : Cancer that begins in squamous cells , the thin, ... adenocarcinoma each year and fewer new cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is found ...

  15. Health sources of cancer screening knowledge for Vietnamese women.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh B; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2012-06-01

    The study examined sources of health information among Vietnamese women and whether these sources were associated with cancer screening outcomes. One hundred eleven participants completed a questionnaire with measures of breast and cervical cancer screening attitudes, efficacy, and behavior. A factor analysis of items that measured sources for information on cancer screening produced three factors: English media sources, Vietnamese media sources, and informal sources. These sources were included along with demographic variables in regression analyses to predict cancer screening outcomes. Results indicated that using informal sources for breast screening information predicted positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening and efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Reliance on Vietnamese media sources was associated with lower cervical screening efficacy. Being older, having health insurance, and a higher income were associated with favorable cancer screening outcomes. The findings suggest that cancer screening programs for Vietnamese women should take into consideration preferred mediums for receiving health information. PMID:22160818

  16. Cost-effectiveness of colon cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, D

    1991-12-01

    The cost-effectiveness of two colon cancer-screening strategies was compared. The first strategy mirrors the recommendations of the American Cancer Society and includes sigmoidoscopy starting at age 50, and yearly fecal occult blood testing. The second strategy is screening with colonoscopy. The analysis revealed that the 10-yr cost of screening with sigmoidoscopy is nearly $1,700, compared with nearly $2,500 for colonoscopy, using prevailing procedure costs. This difference can be reduced by lowering the cost of normal colonoscopies. The cost of identifying one patient with an adenomatous polyp is $8,766 with sigmoidoscopy, compared to $5,988 with colonoscopy because of the higher detection rate with colonoscopy. The calculated cost of preventing one death from colon cancer is $444,133 with sigmoidoscopy versus $347,214 with colonoscopy. In conclusion, colon cancer prevention with current screening methods is very costly. Screening with sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing may not be cost-effective, compared to screening with colonoscopy. PMID:1962624

  17. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Randazzo, Marco; Kluth, Luis; Manka, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Recker, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The debate of prostate cancer (PCa) screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC) the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented. PMID:25532573

  18. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-28

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  19. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  20. BCSC Reports Novel Findings in Breast Cancer Risk and Screening Effectiveness

    Cancer.gov

    In its first two years of funding, the "Risk-Based Breast Cancer Screening in Community Settings" (BCSC-P01) program project achieved major advances in understanding breast cancer risk, effectiveness of screening mammography in women at elevated risk, and use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The studies summarized below represent the first time these findings have been reported in scientific journals.

  1. Screening for prostate cancer in Romania.

    PubMed

    Waidelich, Raphaela; Bumbu, Gheorghe; Raica, Marius; Toma, Marieta; Maghiar, Teodor; Hofstetter, Alfons

    In Romania, more than 95% of patients present with advanced stage prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Our purpose was to detect early prostate cancer in the Romanian city of Oradea, with a screening based on digital rectal examination and fine needle aspiration biopsy. We performed digital rectal examinations on 701 men, between 50 to 80 years of age. Four men with a history of prostate cancer were excluded from the study. Transrectal fine-needle aspiration biopsies were done in 15 men who presented with suspicious findings at the digital rectal examination. Prostate cancer was cytologically proven in eleven men. Nine of these were low- to intermediate grade (GI-II) and clinically localized (T2). Two patients had clinical stage T3 tumors. The prostate cancer detection rate in the screened population was 1.6% (11/697). Currently, eight men have undergone total retropubic prostatectomy. One patient presented with pelvic lymph node metastases and, after a staging lymphadenectomy, only a bilateral orchiectomy was performed. This first Romanian mass screening study for prostate cancer revealed a great interest in early cancer detection among the general public. Continued effort to make asymptomatic men aware of the disease may ultimately lead to an overall stage reduction at the time of diagnosis in Romania. PMID:14577492

  2. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Cancer Institute has launched the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to "achieve a comprehensive molecular characterization of normal, precancerous, and malignant cells." Sequenced genes are held as library entries in a database and are available for downloading (fasta format). Each cDNA library entry may include biological source, number of sequences, and library construction detail information. Thousands of gene sequences are available for over 15 cancers, including breast, colon, and prostrate. Contact information for donating or obtaining tissue samples for research purposes is provided.

  3. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube RSS Google+ LinkedIn CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  4. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Abd El All, Howayda S; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

    2007-01-01

    Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS), followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB) for all epithelial abnormalities (EA). In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453), were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (34.4%), atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS) (15.3%), combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (41.0%), high grade SIL (5.2%) and invasive lesions (1%). CGB of EA (n = 281) showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%), atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM) (19.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN) (44.4%), CIN II (4.4%), CINIII (2.8%), endocervical lesions (5.2%), combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%), invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.02%) and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL) (0.02%). The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH revealed positivity for pan HPV in 65.9% of the studied biopsies (n = 217), with incorporation of the viral genome HPV 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33 in 11.1%, 33.3% and 17.1% respectively. Multiple HPVs infections were identified in 0.02%. Conclusion Pre-invasive high grade lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma represent 0.5% and 0.04% respectively in Egyptian women. HPV mostly 16/18 as a risk factor (p < 0.001), was frequently associated with mixed infections (p < 0.001) and bilharzial infestation (p < 0.001). PMID:17610742

  5. New strategies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Di Lena, Maria; Travaglio, Elisabetta; Altomare, Donato F

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in Western countries, despite major improvements in its treatment. The dramatically high social and economic impact of CRC on human health makes the identification of a reliable screening tool of paramount importance. Current screening methods, such as the fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy do not adequately meet the ideal requisites of a screening test because, even if they are effective, they are limited first by too low specificity and sensitivity, or second by high invasiveness, costs and risk. Nowadays extended efforts are made by researchers to look for more reliable and effective screening tests based on a systems biology approach, using biological samples easily available, such as urine, breath, serum and feces. The effectiveness and reliability of several new attempts to screen these patients by non-invasive analysis of their biological samples using genomic (genetic and epigenetic alteration), transcriptomic (miRNA), proteomic (cancer-related antigens, new antibodies against tumor-associated antigens, mutated proteins) and metabolomic (volatile organic metabolites) methods are discussed in this review. Among the most interesting new screening tools, fecal fluorescent long-DNA, fecal miRNA and metabolomic evaluation in breath and/or serum seem to be most promising. PMID:23569331

  6. New strategies for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Di Lena, Maria; Travaglio, Elisabetta; Altomare, Donato F

    2013-03-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in Western countries, despite major improvements in its treatment. The dramatically high social and economic impact of CRC on human health makes the identification of a reliable screening tool of paramount importance. Current screening methods, such as the fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy do not adequately meet the ideal requisites of a screening test because, even if they are effective, they are limited first by too low specificity and sensitivity, or second by high invasiveness, costs and risk. Nowadays extended efforts are made by researchers to look for more reliable and effective screening tests based on a systems biology approach, using biological samples easily available, such as urine, breath, serum and feces. The effectiveness and reliability of several new attempts to screen these patients by non-invasive analysis of their biological samples using genomic (genetic and epigenetic alteration), transcriptomic (miRNA), proteomic (cancer-related antigens, new antibodies against tumor-associated antigens, mutated proteins) and metabolomic (volatile organic metabolites) methods are discussed in this review. Among the most interesting new screening tools, fecal fluorescent long-DNA, fecal miRNA and metabolomic evaluation in breath and/or serum seem to be most promising. PMID:23569331

  7. Cervical cancer screening among vulnerable women

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmeyer, Mei-ling; Lofters, Aisha; Rashid, Meb

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To see if refugee women at a community health centre (CHC) in Toronto, Ont, are appropriately screened for cervical cancer and if there are any demographic characteristics that affect whether they are screened. Design Chart review. Setting A CHC in downtown Toronto. Participants A total of 357 eligible refugee women attending the CHC. Main outcome measures Papanicolaou test received or documented reason for no Pap test. Results Ninety-two percent of women in the study sample were either appropriately screened for cervical cancer or had been approached for screening. Eighty percent of women were appropriately screened. Demographic variables including pregnancy, being uninsured, not speaking English, recent migration to Canada, and being a visible minority did not affect receipt of a Pap test after migration in multivariate analyses. Not speaking English was associated with a delay to receiving a first Pap test after migration. Conclusion The clients at our centre are demographically similar to women who are typically overlooked for Pap tests in the greater Toronto area. Despite belonging to a high-risk population, refugee women in this multidisciplinary CHC were screened for cervical cancer at a higher rate than the local population. PMID:22972744

  8. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR ?=?1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR ?=?2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR ?=?1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR ?=?0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR ?=?0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  9. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  10. Paying for Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other federal laws. State efforts to ensure private health insurance coverage of mammography Many states require that private ... self-insured employer plans should check with their health insurance administrator to see what breast cancer early detection ...

  11. Lung cancer screening guidelines: common ground and differences

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for almost one-third of all cancer related deaths. Lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation and so many lung cancers now are diagnosed in former smokers. Five-year survival of lung cancer has marginally improved over decades and significantly lags behind that of colon, breast and prostate cancer. Over the past one decade, lung cancer screening trials have shown promising results. Results from National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), have shown a significant 20% reduction in mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Based on these results, annual LDCT testing has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high risk population. However, development and acceptance of lung cancer screening as a public health policy is still in the nascent stages. Major concerns relate to risk of radiation, overdiagnosis bias, proportion of false positives and cost benefit analysis. This article reviews the literature pertaining to lung cancer screening guidelines and above mentioned concerns. PMID:25806292

  12. Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, René

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer. PMID:23293721

  13. Rise in Colon Cancer Screening After Obamacare, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152911.html Rise in Colon Cancer Screening After Obamacare, Study Finds Increase in ... called "Obamacare," may have helped boost rates of colon cancer screening among poorer Americans, a new study ...

  14. Cervical cancer screening in Thailand: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sriamporn, Supannee; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Parkin, Max

    2006-01-01

    In Thailand, there have been no 'organized' programmes of screening for cervical cancer. For the most part, screening has been unsystematic or provided to women 'on demand'. In 2002, the Department of Medical Services of the Ministry of Public Health proposed the screening of the entire population of women in Thailand at 5-yearly intervals from the ages of 35 to 60 years. As a first step, measures to increase the capacity for obtaining and interpreting papanicolaou (Pap) smears have been put in place. Research studies have examined the effectiveness of screening with Pap smears in Thailand, and confirmed that, as elsewhere, protection is related to the number of previous tests and the time elapsed since the most recent one. Coverage of the population remains low. Other methods of screening are being investigated in Thailand, including visual inspection following acetic acid (VIA), followed by immediate treatment of observed lesions by cryotherapy ('see and treat'). Other research studies have examined the acceptability and performance of self-sampling as a means of obtaining Pap smears, and the use of mobile clinics to increase coverage of at-risk women in rural settings. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been used to identify high-risk women, or to help decide which women with low-grade abnormality on cytology should undergo more intensive follow-up. Prevalence of HPV in normal women in Thailand is 9-20%, but HPV testing has not been used on any systematic basis to date. Current screening programmes in Thailand are not very effective. The national cancer control programme aims to increase the coverage of screening. The population-based cancer registry will provide an effective and economical method of evaluating the impact of early diagnosis and screening at community level. PMID:17227641

  15. Implementing a Client Reminder Intervention for Colorectal Cancer Screening at a Health Insurance Worksite

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, June E.; Hager, Polly

    2014-01-01

    Background Among cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in Michigan. The American Cancer Society estimates 4,730 new cases and 1,700 deaths due to colorectal cancer in Michigan for 2013. Screening can detect colorectal cancer earlier, when treatment is more successful. Community Context The Michigan Department of Community Health represents 1 of 25 states and 4 tribes to receive a multiyear grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to increase colorectal cancer screening rates through population health interventions and clinical services for the underserved. Michigan’s Colorectal Cancer Control Program is implemented in partnership with its Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, which supports the Michigan’s cancer control coalition composed of 114 partner organizations. Methods This project had 2 primary objectives: 1) develop a collaborative partnership with 1 Michigan Cancer Consortium organization in which to pilot the intervention and 2) increase colorectal cancer screening rates by implementing a client reminder intervention and measuring the increase in screening rates. Outcomes A partnership was established with HealthPlus of Michigan. Of the 95 HealthPlus employees and spouses who received the intervention, 15 completed screening, accounting for a 16% increase in the screening rate. The project was considered successful because both of its objectives were achieved. Interpretation Translating evidence-based interventions into practice requires building a relationship with a partner organization, incorporating flexibility, and establishing a realistic timeline. PMID:24524424

  16. Screening for gastric cancer: the usefulness of endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina

    2014-11-01

    Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with radiographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-effectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25505713

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  18. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Sigmoidoscopy—Regular sigmoidoscopy can increase one’s chances of surviving colorectal cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends sigmoidoscopy for adults aged 50 to 75 years once every 5 years, when conducted along with high-sensitivity FOBT once every 3 years.

  19. Screening to Detect Cancer-Colon and Rectal Cancer (Video Playlist)

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Barry Kramer summaries the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dr. Christine Berg discuss the results of the colorectal cancer arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. View

  20. Microfluidic Devices for Cancer Screening by N-Glycan Analysis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Project Summary A microfluidic-based screening method will be developed to differentiate different disease states of cancer. The screening method is based on high-resolution microchip electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. N-Glycan profiles are generated for all samples and compared by statistical analysis. The method relies on the analysis of the entire N-glycan profile, not a single biomarker, to provide sufficient differentiation among control individuals, patients suffering from various stages of cancer, and patients with pre-malignant diseases.

  1. Barriers to Cancer Screening by Rural Appalachian Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Renee; Tudiver, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Rural Appalachia has significantly higher overall cancer mortality compared with national rates, and lack of cancer screening is believed to be one of the contributing factors. Reducing the cancer disparity in this region must include strategies to address suboptimal cancer screening practices by rural Appalachian primary care providers (PCPs). To…

  2. Clinical Cancer Care Full screening services and diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Clinical Cancer Care · Full screening services and diagnostics · Advanced treatments for all forms of cancer · Most frequent cancers at the Cancer Center: Breast 15% Gastrointestinal 13% Skin 17% Lung 13 treatment protocols that link the latest Cancer Center research to clinical care · Familial Cancer Program

  3. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical procedure. Efforts to improve the practice of colonoscopy will be described. Another limitation of the current practice is the inability to detect polypoid neoplasia that is hidden from view under white light imaging by the natural folds that occur within the colon. A device to overcome this limitation will also be described. Efforts to improve colorectal cancer screening (and thereby decrease the death rate of this second leading cause of cancer death in the United States) are progressing in many arenas. The researcher, basic or clinical, should maintain an up to date overview of the field and how each new technological advance is likely to have a role in the screening and early detection of colorectal cancer.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  5. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, K.; Fung, S.; Landry, C.; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V.

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning disparities in colorectal cancer screening. Although some disparities in screening utilization have been successfully reduced over time (for example, mammography and Pap test screening in rural and remote populations), screening utilization data for other populations (for example, low-income groups) clearly indicate that disparities have existed and continue to exist across Canada. Organized screening programs in Canada have been able to successfully engage 80% of women for regular cervical cancer screening and 70% of women for regular mammography screening, but of the women who remain to be reached or engaged in regular screening, those with the least resources, those who are the most isolated, and those who are least culturally integrated into Canadian society as a whole are over-represented. Population differences are also observed for utilization of colorectal cancer screening services. The research literature on interventions to promote screening utilization provides some evidence about what can be done to increase participation in organized screening by vulnerable populations. Adaption and adoption of evidence-based screening promotion interventions can increase the utilization of available screening services by populations that have experienced the greatest burden of disease with the least access to screening services. PMID:25908914

  6. Evolution of breast cancer screening in countries with intermediate and increasing incidence of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Hui-Min Wu; Li-Sheng Chen; King-Jen Chang; Ming-Feng Hou; Shin-Chen Chen; Tse-Jia Liu; Chiun-Sheng Huang; Giu-Cheng Hsu; Chih-Cheng Yu; Li-Li Jeng; Shou-Tung Chen

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have been published regarding the practice of breast cancer screening in Asian countries. Aims The present study illustrates how the health policy for breast cancer screening has evolved in Taiwan from selective mammographic screening within a high-risk group, firstly to a programme of physical examination by public health nurses, and finally to a two-stage breast cancer screening

  7. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, S.; Baum, J.K.; Klos, D.S.; Tsou, C.V.

    1985-09-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed.

  8. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC. PMID:25320506

  9. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-14

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC. PMID:25320506

  10. Reprint of: Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:26024802

  11. Breast cancer screening practices among Chinese-Australian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kwok; J. Fethney; K. White

    Purpose of the researchThe aims of the study were to report breast cancer screening practices among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between 1) acculturation, and 2) the Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) score and women’s breast screening behaviours.

  12. Screening for prostate cancer: estimating the magnitude of overdetection

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, M; Hanley, J A; Boivin, J F; McLean, R G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No randomized controlled trial of prostate cancer screening has been reported and none is likely to be completed in the near future. In the absence of direct evidence, the decision to screen must therefore be based on estimates of benefits and risks. The main risk of screening is overdetection--the detection of cancer that, if left untreated, would not cause death. In this study the authors estimate the level of overdetection that might result from annual screening of men aged 50-70. METHODS: The annual rate of lethal screen-detectable cancer (detectable cancer that would prove fatal before age 85 if left untreated) was calculated from the observed prostate cancer mortality rate in Quebec; the annual rate of all cases of screen-detectable prostate cancer was calculated from 2 recent screening studies. RESULTS: The annual rate of lethal screen-detectable prostate cancer was estimated to be 1.3 per 1000 men. The annual rate of all cases of screen-detectable prostate cancer was estimated to be 8.0 per 1000 men. The estimated case-fatality rate among men up to 85 years of age was 16% (1.3/8.0) (sensitivity analysis 13% to 22%). INTERPRETATION: Of every 100 men with screen-detected prostate cancer, only 16 on average (13 to 22) could have their lives extended by surgery, since the prostate cancer would not cause death before age 85 in the remaining 84 (78 to 87). PMID:9861205

  13. [Colorectal cancer mass screening: present and future].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Jean-François; Manfredi, Sylvain; Heresbach, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Hemoccult II is the only method of screening for colorectal cancer whose effectiveness in reducing specific mortality has been proved by randomized controlled trials. The first experience of French districts based on this strategy reproduced on a population scale the results of the experimental studies. Expanding screening in France to the general public is a public health priority. Large-scale media campaigns, which currently do not exist, could then be launched, and prevention opportunities seized. Immunological tests identifying the presence of blood in the stool have better sensitivity than the guaiac smear tests, especially for the diagnosis of adenomas and to a lesser extent, for that of cancers as a whole. These tests may constitute an alternative to guaiac tests, but are more expensive. Total colonoscopy, proposed every 10 years from the age of 50 years or once in a lifetime around the age of 60 years, is not a realistic method because of its cost and its risks. Sigmoidoscopies are under evaluation in several countries in randomized controlled trials but do not seem appropriate to either the epidemiologic trends of colorectal cancer or to the practice of endoscopy in France. Virtual colonoscopy is an attractive alternative to searching for blood in stool. The evaluation now underway should not interfere with the broad expansion of methods of proven efficacy. Virtual colonoscopy may face competition from numerous emerging techniques of endoscopic exploration of the colon, including the video-capsule. To obtain widespread participation in colorectal cancer screening, policy-makers must take the opinions of healthcare professionals and of the public into account. The medicoeconomic data will be a decisive factor in the choice between these new strategies. PMID:17481847

  14. Effect of endoscopy screening on stage at gastric cancer diagnosis: results of the National Cancer Screening Programme in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, K S; Jun, J K; Suh, M; Park, B; Noh, D K; Song, S H; Jung, K W; Lee, H-Y; Choi, I J; Park, E-C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although gastric cancer screening is common among countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer, there is little data to support the effectiveness of this screening. This study was designed to determine the differences in stage at diagnosis of gastric cancer according to the screening history and screening method (upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) vs endoscopy). Methods: The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP), a nationwide organised screening programme in Korea. The study cohort consisted of 19?168 gastric cancer patients who had been diagnosed in 2007 and who were invited to undergo gastric cancer screening via the NCSP between 2002 and 2007. Results: Compared with never-screened patients, the odds ratios for being diagnosed with localised gastric cancer in endoscopy-screened patients and UGIS-screened patients were 2.10 (95% CI=1.90–2.33) and 1.24 (95% CI=1.13–1.36), respectively. Conclusions: Screening by endoscopy was more strongly associated with a diagnosis of localised stage gastric cancer compared with screening by UGIS. PMID:25490528

  15. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  16. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observed in major screening trials in the United States and Europe, as well as attempts to use smoking cessation interventions to augment the benefits from lung cancer screening programs. Second, we review the interaction between smoking habits and pre/post-operative pulmonary resection outcomes, including changes in smoking behavior post-diagnosis and post-treatment. Information from these areas should allow us to maximize benefits from smoking cessation interventions through the entire lung cancer screening process, from the screen itself through potential curative resection after diagnosis. PMID:24312745

  17. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods. PMID:25167359

  18. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    PubMed

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible in combination with cytology. Various models and approaches are in the testing phase and appear promising. HPV testing is on the other hand well accepted and recommended as a triage test to select women with equivocal smear results (Pap group III, ASCUS) if a biopsy is required or can be followed up and also for follow-up of patients after cone biopsy. However, vaccination of young girls against oncogenic HPV types which has now become widespread still leaves many questions open for the future because the observation period is too short. There is justified hope that this will become a valuable tool in cervical cancer control and may lead to a substantial reduction in the burden of cervical cancer in the future. However, as the current vaccines on the market do not cover all oncogenic virus types and the effects of vaccination will only be observed after many years, the necessity of a cytological screening will remain unrestricted. Therefore, cervical cytology will remain as the trusted, simple to use, economic and proven, like no other method for early cancer detection, efficient procedure even in the foreseeable future. If carried out with the highest quality demands it will play a central role in the early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:19756616

  19. CISNET: Support for Development of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) requested a decision analysis to inform their update of the recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. The objective was to assess life-years gained and colonoscopy requirements for colorectal cancer screening strategies and identify a set of recommendable screening strategies. The decision analysis used two of CISNET's microsimulation models, MISCAN and SimCRC, to assess life-years gained and colonoscopy requirements for colorectal cancer screening strategies, and identify a set of recommendable screening strategies.

  20. The impact of breast cancer screening on breast cancer registrations in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Richardson; Brian Cox; Thelma Brown; Paul Smale

    Aims To investigate the impact of the national breast cancer screening programme, BreastScreen Aotearoa, on breast cancer registrations in New Zealand. Methods Age-specific breast cancer incidence rates for women aged 50-64 years were compared before and after the establishment of BreastScreen Aotearoa. The degree of spread of breast cancers diagnosed at screening was compared with the degree of spread of

  1. Survival Analysis of Patients with Interval Cancer Undergoing Gastric Cancer Screening by Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. Methods We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. Results A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. Conclusion The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. PMID:26023768

  2. Cost-effectiveness of pancreatic cancer screening in familial pancreatic cancer kindreds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Rulyak; Michael B. Kimmey; David L. Veenstra; Teresa A. Brentnall

    2003-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic screening of families predisposed to pancreatic cancer is increasingly used, but the cost-effectiveness of screening is unknown. Methods: A decision analysis was used to compare one-time screening for pancreatic dysplasia with EUS to no screening in a hypothetical cohort of 100 members of familial pancreatic cancer kindreds. Abnormal EUS findings are confirmed with ERCP and patients with abnormal

  3. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  4. Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927

  5. Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary The colorectal cancer (CRC) screening project was undertaken by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) in collaboration with the Cancer Care Ontario (CCO). In November 2007, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) MAS to conduct an evidence-based analysis of the available data with respect to colorectal cancer diagnosis and prevention. The general purpose of the project was to investigate the effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and safety of the various methods and techniques used for colorectal cancer screening in average risk people, 50 years of age and older. The options currently offered for colorectal cancer screening were reviewed and five technologies were selected for review: Computed tomographic (CT) colonography Magnetic resonance (MR) colonography Wireless capsule endoscopy (PillCam Colon) Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) Flexible sigmoidoscopy In this review, colonoscopy was considered as the “gold standard” technique by which the effectiveness of all other modalities could be evaluated. An economic analysis was also conducted to determine cost-effectiveness of different screening modalities. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these technologies, as well as summary document that includes an economic analysis, all of which are presented at the MAS Web site: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/techmn.html Objective The objective of this evidence review is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), including guaiac FOBT (gFOBT) and immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT), for use in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in asymptomatic, average-risk adults. Specifically: Is the use of gFOBT or iFOBT associated with a reduction in CRC and overall mortality? What are the sensitivity and specificity of gFOBT and iFOBT for the detection of 1) CRC and 2) large polyps (? 1 cm)? Clinical Need CRC is the most common cause of non-tobacco related cancer death in Canada. It has been estimated that in 2007, 7,800 people were diagnosed with CRC in Ontario and 3,250 died from the disease, making the province’s incidence and mortality rate of CRC amongst the highest in the world. Description of Technology/Therapy There are two general types of FOBT that are categorized according to the analyte detected: guaiac FOBT (gFOBT) and immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT). Blood in the stool is a nonspecific finding but may originate from CRC or larger (>1 cm) polyps (small adenomatous polyps do not tend to bleed). Bleeding from cancers and larger polyps may be intermittent and not always detectable in a single sample. The FOBT thus requires regular testing that consists of collecting specimens from consecutive bowel movements. A positive gFOBT or iFOBT involves a diagnostic workup with colonoscopy to examine the entire colon in order to rule out the presence of cancer or advanced neoplasia. Methods of Evidence-Based Analysis A literature search was conducted from January 2003 to June 2008 that included OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment/Centre for Review and Dissemination. Inclusion Criteria Patients at average risk for CRC All patients must be at least 50 years of age Biennial FOBT as a screening modality and use of colonoscopy as the reference standard Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Outcomes: CRC mortality, overall mortality, sensitivity, specificity, adverse effects Exclusion Criteria Studies involving fewer than 100 patients Studies that do not report sufficient data for analysis Comparisons of Interest Evidence exists for these comparisons of interest: gFOBT compared with the reference “gold standard” colonoscopy (or double-contrast barium enema where colonoscopy is incomplete or contraindicated) iFOBT compared with the reference gold standard colonoscopy (or DCBE where

  6. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program. PMID:25581023

  7. Trends in Adherence to Recommended Cancer Screening: The US Population and Working Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Tainya C.; Soler-Vila, Hosanna; Fleming, Lora E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Lee, David J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past decade the United States (US) has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade. Materials and Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history. Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors. Conclusion: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors increases. PMID:23293767

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Lo, Gladys G; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E Z; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationship of lesion size to likelihood of malignancy has been demonstrated previously, at least 99% of all nodules 4 mm or smaller are benign, while noncalcified nodules larger than 8 mm diameter bear a substantial risk of malignancy. In the recent years, the availability of high-performance gradient systems, in conjunction with phased-array receiver coils and optimized imaging sequences, has made MR imaging of the lung feasible. It can now be assumed a threshold size of 3-4 mm for detection of lung nodules with MRI under the optimal conditions of successful breath-holds with reliable gating or triggering. In these conditions, 90% of all 3-mm nodules can be correctly diagnosed and that nodules 5 mm and larger are detected with 100% sensitivity. Parallel imaging can significantly shorten the imaging acquisition time by utilizing the diversity of sensitivity profile of individual coil elements in multi-channel radiofrequency receive coil arrays or transmit/receive coil arrays to reduce the number of phase encoding steps required in imaging procedure. Compressed sensing technique accelerates imaging acquisition from dramatically undersampled data set by exploiting the sparsity of the images in an appropriate transform domain. With the combined imaging algorithm of parallel imaging and compressed sensing and advanced 32-channel or 64-channel RF hardware, overall imaging acceleration of 20 folds or higher can then be expected, ultimately achieve free-breathing and no ECG gating acquisitions in lung cancer MRI screening. Further development of protocols, more clinical trials and the use of advanced analysis tools will further evaluate the real significance of lung MRI. PMID:25276380

  9. Breast Cancer Mortality After Screening Mammography in British Columbia Women

    Cancer.gov

    BC Cancer Agency CARE & RESEARCH Breast Cancer Mortality After Screening Mammography in British Columbia Women Andrew J. Coldman, Ph.D. Norm Phillips, M.Sc. Lisa Kan, M.Sc. Linda Warren, M.D. Population & Preventive Oncology BC Cancer Agency BC Cancer

  10. Primary Care Physicians’ Cancer Screening Recommendation Practices and Perceptions of Cancer Risk of Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians’ perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information. PMID:23679307

  11. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors The Genetics of Cancer Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  12. Human sweat metabolomics for lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Turck, Natacha; Robin, Xavier; Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Sanchez, Jean C; Luque de Castro, María D

    2015-07-01

    Sweat is one of the less employed biofluids for discovery of markers in spite of its increased application in medicine for detection of drugs or for diagnostic of cystic fibrosis. In this research, human sweat was used as clinical sample to develop a screening tool for lung cancer, which is the carcinogenic disease with the highest mortality rate owing to the advanced stage at which it is usually detected. In this context, a method based on the metabolite analysis of sweat to discriminate between patients with lung cancer versus smokers as control individuals is proposed. The capability of the metabolites identified in sweat to discriminate between both groups of individuals was studied and, among them, a trisaccharide phosphate presented the best independent performance in terms of the specificity/sensitivity pair (80 and 72.7 %, respectively). Additionally, two panels of metabolites were configured using the PanelomiX tool as an attempt to reduce false negatives (at least 80 % specificity) and false positives (at least 80 % sensitivity). The first panel (80 % specificity and 69 % sensitivity) was composed by suberic acid, a tetrahexose, and a trihexose, while the second panel (69 % specificity and 80 % sensitivity) included nonanedioic acid, a trihexose, and the monoglyceride MG(22:2). Thus, the combination of the five metabolites led to a single panel providing 80 % specificity and 79 % sensitivity, reducing the false positive and negative rates to almost 20 %. The method was validated by estimation of within-day and between-days variability of the quantitative analysis of the five metabolites. Graphical Abstract Sweat analysis for screening of lung cancer. PMID:25935675

  13. Breast cancer: Relationship between acculturation and barriers to breast cancer screening in Southwest Florida Latinas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Patino

    2006-01-01

    Despite multiple campaigns by the American Cancer Society, reports indicate that Latinas living in the United States who contract breast cancer are more likely than Anglos to die. These findings correlate with low participation in breast cancer screenings among Latinas. The objective of this study was to identify key obstacles that influence Latinas' low participation in breast cancer screenings, based

  14. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Dorothy Lane, of Stony Brook University, investigated whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  15. IR microspectroscopy: potential applications in cervical cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Walsh; Matthew J. German; Maneesh Singh; Hubert M. Pollock; Azzedine Hammiche; Maria Kyrgiou; Helen F. Stringfellow; Evangelos Paraskevaidis; Pierre L. Martin-Hirsch; Francis L. Martin

    2007-01-01

    Screening exfoliative cytology for early dysplastic cells reduces incidence and mortality from squamous carcinoma of the cervix. In the developed world, screening programmes have adopted a 3–5 years recall system. In its absence, cervical cancer would be the second most common female cancer in these regions; instead, it is currently eleventh. However, there exist a number of limitations to the

  16. Understanding cancer screening service utilization by somali men in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sewali, Barrett; Pratt, Rebekah; Abdiwahab, Ekland; Fahia, Saeed; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined factors that influence use of cancer screening by Somali men residing in Minnesota, USA. To better understand why recent immigrants are disproportionately less likely to use screening services, we used the health belief model to explore knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes surrounding cancer screening. We conducted a qualitative study comprised of 20 key informant interviews with Somali community leaders and 8 focus groups with Somali men (n = 44). Somali men commonly believe they are protected from cancer by religious beliefs. This belief, along with a lack of knowledge about screening, increased the likelihood to refrain from screening. Identifying the association between religion and health behaviors may lead to more targeted interventions to address existing disparities in cancer screening in the growing US immigrant population. PMID:24817627

  17. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies using simulation.

    PubMed

    Gocgun, Y; Banjevic, D; Taghipour, S; Montgomery, N; Harvey, B J; Jardine, A K S; Miller, A B

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study breast cancer screening policies using computer simulation. We developed a multi-state Markov model for breast cancer progression, considering both the screening and treatment stages of breast cancer. The parameters of our model were estimated through data from the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study as well as data in the relevant literature. Using computer simulation, we evaluated various screening policies to study the impact of mammography screening for age-based subpopulations in Canada. We also performed sensitivity analysis to examine the impact of certain parameters on number of deaths and total costs. The analysis comparing screening policies reveals that a policy in which women belonging to the 40-49 age group are not screened, whereas those belonging to the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups are screened once every 5 years, outperforms others with respect to cost per life saved. Our analysis also indicates that increasing the screening frequencies for the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups decrease mortality, and that the average number of deaths generally decreases with an increase in screening frequency. We found that screening annually for all age groups is associated with the highest costs per life saved. Our analysis thus reveals that cost per life saved increases with an increase in screening frequency. PMID:25866350

  19. Colonoscopic screening for colorectal cancer improves quality of life measures: a population-based screening study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Taupin; Sharon L Chambers; Mike Corbett; Bruce Shadbolt

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening asymptomatic individuals for neoplasia can have adverse consequences on quality of life. Colon cancer screening is widespread but the quality of life (QOL) consequences are unknown. This study determined the impact of screening colonoscopy on QOL measures in asymptomatic average-risk participants. METHODS: Asymptomatic male and female participants aged 55–74 years were randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll

  20. Selection of Rear Projection Screens for Learning Carrels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edgar A.

    The selection of a rear projection screen for a learning carrel should take into account the viewing angle involved. In some carrels, the viewer can be seated in front of the screen (i.e., on the normal axis) since the screen is used primarily to present information. In these cases, where the screen will be viewed only from a restricted range, a…

  1. -1-January 2012 Overview: ICCB-L Screening Facility User Agreement for RNAi Screening Projects

    E-print Network

    Mitchison, Tim

    -1- January 2012 Overview: ICCB-L Screening Facility User Agreement for RNAi Screening Projects There are two different ICCB-L User Agreements, one for small molecule screeners and one for RNAi screeners. Small molecule user agreements apply only to small molecule screening projects and data; RNAi agreements

  2. Relationship between Cancer Worry and Stages of Adoption for Breast Cancer Screening among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunji; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Lee, Sangeun; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    Background The possibility of developing breast cancer is a concern for all women; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening in Korea. Here, we investigated the associations between cancer worry, the stages of adopting breast cancer screening, and socio-demographic factors known to influence screening behaviors. Methods This study was based on the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual cross-sectional survey that utilized nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 1,773 randomly selected women aged 40–74 years. Chi-squared tests and multinomial logistic analyses were conducted to determine the associations between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening and to outline the factors associated with each stage. Results Korean women were classified into the following stages of adoption for breast cancer screening: pre-contemplation (24.7%), contemplation (13.0%), action/maintenance (50.8%), relapse risk (8.9%), and relapse (2.6%). Women in the action/maintenance stages reported more moderate to higher levels of worry about getting cancer than those in the pre-contemplation stage. Further, age of 40–49 years and having private cancer insurance were associated with women in the action/maintenance stages. Conclusion Interventions to address breast cancer worry may play an important role in increasing participation and equity in breast cancer screening. PMID:26186652

  3. Components necessary for high-quality lung cancer screening: American College of Chest Physicians and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Peter; Powell, Charles A; Arenberg, Douglas; Bach, Peter; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819

  4. Breast cancer detection rates, and standardised detection ratios for prevalence screening in the New Zealand breast cancer screening programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Richardson; P Graham; T Brown; P Smale; B Cox

    2004-01-01

    Results: In 1999, the breast cancer detection rate was 5.6 per 1000 women screened. The expected incidence among these women in the absence of screening was 2.3 per 1000, a detection to expected incidence ratio of 2.4. The SDR was 0.84 (0.76- 0.94). In 2000, the breast cancer detection rate was 6.0 per 1000 women screened. The expected incidence among

  5. Estimating time and travel costs incurred in clinic based screening: flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Frew; Jane L Wolstenholme; Wendy Atkin; David K Whynes

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To identify the characteris- tics of mode of travel to screening clinics; to estimate the time and travel costs incurred in attending; to investigate whether such costs are likely to bias screening compliance. Setting—Twelve centres in the trial of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, drawn from across Great Britain. Method—Analysis of 3525 questionnaires completed by screening subjects while attending

  6. Determinants of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Post, Douglas M.; Katz, Mira L.; Tatum, Cathy; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is serious, yet a minority of US adults receive within-guideline screening exams. Methods A random selection of patients attending clinics in 3 different settings completed a survey on CRC-related barriers, knowledge, and beliefs. Results Participants with fewer barriers, better knowledge, and more positive beliefs toward screening were significantly more likely to be within screening guidelines. A physician’s screening recommendation was significantly related to screening in patients < 65 years, but was not significant for older patients. Conclusions Large-scale studies are needed. Results can be used to develop multifaceted, tailored education programs to improve CRC screening in primary care. PMID:19058074

  7. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  8. A Personalized Automated Messaging System to Improve Adherence to Prostate Cancer Screening: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public adherence to cancer screening guidelines is poor. Patient confusion over multiple recommendations and modalities for cancer screening has been found to be a major barrier to screening adherence. Such problems will only increase as screening guidelines and timetables become individualized. Objective We propose to increase compliance with cancer screening through two-way rich media mobile messaging based on personalized risk assessment. Methods We propose to develop and test a product that will store algorithms required to personalize cancer screening in a central database managed by a rule-based workflow engine, and implemented via messaging to the patient’s mobile phone. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial focusing on prostate cancer screening to study the hypothesis that mobile reminders improve adherence to screening guidelines. We will also explore a secondary hypothesis that patients who reply to the messaging reminders are more engaged and at lower risk of non-adherence. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial in a sample of males between 40 and 75 years (eligible for prostate cancer screening) who are willing to receive text messages, email, or automated voice messages. Participants will be recruited from a primary care clinic and asked to schedule prostate cancer screening at the clinic within the next 3 weeks. The intervention group will receive reminders and confirmation communications for making an appointment, keeping the appointment, and reporting the test results back to the investigators. Three outcomes will be evaluated: (1) the proportion of participants who make an appointment with a physician following a mobile message reminder, (2) the proportion of participants who keep the appointment, and (3) the proportion of participants who report the results of the screening (via text or Web). Results This is an ongoing project, supported by by a small business commercialization grant from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. Conclusions We believe that the use of centralized databases and text messaging could improve adherence with screening guidelines. Furthermore, we anticipate this method of increasing patient engagement could be applied to a broad range of health issues, both inside and outside of the context of cancer. This project will be an important first step in determining the feasibility of personalized text messaging to improve long-term adherence to screening recommendations. PMID:23612443

  9. Cervical cancer screening programmes and policies in 18 European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Anttila; G Ronco; G Clifford; F Bray; M Hakama; M Arbyn; E Weiderpass

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted by the Epidemiology Working Group of the European Cervical Cancer Screening Network, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, between August and December 2003 in 35 centres in 20 European countries with reliable cervical cancer incidence and\\/or mortality data in databanks held at IARC and WHO. The questionnaire was completed by 28 centres

  10. The Relationship of Health Numeracy to Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Schapira, Marilyn M.; Neuner, Joan; Fletcher, Kathlyn E.; Gilligan, Mary Ann; Laud, Purushottam; Hayes, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Health numeracy is associated with increased understanding of cancer risk reduction information and improved control of chronic disease. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a primary care population to evaluate the effect of health numeracy on breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Results No association was found between health numeracy and cancer screening. However, at a baseline screening rate of 85%, increased knowledge (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.08) and decreased perceived barriers (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.92–0.95) were associated with increased screening rates. Conclusions Health numeracy was not predictive of cancer screening among a primary care population. PMID:20577913

  11. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  12. Prostate cancer screening and health care system distrust in Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A.; Anderson, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aim to examine whether distrust of health care system (hereafter distrust) is associated with prostate cancer screening and whether different dimensions of distrust demonstrate similar relationships with prostate cancer screening. Method With data on 1,784 men aged 45–75 from the Philadelphia metropolitan area, we first applied factor analysis to generate factor scores capturing two distrust sub-scales: competence and values. We then implemented logistic regressions to estimate the relationships between distrust and prostate cancer screening, controlling for covariates related to demographics (e.g., race and age), socioeconomic status (e.g., poverty status and education), health care resources (e.g., insurance status), and health status (i.e., self-rated health). Results Without considering any other covariates, both competence and values distrust were negatively associated to the receipt of prostate cancer screening. After accounting for other covariates shown above, values distrust remained negatively associated with the odds of receiving prostate cancer screening (OR=0.89, 95% CI=[0.81, 0.98]) but competence distrust was not a significant predictor. Conclusions Values distrust was independently associated with prostate cancer screening. Macro-level change in the health care system may influence men’s health behaviors. Our findings suggested that efforts to make the health care system more transparent and enhanced communications between men and health providers may facilitate prostate cancer screening. PMID:23775208

  13. Differential effects of messages for breast and cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J; Smith, Quentin W; Holcomb, J David; Kingery, Paul

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare responses to two interventions (personalized-form [PF] letter messages versus personalized-tailored [PT] letter messages) using medical record data for promoting appointment scheduling and screening for breast and cervical cancer among urban low-income women from three ethnic groups: African-American, Mexican-American, and non-Hispanic white women. The 1,574 women participating in the randomized controlled trial were assigned to one of three groups: (1) PF letter, (2) PT letter, (3) control (no letter). Logistic regression analyses show that (1) personalized-tailored letters containing individualized references to recipients' cancer risk factors failed to increase rates of recommended cancer screening behaviors, especially among non-Hispanic white women; and that (2) in contrast, a personalized-form letter with general breast and cervical cancer screening messages increased cancer screening rates in this population, especially among non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American women. PMID:15741708

  14. Screening for Lynch Syndrome (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer) among Endometrial Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Hampel; Wendy Frankel; Jenny Panescu; Janet Lockman; Kaisa Sotamaa; Daniel Fix; Ilene Comeras; Jennifer La Jeunesse; Hidewaki Nakagawa; Judith A. Westman; Thomas W. Prior; Mark Clendenning; Pamela Penzone; Janet Lombardi; Patti Dunn; David E. Cohn; Larry Copeland; Lynne Eaton; Jeffrey Fowler; George Lewandowski; Luis Vaccarello; Jeffrey Bell; Gary Reid

    Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer in women with Lynch syndrome. The identification of individuals with Lynch syndrome is desirable because they can benefit from increased cancer surveillance. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and desirability of mole- cular screening for Lynch syndrome in all endometrial cancer patients. Unselected endometrial cancer patients (N = 543)

  15. Clinical outcome data for symptomatic breast cancer: the breast cancer clinical outcome measures (BCCOM) project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Bates; O Kearins; I Monypenny; C Lagord; G Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Background:Data collection for screen-detected breast cancer in the United Kingdom is fully funded, which has led to improvements in clinical practice. However, data on symptomatic cancer are deficient, and the aim of this project was to monitor the current practice.Methods:A data set was designed together with surrogate outcome measures to reflect best practice. Data from cancer registries initially required the

  16. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required. PMID:23679334

  17. [Cancer screening from the perspective of public health ethics].

    PubMed

    Marckmann, G; In der Schmitten, J

    2014-03-01

    Cancer screening programs aim at reducing the tumor-related morbidity and mortality by early detection of malignant tumors or precancerous lesions. The basic ethical dilemma in cancer screening is, however, that many people have to be exposed to the burdens and risks of the intervention for a few people to benefit from early cancer diagnosis. This article discusses under which conditions it is ethically acceptable to offer or even recommend cancer screening. First, the benefit of the program in terms of a reduced cancer-related mortality should be proven by randomized controlled trials. The risks and burdens of the program related to the side effects of the investigation itself, false-positive findings, as well as overdiagnoses and overtherapy should be in an acceptable relationship to the expected benefit of the program. In addition to a solid empirical scientific basis, the benefit-harm evaluation necessarily involves value judgments. The potential participants in the screening program therefore should receive transparent, objective, unbiased, and understandable information to enable them to make a truly informed choice about participation. Given the complex benefit-risk assessment, it is discussed whether-and if so under which circumstances-it is ethically acceptable to make a recommendation for or against participation in a cancer screening program. Socioempirical research, such as focus group studies and public deliberations, can be used to elicit the preferences and value judgments of members of the target population that should be taken into consideration in recommendations about a cancer screening program. PMID:24562708

  18. Beyond Mammography: New Frontiers in Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Mooney, Blaise P.; Flowers, Chris I.; Gatenby, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening remains a subject of intense and, at times, passionate debate. Mammography has long been the mainstay of breast cancer detection and is the only screening test proven to reduce mortality. Although it remains the gold standard of breast cancer screening, there is increasing awareness of subpopulations of women for whom mammography has reduced sensitivity. Mammography has also undergone increased scrutiny for false positives and excessive biopsies, which increase radiation dose, cost and patient anxiety. In response to these challenges, new technologies for breast cancer screening have been developed, including; low dose mammography; contrast enhanced mammography, tomosynthesis, automated whole breast ultrasound, molecular imaging and MRI. Here we examine some of the current controversies and promising new technologies that may improve detection of breast cancer both in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as women with dense breasts. We propose that optimal breast cancer screening will ultimately require a personalized approach based on metrics of cancer risk with selective application of specific screening technologies best suited to the individual’s age, risk, and breast density. PMID:23561631

  19. Cancer screening and prevention in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Aditi; Shastri, Surendra Srinivas

    2014-12-01

    Less-developed-region countries (LDCs) are seeing a rapid rise in cancer incidence owing to changing lifestyles, infections, environmental carcinogens and increasing longevity. LDCs have poor resources to deal with cancers, leading to high mortality rates. Investment in nationally implementable and sustainable cancer prevention and screening strategies would be more appropriate for LDCs. This Science and Society article outlines the burden of preventable cancers in selected LDCs and discusses evidence on cost-effective and widely implementable prevention and screening strategies. PMID:25355377

  20. Barriers to cancer screening among orthodox jewish women.

    PubMed

    Tkatch, Rifky; Hudson, Janella; Katz, Anne; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Vichich, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-12-01

    The increased risk of genetic cancer mutations for Ashkenazi Jews is well known. However, little is known about the cancer-related health behaviors of a subset of Ashkenazi Jews, Orthodox Jews, who are a very religious and insular group. This study partnered with Rabbinical leadership and community members in an Orthodox Jewish community to investigate barriers to cancer screening in this community. Orthodox Jewish women were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to elicit their perspectives on barriers to cancer screening. A total of five focus groups were conducted, consisting of 3-5 members per group, stratified by age and family history of cancer. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using conventional content analysis. The resulting themes identified as barriers to cancer screening were: preservation of hidden miracles, fate, cost, competing priorities, lack of culturally relevant programming, lack of information, and fear. These results provide a unique perspective on barriers to cancer screening in a high risk but understudied population. Findings from this study may serve to inform culturally appropriate cancer education programs to overcome barriers to screening in this and other similar communities. PMID:24845763

  1. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't. PMID:23378639

  2. ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Cervical Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Attendance Rate (2003-2005) of the Hungarian Organized, Nation-Wide Cervical Cancer Screening Program Authors: I Boncz, A Sebestyén Affiliation: Department of Health Economics, Policy & Management, University

  3. High-speed spectral nanocytology for early cancer screening

    E-print Network

    Staum, Jeremy

    ). Clinical diagnostic performance for lung cancer screening was tested on 23 patients, yielding a significant collection via biopsy or fine-needle aspiration. However, all of these techniques have proven to be either

  4. Skin cancer screening and melanoma detection: a life saved

    E-print Network

    Rajpara, Anand; Fischer, Ryan; Chandra, Joan; Aires, Daniel; Blackmon, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    for a free skin cancer screening at a local health fair inpreviously in good health. On full body skin examination,and health care assistance at the university medical center. One month after being seen at the skin

  5. BCSC Screening Performance Benchmarks: Benchmarks for Cancers (2009 Data)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Benchmarks for Cancers for Screening Mammography Examinations from 2004 - 2008 -- based on BCSC data

  6. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M.; Domènech, X.; Vidal, C.; Torné, E.; Milà, N.; Binefa, G.; Benito, L.; Moreno, V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480). We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3%) were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%). There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%). When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88) and at more advanced stages (P = 0.025). Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured. PMID:25802515

  7. Interval cancers in a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer in catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Domènech, X; Vidal, C; Torné, E; Milà, N; Binefa, G; Benito, L; Moreno, V

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480). We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3%) were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%). There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%). When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51-8.88) and at more advanced stages (P = 0.025). Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured. PMID:25802515

  8. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ?60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP. PMID:25639903

  9. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Laghi, Andrea; Iafrate, Franco; Rengo, Marco; Hassan, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has two roles: one present and the other potential. The present role is, without any further discussion, the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy. The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. However, despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC screening of average-risk individuals by different scientific societies including the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology, and the US Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, other entities, such as the US Preventive Services Task Force, have considered the evidence insufficient to justify its use as a mass screening method. Medicare has also recently denied reimbursement for CTC as a screening test. Nevertheless, multiple advantages exist for using CTC as a CRC screening test: high accuracy, full evaluation of the colon in virtually all patients, non-invasiveness, safety, patient comfort, detection of extracolonic findings and cost-effectiveness. The main potential drawback of a CTC screening is the exposure to ionizing radiation. However, this is not a major issue, since low-dose protocols are now routinely implemented, delivering a dose comparable or slightly superior to the annual radiation exposure of any individual. Indirect evidence exists that such a radiation exposure does not induce additional cancers. PMID:20731011

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer: established and emerging modalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil Pawa; Tan Arulampalam; John D. Norton

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that >95% of cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) would benefit from curative surgery if diagnosis was made at an early or premalignant polyp stage of disease. Over the past 10 years, most developed nation states have implemented mass population screening programs, which are typically targeted at the older (at-risk) age group (>50–60 years old). Conventional screening

  11. Comprehensive breast cancer screening. Programs now include individual risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Kim; Frisch, Kelly

    2003-02-01

    A comprehensive breast cancer screening program needs to include risk assessment in addition to clinical breast examination and mammography. Women identified as being at increased risk should have an individualized schedule of screening mammography and a proven prevention program tailored to their level of risk. In this article, Drs Cardenas and Frisch review risk factors, screening methods, and individual risk assessment, then explain how to use them in conjunction to identify tumors at an earlier, more curable stage. PMID:12611113

  12. Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening: Patient, Physician, and System Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine R. Messina

    \\u000a Reduced incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with early detection of CRC and precursor lesions\\u000a by screening [1] is well documented in the literature. Screening for CRC is widely recommended for average-risk adults starting\\u000a at age 50 [1], and numerous efforts directed at increasing awareness of CRC, CRC screening and its efficacy have been deployed.\\u000a Yet currently, adherence

  13. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  14. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leeuwen van P. J

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening\\u000atest for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple\\u000ablood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After\\u000aall, your prostate cancer is earlier treated resulting in cure and better outcome. Therefore\\u000aprostate cancer screening seems to be suitable

  15. Health care systems redesign project to improve Dysphagia screening.

    PubMed

    Daggett, Virginia S; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa M; Plue, Laurie; Russell, Scott; Allen, George; Williams, Linda S; Chumbler, Neale R; Bravata, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to improve dysphagia-screening processes in a tertiary Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The dysphagia-screening tool was redesigned on the basis of frontline clinician feedback, clinical guidelines, user satisfaction, and multidisciplinary expertise. The revised tool triggered a speech-language consult for positive screens and demonstrated higher scores in user satisfaction and task efficiency. Systems redesign processes were effective for redesigning the tool and implementing practice changes with clinicians involved in dysphagia screening. PMID:25463001

  16. Screening for breast cancer with MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A Morris

    2003-01-01

    Breast MRI has emerged as an extremely powerful tool in breast imaging. The use of breast MRI for cancer detection has the potential to change our current algorithms in the detection of breast cancer. By being able to detect cancer that is occult on conventional imaging, such as mammography and sonography, MRI can detect early breast cancer that was previously

  17. Cancer screening in France: third edition of the EDIFICE survey.

    PubMed

    Viguier, Jérôme; Morère, Jean-François; Touboul, Chantal; Coscas, Yvan; Blay, Jean-Yves; Lhomel, Christine; Pivot, Xavier; Eisinger, François

    2015-06-01

    The EDIFICE programme began in 2005 and set out to provide a clearer insight over time into the participation of the French population in cancer screening. EDIFICE 3 was conducted in 2011 by phone interviews among a representative sample of 1603 individuals aged between 40 and 75 years using the quota method. The analysis focused on the target populations (50-74 years) of the national screening programmes for breast and colorectal cancer. The same populations were also assessed with respect to prostate cancer screening. In 2005, 93% of the sample population had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime; this figure reached 94% in 2008 and 95% in 2011. Compliance with recommended intervals improved between 2005 and 2011, and significantly so for women aged 65-74 years. In 2005, 25% of respondents reported having undergone at least one colorectal cancer screening test; this figure reached 38% in 2008 and 59% in 2011. Recommended intervals were respected by 30 and 51% in 2008 and 2011, respectively. In 2005, 2008 and 2011, a total of 36, 49 and 50% of men reported having undergone at least one prostate cancer screening test. This rate decreased significantly in men aged 50-59 years between 2008 and 2011 (44 vs. 37%, P?0.05). Attendance rates in national screening programmes are high and stable for breast cancer, and although currently improving for colorectal cancer, the European guideline target has not yet been reached. Despite the absence of recommendations for prostate cancer screening, participation remains constant. PMID:26016790

  18. Programmatic screening for colorectal cancer: the COLONPREV study.

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The COLONPREV study is an ongoing multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of once-only colonoscopy and biennial fecal immunochemical testing with respect to the reduction of CRC-related mortality at 10 years in average-risk colorectal cancer screening population. Following a pragmatic approach, this study may contribute to establishing the most cost-effective strategy in a programmatic, population-based setting. In this review, we report the results obtained at the first screening round, as well as others achieved in nested evaluations using the COLONPREV dataset with the aim of clarifying some controversial issues on the different strategies of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25492501

  19. ICSN - Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates Screening

  20. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Fedele

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that

  1. Transillumination in breast cancer detection: screening failures and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geslien, G.E.; Fisher, J.R.; DeLaney, C.

    1985-03-01

    This prospective study of 1265 women referred to a multimodality breast diagnostic center compares the sensitivity for breast cancer detection of state-of-the-art transillumination light scanning and film-screen mammography. Of 33 biopsy-proven cancers, transillumination light scanning detected 58%, while mammography detected 97% of the cancers. Light scanning did detect 55% of the nonpalpable breast cancers, and 30% of those tumors smaller than 1 cm. Detection of breast cancer by light scanning was affected by breast size, but not architecture, and was directly related to tumor size. Although transillumination light scanning can detect some small curable breast cancers (smaller than 1 cm), it does not do so at a sensitivity adequate for screening.

  2. Prospective Screening in Familial Non-medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Samira M.; He, Mei; Gesuwan, Krisana; Gulati, Neelam; Celi, Francesco; Merino, Maria J.; Nilubol, Naris; Kebebew, Electron

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 8% of non-medullary thyroid cancers are familial. The optimal age for screening in familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is unknown. Method Kindreds with FNMTC (2 or more first-degree relatives affected) were prospectively screened by thyroid ultrasound. Results Fifteen kindreds showed an overall prevalence of thyroid nodule(s) ? 5 mm of 44.4% at screening; 19.2% in the second generation, and 90% in the generation anterior to the index case. The youngest age of detection was 10 years for thyroid nodules and 18 years for thyroid cancer. Thyroid nodule microcalcification at screening was associated with a higher risk of cancer (p < 0.05). Family members diagnosed with thyroid cancer by ultrasound screening were diagnosed at a younger age and had a lower rate of extrathyroidal invasion (p < 0.05). Conclusions In FNMTC, first-degree relatives 10 years or older, including the generation anterior to the index case, should have thyroid ultrasound screening. This may result in earlier diagnosis. PMID:23978593

  3. Celebrity appeal: reaching women to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation's National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50-75 years (n=772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements. PMID:25521047

  4. Projects | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of the Burkitt Lymphoma Genome Sequencing Project (BLGSP) is to explore potential genetic changes in patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL)Opens in a New Tab that could lead to better prevention, detection, and treatment of this rare and aggressive cancer.

  5. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Screening Behaviors of the Female Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naim Nur

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer and screening behaviors among 468 female teachers who work in Sivas, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Up to one-half (52.4%) of the teachers

  6. Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

  7. Controlled 15-year trial on screening for colorectal cancer in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki J. Järvinen; Markku Aarnio; Harri Mustonen; Lauri A. Aaltonen; Päivi Peltomäki; Albert De La Chapelle

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: Identification of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome enables prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) by means of colonoscopy and polypectomies. We evaluated the efficacy of screening in a controlled trial over 15 years. Methods: Incidence of CRC and survival were compared in 2 cohorts of at-risk members of 22 families with HNPCC. Colonic screening at 3-year

  8. Factors Affecting Hispanic Women's Participation in Screening for Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moore de Peralta, Arelis; Holaday, Bonnie; McDonell, James R

    2015-06-01

    Hispanic women's cervical cancer rates are disproportionately high. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as a theoretical framework to explore beliefs, attitudes, socio-economic, and cultural factors influencing Hispanic women's decisions about cervical cancer screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Hispanic women 18-65 years old (n = 205) in the Upstate of South Carolina. Generalized Linear Modeling was used. Across all models, perceived threats (susceptibility and severity), self-efficacy, and the interaction of benefits and barriers were significant predictors. Significant covariates included age, marital status, income, regular medical care, and familism. A modified HBM was a useful model for examining cervical cancer screening in this sample of Hispanic women. The inclusion of external, or social factors increased the strength of the HBM as an explanatory model. The HBM can be used as a framework to design culturally appropriate cervical cancer screening interventions. PMID:24578156

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complications of advanced disease. ? For men with an aggressive prostate cancer, the best chance for curing it ... body. However, many early-stage cancers are not aggressive, and the five-year survival will be nearly ...

  10. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  11. CDC Grand Rounds: the future of cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cheryll C; Richards, Thomas B; Plescia, Marcus; Wong, Faye L; Ballard, Rachel; Levin, Theodore R; Calonge, Bruce N; Brawley, Otis W; Iskander, John

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, with 52% of deaths caused by cancers of the lung and bronchus, female breast, uterine cervix, colon and rectum, oral cavity and pharynx, prostate, and skin (melanoma). In the 1930s, uterine cancer, including cancer of the uterine cervix, was the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. With the advent of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test in the 1950s to detect cellular level changes in the cervix, cervical cancer death rates declined significantly. Since this first cancer screening test, others have been developed that detect the presence of cancer through imaging procedures (e.g., mammography, endoscopy, and computed tomography) and laboratory tests (e.g., fecal occult blood tests). PMID:25837243

  12. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony B Miller; Peter Gøtzsche

    2001-01-01

    The HIP trial was done in an era when the size of breast cancers was much larger than became usual in the subsequent two decades in North America. I recall no instance in which the masking of the allocation was compromised. The major difficulty for the reviewers was not whether the patient died of cancer, nor whether breast cancer had

  13. Cervical cancer prevented by screening: Long-term incidence trends by morphology in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lönnberg, Stefan; Hansen, Bo Terning; Haldorsen, Tor; Campbell, Suzanne; Schee, Kristina; Nygård, Mari

    2015-10-01

    Both major morphologic types of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC), are causally related to persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), but screening has primarily been effective at preventing SCC. We analysed incidence trends of cervical cancer in Norway stratified by morphologies over 55 years, and projected SCC incidence in the absence of screening by assessing the changes in the incidence rate of AC. The Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all 19,530 malignancies in the cervix diagnosed in the period 1956-2010. The majority of these (82.9%) were classified as SCCs, 10.5% as ACs and the remaining 6.6% were of other or undefined morphology. By joint-point analyses of a period of more than five decades, the average annual percentage change in the age-standardised incidence was -1.0 (95%CI: -2.1-0.1) for cervical SCC, 1.5 (95%CI:1.1-1.9) for cervical AC and -0.9 (95%CI: -1.4 to -0.3) for cervical cancers of other or undefined morphology. The projected age-standardised incidence rate of cervical SCC in Norway, assuming no screening, was 28.6 per 100,000 woman-years in 2010, which compared with the observed SCC rate of 7.3 corresponds to an estimated 74% reduction in SCC or a 68% reduction due to screening in the total cervical cancer burden. Cytology screening has impacted cervical cancer burden more than suggested by the overall observed cervical cancer incidence reduction since its peak in the mid-1970s. The simultaneous substantial increase in cervical adenocarcinoma in Norway is presumably indicative of an increase in exposure to HPV over time. PMID:25833121

  14. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Kathleen M.; Singh, Harminder

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required. PMID:25506266

  15. Screening for Cervical, Prostate, and Breast Cancer: Interpreting the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Williams, Jane; Parker, Lisa; Pickles, Kristen; Jacklyn, Gemma; Rychetnik, Lucie; Barratt, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Cancer screening is an important component of prevention and early detection in public health and clinical medicine. The evidence for cancer screening, however, is often contentious. A description and explanation of disagreements over the evidence for cervical, breast, and prostate screening may assist physicians, policymakers, and citizens faced with screening decisions and suggest directions for future screening research. There are particular issues to be aware of in the evidence base for each form of screening, which are summarized in this paper. Five tensions explain existing conflicts over the evidence: (1) data from differing contexts may not be comparable; (2) screening technologies affect evidence quality, and thus evidence must evolve with changing technologies; (3) the quality of evidence of benefit varies, and the implications are contested; (4) evidence about harm is relatively new, there are gaps in that evidence, and there is disagreement over what it means; and (5) evidence about outcomes is often poorly communicated. The following principles will assist people to evaluate and use the evidence: (1) attend closely to transferability; (2) consider the influence of technologies on the evidence base; (3) query the design of meta-analyses; (4) ensure harms are defined and measured; and (5) improve risk communication practices. More fundamentally, there is a need to question the purpose of cancer screening and the values that inform that purpose, recognizing that different stakeholders may value different things. If implemented, these strategies will improve the production and interpretation of the methodologically challenging and always-growing evidence for and against cancer screening. PMID:26091929

  16. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the incidence of both distal colorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; P<0.001) and proximal colorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; P<0.001). Mortality from distal colorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001); mortality from proximal colorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; PLCO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00002540.) PMID:22612596

  17. Using a state cancer registry to recruit young breast cancer survivors and high-risk relatives: protocol of a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a targeted versus a tailored intervention to increase breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Michigan Prevention Research Center, the University of Michigan Schools of Nursing, Public Health, and Medicine, and the Michigan Department of Community Health propose a multidisciplinary academic-clinical practice three-year project to increase breast cancer screening among young breast cancer survivors and their cancer-free female relatives at greatest risk for breast cancer. Methods/design The study has three specific aims: 1) Identify and survey 3,000 young breast cancer survivors (diagnosed at 20–45 years old) regarding their breast cancer screening utilization. 2) Identify and survey survivors’ high-risk relatives regarding their breast cancer screening utilization. 3) Test two versions (Targeted vs. Enhanced Tailored) of an intervention to increase breast cancer screening among survivors and relatives. Following approval by human subjects review boards, 3,000 young breast cancer survivors will be identified through the Michigan Cancer Registry and mailed an invitation letter and a baseline survey. The baseline survey will obtain information on the survivors’: a) current breast cancer screening status and use of genetic counseling; b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening; c) family health history. Based on the family history information provided by survivors, we will identify up to two high-risk relatives per survivor. Young breast cancer survivors will be mailed consent forms and baseline surveys to distribute to their selected high-risk relatives. Relatives’ baseline survey will obtain information on their: a) current breast cancer screening status and use of genetic counseling; and b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening. Young breast cancer survivors and high-risk relatives will be randomized as a family unit to receive two versions of an intervention aiming to increase breast cancer screening and use of cancer genetic services. A follow-up survey will be mailed 9 months after the intervention to survivors and high-risk relatives to evaluate the efficacy of each intervention version on: a) use of breast cancer screening and genetic counseling; b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening; c) self-efficacy in utilizing cancer genetic and screening services; d) family support related to screening; e) knowledge of breast cancer genetics; and f) satisfaction with the intervention. Discussion The study will enhance efforts of the state of Michigan surrounding cancer prevention, control, and public health genomics. Trial registration NCT01612338 PMID:23448100

  18. Alcohol Consumption, Depression, Insomnia and Colorectal Cancer Screening: Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Daniel; Quinn, Megan; Wang, Ke Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) can be reduced drastically by early detection and early treatment. However, uptake of CRC screening is relatively low, about 50% for those whom the test is highly recommended. Objectives: We examined the influence of and racial differences in depression, insomnia, alcohol use, and tobacco use on CRC screening uptake in the US. Patients and Methods: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Information Survey data was conducted. Both weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in SAS to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 21511 participants were included in the analysis. Results: Prevalence of CRC screening in the participants was 19%. Adjusting for all factors, insomnia (OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.06 - 1.32), moderate alcohol drinking (OR = 1.16, 95%CI = 1.01 - 1.30), past smoking (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.04 - 1.32), depression (OR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.18 - 1.58), African American (AA) race, and cancer history were positively associated with CRC screening. Females and Single were inversely associated with CRC screening prevalence. In stratified analysis by races (White and AA), depression was associated with CRC screening in both races. Marital status, smoking, cancer history and insomnia were associated with CRC screening in Whites only; while alcohol use was associated with CRC screening in AAs only. Conclusions: We have found significant associations between lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption and smoking) and mental health problems (depression and insomnia) and CRC screening uptake. To improve overall CRC screening uptake in the US, it is important to consider racial differences in predictors and tailor appropriate interventions to each racial/ethnic group.

  19. Cancer fear: facilitator and deterrent to participation in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Waller, Jo; von Wagner, Christian; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer fear has been associated with higher and lower screening uptake across different studies, possibly because different aspects of cancer fear have different effects on intentions versus behaviour. The present study examined associations of three aspects of cancer fear with intention and uptake of endoscopic screening for colorectal cancer. Methods A sub-sample of UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) Trial participants received a baseline questionnaire that included three cancer fear items from a standard measure asking if: i) cancer was feared more than other diseases, ii) cancer worry was experienced frequently, and iii) thoughts about cancer caused discomfort. Screening intention was assessed by asking participants whether, if invited, they would accept an invitation for FS screening. Positive responders were randomised to be invited or not in a 1:2 ratio. The behavioural outcome was clinic-recorded uptake. Control variables were age, gender, ethnicity, education, and marital status. Results The questionnaire return rate was 60% (7,971/13,351). The majority (82%) intended to attend screening; 1,920 were randomised to receive an invitation, and 71% attended. Fearing cancer more than other diseases (OR=2.32, p<.01) and worrying a lot about cancer (OR=2.34, p<.01) increased intentions to attend screening, but not uptake. Finding thoughts about cancer uncomfortable did not influence intention, but predicted lower uptake (OR=0.72, p<.01). Conclusions Different aspects of cancer fear have different effects on the decision and action processes leading to screening participation. Impact Knowledge of the different behavioural effects of cancer fear may aid the design of effective public health messages. PMID:25634890

  20. The GSI Cancer Therapy Project.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, H; Haberer, T; Kraft, G; Krause, U; Richter, M; Steiner, R; Debus, J

    1999-06-01

    At the Heavy Ion Research Institute GSI in Darmstadt an experimental cancer treatment program with a five years duration has been developed. A new method for cancer treatment with ions is applied, using rasterscan method in addition to an active pulse to pulse variation of ion beam properties, including the energy, intensity and focusing. An overview of this Cancer Therapy Project is presented, that covers both accelerator aspects to provide the required beam variations within a short time and the installations at the treatment place for rasterscan control. In addition to a description of the technical design (control-hard- and software) experimental results will be shown, containing the achieved beam properties and measurements of rasterscan performance. PMID:10394389

  1. Screening for breast cancer: candidacy and compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Pfeffer

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with understanding why some women accept their invitation for free screening mammography and others do not. Free screening mammography is offered to women aged 50–64 in Britain. Uptake of invitations is about twice as high in leafy suburbs than in inner-city areas. Low uptake in inner-city areas has been attributed to ‘problems’ of black and minority

  2. Enthusiasm for cancer screening in Great Britain: a general population survey

    PubMed Central

    Waller, J; Osborne, K; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: With growing concerns about risk of harm from cancer screening, particularly from overdiagnosis, this study aimed to assess public attitudes to cancer screening in Great Britain. Methods: We used a population-based survey to assess attitudes to cancer screening, screening history and demographic characteristics, in men and women aged 50–80 years. Data were collected using face-to-face computer-assisted interviews in 2012. Results: In our sample of 2024, attitudes to cancer screening were overwhelmingly positive with almost 90% believing that screening is ‘almost always a good idea' and 49% saying they would be tested for cancer even if it was untreatable. Attitudes were particularly positive among those who had previously taken part in breast or colorectal screening. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that attitudes to cancer screening are very positive in Great Britain. Widespread enthusiasm for cancer screening may hamper attempts to encourage a greater appreciation of the limitations and potential harms of screening. PMID:25535731

  3. Stochastic dominance for project screening and selection under uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Adeyemo, Adekunle M

    2013-01-01

    At any given moment, engineering and chemical companies have a host of projects that they are either trying to screen to advance to the next stage of research or select from for implementation. These choices could range ...

  4. Tech-Specific Assistance Preliminary Screening for Project

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Tech-Specific Assistance Preliminary Screening for Project Feasibility and Applications.eere.energy.gov/femp 1 #12;DOE Federal Energy Management Program www.eere.energy.gov/femp 2 Tech-Specific Assistance

  5. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  6. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  7. Prostate Cancer Screening Among Chinese American Men: A Structural Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Grace X.; Shive, Steven E.; Gao, Wanzhen; Tan, Yin; Wang, Min Qi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the Sociocultural Health Behavior Model in relation to the health behavior of prostate cancer (PCa) screening among Chinese American men. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model analyses were conducted among Chinese American men. Results The path analysis supported the components of the sociocultural model and indicated a positive and significant relationship between PCa screening and the enabling factors; between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors; and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care. Conclusions The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to PCa screening. PMID:22488399

  8. Should Colorectal Cancer Screening Be Considered in Elderly Without Prior Screening? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Hees, Frank; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Meester, Reinier G.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in adequately screened elderly aged over 75. The USPSTF did not address the appropriateness of screening in elderly aged over 75 without prior screening. Objective To determine up to what age CRC screening should be considered in unscreened elderly with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity and to determine which test is indicated at what age. Design Microsimulation modeling study. Data Sources Derived from the literature. Target Populations Unscreened elderly aged 76, 77, (...), and 90 with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Interventions Once-only colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening. Outcome Measures CRC cases prevented, CRC deaths prevented, life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, costs, and costs per QALY gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis In unscreened elderly with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity, CRC screening was cost-effective up to age 86, 83, and 80, respectively. In unscreened elderly with no comorbidity, colonoscopy screening was most effective and still cost-effective up to age 83; sigmoidoscopy screening was indicated at age 84; and FIT screening was indicated at ages 85 and 86. In unscreened elderly with moderate (severe) comorbidity, colonoscopy screening was indicated up to age 80 (77); sigmoidoscopy screening was indicated at age 81 (78); and FIT screening was indicated at ages 82 and 83 (79 and 80). Results of Sensitivity Analyses Results were most sensitive to lowering the threshold for the willingness-to-pay per QALY gained from $100,000 to $50,000. Limitation We only considered cohorts at average risk for CRC. Conclusions In unscreened elderly with no, moderate, and severe comorbidity, whose physical condition allows a colonoscopy, CRC screening should be considered well beyond age 75: up to age 86, 83, and 80, respectively. At most ages, colonoscopy screening is indicated. Primary Funding Source The U.S. National Cancer Institute. PMID:24887616

  9. Breast cancer screening controversy: too much or not enough?

    PubMed

    Pivot, Xavier; Viguier, Jérôme; Touboul, Chantal; Morère, Jean-François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Coscas, Yvan; Lhomel, Christine; Eisinger, François

    2015-06-01

    The Cochrane analysis exploring the risk/benefit ratio of breast cancer screening resulted in a controversy worldwide spread by the mass media. Our survey sought to assess the impact of this controversy in terms of breast cancer screening awareness and attendance. A nationwide observational study, recorded in the EDIFICE iterative surveys, with a representative sample of 451 women aged 40-75 years, living in France, was carried out in the 3 months after the start of the controversy in January 2013. Of the 405 women with no personal history of cancer, 69 (17%) declared having heard of the controversy (aware group). Women remembering the controversy were more likely to belong to higher socioprofessional categories and to have a higher level of education. The most frequently remembered issues were overdiagnosis (38%), unreliability (16%) and radiation risk (9%). Compared with women who were unaware of the controversy, the aware group knew more about the limits of breast cancer screening (undiagnosed cancers, 20 vs. 7%, P<0.05 and risk of false positives, 20 vs. 2%, P<0. 05) and were more likely to change their opinion for the worse over the mass media debate (8.7 vs. 1.2%, P<0.05). Nevertheless, only 1% of the aware-group declared their intention to subsequently undergo screening less frequently. The low impact of the controversy on the behaviour of women with respect to screening suggests that it should not be seen as a threat to screening attendance rates, but more as an opportunity to improve awareness. PMID:26016791

  10. Social stratification, risk factor prevalence and cancer screening attendance.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Viguier, Jérôme; Touboul, Chantal; Coscas, Yvan; Pivot, Xavier; Blay, Jean-Yves; Lhomel, Christine; Morère, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    This analysis aimed to assess the extent to which exposure to cancer risk factors and attendance of screening programmes are influenced by social characteristics. The validated Evaluation of deprivation and health inequalities in public health centres (EPICES) index was used to measure social deprivation. A sample of the general population (N=1603) was assessed to search for potential correlations between screening attendance, risk factors and any components of the EPICES score. In 2011, 33% of the population studied was classified as 'vulnerable'. Sex had no significant impact on this rating (32% men, 35% women), whereas occupational status did. Vulnerable individuals were more likely already to have cancer (10 vs. 7%; nonsignificant difference; odds ratio 1.43 [0.98-2.10]). The mean BMI was 26.0?kg/m (SD 4.9) for the vulnerable population versus 24.8?kg/m (SD 3.9) in the nonvulnerable population (P<0.01). The prevalence of current smoking was higher in the vulnerable group (38 vs. 23%, odds ratio 2.03 [1.61-2.56]). In contrast, no statistically significant difference was observed between attendance rates for nationwide organized cancer screening programmes (breast and colorectal; target age group 50-74 years) by the vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups. Social indicators of vulnerable populations are associated with increased rates of risk factors for cancer, but not with screening attendance. Our data support the previously reported marked impact of organized programmes that reduce or even remove inequalities in access to cancer screening. However, although the organized programmes have indeed enabled population-wide, nonselective access to screening, primary prevention as it stands today remains inadequate in the underserved population and further improvements are warranted. PMID:26016792

  11. Screening and chemoprevention in lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Manel Gasent Blesa; Emilio Esteban González; Vicente Alberola Candel

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is a major health problem due to its incidence and mortality. The risk factors, the existence of a preclinical\\u000a phase, and the relationship between stage at diagnosis and survival are known. A number of strategies that aim to diagnose\\u000a lung cancer in its earliest stages, based principally on imaging studies, are therefore being tested. Several drugs aimed\\u000a at

  12. DNA Testing and Molecular Screening for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carethers, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer develops and progresses as a consequence of abnormal cellular molecular changes, many of which result in mutant DNA. Modern molecular techniques allow examination of individual patient genetic data that ascribe risk, predict outcome, and/or modify an approach to therapy. DNA testing and molecular screening are in use today and are becoming a critical and necessary part of routine patient care. Assessing at-risk patients for hereditary colon cancer is predicted to move from individual gene testing that is commonly performed today to whole exome or whole genome sequencing, providing additional vast information of the patient’s genome that might not be related to the colon cancer syndrome. Detecting mutant DNA from shed tumor cells in fecal material for colon cancer screening will increase in diagnostic accuracy over time, with improvements in the panel of mutant DNA being examined and through clinical testing. DNA mutations and other molecular changes detected directly from within the colon cancer help to inform and guide the physician for the best approach for optimal patient care and outcome. The use of epidermal growth factor receptor–targeted therapy in advanced colon cancer patients requires knowledge of the mutation status for KRAS and BRAF genes, and knowing the mutational status of PIK3CA may predict how patients respond to aspirin to prevent colon cancer recurrence. Biologically driven decision-making, or precision medicine, is becoming increasingly adopted for optimal care and outcome for colon cancer patients. Gastroenterologists will need to be increasingly aware. PMID:24355100

  13. Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation

    MedlinePLUS

    Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaf?rmation Recommendation Statement The full report is titled “Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaf?rmation Recommendation Statement.” ...

  14. More Screening Could Cut Annual Colon Cancer Deaths by 21,000

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_151438.html More Screening Could Cut Annual Colon Cancer Deaths by 21,000: Study Coalition aims ... March 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Boosting older adults' colon cancer screening rates to 80 percent by 2018 ...

  15. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008–2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  16. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  17. Assessing Screening Quality in the CDC’s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    PubMed Central

    Nadel, Marion R.; Royalty, Janet; Shapiro, Jean A.; Joseph, Djenaba; Seeff, Laura C.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Dwyer, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gaps in screening quality in community practice have been well documented. The authors examined recommended indicators of screening quality in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP), which provided colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic services between 2005 and 2009 for asymptomatic, low-income, underinsured, or uninsured individuals at 5 sites around the United States. METHODS For each client screened in the CRCSDP, a standardized set of colorectal cancer clinical data elements was collected. Data regarding client age, screening history, risk level, screening test indication, results, and recommendation for the next test were analyzed. For colonoscopies, data were analyzed regarding whether the cecum was reached, bowel preparation was adequate, and identified lesions were completely removed. RESULTS Overall, 53% of the fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) (2295 tests) distributed were completed and returned. At the 2 sites with adequate numbers of FOBTs, 77% and 97%, respectively, of clients with positive results received follow-up colonoscopies. Site-specific cecal intubation rates ranged from 90% to 98%. Adenoma detection rates were 32% for men and 21% for women. For approximately one-third of colonoscopies, the recommended interval to the next test was shorter than recommended by national guidelines. At some sites, endoscopists failed to report on the adequacy of bowel preparation and completeness of polyp removal. CONCLUSIONS Cecal intubation rates and adenoma detection rates met recommended levels. The authors identified the need for improvements in the follow-up of positive FOBTs, documentation of important elements in colonoscopy reports, and recommendations for rescreening or surveillance intervals after colonoscopy. Monitoring quality indicators is important to improve screening quality. PMID:23868477

  18. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  19. Racial Differences in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Cancer Screening Practices among a Triracial Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Paskett, Electra D.; Tatum, Cathy; Rushing, Julia; Michielutte, Robert; Bell, Ronny; Foley, Kristie Long; Bittoni, Marisa; Dickinson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low-income, minority, and rural women face a greater burden with regard to cancer-related morbidity and mortality and are usually underrepresented in cancer control research. The Robeson County Outreach, Screening and Education Project sought to increase mammography use among low-income, minority, and rural women age > 40 years. The current article reports on racial disparities and barriers to screening, especially those related to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. METHODS A baseline survey was administered to 897 women age > 40 years who lived in rural Robeson County in North Carolina. The sample consisted of three principal racial groups: whites, African Americans, and Native Americans. Survey comparisons were made among racial groups with respect to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding breast and cervical carcinoma screening. RESULTS Overall, Native American and African-American women had lower levels of knowledge, more inaccurate beliefs, and more barriers to screening compared with white women. Among the notable findings were that 43% of the patient population did not mention mammograms and 53% did not mention Pap smears as breast and cervical carcinoma screening tests, respectively; furthermore, compared with white women, significantly fewer African-American and Native American women mentioned these tests (P < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent of all women reported that a physician had never encouraged them to receive a mammogram, although 75% reported having received a regular checkup in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS Although all low-income rural women experienced significant barriers to receiving cancer screening tests, these barriers were more common for minority women compared with white women. More research is needed to identify ways to overcome such barriers, especially among Native American women. The results of the current study have important implications with respect to the designing of interventions aimed at improving cancer screening for all women. PMID:15505784

  20. Colorectal cancer screening--optimizing current strategies and new directions.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Ernst J; Rösch, Thomas; Bretthauer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The first evidence that screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) could effectively reduce mortality dates back 20 years. However, actual population screening has, in many countries, halted at the level of individual testing and discussions on differences between screening tests. With a wealth of new evidence from various community-based studies looking at test uptake, screening-programme organization and the importance of quality assurance, population screening for CRC is now moving into a new realm, promising better results in terms of reducing CRC-specific morbidity and mortality. Such a shift in the paradigm requires a change from opportunistic, individual testing towards organized population screening with comprehensive monitoring and full-programme quality assurance. To achieve this, a combination of factors--including test characteristics, uptake, screenee autonomy, costs and capacity--must be considered. Thus, evidence from randomized trials comparing different tests must be supplemented by studies of acceptance and uptake to obtain the full picture of the effectiveness (in terms of morbidity, mortality and cost) the different strategies have. In this Review, we discuss a range of screening modalities and describe the factors to be considered to achieve a truly effective population CRC screening programme. PMID:23381005

  1. The history of colorectal cancer screening: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Winawer, Sidney J

    2015-03-01

    The present explosive interest in screening for colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most prevalent and preventable cancers, had its beginnings at a hospital in London and an Internist's office in Ohio. Demonstrated there were the concepts that CRC did not occur de-novo but arose from a premalignant polyp, that detection of the resultant cancer at an earlier stage was associated with better survival and that cancer could be detected at an early presymptomatic stage by screening. Many years later, the introduction of colonoscopy and colonoscopic polypectomy provided the opportunity for randomized trials to prove that these concepts were true. The sequence of rigorous science followed by guidelines consensus and then multilevel national efforts of screening implementation has resulted in a decline in the CRC incidence and mortality worldwide, most significantly in the USA. Campaigns have been initiated to maximize population screening and further investigate its optimal approach. Some historical details of this success story and many of the key participants are presented in this paper. PMID:25599958

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  3. Breast and cervical cancer screening among Korean American elderly women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee-Soon Juon; You Jeoung Seo; Miyong T Kim

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of breast and cervical cancer screening tests among Korean American elderly women. This study examined the effects of individual socio-demographic background, acculturation level (e.g., proportion of life spent in the US, spoken English proficiency), health status and access to health care on uptake of mammography and Pap smear

  4. Lower recurrence risk through mammographic screening reduces breast cancer treatment costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lea Kauhava; Pirjo Immonen-Räihä; Ilmo Parvinen; Kaija Holli; Liisa Pylkkänen; Anne Kaljonen; Hans Helenius; Pauliina Kronqvist; Pekka J. Klemi

    2008-01-01

    Mammographic screening is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence. The objective of the study was to evaluate treatment costs due to breast cancer recurrence in relation to patients’ use of mammographic screening, consecutively collected in a defined population. The study included 418 women exposed to screening and 109 women unexposed to screening diagnosed with stage I–III breast

  5. Breast cancer screening case-control study design: impact on breast cancer mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Paap; A. L. M. Verbeek; D. Puliti; E. Paci; M. J. M. Broeders

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on the effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening show differences in the magnitude of breast cancer mortality reduction. We investigated the role played by aspects of the case-control study design on these differences, e.g. the definition of cases and exposure to screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated six case-control studies conducted in East Anglia (UK), Wales,

  6. Cancer Screening and Genetics: A Tale of Two Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Edwards, Heather M.; Khoury, Muin J.; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing medical tradition to “first do no harm” is reflected in population-wide evidence-based recommendations for cancer screening tests that focus primarily on reducing morbidity and mortality. The conventional cancer screening process is predicated on finding early-stage disease that can be treated effectively; yet emerging genetic and genomic testing technologies have moved the target earlier in the disease development process to identify a probabilistic predisposition to disease. Genetic risk information can have varying implications for the health and well-being of patients and their relatives, and has raised important questions about the evaluation and value of risk information. This paper explores the paradigms that are being applied to the evaluation of conventional cancer screening tests and emerging genetic and genomic tests of cancer susceptibility, and how these perspectives are shifting and evolving in response to advances in our ability to detect cancer risks. We consider several challenges germane to the evaluation of both categories of tests including defining benefits and harms in terms of personal and clinical utility, addressing healthcare consumers’ information preferences, and managing scientific uncertainty. We encourage research and dialogue aimed at developing a better understanding of the value of all risk information, non-genetic and genetic, to people’s lives. PMID:24706727

  7. Large-screen projection displays with laser brightness amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrash, Gueorgii G.; Chvykov, Vladimir V.; Zemskov, Konstantin I.

    1997-05-01

    One of the most difficult problems of large-screen projection displays is overloading of a panel to be projected with illuminating light. The problem can be solved by using, on the way from a panel to be projected to a screen, an optical amplifier with high enough amplification. The prospects of using laser amplifiers in projection displays are discussed. Among all laser amplifiers the most suitable for application as optical amplifiers in projection systems are now pulsed metal vapor laser and metal halide laser amplifiers. They have rather high gain enabling amplification in the range from 102 to 104 and high average output power sufficient to illuminate a large screen. The main characteristics of these amplifiers are described. The results of experimental investigations of projection systems with copper, copper bromide, gold and some other metal vapor amplifiers are reported. In all cases good quality amplified images were obtained. Average power at the output of amplifiers was under typical conditions of operation comparable with the output power of a laser with the same amplifying element. Measurement of contrast of amplified images showed that under normal conditions of operation it is close to the contrast of the input picture even at strong saturation of the amplifying medium. The influence of the amplifier saturation is briefly discussed. The results of experiments with TV projection systems using two types of liquid crystal spatial light modulators are presented and prospects of large-screen projection displays development are discussed.

  8. Collateral versus Project Screening: A Model of Lazy Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Manove; A. Jorge Padilla; Marco Pagano

    2001-01-01

    Many economists argue that the primary economic function of banks is to provide cheap credit, and to facilitate this function, they advocate the strict protection of creditor rights. But banks can serve another important economic function: by screening projects they can reduce the number of project Pilures and thus mitigate their private and social costs. In this article we show

  9. Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia: Are targeted interventions necessary?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the determinants of Papanicolaou Smear Test (PST) screening for cervical cancer among women in Malaysia. Attention is focused on the reasons different population subgroups give for non-screening. We find that Indian women are the least likely to have had a PST and also the least likely to know the reasons why one is screened. Malay women are less likely than Chinese women to have received a PST and are more likely to report embarrassment as the reason for not being tested. Urban women are less likely than rural women to have been tested and more likely to state lack of time as the reason. These results suggest targeted interventions may be necessary to increase screening rates in Malaysia. PMID:20685019

  10. Familial colorectal cancer screening: When and what to do?

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Rossi, Piero; Sica, Giuseppe; Pallone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and represents a clinical challenge. Family members of patients affected by CRC have an increased risk of CRC development. In these individuals, screening is strongly recommended and should be started earlier than in the population with average risk, in order to detect neoplastic precursors, such as adenoma, advanced adenoma, and nonpolypoid adenomatous lesions of the colon. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a non invasive, widespread screening method that can reduce CRC-related mortality. Sigmoidoscopy, alone or in addition to FOBT, represents another screening strategy that reduces CRC mortality. Colonoscopy is the best choice for screening high-risk populations, as it allows simultaneous detection and removal of preneoplastic lesions. The choice of test depends on local health policy and varies among countries. PMID:26185367

  11. Rational and Irrational Issues in Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Cornelia J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence on the efficacy of breast screening from randomized controlled trials conducted in the last decades of the 1900s is reviewed. For decades, controversy about their results has centered on the magnitude of benefit in terms of breast cancer mortality reduction that can be achieved. However more recently, several expert bodies have estimated the benefits to be smaller than initially expected and concerns have been raised about screening consequences such as over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment. Trials with substantial mortality reduction have been lauded and others with null effects have been critiqued. Critiques of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study are refuted. Extreme responses by screening advocates to the United States Preventive Services Task Force 2009 guidelines are described. The role vested interests play in determining health policy is clearly revealed in the response to the guidelines and should be more generally known. A general reluctance to explore unexpected results or to accept new paradigms is briefly discussed. PMID:24212617

  12. Contrasts in Rural and Urban Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Rademaker, Alfred; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Platt, Daci; Esparza, Julie; Wolf, Michael S.; Arnold, Connie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To contrast barriers to colon cancer (CRC) screening and Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) completion between rural and urban safety-net patients. Methods Interviews were administered to 972 patients who were not up-to-date with screening. Results Rural patients were more likely to believe it was helpful to find CRC early (89.7% vs 66.1%, p < .0001), yet were less likely to have received a screening recommendation (36.4% vs. 45.8%, p = .03) or FOBT information (14.5% vs 32.3%, p < .0001) or to have completed an FOBT (22.0% vs 45.8%, p < .0001). Conclusions Interventions are needed to increase screening recommendation, education and completion, particularly in rural areas. PMID:23985175

  13. Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  14. ColonCancerCheck Primary Care Invitation Pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Tinmouth, Jill; Ritvo, Paul; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Guglietti, Criss; Green, Josh; Claus, Danielle; Levitt, Cheryl; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Rabeneck, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physician perspectives regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of 2 interventions—a targeted, mailed invitation for screening to patients, and family physician audit-feedback reports—and on the colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program generally. This information will be used to guide program strategies for increasing screening uptake. Design Qualitative study. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians (n = 65). Methods Seven 1-hour focus groups were conducted with family physicians using teleconferencing and Web-based technologies. Responses were elicited regarding family physicians’ perspectives on the mailing of invitations to patients, the content and design of the audit-feedback reports, the effect of participation in the pilot project on daily practice, and overall CRC screening program function. Main findings Key themes included strong support for both interventions and for the CRC screening program generally. Moderate support was found for direct mailing of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits. Participants identified potential pitfalls if interventions were implemented outside of patient enrolment model practices. Participants expressed relatively strong support for colonoscopy as a CRC screening test but relatively weak support for FOBT. Conclusion Although the proposed interventions to increase the uptake of CRC screening were highly endorsed, concerns about their applicability to non–patient enrolment model practices and the current lack of physician support for FOBT will need to be addressed to optimize intervention and program effectiveness. Our study is highly relevant to other public health programs planning organized CRC screening programs. PMID:23064936

  15. The Relationship Between Perceived Barriers and Prostate Cancer Screening Practices Among African Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quandra Meshane Whaley

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant health problems facing African American men today. Decreased participation in prostate cancer screening by African American men is a serious problem, as decreased survival rates occur when the diagnosis of prostate cancer is delayed. This descriptive cross-sectional study focuses on identifying the relationship between perceived barriers and prostate cancer screening practices among

  16. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women: a literature review using the health belief model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LaToya T Austin; Farah Ahmad; Mary-Jane McNally; Donna E Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review published studies that examined factors influencing breast and cervical cancer screening behavior in Hispanic women, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and manual search were used to identify articles. Cancer screening barriers common among Hispanic women include fear of cancer, fatalistic views on cancer, linguistic barriers, and culturally

  17. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. PMID:25685149

  18. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Cibelli; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; de Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  19. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Cibelli; Fonseca, Allex Jardim da; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins de; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women's health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  20. ICSN Data - Organization of Screening Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

  1. Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Modeled Estimates of the Effects of Screening: Results from the CISNET Breast Cancer Consortium International Breast Cancer Scr eening Network Biennial Meeting Kathleen Cronin Statistical Research and Applications Branch National Cancer Institute May

  2. Screening for Bladder Cancer: Recommendations from the U.S.Preventive Services Task Force

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms that are also common with other conditions. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking; family history of bladder cancer; and working in the chemical, rubber, or leather industries. Screening tests that might ?nd bladder cancer before ...

  3. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer Institute September is National ... most commonly diagnosed type of cancer among American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American ...

  4. Perspectives of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: Stigma and Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Diaz, Joseph A.; Kim, Ivone

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were “bad food,” digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19776255

  5. Men's preferences for prostate cancer screening: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    de Bekker-Grob, E W; Rose, J M; Donkers, B; Essink-Bot, M-L; Bangma, C H; Steyerberg, E W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Screening for prostate cancer (PC) may save lives, but overdiagnosis and overtreatment are serious drawbacks. We aimed to determine men's preferences for PC screening, and to elicit the trade-offs they make. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among a population-based random sample of 1000 elderly men (55–75-years-old). Trade-offs were quantified with a panel latent class model between five PC screening aspects: risk reduction of PC-related death, screening interval, risk of unnecessary biopsies, risk of unnecessary treatments, and out-of-pocket costs. Results: The response rate was 46% (459/1000). Men were willing to trade-off 2.0% (CI: 1.6%–2.4%) or 1.8% (CI: 1.3%–2.3%) risk reduction of PC-related death to decrease their risk of unnecessary treatment or biopsy with 10%, respectively. They were willing to pay €188 per year (CI: €141–€258) to reduce their relative risk of PC-related death with 10%. Preference heterogeneity was substantial, with men with higher educational levels having a lower probability to opt for PC screening than men with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Men were willing to trade-off some risk reduction of PC-related death to be relieved of the burden of biopsies or unnecessary treatments. Increasing knowledge on overdiagnosis and overtreatment, especially for men with lower educational levels, is warranted to prevent unrealistic expectations from PC screening. PMID:23361056

  6. High-speed spectral nanocytology for early cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, John E.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Maneval, Charles D.; White, Craig A.; Levenson, Richard M.; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. High-throughput partial wave spectroscopy (HTPWS) is introduced as a high-speed spectral nanocytology technique that utilizes the field effect of carcinogenesis to perform minimally invasive cancer screening on at-risk populations. HTPWS uses fully automated hardware and an acousto-optic tunable filter to scan slides at low magnification, to select cells, and to rapidly acquire spectra at each spatial pixel in a cell between 450 and 700 nm, completing measurements of 30 cells in 40 min. Statistical quantitative analysis on the size and density of intracellular nanostructures extracted from the spectra at each pixel in a cell yields the diagnostic biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). Linear correlation between Ld and the length scale of nanostructures was measured in phantoms with R2=0.93. Diagnostic sensitivity was demonstrated by measuring significantly higher Ld from a human colon cancer cell line (HT29 control vector) than a less aggressive variant (epidermal growth factor receptor knockdown). Clinical diagnostic performance for lung cancer screening was tested on 23 patients, yielding a significant difference in Ld between smokers and cancer patients, p=0.02 and effect size=1.00. The high-throughput performance, nanoscale sensitivity, and diagnostic sensitivity make HTPWS a potentially clinically relevant modality for risk stratification of the large populations at risk of developing cancer. PMID:24193949

  7. Unifying screening processes within the PROSPR consortium: a conceptual model for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Beaber, Elisabeth F; Kim, Jane J; Schapira, Marilyn M; Tosteson, Anna N A; Zauber, Ann G; Geiger, Ann M; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2015-06-01

    General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. PMID:25957378

  8. Different cervical cancer screening approaches in a Chinese multicentre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Li; J-F Shi; S Franceschi; W-H Zhang; M Dai; B Liu; Y-Z Zhang; L-K Li; R-F Wu; H De Vuyst; M Plummer; Y-L Qiao; G Clifford

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate alternative cervical cancer screening methods, digital colposcopy and collection of cervical exfoliated cells for liquid-based cytology (LBC) and hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing were performed among 2562 women aged 15–59 years in three study sites in the People's Republic of China (rural Shanxi province, Shenyang city in Liaoning province and Shenzhen city in Guangdong province). Visual inspection with

  9. Screening for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Rosell; Teresa Moran; Cristina Queralt; Rut Porta; Felipe Cardenal; Carlos Camps; Margarita Majem; Guillermo Lopez-Vivanco; Dolores Isla; Mariano Provencio; Amelia Insa; Bartomeu Massuti; Jose Luis Gonzalez-Larriba; Luis Paz-Ares; Isabel Bover; Rosario Garcia-Campelo; Miguel Angel Moreno; Silvia Catot; Christian Rolfo; Noemi Reguart; Ramon Palmero; José Miguel Sánchez; Roman Bastus; Clara Mayo; Jordi Bertran-Alamillo; Miguel Angel Molina; Jose Javier Sanchez; Miquel Taron

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) confer hy- persensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We evaluated the feasibility of large-scale screen- ing for EGFR mutations in such patients and analyzed the association between the mutations and the outcome of erlotinib treatment. Methods From April 2005 through

  10. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer. PMID:23625730

  11. Upward communication about cancer screening: adolescent daughter to mother.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie A

    2015-06-01

    Substantial breast and cervical cancer disparities exist in the United States, particularly among African American women with low socioeconomic status. There is considerable potential for discussions about cancer prevention between mothers and daughters. However, upward communication, from child to parent, remains a relatively novel research area, and it remains unclear how receptive mothers would be to messages from their daughter about cancer, a topic that may be considered culturally inappropriate for daughters to initiate. In this study, the authors simulated cancer message delivery to daughters and then conducted direct observation of daughters as they recalled and shared the message with their mother or female elder. The authors found that daughters were able to successfully recall and deliver a cancer appeal to their mother and mothers were generally receptive to this message. Not only did mothers listen to their daughters' appeals, but also daughters' knowledge of cancer was considerably improved by the opportunity to educate her female elder. Moreover, daughters' nonverbal communication suggested a surprisingly relaxed demeanor. The potential of young people to have an effect on the screening behavior of their female elders is very promising in terms of reducing cancer disparities. PMID:25848895

  12. Committee Opinion No. 624: Cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Cytology-based cervical cancer screening programs require a number of elements to be successful. Certain low-resource settings, like the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, lack these elements. Implementing alternative cervical cancer screening strategies in low-resource settings can provide consistent, accessible screening opportunities. PMID:25611643

  13. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Cancer.gov

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of cost effectiveness in a tailored intervention to promote screening for colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swati Misra

    2008-01-01

    Background. Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered cost effective but screening compliance in the US remains low. There have been very few studies on economic analyses of screening promotion strategies for colorectal cancer. The main aim of the current study is to conduct a cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) and examine the uncertainty involved in the results of the CEA

  15. Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

  16. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies. PMID:25663756

  17. Lung cancer screening--comparison of computed tomography and X-ray.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Ayako; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Mizuno, Satoko; Uruma, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kiminori; Nagao, Keiichi; Niijima, Mafumi; Edo, Hidenori; Hino, Mitsunori; Kuriyama, Takayuki

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies on lung cancer screening with CT disclosed a discrepancy between its efficiency in detecting early lung cancer and a lack of proof for decreasing mortality from lung cancer. The present study, in a city in Japan where an X-ray screening program is provided, bi-annual CT screening was performed for X-ray screening negative subjects for 4 years. Ten patients with lung cancer were detected among 22,720 person-year subjects (0.044%) through the X-ray screening. Among the X-ray screening-negative subjects, 3305 subjects participated in a CT screening program resulting in the detection of 15 patients with lung cancer (0.454%). All 15 cases detected by CT screening and 5 of the 10 cases detected by X-ray screening were at stage IA. In respect of gender, histological type and CT findings, patients detected by CT screening had a better prognostic profile than those detected by X-ray screening. Survival was significantly better in the former than the latter, both in its entirety comparison and in a comparison limited to patients who underwent surgery. In conclusion, CT screening might have the potential to detect lung cancer with good prognostic factors not limited to early detection. Sufficiently long follow-up time, therefore, would be required to evaluate the efficacy for decreasing lung cancer mortality with CT screening. PMID:18242764

  18. Gastrointestinal cancer screening: screening may release new research funding to improve health service also in routine clinics.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2015-06-01

    We are far from having seen the ideal method of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and the downsides of screening have not been fully addressed. Funding of adequately sized screening trials with a 10-15-year perspective for endpoints CRC mortality and incidence is difficult to get. Also, with such time horizons, there will always be an ongoing study to be awaited before feeling obliged to invest in the next. New, promising screening methods may, however, emerge far more often than every 10th year, and the knowledge gap may easily widen unless research is made a key responsibility for any ongoing cancer screening program. Previous lost battles on screening research may be won if accepting that scientific evidence may be obtained within the framework of screening programs - provided that they are designed as platforms for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). Accepting that CER-based screening programs should be preferred to non-CER programs and seriously compete for their funding sources, then CER screening programs may not be considered so much as contenders for ordinary clinical research funds. Also, CER within a screening framework may benefit patients in routine clinics as shown by screening research in Nordic countries. The Nordic countries have been early contributors to research on CRC screening, but slow in implementing screening programs. PMID:25857737

  19. Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Pu, Y; Wang, W B; Xu, M; Tang, G C; Budansky, Y; Sharanov, M; Achilefu, S; Eastham, J A; Alfano, R R

    2011-12-01

    A portable rectal near infrared (NIR) scanning polarization imaging unit with an optical fiber-based rectal probe, designated as a Photonic Finger (PF), was designed, developed, built and tested. PF was used to image and locate the three dimensional (3D) positions of abnormal prostate tissue embedded inside normal prostate tissue. An inverse image reconstruction algorithm, namely Optical Tomography using Independent Component Analysis (OPTICA) was developed to unmix the signal from targets (cancerous tissue) embedded in a turbid media (normal tissue) in the backscattering imaging geometry. The Photonic Finger combined with OPTICA was ex vivo tested to characterize different target(s) inside different tissue medium, including cancerous prostate tissue embedded inside large pieces of normal tissue. This new developed instrument, Photonic Finger, may provide an alternative imaging technique, which is accurate, of high spatial resolution and non-or-less invasive for prostate cancers screening. PMID:22066592

  20. Mass Spectrometric Screening of Ovarian Cancer with Serum Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Han; Park, Chang Won; Um, Dalho; Baek, Ki Hwang; Jo, Yohahn; An, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yangsun; Kim, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Changes of glycosylation pattern in serum proteins have been linked to various diseases including cancer, suggesting possible development of novel biomarkers based on the glycomic analysis. In this study, N-linked glycans from human serum were quantitatively profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and compared between healthy controls and ovarian cancer patients. A training set consisting of 40 healthy controls and 40 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated an inverse correlation between P value of ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) of each candidate biomarker peak from MALDI-TOF MS, providing standards for the classification. A multibiomarker panel composed of 15 MALDI-TOF MS peaks resulted in AUC of 0.89, 80~90% sensitivity, and 70~83% specificity in the training set. The performance of the biomarker panel was validated in a separate blind test set composed of 23 healthy controls and 37 ovarian cancer patients, leading to 81~84% sensitivity and 83% specificity with cut-off values determined by the training set. Sensitivity of CA-125, the most widely used ovarian cancer marker, was 74% in the training set and 78% in the test set, respectively. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS-mediated serum N-glycan analysis could provide critical information for the screening of ovarian cancer. PMID:24648610

  1. Identification of inhibitors of ovarian cancer stem-like cells by high-throughput screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer stem cells are characterized by self-renewal capacity, ability to differentiate into distinct lineages, as well as higher invasiveness and resistance to many anticancer agents. Since they may be responsible for the recurrence of ovarian cancer after initial response to chemotherapy, development of new therapies targeting this special cellular subpopulation embedded within bulk ovarian cancers is warranted. Methods A high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign was performed with 825 compounds from the Mechanistic Set chemical library [Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)/National Cancer Institute (NCI)] against ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSC) using a resazurin-based cell cytotoxicity assay. Identified sets of active compounds were projected onto self-organizing maps to identify their putative cellular response groups. Results From 793 screening compounds with evaluable data, 158 were found to have significant inhibitory effects on ovarian CSC. Computational analysis indicates that the majority of these compounds are associated with mitotic cellular responses. Conclusions Our HTS has uncovered a number of candidate compounds that may, after further testing, prove effective in targeting both ovarian CSC and their more differentiated progeny. PMID:23078816

  2. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...screened according to guidelines. Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other common cancers, particularly breast and cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other...

  3. Understanding Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Kanotra, Sarojini; Siameh, Seth; Jones, Jessica; Thompson, Becki; Thomas-Cox, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer screening rates have increased significantly in Kentucky, from 35% in 1999 to 66% in 2012. A continued improvement in screening requires identification of existing barriers and implementation of interventions to address barriers. Methods The state of Kentucky added a question to the 2012 Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for respondents aged 50 years or older who answered no to ever having been screened for colorectal cancer by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy to assess the reasons why respondents had not been screened. Combined responses constituted 4 categories: attitudes and beliefs, health care provider and health care systems barriers, cost, and other. Prevalence estimates for barriers were calculated by using raking weights and were stratified by race/ethnicity, sex, education, income, and health insurance coverage. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios for barriers to screening. Results The most common barriers in all areas were related to attitudes and beliefs, followed by health care provider and systems, and cost. Non-Hispanic whites and respondents with more than a high school education were more likely to choose attitudes and beliefs as a barrier than were non-Hispanic blacks and those with less than a high school education. Respondents with low incomes and with no insurance were significantly more likely to select cost as a barrier. No significant associations were observed between demographic variables and the selection of a health care provider and a health care system. Conclusion Barriers related to education, race/ethnicity, income, and insurance coverage should be considered when designing interventions. Expansion of Medicaid and implementation of the Affordable Care Act in Kentucky could have an impact on reducing these barriers. PMID:26086608

  4. Understanding Immigrant Chinese Americans’ Participation in Cancer Screening and Clinical Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Lin; Alyssa Finlay; Angela Tu; Francesca M. Gany

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Chinese immigrant participation in cancer screening and clinical trials. A series of focus groups, in English, Cantonese, and Mandarin, were conducted with physicians, community leaders, and first generation members of the Manhattan Chinatown community. Participants were asked to discuss their beliefs about cancer, cancer screening, clinical trials,

  5. Colorectal Cancer: A Summary of the Evidence for Screening and Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THAD WILKINS; PETER L. REYNOLDS

    Colorectal cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. The incidence of colorectal cancer can be reduced with increasing efforts directed at mass screening of average-risk adults 50 years and older. Currently, fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy have the highest levels of evidence to support their use for colorectal cancer screening. Colonoscopy does not have a

  6. Small calcification depiction in ultrasonography using correlation technique for breast cancer screening

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Small calcification depiction in ultrasonography using correlation technique for breast cancer of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 847 #12;In breast cancer screening-menopausal breast. In order to realize the breast cancer screening without radiation exposure for all people

  7. Evaluating teaching techniques in the Hmong breast and cervical cancer health awareness project.

    PubMed

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage and have low literacy and experienced care that are not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male participants?=?30 and female participants?=?120). Teach-back method was used to assess the participants' understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants' responses. The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people's understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly, all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations. PMID:24488558

  8. Breast Cancer Screening, Area Deprivation, and Later-Stage Breast Cancer in Appalachia: Does Geography Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Roger T; Yang, Tse-Chang; Matthews, Stephen A; Camacho, Fabian; Kern, Teresa; Mackley, Heath B; Kimmick, Gretchen; Louis, Christopher; Lengerich, Eugene; Yao, Nengliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the relationship of an area-based measure of a breast cancer screening and geographic area deprivation on the incidence of later stage breast cancer (LSBC) across a diverse region of Appalachia. Data Source Central cancer registry data (2006–2008) from three Appalachian states were linked to Medicare claims and census data. Study Design Exploratory spatial analysis preceded the statistical model based on negative binomial regression to model predictors and effect modification by geographic subregions. Principal Findings Exploratory spatial analysis revealed geographically varying effects of area deprivation and screening on LSBC. In the negative binomial regression model, predictors of LSBC included receipt of screening, area deprivation, supply of mammography centers, and female population aged >75 years. The most deprived counties had a 3.31 times greater rate of LSBC compared to the least deprived. Effect of screening on LSBC was significantly stronger in northern Appalachia than elsewhere in the study region, found mostly for high-population counties. Conclusions Breast cancer screening and area deprivation are strongly associated with disparity in LBSC in Appalachia. The presence of geographically varying predictors of later stage tumors in Appalachia suggests the importance of place-based health care access and risk. PMID:24117371

  9. Reducing cancer screening disparities in medicare beneficiaries through cancer patient navigation.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Thomas, William L; Domingo, Jermy-Leigh B; Allison, Amanda L; Ponce, Avette; Haunani Kamakana, P; Brazzel, Sandra S; Emmett Aluli, N; Tsark, JoAnn U

    2015-02-01

    Significant racial disparities in cancer mortality are seen between Medicare beneficiaries. A randomized controlled trial tested the use of lay navigators (care managers) to increase cancer screening of Asian and Pacific Islander Medicare beneficiaries. The study setting was Moloka'i General Hospital on the island of Moloka'i, Hawai'i, which was one of six sites participating in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Between 2006 and 2009, 488 Medicare beneficiaries (45% Hawaiian, 35% Filipino, 11% Japanese, 8% other) were randomized to have a navigator help them access cancer screening services (experimental condition, n = 242) or cancer education (control condition, n = 246). Self-reported data on screening participation were collected at baseline and exit from the study, and differences were tested using chi-square. Groups were similar in demographic characteristics and baseline screening prevalence of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers. At study exit, 57.0% of women in the experimental arm and 36.4% of controls had had a Papanicolaou test in the past 24 months (P = .001), 61.7% of women in the experimental arm and 42.4% of controls had had a mammogram in the past 12 months (P = .003), 54.4% of men in the experimental arm and 36.0% of controls had had a prostate-specific antigen test in the past 12 months (P = .008), and 43.0% of both sexes in the experimental arm and 27.2% of controls had had a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the past 5 years (P < .001). Findings suggest that navigation services can increase cancer screening in Medicare beneficiaries in groups with significant disparities. PMID:25640884

  10. Impact of Psychological Distress on Prostate Cancer Screening in U.S. Military Veterans.

    PubMed

    Silberbogen, Amy K; Busby, Andrea K; Ulloa, Erin W

    2013-12-20

    The benefit of routine prostate cancer screening is currently under debate; however, many experts recommend that men with elevated risk for the disease discuss the potential risks and benefits of screening with their health care team. Psychological factors have been negatively associated with preventive health behaviors such as cancer screenings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of depressive and trauma-related symptoms on prostate cancer screening behaviors and relevant health care perceptions among a sample of U.S. military veterans, as veterans are at higher risk for prostate cancer, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder than the general population. Participants (n = 350) were a national sample of predominantly Caucasian (84.6%) male U.S. military veterans (60.5 years ± 8.9) who completed an online questionnaire regarding past prostate cancer screening engagement, as well as validated measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and perceived barriers and benefits to prostate cancer screening. Results indicate that greater depressive symptoms, trauma-related symptoms, and perceived barriers were associated with lower rates of past prostate cancer screening among this veteran sample and that greater depressive and trauma-related symptoms were associated with greater perceived barriers to prostate cancer screening. As prostate cancer screening recommendations continue to evolve, it is important for health care providers not only to discuss pros and cons of screening with high risk men but also to consider the impact of psychological distress on the decision-making process. PMID:24362494

  11. Eliminating health disparities: innovative methods to improve cervical cancer screening in a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; León, Casey K; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  12. Estimation and projections of cancer prevalence from cancer registry data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arduino Verdecchia; Giovanni De Angelis; Riccardo Capocaccia

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY A method, PIAMOD (Prevalence, Incidence, Analysis MODel), which allows the estimation and pro- jection of cancer prevalence patterns by using cancer registry incidence and survival data is presented. As arst step the method involves thet of incidence data by an age, period and cohort model to derive incidence projections. Prevalence is then estimated from modelled incidence and survival esti-

  13. Monitoring diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP

    Cancer.gov

    Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Diagnosis and Treatment of Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in the NHSBSP Julietta Patnick ICSN 2008 Not for reproduction without permission Monitoring Screening: Principles • Maintenance of minimum

  14. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE).

  15. Screening reduces colorectal cancer rate in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki J. Järvinen; Jukka-Pekka Mecklin; Pertti Sistonen

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims The inherited susceptibility to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) provides an opportunity for secondary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in family members who are at 50% lifetime risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of long-term screening during a 10-year period. Methods The CRC and death rates were compared between two groups of asymptomatic at-risk

  16. How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies. PMID:20846446

  17. Cervical cancer screening preferences among African American women in the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Litton, Allison G; Castle, Philip E; Partridge, Edward E; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2013-02-01

    Although cervical cancer screening rates have increased in the United States, there are still geographic areas that experience a high cervical cancer burden, including the Mississippi Delta. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-collection may be a feasible alternative to traditional clinician-collection for cervical cancer screening for under-screened women. This study examined women's preferences for cervical cancer screening methods. Interviewer-administered questionnaires regarding cervical cancer screening preferences were completed by 524 African American women in the Mississippi Delta. Statistically significant differences were observed for age, employment status, and number of children across recruitment groups. Regardless of how women were recruited, the majority preferred self-sampling for HPV testing method to clinician-collection. Among women who preferred self-collected sampling for HPV testing, the most frequent reasons given were convenience, privacy, and comfort. Alternative strategies must be considered when targeting the under-screened to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. PMID:23377716

  18. Get screened: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to increase mammography and colorectal cancer screening in a large, safety net practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Fiscella; Amanat Yosha; Samantha K Hendren; Sharon Humiston; Paul Winters; Pat Ford; Starlene Loader; Raymond Specht; Shirley Pope; Amna Adris; Steven Marcus

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most randomized controlled trials of interventions designed to promote cancer screening, particularly those targeting poor and minority patients, enroll selected patients. Relatively little is known about the benefits of these interventions among unselected patients. METHODS\\/DESIGN: \\

  19. High-definition projection screen based on multiple light scattering technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromasa Suzuki; Takamitsu Okumura; Akihiro Tagaya; Eizaburo Higuchi; Yasuhiro Koike

    2004-01-01

    A novel rear projection screen (Blue Ocean screen, Nitto Jyushi Kogyo, Co., Ltd.) has been developed. Blue Ocean screen is a single polymer plate requiring no lens element. The projected image is formed on the screen surface by the multiple light scattering. An image light is multiply scattered and is converted into homogeneous light distribution efficiently due to the internal

  20. [Ouality indicators for the evaluation of colorectal cancer screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Manuel; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Grazzini, Grazia; Senore, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening programmes, which are supported by national and international recommendations, are gradually developing andspreading throughout Italy. The programmes strive to guarantee maximum equality, improve quality of life, and inform the target population about benefits and possible risks. These goals can only be achieved with adequate planning and training for the staff involved. Moreover, it is essential to regularly verify the quality of each step of the process, with a system that can constantly monitor the parameters used for the evaluation of quality and efficacy. The present document, created by the Italian Group for Colorectal Screening (GISCoR), proposes a unified method for collecting and reporting screening data using commonly agreed terminology, definitions and classifications, thus making it possible to compare data with standards and data from other programmes, and to plan suitable interventions. The indicators considered refer to the entire screening process, including organisational, logistic and performance indicators. The indicators are provided in the form of concise and easy-to-use data sheets. Every data sheet contains briefsections: definition of the indicator, goal, the data necessary to build it, the formula required to build it, possible problems of interpretation, acceptable and desirable standards. PMID:18402363

  1. Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Trials with MultiEthnic Groups: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay B. MorrowFlorence; Florence J. Dallo; Manjula Julka

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the current literature of community-based colorectal cancer screening randomized\\u000a controlled trials with multi-ethnic groups. The CDC reports 40% of adults do not receive time-appropriate colorectal cancer\\u000a screening. Although overall screening rates have improved since 2000, disparities remain. Studies examining community characteristics\\u000a may offer insight into improving screening rates and eliminating disparities. We

  2. The Validity of Male Patients' Self-Reports Regarding Prostate Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. Jordan; James H. Price; Keith A. King; Tatiana Masyk; Archie W. Bedell

    1999-01-01

    Background.Despite the high rate of prostate cancer screening, the accuracy of male patients' self-reports of screening has not been investigated. This study assessed the concordance between patients' self-reports of prostate screening and the medical record.Methods.Focus groups were conducted to obtain male patients' perceptions of prostate cancer screening and salient terminology. A sample of males (n= 276), 40 years of age

  3. Anal Cancer Screening Behaviors and Intentions in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L.; Ostrow, David; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M.; Wiley, Dorothy; Silvestre, Tony

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of anal cancer has increased in the past decade, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected individuals. There is controversy about whether to routinely screen for anal cancer in MSM. Objectives To determine whether current anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern differ by HIV serostatus and to identify characteristics of men who intend to seek anal cancer screening. Design and Participants Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 901 HIV-infected and 1,016 HIV-uninfected MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) in 2005–2006. Measurements Self-reported anal cancer screening history, attitudes, and intentions. Results A history of anal warts was relatively common in these men (39%), whereas having a recent anal Pap test (5%), intention to seek anal cancer screening in the next 6 months (12%), and concern about anal cancer (8.5%) were less common. Intention to seek anal cancer screening was associated with enabling factors (screening availability, health insurance), need factors (HIV-infection, history of anal warts), concern about anal cancer, and recent sexual risk taking. Among four large US cities, there was significant regional variability in anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern (all p<0.001). Most MSM (76%) indicated they would go to their primary care physician for an anal health problem or question. Conclusions This study demonstrates a low rate of anal cancer screening and intention to screen among MSM. As more evidence emerges regarding screening, primary care physicians should be prepared to discuss anal cancer screening with their patients. PMID:18618198

  4. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

  5. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  6. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

  7. 8/30/2013 7:53 AM Combined DES/SD Model of Breast Cancer Screening for

    E-print Network

    8/30/2013 7:53 AM Combined DES/SD Model of Breast Cancer Screening for Older Women, II: Screening Combined DES/SD Model of Breast Cancer Screening for Older Women, II: Screening-and-Treatment Simulation of breast cancer in US women of age 65+. The first article details a natural-history simulation model

  8. ICSN Data - Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer: Mortality Rates | Screening

  9. Predictors of cervical cancer screening among vietnamese american women.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai

    2015-06-01

    This study examines Pap testing behavior among 265 Vietnamese American women aged 18 or above. A community-based survey was conducted with Vietnamese women in five cities: Houston (TX), Springfield (MA), Camden (NJ), Charlotte (NC), and Falls Church (VA). Seventy-five percent of the study sample ever received a Pap test, 45 % within the last 12 months. Women's perceived risks of cancer, belief that cancer can be detected early with screening, and disagreement that it is embarrassing to get tested and that only married women should get tested are related to Pap testing. Having health insurance is the most important predictor of Pap testing. Main reasons for not having tested in the last 12 months include: feeling well, having no insurance, and high costs. Interventions should improve financial access to Pap testing among Vietnamese American women. Results also suggest that future communication programs should emphasize preventive practices and change traditional attitudes and misconceptions related to Pap testing. PMID:24078321

  10. Medical screening for lung cancer: perspective and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1986-08-01

    Strategies to prevent or reverse cancer promotion are described. One strategy, involving the screening and prompt treatment of small lung cancers, is proposed as a study to be tested in occupational groups with very high risk, specifically asbestos-exposed shipyard workers who smoke cigarettes. The relative risk can be assigned on the basis of (1) age, (2) years since first asbestos exposure, and (3) cigarette smoking amount, recency of cessation and age at onset. Proposed surveillance would be chest x-ray films at 4-month intervals and sputum cytology in current smokers and those within 10 years of cessation. Means of detection, such as monoclonal antibody tests for adenocarcinoma and other marker molecules, would be explored. Prompt conventional treatment would be assured. Other inquiries would be directed at new treatment, such as using targeted molecules directed at surface antigens.

  11. Automated Recommendation for Cervical Cancer Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  12. Ages and Stages Questionnaires-3 developmental screening of infants and young children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Troy C; Mahajerin, Arash; Sullivan, Paula D; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Bauer, Nerissa S

    2013-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires-3® (ASQ-3) for developmental screening in our young oncology patients was pilot tested in children 4 to 48 months of age with newly diagnosed cancer. Subjects were screened within 28 days of diagnosis (baseline), at 6 and 12 months. Twenty-six of 30 enrolled parents (87%) completed all 3 screens. Screens were completed by parents within 15 minutes. ASQ-3 screening identified unsuspected developmental delays as follows: 7 at baseline, 4 at 6 months, and 3 at 12 months. ASQ-3 developmental screening is feasible, identifies early developmental delays in young children with cancer, and helps initiate appropriate referrals. PMID:23867965

  13. Literacy Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening in Community Clinics

    PubMed Central

    ARNOLD, CONNIE L.; RADEMAKER, ALFRED; BAILEY, STACY COOPER; ESPARZA, JULIA M.; REYNOLDS, CRISTALYN; LIU, DACHAO; PLATT, DACI; DAVIS, TERRY C.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between literacy and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening knowledge, beliefs, and experiences, with a focus on fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). Participants were 975 patients in 8 Louisiana federally qualified health centers. Participants were 50 years of age or older and not up to date with CRC screening; approximately half (52%) had low literacy (less than a 9th-grade level). Participants with low literacy were less likely than were those with adequate literacy to be aware of advertisements promoting CRC screening (58.7% vs. 76.3%, p < .0001) or to believe it was very helpful to find CRC early (74.5% vs. 91.9%, p < .0001). The majority of participants had positive beliefs about the benefits of CRC screening using FOBTs. Participants with low literacy had more perceived barriers to FOBT completion and were more likely to strongly agree or agree that FOBTs would be confusing, embarrassing, or a lot of trouble; however, none of these remained significant in multivariate analyses controlling for relevant covariates. Confidence in being able to obtain an FOBT kit was high among those with low and adequate literacy (89.8% vs. 93.1%, respectively, p = .20); yet multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference in regard to literacy (p = .04) with low-literacy participants indicating less confidence. There was no significant difference by literacy in ever receiving a physician recommendation for CRC screening (38.4% low vs. 39.0% adequate, p = .79); however, multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in FOBT completion by literacy (p = .036). Overall, findings suggest that literacy is a factor in patients’ CRC knowledge, beliefs, and confidence in obtaining a FOBT. PMID:23030574

  14. Gastric cancer screening uptake trends in Korea: results for the National Cancer Screening Program from 2002 to 2011: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-02-01

    Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ?40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC?=?4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC?=?5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy on gastric cancer mortality is needed, and future evaluations of screening methods should take into account both cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25715251

  15. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase our ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. These include the use of toluidine blue, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. The present paper reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of the aforementioned techniques in improving the identification of dysplastic/malignant changes of the oral mucosa. We conclude that available studies have shown promising results, but strong evidence to support the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids is still lacking. Further research with clear objectives, well-defined population cohorts, and sound methodology is strongly required. PMID:19284694

  16. Factors influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushal; Kanu, Mohamed; Liu, Jianguo; Bond, Brea; Brown, Elizabeth; Williams, Elizabeth; Theriot, Rosemary; Bailey, Stephanie; Sanderson, Maureen; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions and obstacles to being screened for breast cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening practices for various cancers in low-income African Americans. For this study, only African American women 40 years and older (n=334) were selected from the Meharry CNP community survey database. There were several predictors of breast cancer screening such as marital status and having health insurance (P< .05). Additionally, there were associations between obstacles to screening and geographic region such as transportation and not having enough information about screenings (P< .05). Educational interventions aimed at improving breast cancer knowledge and screening rates should incorporate information about obstacles and predictors to screening. PMID:24554393

  17. Lead times and overdetection due to prostate-specific antigen screening: estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerrit Draisma; Rob Boer; Suzie J. Otto; Cruijsen-Koeter van der I. W; Ronald A. M. Damhuis; F. H. Schröder; Koning de H. J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for prostate cancer advances the time of diagnosis\\u000a (lead time) and detects cancers that would not have been diagnosed in the\\u000a absence of screening (overdetection). Both consequences have considerable\\u000a impact on the net benefits of screening. METHODS: We developed simulation\\u000a models based on results of the Rotterdam section of the European\\u000a Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer

  18. Colon Cancer Screening and Surveillance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Song I

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Accordingly, the duration and anatomic extent of the disease have been known to affect the development of IBD-related CRC. When CRC occurs in patients with IBD, unlike in sporadic CRC, it is difficult to detect the lesions because of mucosal changes caused by inflammation. In addition, the tumor types vary with ill-circumscribed lesions, and the cancer is difficult to diagnose and remedy at an early stage. For the diagnosis of CRC in patients with IBD, screening endoscopy is recommended 8 to 10 years after the IBD diagnosis, and surveillance colonoscopy is recommended every 1 to 2 years thereafter. The recent development of targeted biopsies using chromoendoscopy and relatively newer endoscopic techniques helps in the early diagnosis of CRC in patients with IBD. A total proctocolectomy is advisable when high-grade dysplasia or multifocal low-grade dysplasia is confirmed by screening endoscopy or surveillance colonoscopy or if a nonadenoma-like dysplasia-associated lesion or mass is detected. Currently, pharmacotherapies are being extensively studied as a way to prevent IBD-related CRC. PMID:25505716

  19. Mammographic and pathological features of breast cancer detected at first incident round screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Wheatley; L. J. Yeoman; H. Burrell; S. E. Pinder; A. J. Evans; A. R. M. Wilson; I. O. Ellis; C. W. Elston; J. F. R. Robertson; R. W. Blamey

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the proportion of first incident screen detected cancers diagnosable at prevalent round. The prevalent mammogram was classified as truly negative (no abnormality) or falsely negative (cancer diagnosable) after blinded review. Of 54 incident cancers, 63% were true and 26% false negatives. Five cancers were assessed at the prevalent round but dismissed as normal. The possible consequence of

  20. CT screening for lung cancer: value of expert review of initial baseline screenings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong Ming; Lee, In Jae; Zhao, Shijun; Rowena, Yip; Farooqi, Ali; Cheung, Edson H; Connery, Cliff P; Frumiento, Carmine; Glassberg, Robert M; Herzog, Gary; Peeke, Jeffrey; Scheinberg, Paul; Shah, Palmi; Taylor, Jana; Welch, Laura; Widmann, Mark; Yoder, Mark; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. Appropriate radiologic interpretation of screening CT can minimize unnecessary workup and intervention. This is particularly challenging in the baseline round. We report on the quality assurance process we developed for the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program. MATERIALS AND METHODS. After initial training at the coordinating center, radiologists at 10 participating institutions and at the center independently interpreted the first 100 baseline screenings. The radiologist at the institutions had access to the center interpretations before issuing the final reports. After the first 100 screenings, the interpretations were jointly discussed. This report summarizes the results of the initial 100 dual interpretations at the 10 institutions. RESULTS. The final institution interpretations agreed with the center in 895 of the 1000 interpretations. Compared with the center, the frequency of positive results was higher at eight of the 10 institutions. The most frequent reason of discrepant interpretations was not following the protocol (n = 55) and the least frequent was not identifying a nodule (n = 3). CONCLUSION. The quality assurance process helped focus educational programs and provided an excellent vehicle for review of the protocol with participating physicians. It also suggests that the rate of positive results can be reduced by such measures. PMID:25349980

  1. Mouse models of cancer: Sleeping Beauty transposons for insertional mutagenesis screens and reverse genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Tschida, Barbara R; Largaespada, David A; Keng, Vincent W

    2014-03-01

    The genetic complexity and heterogeneity of cancer has posed a problem in designing rationally targeted therapies effective in a large proportion of human cancer. Genomic characterization of many cancer types has provided a staggering amount of data that needs to be interpreted to further our understanding of this disease. Forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty (SB) based insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for candidate cancer gene discovery that can aid in distinguishing driver from passenger mutations in human cancer. This system has been adapted for unbiased screens to identify drivers of multiple cancer types. These screens have already identified hundreds of candidate cancer-promoting mutations. These can be used to develop new mouse models for further study, which may prove useful for therapeutic testing. SB technology may also hold the key for rapid generation of reverse genetic mouse models of cancer, and has already been used to model glioblastoma and liver cancer. PMID:24468652

  2. Mouse Models of Cancer: Sleeping Beauty Transposons for Insertional Mutagenesis Screens and Reverse Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tschida, Barbara R.; Largaespada, David A.; Keng, Vincent W.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic complexity and heterogeneity of cancer has posed a problem in designing rationally targeted therapies effective in a large proportion of human cancer. Genomic characterization of many cancer types has provided a staggering amount of data that needs to be interpreted to further our understanding of this disease. Forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty (SB) based insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for candidate cancer gene discovery that can aid in distinguishing driver from passenger mutations in human cancer. This system has been adapted for unbiased screens to identify drivers of multiple cancer types. These screens have already identified hundreds of candidate cancer-promoting mutations. These can be used to develop new mouse models for further study, which may prove useful for therapeutic testing. SB technology may also hold the key for rapid generation of reverse genetic mouse models of cancer, and has already been used to model glioblastoma and liver cancer. PMID:24468652

  3. Population screening and intensity of screening are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality: evidence of efficacy of mammography screening in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Roder; N. Houssami; G. Farshid; G. Gill; C. Luke; P. Downey; K. Beckmann; P. Iosifidis; L. Grieve; L. Williamson

    2008-01-01

    Background  Efficacy of breast screening may differ in practice from the results of randomized trials. We report one of the largest case–control\\u000a evaluations of a screening service.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects included 491 breast-cancer deaths affecting 45–80-year-old South Australian females during 2002–2005 (diagnosed after\\u000a BreastScreen commencement) and 1,473 live controls (three per death) randomly selected from the State Electoral Roll after\\u000a birth-date matching. Cancer

  4. THE CHANGING PATTERN OF PROSTATE CANCER AT THE TIME OF DIAGNOSIS: CHARACTERISTICS OF SCREEN DETECTED PROSTATE CANCER IN A POPULATION BASED SCREENING STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN B. W. RIETBERGEN; ROBERT F. HOEDEMAEKER; ARTO E. BOEKEN KRUGER; WIM J. KIRKELS; FRITZ H. SCHRODER

    1999-01-01

    PurposeWe describe the clinical and pathological features of prostate cancer diagnosed through serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography in a population based randomized screening study.

  5. Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening for breast cancer studied in birth cohorts in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ripping, T M; Verbeek, A L M; Fracheboud, J; de Koning, H J; van Ravesteyn, N T; Broeders, M J M

    2015-08-15

    A drawback of early detection of breast cancer through mammographic screening is the diagnosis of breast cancers that would never have become clinically detected. This phenomenon, called overdiagnosis, is ideally quantified from the breast cancer incidence of screened and unscreened cohorts of women with follow-up until death. Such cohorts do not exist, requiring other methods to estimate overdiagnosis. We are the first to quantify overdiagnosis from invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in birth cohorts using an age-period-cohort -model (APC-model) including variables for the initial and subsequent screening rounds and a 5-year period after leaving screening. Data on the female population and breast cancer incidence were obtained from Statistics Netherlands, "Stichting Medische registratie" and the Dutch Cancer Registry for women aged 0-99 years. Data on screening participation was obtained from the five regional screening organizations. Overdiagnosis was calculated from the excess breast cancer incidence in the screened group divided by the breast cancer incidence in presence of screening for women aged 20-99 years (population perspective) and for women in the screened-age range (individual perspective). Overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer was 11% from the population perspective and 17% from the invited women perspective in birth cohorts screened from age 49 to 74. For invasive breast cancer and DCIS together, overdiagnosis was 14% from population perspective and 22% from invited women perspective. A major strength of an APC-model including the different phases of screening is that it allows to estimate overdiagnosis in birth cohorts, thereby preventing overestimation. PMID:25612892

  6. Barriers to cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study with women in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milica Markovic; Vesna Kesic; Lidija Topic; Bojana Matejic

    2005-01-01

    Serbia employs opportunistic approaches to cervical cancer screening, leading to inequitable health care access. To better understand the health care needs of women, we investigated their knowledge of and perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening. Data reported in the paper arise from nine focus group discussions with 62 women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. They were recruited in two cities with

  7. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  9. Enhancing Adherence among Older African American Men Enrolled in a Longitudinal Cancer Screening Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Havstad, Suzanne; Vernon, Sally W.; Davis, Shawna D.; Kroll, David; Lamerato, Lois; Swanson, G. Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to enhance adherence among older (aged 55 years and older) African American men enrolled in a cancer screening trial for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. For this study, we defined "adherence" as completing the trial screenings. Design and Methods: We used a randomized trial design. Case managers…

  10. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Cancer.gov

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  11. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Saslow; Carla Boetes; Wylie Burke; Steven Harms; Martin O. Leach; Constance D. Lehman; Elizabeth Morris; Etta Pisano; Mitchell Schnall; Stephen Sener; Robert A. Smith; Ellen Warner; Martin Yaffe; Kimberly S. Andrews; Christy A. Russell

    2007-01-01

    New evidence on breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) screening has become available since the American Cancer Society (ACS) last issued guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer in 2003. A guideline panel has reviewed this evidence and developed new recommendations for women at different defined levels of risk. Screening MRI is recommended for women with an approximately 20-25% or

  12. Recommendation for and Receipt of Cancer Screenings Among Medicaid Recipients 50 Years and Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Annette DuBard; Dorothee Schmid; Angie Yow; Anne B. Rogers; William W. Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Background: Persons of low socioeconomic status, in- cluding those with Medicaid coverage, are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer at an advanced stage, but little is known about cancer screening practices among Medicaid recipients. Our objective was to identify can- cerscreeningratesamongolderMedicaidrecipientsseen inaprimarycaresetting,andtoidentifypatientandphy- sician characteristics associated with screening. Methods: We used a stratified cluster sampling design to select a representative

  13. Socioeconomic disparity in cervical cancer screening among Korean women: 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer among Korean women and is one of the most preventable cancers in the world. This study aimed to investigate the change in cervical cancer screening rates, the level of socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening participation, and whether there was a reduction in these disparities between 1998 and 2010. Methods Using the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, women 30?years or older without a history of cervical cancer and who completed a health questionnaire, physical examination, and nutritional survey were included (n?=?17,105). Information about participation in cervical cancer screening was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer screening participation and the socioeconomic status of the women. Results The cervical cancer screening rate increased from 40.5% in 1998 to 52.5% in 2010. Socioeconomic disparities influenced participation, and women with lower educational levels and lower household income were less likely to be screened. Compared with the lowest educational level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for screening in women with the highest educational level were 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–2.30) in 1998, and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12–1.87) in 2010. Compared with women with the lowest household income level, the adjusted ORs for screening in women with the highest household income level were 1.80 (95% CI: 1.22–2.68), 2.82 (95% CI: 2.01–3.96), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.08–1.94) in 2001, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Conclusion Although population-wide progress has been made in participation in cervical cancer screening over the 12-year period, socioeconomic status remained an important factor in reducing compliance with cancer screening. PMID:23742100

  14. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research.

    PubMed

    Lörincz, Attila T

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the clinical utility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has increased over the years and has now become very convincing. Some specific uses of HPV detection are a) triage of women with cytological determinations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and related management strategies, b) as a marker for test of cure post-treatment, and c) most importantly, as an adjunct to cytology in routine cervical disease screening programs. There are many studies that support each of these applications and include 8 studies on ASC-US triage, 10 on test of cure and 13 on adjunctive or stand-alone HPV screening. The most notable investigation of ASC-US triage was ALTS, a randomized controlled trial of 3,488 women. With respect to routine HPV screening the combined studies included 77,000 women, providing as a histological endpoint more than 1,000 cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Testing methods were either the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. HPV testing of women with ASC-US cytology had on average a higher sensitivity (90%) and specificity (70%) than repeating the cytological test (sensitivity 75%, specificity 60%) and was also more sensitive than colposcopy for follow-up. As an adjunct to the Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology test in routine screening, HPV DNA testing was a more sensitive indicator for prevalent high-grade CIN than either conventional or liquid cytology. A combination of HPV DNA and Papanicolaou testing had almost 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The specificity of the combined tests was slightly lower than the specificity of the Papanicolaou test. One "double-negative" HPV DNA and Papanicolaou test indicated a higher prognostic assurance against risk of future CIN 3 than three subsequent negative conventional Papanicolaou tests and may safely allow three-year or longer screening intervals for such low-risk women. It appears that HPV DNA testing is on the way to becoming a common testing strategy in cervical cancer prevention programs. Research continues into approaches for improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of HPV detection methods. Hybrid Capture 3 will offer improved HPV typing capabilities and the Rapid Capture machine allows for robot-assisted HPV DNA testing, permitting greater test throughput. PCR test improvements are expected to contribute to the growth of flexible accurate and cost-effective HPV DNA tests. It is likely that improved diagnostic technology along with HPV genotyping and quantitation may provide more value in future. A particularly promising approach is to combine HPV DNA testing with expression levels of other markers such as proliferative or cell cycle regulatory proteins to subdivide HPV-positive women into those who are at greater risk of cancer and those who can be safely followed by screening at longer intervals. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14746031

  15. Survivorship: screening for cancer and treatment effects, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-11-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer and cancer treatment. This portion of the guidelines describes recommendations regarding screening for the effects of cancer and its treatment. The panel created a sample screening tool, specifically for use in combination with the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship, to guide providers to topics that require more in-depth assessment. Effective screening and assessment can help providers deliver necessary and comprehensive survivorship care. PMID:25361799

  16. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate colorectal cancer screening options for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Coldman, A.J.; Phillips, N.; Brisson, J.; Flanagan, W.; Wolfson, M.; Nadeau, C.; Fitzgerald, N.; Miller, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several screening methods for colorectal cancer (crc) are available, and some have been shown by randomized trials to be effective. In the present study, we used a well-developed population health simulation model to compare the risks and benefits of a variety of screening scenarios. Tests considered were the fecal occult blood test (fobt), the fecal immunochemical test (fit), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Outcomes considered included years of life gained, crc cases and deaths prevented, and direct health system costs. Methods A natural history model of crc was implemented and calibrated to specified targets within the framework of the Cancer Risk Management Model (crmm) from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. The crmm-crc permits users to enter their own parameter values or to use program-specified base values. For each of 23 screening scenarios, we used the crmm-crc to run 10 million replicate simulations. Results Using base parameter values and some user-specified values in the crmm-crc, and comparing our screening scenarios with no screening, all screening scenarios were found to reduce the incidence of and mortality from crc. The fobt was the least effective test; it was not associated with lower net cost. Colonoscopy screening was the most effective test; it had net costs comparable to those for several other strategies considered, but required more than 3 times the colonoscopy resources needed by other approaches. After colonoscopy, strategies based on the fit were predicted to be the most effective. In sensitivity analyses performed for the fobt and fit screening strategies, fobt parameter values associated with high-sensitivity formulations were associated with a substantial increase in test effectiveness. The fit was more cost-effective at the 50 ng/mL threshold than at the 100 ng/mL threshold. Conclusions The crmm-crc provides a sophisticated and flexible environment in which to evaluate crc control options. All screening scenarios considered in this study effectively reduced crc mortality, although sensitivity analyses demonstrated some uncertainty in the magnitude of the improvements. Where possible, local data should be used to reduce uncertainty in the parameters. PMID:25908920

  17. Factors Influencing Prostate Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Hargreaves

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions to get screened for prostate cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. It also examined obstacles to getting screened. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and screening

  18. Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening in Asian and Latina University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Pamela C.; Durvasula, Ramani S.

    2008-01-01

    Preventative screening in the form of clinical breast examinations remains among the best protections against breast cancer. Despite the benefits that regular examinations confer, many women fail to obtain screening tests. Because ethnic minority women are particularly unlikely to undergo regular screening, and experience increased mortality and…

  19. Decisional Stage Distribution for Colorectal Cancer Screening among Diverse, Low-Income Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening.…

  20. Clinical and Cost Implications of New Technologies for Cervical Cancer Screening: The Impact of Test Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha L. Hutchinson; Barry M. Berger; Fredric L. Farber

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare the available techniques for cervical cancer screening, including several new technologies, using actual program utilization patterns. Study Design: Longitudinal cohort model. Patients and Methods: The model followed a cohort of 100,000 women who underwent screening from age 20 through 65 years. The model was run with a weighted average of screening intervals to model the actual utilization

  1. Correlations between the mammographic features of screen detected invasive breast cancer and pathological prognostic factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. De Nunzio; A. J. Evans; S. E. Pinder; I. Davidson; A. R. M. Wilson; L. J. Yeoman; C. W. Elston; I. O. Ellis

    1997-01-01

    The success of any mammographic breast screening programme depends on the detection of carcinomas with overall good prognostic features. Knowledge of mammographic correlates of prognostic features would therefore be of interest. The screening mammograms of 212 patients with prevalent round screen detected invasive cancer were assessed by two radiologists without knowledge of tumour pathological prognostic indicators. The mammographic findings were

  2. Challenges and possible solutions to colorectal cancer screening for the underserved.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir; Sussman, Daniel A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Anderson, Daniel S; Day, Lukejohn; Deshpande, Amar R; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Mendez, Jeanette; Somsouk, Ma; Allison, James; Bhuket, Taft; Geng, Zhuo; Green, Beverly B; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates. We identify four key policy and research priorities to increase screening among underserved populations: 1) actively promote the message, "the best test is the one that gets done"; 2) develop and implement methods to identify unscreened individuals within underserved population groups for screening interventions; 3) develop and implement approaches for organized screening delivery; and 4) fund and enhance programs and policies that provide access to screening, diagnostic follow-up, and CRC treatment for underserved populations. This commentary represents the consensus of a diverse group of experts in cancer control and prevention, epidemiology, gastroenterology, and primary care from across the country who formed the Coalition to Boost Screening among the Underserved in the United States. The group was organized and held its first annual working group meeting in conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization's annual Colorectal Cancer Screening Committee meeting during Digestive Disease Week 2012 in San Diego, California. PMID:24681602

  3. Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas B; White, Mary C; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and its implications for primary care providers. One of the unique features of lung cancer screening is the potential complexity in patient management if an LDCT scan reveals a small pulmonary nodule. Additional tests, consultation with multiple specialists, and follow-up evaluations may be needed to evaluate whether lung cancer is present. Primary care providers should know the resources available in their communities for lung cancer screening with LDCT and smoking cessation, and the key points to be addressed in informed and shared decision-making discussions with patients. PMID:24830610

  4. Screening for Prostate Cancer-Beyond Total PSA, Utilization of Novel Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Todd; Palapattu, Ganesh; Wei, John

    2015-09-01

    Urology has been beset by several major trends that have shifted the entire paradigm for prostate cancer screening. These stem from a backlash against overdiagnosis and overtreatment due to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening efforts and have led national societies to modify their guidelines. More importantly, the public outcry has shifted the focus of early detection from an effort to diagnose any and all prostate cancers to an effort to diagnose clinically significant prostate cancers at an early stage. This review provides an update on contemporary biomarkers for prostate cancer that may be used to supplement PSA-based screening approaches. PMID:26169584

  5. Mutational Screening of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1 from Early Onset, Bilateral, and Familial Breast Cancer Patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-Tung Chen; Ruei-A Chen; Shou-Jen Kuo; Yi-Chih Chien

    2003-01-01

    The BRCA1 gene has been shown to be strongly associated with the occurrence of familial breast cancer. The spectrum of BRCA1 gene mutations in breast cancer patients in various populations has been investigated. In this study, patients in Central Taiwan with breast cancer were screened for BRCA1 mutations by sequencing PCR products spanning the coding region and partial intronic regions

  6. The benefit and burden of cancer screening in li-fraumeni syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Ami P; Bale, Allen; Lovick, Niki; Zuckerman, Kaye; Deshpande, Hari; Rath, Kristina; Schwartz, Peter; Hofstatter, Erin W

    2015-06-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare cancer predisposition syndrome classically associated with remarkably early onset of cancer in families with a typical spectrum of malignancies, including sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinoma. Because the risks of cancer development are strikingly high for Li-Fraumeni syndrome, aggressive cancer surveillance is often pursued in these individuals. However, optimal screening methods and intervals for Li-Fraumeni syndrome have yet to be determined. In addition, there may be a significant psychosocial burden to intensive cancer surveillance and some prevention modalities. Here, we describe a case of a young woman with a de novo mutation in TP53 and multiple malignancies, with her most recent cancers found at early, curable stages due to aggressive cancer screening. The potential benefits and risks of intensive cancer surveillance in hereditary cancer syndromes is discussed. PMID:26029016

  7. The Benefit and Burden of Cancer Screening in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Ami P.; Bale, Allen; Lovick, Niki; Zuckerman, Kaye; Deshpande, Hari; Rath, Kristina; Schwartz, Peter; Hofstatter, Erin W.

    2015-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare cancer predisposition syndrome classically associated with remarkably early onset of cancer in families with a typical spectrum of malignancies, including sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinoma. Because the risks of cancer development are strikingly high for Li-Fraumeni syndrome, aggressive cancer surveillance is often pursued in these individuals. However, optimal screening methods and intervals for Li-Fraumeni syndrome have yet to be determined. In addition, there may be a significant psychosocial burden to intensive cancer surveillance and some prevention modalities. Here, we describe a case of a young woman with a de novo mutation in TP53 and multiple malignancies, with her most recent cancers found at early, curable stages due to aggressive cancer screening. The potential benefits and risks of intensive cancer surveillance in hereditary cancer syndromes is discussed. PMID:26029016

  8. The role of acculturation and collectivism in cancer screening for Vietnamese American women.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between collectivism and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 111 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area, who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, collectivism, acculturation, and cancer-screening-related variables (i.e., attitudes, self-efficacy, and screening behavior). Findings indicated that collectivism predicted both positive attitudes and higher levels of self-efficacy with regard to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collectivism also moderated the relationship between acculturation and attitudes toward breast cancer screening such that for women with low levels of collectivistic orientation, increasing acculturation predicted less positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening. This relationship was not found for women with high levels of collectivistic orientation. The current findings highlight the important roles that sociodemographic and cultural variables play in affecting health attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior among Vietnamese women. The findings potentially inform screening programs that rely on culturally relevant values in helping increase Vietnamese women's motivation to screen. PMID:24313445

  9. Adherence to colorectal cancer and polyps screening recommendations among filipino-americans.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Dorilyn; Rankin, Larry; Kim, Son Chae

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the perceptions and behaviors toward colorectal cancer screening and the predictors of adherence to colorectal cancer and polyps screening recommendations among Filipino-Americans. A total of 188 participants were recruited from community churches in southern California from September to November 2011. About half of the participants were found to be adherent to the screening recommendations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following significant predictors of adherence: having a relative with colon or rectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 6.17), having heard of fecal occult blood test (OR = 4.58), strong agreement with benefit of screening in reducing worry about cancer (OR = 2.81), age ? 65 years (OR = 2.64) and very easy communication with providers (OR = 2.43). Patient awareness of colorectal cancer screening and its benefits through effective patient-provider communication were significant modifiable predictors of adherence to colorectal cancer and polyps screening recommendations. Nurses could have a major impact in improving screening behaviors through patient education in increasing patient awareness and benefits of cancer screening. PMID:25461460

  10. The utility of Google Trends data to examine interest in cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, M; Toor, A; Cavazos-Rehg, P; Jeffe, D B; McQueen, A; Eberth, J; Davidson, N O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the utility of January 2004 to April 2014 Google Trends data from information searches for cancer screenings and preparations as a complement to population screening data, which are traditionally estimated through costly population-level surveys. Setting State-level data across the USA. Participants Persons who searched for terms related to cancer screening using Google, and persons who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Primary and secondary outcome measures (1) State-level Google Trends data, providing relative search volume (RSV) data scaled to the highest search proportion per week (RSV100) for search terms over time since 2004 and across different geographical locations. (2) RSV of new screening tests, free/low-cost screening for breast and colorectal cancer, and new preparations for colonoscopy (Prepopik). (3) State-level breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer screening rates. Results Correlations between Google Trends and BRFSS data ranged from 0.55 for ever having had a colonoscopy to 0.14 for having a Pap smear within the past 3?years. Free/low-cost mammography and colonoscopy showed higher RSV during their respective cancer awareness months. RSV for Miralax remained stable, while interest in Prepopik increased over time. RSV for lung cancer screening, virtual colonoscopy and three-dimensional mammography was low. Conclusions Google Trends data provides enormous scientific possibilities, but are not a suitable substitute for, but may complement, traditional data collection and analysis about cancer screening and related interests. PMID:26056120

  11. Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Myrhøj; M.-B. Andersen; I. Bernstein

    2008-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate if Urine Cytology (UC) is an appropriate screening procedure for detecting urinary\\u000a tract neoplasia at an early stage in persons at risk in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer families. Method In the National Danish HNPCC-register persons at risk were identified in three categories of HNPCC-families (1) families harbouring\\u000a a disease causing mutation

  12. Breast cancer screening: emerging role of new imaging techniques as adjuncts to mammography.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lord, Sarah J; Ciatto, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    Early detection of breast cancer has been shown to reduce breast cancer deaths in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mammography in women aged 50-69 years, with weaker evidence of benefit in those aged 40-49 or 70 years and older. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography have been evaluated in breast cancer screening, relative to, or in addition to, mammography, in selected populations; neither test has been examined in an RCT, and thus evidence of associated screening benefit is uncertain. MRI is more sensitive than mammography in screening women with suspected or proven inherited mutations of the breast cancer genes. The addition of MRI in screening this population detects 8-24 additional cancers per 1000 screens, but also significantly increases a woman's risk of being recalled for investigation or surgical biopsy for false-positive findings. In Australia, Medicare funding for MRI screening of women in specific risk groups was announced in February 2009. Ultrasonography can detect cancers not identified on mammography in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue. Incremental ultrasound cancer detection is reported in 0.27%-0.46% of women with mammography-negative dense breasts; evidence varies on its association with false-positive findings. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is a complementary tool to mammography, prompting the reader to consider lesions on the mammogram that may represent cancer. Emerging evidence and improved CAD technology are likely to help define its role in breast screening. PMID:19413520

  13. Recruitment methods employed in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Gren; Karen Broski; Jeffery Childs; Jill Cordes; Deborah Engelhard; Betsy Gahagan; Eduard Gamito; Vivien Gardner; Mindy Geisser; Darlene Higgins; Victoria Jenkins; Lois Lamerato; Karen Lappe; Heidi Lowery; Colleen McGuire; Mollie Miedzinski; Sheryl Ogden; Sally Tenorio; Gavin Watt; Bonita Wohlers; Pamela Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Background The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) is a US National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate whether certain screening tests reduce mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. To obtain adequate statistical power, it was necessary to enroll over 150,000 healthy volunteers. Recruitment began in 1993 and ended in 2001.Purpose Our

  14. Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  15. Client-Directed Interventions to Increase Community Access to Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy C. Baron; Barbara K. Rimer; Ralph J. Coates; Jon Kerner; Geetika P. Kalra; Stephanie Melillo; Nancy Habarta; Katherine M. Wilson; Sajal Chattopadhyay; Kimberly Leeks

    2008-01-01

    Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effective- ness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation,

  16. Use of mobile telemedicine for cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Quinley, Kelly E; Gormley, Rachel H; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Shih, Ting; Szep, Zsofia; Steiner, Ann; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2013-01-01

    Summary Visual inspection of the cervix with application of 4% acetic acid (VIA) is an inexpensive alternative to cytology-based screening in areas where resources are limited, such as in many developing countries. We have examined the diagnostic agreement between off-site (remote) expert diagnosis using photographs of the cervix (photographic inspection with acetic acid, PIA) and in-person VIA. The images for remote evaluation were taken with a mobile phone and transmitted by MMS. The study population consisted of 95 HIV-positive women in Gaborone, Botswana. An expert gynaecologist made a definitive positive or negative reading on the PIA results of 64 out of the 95 women whose PIA images were also read by the nurse midwives. The remaining 31 PIA images were deemed insufficient in quality for a reading by the expert gynaecologist. The positive nurse PIA readings were concordant with the positive expert PIA readings in 82% of cases, and the negative PIA readings between the two groups were fully concordant in 89% of cases. These results suggest that mobile telemedicine may be useful to improve access of women in remote areas to cervical cancer screening utilizing the VIA `see-and-treat' method. PMID:21551217

  17. Program Spending to Increase Adherence: South African Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Denny, Lynette A.; De Souza, Michelle; Kuhn, Louise; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Adherence is crucial for public health program effectiveness, though the benefits of increasing adherence must ultimately be weighed against the associated costs. We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW) home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an observational study of 5,258 CHW home visits made in 2003–4 as part of a community-based screening program. We estimated the functional relationship between spending on these visits and increased appointment attendance (adherence). Increased adherence was noted after each subsequent CHW visit. The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand. The CHW program cost R194,018, with 1,576 additional appointments attended. Adherence increased from 74% to 90%; 55% to 87%; 48% to 77%; and 56% to 80% for 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month appointments. Average per-woman costs increased by R14–R47. The majority of this increase occurred with the first 2 CHW visits (90%, 83%, 74%, and 77%; additional cost: R12–R26). Conclusions/Significance We found that study data can be used for program planning, identifying spending levels that achieve adherence targets given budgetary constraints. The results, derived from a single disease program, are retrospective, and should be prospectively replicated. PMID:19492097

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practice toward cervical cancer screening among Sikkimese nursing staff in India

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hafizur; Kar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess baseline knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear screening among Sikkimese staff nurses in India. Materials and Methods: Between April 2012 and February 2013, a predesigned, pretested, self -administered multiple responses questionnaire survey was conducted among staff nurses’ working in various hospitals of Sikkim. Questionnaire contained information about their demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening methods, attitudes toward cervical cancer screening and practice of Pap smear amongst themselves. Results: Overall, 90.4% nurses responded that they were aware of cancer cervix. Three quarter of the staff nurses were not aware of commonest site being cancer cervix in women. Of the 320 participants, who had heard of cancer cervix, 253 (79.1%) were aware of cancer cervix screening. Pap smear screening should start at 21 years or 3 years after sexual debut was known to only one-third of the nursing staff. Age was found to be a significant predictor of awareness of Pap smear screening among nursing staff. Awareness was significantly more prevalent among older staff (P < 0.007). Married nursing staffs were significantly more likely to be aware of screening methods, and nursing staff of Christian and Buddhist religion were 1.25 times and 2.03 times more likely to aware of screening methods than Hindu religion respectively. Only 16.6% nurses, who were aware of a Pap smear (11.9% of the total sample), had ever undergone a Pap smear test. Most common reason offered for not undergoing Pap smear test were, they felt they were not at risk (41%), uncomfortable pelvic examination (25%) and fear of a bad result (16.6%). Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear was low among Sikkimese nursing staff in India. There is an urgent need for re-orientation course for working nurses and integration of cervical cancer prevention issues in the nurses’ existing curriculum in India and other developing countries.

  19. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  20. Psychosocial consequences of allocation to lung cancer screening: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggestrup, Louise Mosborg; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Siersma, Volkert; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the psychosocial consequences of being allocated to the control group as compared with the screen group in a randomised lung cancer screening trial. Method The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, a randomised controlled trial, ran from 2004 to 2010 with the purpose of investigating the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening. The participants in Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were randomised to either the control group or the screen group and were asked to complete the questionnaires Consequences Of Screening and Consequences Of Screening in Lung Cancer (COS-LC). The Consequences Of Screening and the COS-LC were used to examine the psychosocial consequences of participating in the study, by comparing the control and the screen groups' responses at the prevalence and at the incidence round. Results There was no statistically significant difference in socio-demographic characteristics or smoking habits between the two groups. Responses to the COS-LC collected before the incidence round were statistically significantly different on the scales ‘anxiety’, ‘behaviour’, ‘dejection’, ‘self-blame’, ‘focus on airway symptoms’ and ‘introvert’, with the control group reporting higher negative psychosocial consequences. Furthermore, the participants in both the control and the screen groups exhibited a mean increase in negative psychosocial consequences when their responses from the prevalence round were compared with their responses from the first incidence round. Conclusions Participation in a randomised controlled trial on lung cancer screening has negative psychosocial consequences for the apparently healthy participants—both the participants in the screen group and the control group. This negative impact was greatest for the control group. PMID:22382119

  1. High Prevalence of Screen Detected Prostate Cancer in West Africans: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Ann W.; Yeboah, Edward; Biritwum, Richard; Tettey, Yao; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Adjei, Andrew; Netto, George J.; Yu, Kai; Li, Yan; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Chia, David; Partin, Alan; Thompson, Ian M.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Niwa, Shelley; Tarone, Robert; Hoover, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana. Materials and Methods We randomly selected 1,037 healthy men 50 to 74 years old from Accra, Ghana for prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. Men with a positive screen result (positive digital rectal examination or prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml) underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies. Results Of the 1,037 men 154 (14.9%) had a positive digital rectal examination and 272 (26.2%) had prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml, including 166 with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. A total of 352 men (33.9%) had a positive screen by prostate specific antigen or digital rectal examination and 307 (87%) underwent biopsy. Of these men 73 were confirmed to have prostate cancer, yielding a 7.0% screen detected prostate cancer prevalence (65 patients), including 5.8% with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. Conclusions In this relatively unscreened population in Africa the screen detected prostate cancer prevalence is high, suggesting a possible role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology and the disparity in prostate cancer risk between black and white American men. Further studies are needed to confirm the high prostate cancer burden in African men and the role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:24747091

  2. Thermography--a feasible method for screening breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Kolari?, Darko; Herceg, Zeljko; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Ramljak, Vesna; Kulis, Tomislav; Holjevac, Jadranka Katanci?; Deutsch, Judith A; Antonini, Svetlana

    2013-06-01

    Potential use of thermography for more effective detection of breast carcinoma was evaluated on 26 patients scheduled for breast carcinoma surgery. Ultrasonographic scan, mammography and thermography were performed at the University Hospital for Tumors. Thermographic imaging was performed using a new generation of digital thermal cameras with high sensitivity and resolution (ThermoTracer TH7102WL, NEC). Five images for each patient were recorded: front, right semi-oblique, right oblique, left- semi oblique and left oblique. While mammography detected 31 changes in 26 patients, thermography was more sensitive and detected 6 more changes in the same patients. All 37 changes were subjected to the cytological analysis and it was found that 16 of samples were malignant, 8 were suspected malignant and 11 were benign with atypia or proliferation while only 2 samples had benign findings. The pathohistological method (PHD) recorded 75.75% malignant changes within the total number of samples. Statistical analysis of the data has shown a probability of a correct mammographic finding in 85% of the cases (sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 84%) and a probability of a correct thermographic finding in 92% of the cases (sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 79%). As breast cancer remains the most prevalent cancer in women and thermography exhibited superior sensitivity, we believe that thermography should immediately find its place in the screening programs for early detection of breast carcinoma, in order to reduce the sufferings from this devastating disease. PMID:23941007

  3. Barbershop Communications on Prostate Cancer Screening Using Barber Health Advisers

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Rivers, Brian M.; Gwede, Clement K.; Kambon, Maisha; Green, B. Lee; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors report the outcomes of a community-based, barber health adviser pilot intervention that aims to develop customized educational materials to promote knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer (CaP) and informed decision making about prostate cancer screening (PCS) among a predominantly African American clientele. Method First, the authors implemented a series of learner verification processes with barbershop clients (n = 15) to adapt existing CaP health promotion materials. Following intervention implementation in the barbershop, they conducted structured surveys with barbershop clients (n = 40) to evaluate the intervention. Results Findings from the posttest showed both a significant increase in barbershop clients' self-reported knowledge of CaP and in the likelihood of discussing PCS with a health care provider (p < .001). The client's cultural model of CaP risk factors revealed cultural consensus (eigenratio = 3.3) and mirrored the biomedical model. All clients surveyed reported positively on the contents of the educational materials, and more than half (53%) had discussed CaP at least twice with their barber in the last month. Conclusion Based on the pilot results, the barber-administered intervention was an appropriate and viable communication channel for promoting CaP knowledge and awareness in a priority population, African American men. PMID:20413392

  4. Studies comparing screen-film mammography and full-field digital mammography in breast cancer screening: updated review.

    PubMed

    Skaane, P

    2009-01-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) has several potential benefits as compared with screen-film mammography (SFM) in mammography screening. Digital technology also opens for implementation of advanced applications, including computer-aided detection (CAD) and tomosynthesis. Phantom studies and experimental clinical studies have shown that FFDM is equal or slightly superior to SFM for detection and characterization of mammographic abnormalities. Despite obvious advantages, the conversion to digital mammography has been slower than anticipated, and not only due to higher costs. Until very recently, some countries did not even permit the use of digital mammography in breast cancer screening. The reason for this reluctant attitude was concern about lower spatial resolution and about using soft-copy reading. Furthermore, there was a lack of data supporting improved diagnostic accuracy using FFDM in a screening setting, since two pioneer trials both showed nonsignificantly lower cancer detection rate at FFDM. The 10 studies comparing FFDM and SFM in mammography screening published so far have shown divergent and rather conflicting results. Nevertheless, there is a rapid conversion to digital mammography in breast cancer screening in many western countries. The aim of this article is to give an updated review of these studies, discuss the conflicting findings, and draw some conclusions from the results. PMID:19037825

  5. Cancer-Related Risk Indicators and Preventive Screening Behaviors Among Lesbians and Bisexual Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Cochran; Vickie M. Mays; Deborah Bowen; Suzann Gage; Deborah Bybee; Susan J. Roberts; Robert S. Goldstein; Elizabeth J. Rankow; Jocelyn White

    Objectives. This study examined whether lesbians are at increased risk for certain cancers as a result of an accu- mulation of behavioral risk factors and difficulties in accessing health care. Methods. Prevalence estimates of behavioral risk factors (nulliparity, obe- sity, smoking, and alcohol use), cancer screening behaviors, and self-reported breast cancer histories derived from 7 in- dependently conducted surveys of

  6. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Atul Madhukar Budukh; Rajamanickam Rajkumar

    2001-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes — either organized or opportunistic — have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in

  7. Psychological and Screening Profiles of First-Degree Relatives of Prostate Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne M. Miller; Michael A. Diefenbach; Linda K. Kruus; Deborah Watkins-Bruner; Gerald E. Hanks; Paul F. Engstrom

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to systematically compare the psychological and screening profiles of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of prostate cancer patients versus non-FDRs. FDRs (n = 56) and non-FDRs (n = 100), recruited through prostate cancer index cases and newspaper advertisements, completed questionnaires via mail. FDRs reported feeling at greater risk for prostate cancer, estimated that they were

  8. Colon Cancer: Prevalence, Screening, Gene Expression and Mutation, and Risk Factors and Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid E. Ahmed

    2003-01-01

    Colon cancer detection at an early stage and identifying susceptible individuals can result in reduced mortality from this prevalent cancer. Genetic events leading to the development of this cancer involve a multistage progression of adenoma polyps to invasive metastatic carcinomas. Currently, there is no satisfactory screening method that is highly specific, sensitive, or reliable. Dietary patterns associated with the greatest

  9. Lung cancer screening, version 1.2015: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Douglas E; Kazerooni, Ella; Baum, Scott L; Dransfield, Mark T; Eapen, George A; Ettinger, David S; Hou, Lifang; Jackman, David M; Klippenstein, Donald; Kumar, Rohit; Lackner, Rudy P; Leard, Lorriana E; Leung, Ann N C; Makani, Samir S; Massion, Pierre P; Meyers, Bryan F; Otterson, Gregory A; Peairs, Kimberly; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Pratt-Pozo, Christie; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Reid, Mary E; Rotter, Arnold J; Sachs, Peter B; Schabath, Matthew B; Sequist, Lecia V; Tong, Betty C; Travis, William D; Yang, Stephen C; Gregory, Kristina M; Hughes, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Lung Cancer Screening provide recommendations for selecting individuals for lung cancer screening, and for evaluation and follow-up of nodules found during screening, and are intended to assist with clinical and shared decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates to the 2015 NCCN Guidelines for Lung Cancer Screening, which include a revision to the recommendation from category 2B to 2A for one of the high-risk groups eligible for lung cancer screening. For low-dose CT of the lung, the recommended slice width was revised in the table on "Low-Dose Computed Tomography Acquisition, Storage, Interpretation, and Nodule Reporting." PMID:25583767

  10. Understanding patient options, utilization patterns, and burdens associated with breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Susan C; Vegesna, Ashok; Mass, Sharon; Clarke, Janice; Skoufalos, Alexandria

    2014-09-01

    Despite ongoing awareness, educational campaigns, and advances in technology, breast cancer screening remains a complex topic for women and for the health care system. Lack of consensus among organizations developing screening guidelines has caused confusion for patients and providers. The psychosocial factors related to breast cancer screening are not well understood. The prevailing algorithm for screening results in significant rates of patient recall for further diagnostic imaging or procedures, the majority of which rule out breast cancer rather than confirming it. For women, the consequences of the status quo range from unnecessary stress to additional out-of-pocket expenses to indirect costs that are more difficult to quantify. A more thoughtful approach to breast cancer screening, coupled with a research agenda that recognizes the indirect and intangible costs that women bear, is needed to improve cost and quality outcomes in this area. PMID:25247383

  11. An object lesson: source determines the relations that trait anxiety, prostate cancer worry, and screening fear hold with prostate screening frequency.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Adjei, Brenda A; Ramirez, Paul M; McKiernan, James M

    2008-07-01

    Fears regarding prostate cancer and the associated screening are widespread. However, the relations between anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear and screening behavior are complex, because anxieties stemming from different sources have different effects on behavior. In differentiating among anxieties from different sources (trait anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear), we expected that cancer worry would be associated with more frequent screening, whereas fear of screening would be associated with less frequent screening. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 533 men (ages 45-70 years) recruited using a stratified cluster-sampling plan. Men provided information on demographic and structural variables (age, education, income, marital status, physician discussion of risk and screening, access, and insurance) and completed a set of anxiety measures (trait anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear). As expected, two-step multiple regressions controlling for demographics, health insurance status, physician discussion, and health-care system barriers showed that prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination frequencies had unique associations with cancer worry and screening fear. Specifically, whereas cancer worry was associated with more frequent screening, fear of screening was associated with less frequent screening at least for digital rectal examination; trait anxiety was inconsistently related to screening. Data are discussed in terms of their implications for male screening and the understanding of how anxiety motivates health behaviors. It is suggested that understanding the source of anxiety and the manner in which health behaviors such as cancer screenings may enhance or reduce felt anxiety is a likely key to understanding the associations between anxiety and behavioral outcomes. PMID:18628414

  12. The importance of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Wood, Douglas E

    2014-12-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial has provided convincing evidence of a substantial mortality benefit of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) for current and former smokers at high risk. The United States Preventive Services Task Force has recommended screening, triggering coverage of low-dose CT by private health insurers under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) are currently evaluating coverage of lung cancer screening for Medicare beneficiaries. Since 70% of lung cancer occurs in patients 65 years or older, CMS should cover low-dose CT, thus avoiding the situation of at-risk patients being screened up to age 64 through private insurers and then abruptly ceasing screening at exactly the ages when their risk for developing lung cancer is increasing. Legitimate concerns include false-positive findings that lead to further testing and invasive procedures, overdiagnosis (detection of clinically unimportant cancers), the morbidity and mortality of surgery, and the overall costs of follow-up tests and procedures. These concerns can be mitigated by clear criteria for screening high-risk patients, disciplined management of abnormalities based on algorithms, and high-quality multidisciplinary care. Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can lead to early diagnosis and cure for thousands of patients each year. Professional societies can help CMS responsibly implement a program that is patient-centered and minimizes unintended harms and costs. PMID:25317992

  13. Ability of community-based prostate cancer screening to target an appropriate and underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jared; Heidel, Eric; Johnson, Jason; Powell, Chase; Dittrich, Erin; Rawn, Susan; Terry, Paul D; Goldman, Mitchell; Waters, W Bedford; White, Wesley M

    2015-01-01

    Screening is not universally beneficial due to over- and under-diagnosis, and false positives that beget additional testing and associated adverse events and expense. We examined data from all men who participated in a mass community prostate cancer screening between May 2009 and September 2010. The data contained information regarding patient demographics, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract symptoms, prior history of prostate cancer, most recent digital rectal examination, and the presence of an established relationship with a physician. Current American Urological Association screening recommendations were then applied to determine the appropriateness of our outreach effort. A total of 438 men (mean age 66.5 years) underwent screening. A total of 106 (24.2%) patients in our study met contemporary criteria for screening. Of these men, the vast majority was well educated, well insured, and well informed about the need for prostate cancer screening. Based on these data, mass community-based prostate cancer screening does not appear to identify and screen at-risk men. Future efforts at mass screening should more carefully target men most likely to benefit.

  14. Time to benefit for colorectal cancer screening: survival meta-analysis of flexible sigmoidoscopy trials

    PubMed Central

    Boscardin, W John; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Lee, Sei J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the time to benefit of using flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Design Survival meta-analysis. Data sources A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review published in 2013, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing screening flexible sigmoidoscopy with no screening. Trials with fewer than 100 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings were excluded. Results Four studies were eligible (total n=459?814). They were similar for patients’ age (50-74 years), length of follow-up (11.2-11.9 years), and relative risk for colorectal cancer related mortality (0.69-0.78 with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening). For every 1000 people screened at five and 10 years, 0.3 and 1.2 colorectal cancer related deaths, respectively, were prevented. It took 4.3 years (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 5.8) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.0002 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 5000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). It took 9.4 years (7.6 to 11.3) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.001 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 1000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). Conclusion Our findings suggest that screening flexible sigmoidoscopy is most appropriate for older adults with a life expectancy greater than approximately 10 years. PMID:25881903

  15. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Ricciardi, Alessandro; Cohet, Catherine; Palazzo, Fabio; Furnari, Giacomo; Valle, Sabrina; Largeron, Nathalie; Federici, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively). Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening. PMID:19243586

  16. Incidence of prostate cancer in male breast cancer patients: a risk factor for prostate cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U J Lee; J S Jones

    2009-01-01

    Synchronous or metachronous occurrences of both prostate cancer and male breast cancer are rarely reported, but provide insight into their hormonal and genetic biology. We sought to determine the incidence of prostate cancer in male breast cancer patients at our institution, and to examine estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2\\/neu receptor (HR) status in these patients. A retrospective

  17. The impact of screening on colorectal cancer mortality and incidence: has it really made a difference?

    PubMed

    Zauber, Ann G

    2015-03-01

    About sixty percent of the US population of those age fifty and older are currently up to date with colorectal cancer screening recommendations. Has this level of screening made a difference for reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and/or mortality? Randomized controlled trials of guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests, which have relatively low sensitivity but high specificity for CRC, have shown a modest effect but with a long-term reduction in CRC mortality. Newer fecal immunochemical tests are expected to have a greater effect. Randomized controlled trials of flexible sigmoidoscopy have also demonstrated a reduction in CRC mortality. Observational studies of screening colonoscopy suggest an effect of greater than fifty percent reduction in CRC mortality. We have assessed past trends of colorectal cancer screening in the US population which suggest that more than fifty percent of the decline in colorectal cancer mortality can be attributed to the increased acceptance and uptake in colorectal cancer screening. Current and future levels of increased screening could provide for even larger reductions for the USA. Colorectal cancer screening has and will continue to make a significant impact on reducing colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:25740556

  18. Effectiveness of the public health policy for breast cancer screening in Finland: population based cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Hakama, M.; Pukkala, E.; Heikkilä, M.; Kallio, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of screening for breast cancer as a public health policy. DESIGN: Follow up in 1987-92 of Finnish women invited to join the screening programme in 1987-9 and of the control women (balanced by age and matched by municipality of residence), who were not invited to the service screening. SETTING: Finland. SUBJECTS: Of the Finnish women born in 1927-39, 89893 women invited for screening and 68862 controls were followed; 1584 breast cancers were diagnosed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio of deaths from breast cancer among the women invited for screening to deaths among those not invited. RESULTS: There were 385 deaths from breast cancer, of which 127 were among the 1584 incident cases in 1987-92. The rate ratio of death was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 1.09). The effect was larger and significant (0.56; 0.33 to 0.95) among women aged under 56 years at entry. 20 cancers were prevented (one death prevented per 10000 screens). CONCLUSIONS: A breast screening programme can achieve a similar effect on mortality as achieved by the trials for breast cancer screening. However, it may be difficult to justify a screening programme as a public health policy on the basis of the mortality reduction only. Whether to run a screening programme as a public health policy also depends on its effects on the quality of life of the target population and what the resources would be used for if screening was not done. Given all the different dimensions in the effect, mammography based breast screening is probably justifiable as a public health policy. PMID:9093096

  19. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and Its Associated Research Resource

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large-scale research effort conducted by the National Cancer Institute. PLCO offers an example of coordinated research by both the extramural and intramural communities of the National Institutes of Health. The purpose of this article is to describe the PLCO research resource and how it is managed and to assess the productivity and the costs associated with this resource. Such an in-depth analysis of a single large-scale project can shed light on questions such as how large-scale projects should be managed, what metrics should be used to assess productivity, and how costs can be compared with productivity metrics. A comprehensive publication analysis identified 335 primary research publications resulting from research using PLCO data and biospecimens from 2000 to 2012. By the end of 2012, a total of 9679 citations (excluding self-citations) have resulted from this body of research publications, with an average of 29.7 citations per article, and an h index of 45, which is comparable with other large-scale studies, such as the Nurses’ Health Study. In terms of impact on public health, PLCO trial results have been used by the US Preventive Services Task Force in making recommendations concerning prostate and ovarian cancer screening. The overall cost of PLCO was $454 million over 20 years, adjusted to 2011 dollars, with approximately $37 million for the collection, processing, and storage of biospecimens, including blood samples, buccal cells, and pathology tissues. PMID:24115361

  20. REPEAT SCREENING FOR PROSTATE CANCER AFTER 1YEAR FOLLOWUP IN 984 BIOPSIED MEN: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF DETECTED CANCER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN B. W. RIETBERGEN; ARTO E. BOEKEN KRUGER; ROBERT F. HOEDEMAEKER; CHRIS H. BANGMA; WIM J. KIRKELS; FRITZ H. SCHRODER

    1998-01-01

    PurposeWe describe the yield of a repeat examination and biopsy procedure 1 year after initial biopsy was negative. We also assessed the parameters responsible for the failure to diagnose these cancers at the primary screening.

  1. Colorectal cancer screening using the faecal occult blood test (FOBt): a survey of GP attitudes and practices in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Damery; Sue Clifford; Sue Wilson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK. Five-year survival rates are less than 50%, largely because of late diagnosis. Screening using faecal occult blood tests (FOBt) can detect bowel cancer at an earlier stage than symptomatic presentation, and has the potential to significantly decrease colorectal cancer mortality. However, uptake of screening is currently low,

  2. Outcome in patients with lung cancer found on lung cancer mass screening roentgenograms, but who did not subsequently consult a doctor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosuke Kashiwabara; Syu-ichi Koshi; Kotaro Itonaga; Osamu Nakahara; Makoto Tanaka; Masakazu Toyonaga

    2003-01-01

    Goals of the study: To evaluate the outcome in patients with lung cancer found on lung cancer mass screening roentgenograms, but who did not subsequently consult a doctor. Patients and Methods: This study enrolled 198 asymptomatic patients with lung cancer found by lung cancer mass screening during the 9-year period. Five-year survival rates in patients who did not consult a

  3. Current estimate of costs of lung cancer screening in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mauchley, David C; Mitchell, John D

    2015-05-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recently endorsed the use of low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer screening in high-risk patients because of the potential to reduce deaths. Before implementation on a national level, it will be important to ensure that a safe, high-quality, and accessible service can be adequately provided. It will also be important to make sure that screening is cost-effective. This article summarizes the published analyses of lung cancer screening cost, provides a contemporary estimation of the annual cost of screening in the United States, and identifies areas for improvement in the future. PMID:25901564

  4. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: prognostic findings of two subsequent screening rounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Postma

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is nowadays the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the Western world. Since the introduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in the last decade, prostate cancer incidence increased dramatically. In addition, the population is aging, and prostate cancer incidence increases with higher age. The dilemma of prostate cancer is that more men die with prostate cancer

  5. Panel Calls for Reducing Colorectal Cancer Deaths by Striking Down Barriers to Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other types of cancer, particularly breast and cervical. Although the screening rates in the target population--adults over age 50--have increased from 20-30 percent in 1997 to nearly 55 percetn in 2008--the rates are still too low. An NIH state-of-the-science panel was convened this week to identify ways to further increase the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening in the United States.

  6. Live Multicellular Tumor Spheroid Models For High-Content Imaging and Screening In Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian G.; Jerjian, Taleen; Patel, Purvi; Zhou, Qiong; Yoo, Byong Hoon; Kabos, Peter; Sartorius, Carol A.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    The multi cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model has been used for decades with proven superiority over monolayer cell culture models at recapitulating in vivo tumor growth. Yet its use in high-throughput drug discovery has been limited, particularly with image based screening, due to practical and technical hurdles. Here we report a significant advance in utilizing live MCTS models for high-content image based drug discovery. Using a validated GFP reporter (CK5Pro-GFP) of luminal breast cancer stem cells (CSC), we developed an algorithm to quantify changes in CK5Pro-GFP expression levels for individual Z-stack planes (local) or as maximal projections of the summed Z-stacks (global) of MCTS. From these image sets, we can quantify the cross-sectional area of GFP positive cells, the fluorescence intensity of the GFP positive cells, and the percent of spheroid cross-sectional area that expresses CK5Pro-GFP.We demonstrate that acquiring data in this manner can be done in real time and is statistically robust (Z’=0.85) for use in primary high-content screening cancer drug discovery. PMID:24596682

  7. Live multicellular tumor spheroid models for high-content imaging and screening in cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brian G; Jerjian, Taleen; Patel, Purvi; Zhou, Qiong; Yoo, Byong Hoon; Kabos, Peter; Sartorius, Carol A; Labarbera, Daniel V

    2014-01-01

    The multi cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model has been used for decades with proven superiority over monolayer cell culture models at recapitulating in vivo tumor growth. Yet its use in high-throughput drug discovery has been limited, particularly with image based screening, due to practical and technical hurdles. Here we report a significant advance in utilizing live MCTS models for high-content image based drug discovery. Using a validated GFP reporter (CK5Pro-GFP) of luminal breast cancer stem cells (CSC), we developed an algorithm to quantify changes in CK5Pro-GFP expression levels for individual Z-stack planes (local) or as maximal projections of the summed Z-stacks (global) of MCTS. From these image sets, we can quantify the cross-sectional area of GFP positive cells, the fluorescence intensity of the GFP positive cells, and the percent of spheroid cross-sectional area that expresses CK5Pro-GFP.We demonstrate that acquiring data in this manner can be done in real time and is statistically robust (Z'=0.85) for use in primary high-content screening cancer drug discovery. PMID:24596682

  8. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  9. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-02-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models. PMID:24153450

  10. Gender differences in correlates of colorectal cancer screening among black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Kathryn A.; Pollack, Craig E.; Phelan, Darcy F.; Markakis, Diane; Bone, Lee; Shapiro, Gary; Wenzel, Jennifer; Howerton, Mollie; Johnson, Lawrence; Garza, Mary A.; Ford, Jean G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities by gender. Little research has focused primarily on gender differences among older black individuals, and reasons for existing gender differences remain poorly understood. Methods We used baseline data from the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration Screening Trial. Participants were recruited from November 2006 to March 2010. In-person interviews were used to assess self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior. Up-to-date colorectal cancer screening was defined as self-reported colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy in the past 10 years or fecal occult blood testing in the past year. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between gender and self-reported screening, adjusting for covariates. The final model was stratified by gender to examine factors differentially associated with screening outcomes for males and females. Results The final sample consisted of 1,552 female and 586 male black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore, Maryland. Males were significantly less likely than females to report being up-to-date with screening (77.5% versus 81.6%, p=0.030), and this difference was significant in the fully adjusted model (Odds Ratio: 0.72 95%Confidence Interval: 0.52–0.99). The association between having a usual source of care and receipt of cancer screening was stronger among males compared to females. Conclusions While observed differences in CRC screening were small, several factors suggest gender-specific approaches may be used to promote screening adherence among black Medicare beneficiaries. Impact Given disproportionate colorectal cancer mortality between white and black Medicare beneficiaries, gender-specific interventions aimed at increasing CRC screening may be warranted among older black patients. PMID:23629519

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer in African Americans: determinants and rationale for an earlier age to commence screening.

    PubMed

    Carethers, John M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective approach to reduce morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of CRC in populations. Current recommendations for asymptomatic populations begin screening at age 50 years, after which ~95% of cancers occur. Determinants that modify timing and frequency for screening include: personal/family history of adenomas or CRC, age of onset of lesions, and presence or potential to harbor high-risk conditions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or Lynch syndrome. Although race, like family history, is heritable, it has not engendered inclusion in systematic screening recommendations despite multiple studies demonstrating disparity in the incidence and mortality from CRC, and the potential for targeted screening to reduce disparity. African Americans, when compared to Caucasians, have lower CRC screening utilization, younger presentation for CRC, higher CRC prevalence at all ages, and higher proportion of CRCs before age 50 years (~11 vs. 5%); are less likely to transmit personal/family history of adenomas or CRC that may change screening age; show excess of high-risk proximal adenomas, matched with 7-15% excess right-sided CRCs that lack microsatellite instability; show higher frequencies of high-risk adenomas for every age decile; and demonstrate genetic biomarkers associated with metastasis. These epidemiological and biological parameters put African Americans at higher risk from CRC irrespective of socioeconomic issues, like IBD, FAP, and Lynch patients. Including race as a factor in national CRC screening guidelines and commencing screening at an age earlier than 50 years seems rational based on the natural history and aggressive behavior in this population. PMID:25540085

  12. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting. PMID:26136839

  13. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics. PMID:24761922

  14. Screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer in high risk population

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Chu; Wong, Jau-Min; Chang, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a serious growing health issue in developed countries. For patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the five year survival rate is below 5%. One major important reason leads to the poor survival rate is lack of early detection of pancreatic cancer. Over 80% of the patients are diagnosed in advanced disease stages. Screening for pancreatic cancer is a desirable option for high risk individuals to allow early detection and treatment of curable pancreatic neoplasms at a pre-invasive stage. This article highlights the need, endpoint, population, method, diagnostic yield, and the problems of current screening programs. PMID:24605033

  15. WOMEN’S INTENTIONS TO RECEIVE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING WITH PRIMARY HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Gina S.; Smith, Laurie W.; van Niekerk, Dirk J.; Khurshed, Fareeza; Krajden, Mel; Saraiya, Mona; Goel, Vivek; Rimer B, Barbara K.; Greene, Sandra B.; Hobbs, Suzanne; Coldman, Andrew J.; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the potential impact of HPV testing on women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer in a cohort of Canadian women. Participants aged 25-65 from an ongoing trial were sent a questionnaire to assess women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing instead of Pap smears and to be screened every 4 years or after 25 years of age. We created scales for attitudes about HPV testing, perceived behavioural control and direct and indirect subjective norms. Demographic data and scales that were significantly different (p<0.1) between women who intended to be screened with HPV and those who did not intend were included in a stepwise logistic regression model. Of the 2016 invitations emailed, 1538 were received, and 981 completed surveys for a response rate of 63% (981/1538). Eighty-four percent of women (826/981) responded that they intended to attend for HPV-based cervical cancer screening, which decreased to 54.2% when the screening interval was extended, and decreased further to 51.4% when screening start was delayed to age 25. Predictors of intentions to undergo screening were attitudes (OR 1.22; 95%CI 1.15, 1.30), indirect subjective norms (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01, 1.03) and perceived behavioural control (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.10; 1.22). Intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing decreased substantially when the screening interval was extended and screening started at age 25. Use of primary HPV testing may optimize the screening paradigm, but programs should ensure robust planning and education to mitigate any negative impact on screening attendance rates. PMID:23754203

  16. Patient and tumor characteristics of bilateral breast cancer at screening mammography in the Netherlands, a population-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wikke Setz-Pels; Lucien E. M. Duijm; Johanna H. Groenewoud; Marieke W. J. Louwman; Frits H. Jansen; Mike van Beek; Menno L. Plaisier; Adri C. Voogd

    Few data are available on bilateral breast cancer in the screening population. The aim of this study was to determine patient\\u000a and tumor characteristics of women with bilateral breast cancer at screening mammography. We included all 350,637 screening\\u000a mammography examinations of women participating in a biennial screening program in a southern screening region of the Netherlands\\u000a between May 1998 and

  17. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Kenya: Perspectives from a Provider Survey.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Joelle I; Hamisi, Sabina; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2015-08-01

    Although cervical cancer is highly preventable through screening, it remains the number one cause of cancer-related death in Kenyan women due to lack of funding and infrastructure for prevention programs. In 2012, Family AIDS Care and Education Services in partnership with the Kenya Ministry of Health began offering free screening at eleven rural health facilities. We sought to explore why screening coverage remains low at some sites. We examined the barriers to screening through a survey of 106 healthcare staff. The most frequently cited barriers to service delivery included staffing shortages, lack of trained staff, insufficient space, and supply issues. The patient barriers commonly perceived by the staff included inadequate knowledge, wait time, discomfort with male providers, and fear of pain with the speculum exam. Despite multilateral efforts to implement cervical cancer screening, staff face significant challenges to service provision and increased education is needed for both providers and patients. PMID:25677728

  18. How can we boost colorectal and hepatocellular cancer screening among underserved populations?

    PubMed

    Goebel, Melissa; Singal, Amit G; Nodora, Jesse; Castañeda, Sheila F; Martinez, Elena; Doubeni, Chyke; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; Gupta, Samir

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common causes of cancer incidence and mortality in the USA, particularly among underserved populations such as racial/ethnic minorities, the under-/uninsured, and individuals with low socioeconomic status. Although screening can reduce cancer-related mortality, participation is suboptimal among underserved populations, likely serving as the largest contributor to observed inequities in HCC and CRC outcomes among US populations. In this narrative review, we highlight inequities across populations in the USA with respect to incidence and mortality for CRC and HCC and highlight potential causes, with a focus on screening rates. In addition, drawing from the recent literature, we highlight promising strategies for increasing screening for HCC and CRC and propose future research and policy solutions to optimize screening rates. With focused implementation of screening strategies and novel research, the burden of HCC and CRC can be reduced among underserved populations. PMID:26031831

  19. Portuguese women's knowledge and health beliefs about cervical cancer and its screening.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2013-01-01

    Currently little is known about Portuguese women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. In-depth, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five females were recruited, the age range was 30 to 60. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented. PMID:23461350

  20. ASSOCIATION OF MARITAL STATUS AND COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    El-Haddad, Boutros N.

    2013-05-31

    Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is estimated to be the third most common malignancy worldwide, with 945,000 new cases every year and responsible for 492,000 deaths annually. Despite evidence that it decreases mortality, CRC screening...

  1. News Note: Not all doctors comply with practice guidelines for recommending colorectal cancer screenings

    Cancer.gov

    A study of nearly 1,300 primary care physicians in the United States found that only about 20 percent of those doctors recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screenings tests to their patients in accordance with current practice guidelines.

  2. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of Cancer Stem Cells by High-Throughput Screening

    E-print Network

    Onder, Tamer T.

    Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe ...

  3. Serum-based DNA methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer: potential for screening and early detection.

    PubMed

    Summers, Thomas; Langan, Russell C; Nissan, Aviram; Brücher, Björn L D M; Bilchik, Anton J; Protic, Mladjan; Daumer, Martin; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Early identification and treatment of pre-cancerous colorectal lesions, or node-negative CRC are highly effective interventions that substantially reduce disease-specific mortality. Colonoscopy remains a highly effective primary screening tool based on its excellent diagnostic accuracy, and its ability to remove pre-cancerous lesions. However, the nature of the procedure limits compliance with colonoscopy intended for population-based CRC screening. A significant advance in the screening and care of these patients could be realized by blood-based biomarkers, which could accurately identify patients at-risk for CRC development whom might benefit from early and/or more frequent surveillance for disease. We reviewed and herein discuss the potential for serum based DNA methylation biomarkers for screening and early detection of CRC. PMID:23459561

  4. Prostate-specific antigen-based population screening for prostate cancer: current status in Japan and future perspective in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, clinical trials on prostate cancer screening demonstrated a limited benefit for patient survival. In the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, the rate of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains very low compared with Western countries, and the benefits of population-based screening remain unclear. This review describes the current status of population screening and diagnosis for prostate cancer in Japan and discusses the efficacy of population screening for the Asian population. Since the 1990s, screening systems have been administered by each municipal government in Japan, and decreases in the prostate cancer mortality rate are expected in some regions where the exposure rate to PSA screening has increased markedly. A population-based screening cohort revealed that the proportion of metastatic disease in cancer detected by screening gradually decreased according to the increased exposure rate, and a decreasing trend in the proportion of cancer with high serum PSA levels after population screening was started. The prognosis of the prostate cancer detected by population screening was demonstrated to be more favorable than those diagnosed outside of the population screening. Recent results in screening cohorts demonstrated the efficacy of PSA. These recent evidences regarding population-based screening in Japan may contribute to establishing the optimal prostate cancer screening system in Asian individuals. PMID:25578935

  5. Projection of burden of cancer mortality for India, 2011-2026.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Neevan Divya Rani; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa; Aras, Radha Yeshwant

    2013-01-01

    Projection of load of cancer mortality helps in quantifying the burden of cancer and is essential for planning cancer control activities. As per our knowledge, there have not been many attempts to project the cancer mortality burden at the country level in India mainly due to lack of data on cancer mortality at the national and state level. This is an attempt to understand the magnitude of cancer mortality problem for the various calendar years from 2011 to 2026 at 5-yearly intervals. Age, sex and site-wise specific cancer mortality data along with populations covered by the registries were obtained from the report of National Cancer Registry Programme published by Indian Council of Medical Research for the period 2001-2004. Pooled age sex specific cancer mortality rates were obtained by taking weighted average of these six registries with respective registry populations as weights. The pooled mortality rates were assumed to represent the country's mortality rates. Populations of the country according to age and sex exposed to the risk of cancer mortality in different calendar years were obtained from the report of Registrar General of India providing population projections for the country for the years from 2011 to 2026. Population forecasts were combined with the pooled mortality rates to estimate the projected number of cancer mortality cases by age, sex and site of cancer at various 5-yearly periods Viz. 2011, 2016, 2021 and 2026. The projections were carried out for the various cancer-leading sites as well as for 'all sites' of cancer. The results revealed that an estimated 0.44 million died due to cancer during the year 2011, while 0.51 million and 0.60 million persons are likely to die from cancer in 2016 and 2021. In the year 2011 male mortality was estimated to be 0.23 million and female mortality to be 0.20 million. The estimated cancer mortality would increase to 0.70 million by the year 2026 as a result of change in size and composition of population. In males increase will be to 0.38 millions and in females to 0.32 millions. Among women, cancer of the breast, cervical and ovary account for 34 percent of all cancer deaths. The leading sites of cancer mortality in males are lung, oesophagus, prostrate and stomach. The above results show a need for commitment for tackling cancer by reducing risk factors and strengthening the existing screening and treatment facilities. PMID:23992008

  6. Exploring the decision to participate in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn; Callender, Matthew; Hamer, Holly; Rogers, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and one of the most feared diseases in modern society. A combination of early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective treatment provides the best defence against cancer morbidity; therefore, promoting cancer awareness and encouraging cancer screening is a priority in any comprehensive cancer control policy. Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in the UK and in an effort to reduce the high incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates, the National Health Service (NHS) has introduced the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHS BCSP). For the NHS BCSP to succeed in its goal of reducing the incidence and prevalence rates for colorectal cancer, individuals need to be persuaded to complete the test. Since it was first introduced in 2007, however, participation rates have been low. In an effort to understand why participation rates remain low, this article reports on the findings of a series of focus groups conducted in the East Midlands of England. These focus groups were designed to explore the factors that influence an individual's decision to participate in cancer screening. The findings revealed eight factors that affected participation in the NHS BCSP: (i) the association of screening with entry into old age; (ii) prior experience with health systems; (iii) the support of a significant other; (iv) individual perceptions of risk (and benefit); (v) fear of becoming a cancer patient after the screening test; (vi) lack of disease symptoms; (vii) embarrassment associated with completing the test and (viii) messages that adopt a paternalistic ethos. Overall, our results suggest that more people may participate in the screening programme if it was more sensitive to these psychosocial and contextual factors that shape an individual's decision to be tested. PMID:24418799

  7. Validation of a Medicare Claims-based Algorithm for Identifying Breast Cancers Detected at Screening Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Joshua J.; Onega, Tracy; Zhu, Weiwei; Balch, Steven; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Henderson, Louise; Sprague, Brian L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The breast cancer detection rate is a benchmark measure of screening mammography quality, but its computation requires linkage of mammography interpretive performance information with cancer incidence data. A Medicare claims-based measure of detected breast cancers could simplify measurement of this benchmark and facilitate mammography quality assessment and research. Objectives To validate a claims-based algorithm that can identify with high positive predictive value (PPV) incident breast cancers that were detected at screening mammography. Research Design Development of a claims-derived algorithm using classification and regression tree analyses within a random half-sample of Medicare screening mammography claims followed by validation of the algoritm in the remaining half-sample using clinical data on mammography results and cancer incidence from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). Subjects Female fee-for-service Medicare enrollees age 68 years and older who underwent screening mammography from 2001 to 2005 within BCSC registries in four states (CA, NC, NH, and VT), enabling linkage of claims and BCSC mammography data (N=233,044 mammograms obtained by 104,997 women). Measures Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of algorithmic identification of incident breast cancers that were detected by radiologists relative to a reference standard based on BCSC mammography and cancer incidence data. Results An algorithm based on subsequent codes for breast cancer diagnoses and treatments and follow-up mammography identified incident screen-detected breast cancers with 92.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 91.0%-94.8%), 99.9% specificity (95% CI: 99.9%-99.9%), and a PPV of 88.0% (95% CI: 85.7%-90.4%). Conclusions A simple claims-based algorithm can accurately identify incident breast cancers detected at screening mammography among Medicare enrollees. The algorithm may enable mammography quality assessment using Medicare claims alone. PMID:23929404

  8. Electronic Patient Messages to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sequist, Thomas D.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality, yet effective screening tests are often underused. Electronic patient messages and personalized risk assessments delivered via an electronic personal health record could increase screening rates. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in 14 ambulatory health centers involving 1,103 patients ages 50 to 75 with an active electronic personal health record who were overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single electronic message highlighting overdue screening status with a link to a web-based tool to assess their personal risk of colorectal cancer. The outcomes included colorectal cancer screening rates at 1 and 4 months. Results Screening rates were higher at 1 month for patients who received electronic messages compared to those who did not (8.3% vs. 0.2%, p<0.001), but this difference was no longer significant at 4 months (15.8% versus 13.1%, p=0.18). Among 552 patients randomized to receive the intervention, 296 (54%) viewed the message, and 47 (9%) used the web-based risk assessment tool. Among 296 intervention patients who viewed the electronic message, risk tool users were more likely than non-users to request screening examinations (17% versus 4%, p=0.04) and to be screened (30% versus 15%, p=0.06). One-fifth (19%) of patients utilizing the risk assessment tool were estimated to have above-average risk for colorectal cancer. Conclusions Electronic messages to patients produce an initial increase in colorectal cancer screening rates, but this effect is not sustained over time. PMID:21149743

  9. Understanding breast cancer screening practices in Taiwan: a country with universal health care.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Yin; Chung, Scott; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Chang, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Ha, Soo Ji

    2012-01-01

    While the incidence of breast cancer (BC) has been relatively low in Asian countries, it has been rising rapidly in Taiwan. Within the last decade, it has replaced cervical cancer as the most diagnosed cancer site for women. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. The aim of this study is to assess Taiwanese women's knowledge of and attitudes toward BC screening and to identify potential factors that may influence screening behavior. The study population consisted of a sample of 434 Taiwanese women aged 40 and older. Despite access to universal health care for Taiwanese women and the fact that a majority of the women had heard of the breast cancer screening (mammogram, clinical breast exams, etc.), the actual utilization of these screening modalities was relatively low. In the current study, the majority of women had never had mammograms or ultrasound in the past 5 years. The number one most reported barriers were "no time, " "forgetfulness, " "too cumbersome, " and "laziness, " followed by the perception of no need to get screened. In addition, the results revealed several areas of misconceptions or incorrect information perceived by study participants. Based on the results from the regression analysis, significant predictors of obtaining repeated screening modalities included age, coverage for screening, barriers, self-efficacy, intention, family/friends diagnosed with breast cancer. The findings from the current study provide the potential to build evidence-based programs to effectively plan and implement policies in order to raise awareness in breast cancer and promote BC screening in order to optimize health outcomes for women affected by this disease. PMID:23167330

  10. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

  11. Risk-Based Ultrasound Screening for Thyroid Cancer in Obese Patients is Cost-Effective

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Stephanie; Zanocco, Kyle; Sturgeon, Cord; Yeh, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with more advanced stages of thyroid cancer. Screening obese patients for thyroid cancer has been proposed but has yet to be examined for cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound (US) screening of obese patients for thyroid cancer. Methods: A decision-tree model compared cost savings for the following: (i) base case scenario of an obese patient with thyroid nodule found by palpation, (ii) universal US screening of all obese patients, and (iii) risk-based US screening in obese patients. Risk-based screening consisted of patients who had at least one of four major identified risk factors for thyroid cancer (family history of thyroid cancer, radiation exposure, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and/or elevated thyrotropin). Patients with nodules underwent established treatment and management guidelines. The model accounted for recurrence, complications, and long-term treatment/follow-up for five years. Outcome probabilities were identified from a literature review. Costs were estimated using a third-party payer perspective. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the impact of risk factor prevalence and US cost on the model. Results: The resulted costs per patient were $210.73 in the base case scenario, $434.10 in the universal US screening arm, and $166.72 in the risk-based screening arm. Risk-based screening remained cost-effective until more than 14% of obese patients had risk factors and with a wide variation of US costs ($0–$1113). Conclusion: Risk-based US screening in selected obese patients with risk factors for thyroid cancer is cost-effective. Recommendations for screening this subgroup will result in cost savings and a likely decreased morbidity and mortality in this subpopulation with more aggressive disease. PMID:24512476

  12. Integrating Men’s Health and Masculinity Theories to Explain Colorectal Cancer Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review paper, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men’s CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men’s health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men’s CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions which target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors. PMID:23813927

  13. Breast cancer screening and ethnicity in the United States: implications for health disparities research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Y. Miranda; Wassim Tarraf; Hector M. González

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic and racial minority women within the U.S. are less likely to use breast cancer screening (BCS) procedures than non-Latina\\u000a White women, and are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer at later stages of disease. Previous studies examining Latina\\u000a rates of screening and disease have used aggregated populations for comparison, possibly attenuating important ethnic healthcare\\u000a disparities and yielding misleading

  14. Compliance with Recommended Cancer Screening among Emergency Department Patients: A Multicenter Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adit A. Ginde; Jennifer C. Millen; Jennifer S. Love; Jessica M. Pang; Carlos A Camargo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to measure compliance with, and possible sociodemographic disparities for, cancer screening among emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in three academic EDs in Boston. The authors enrolled con- secutive adult patients during two 24-hour periods at each site. Self-reported compliance with standard recommendations for cervical, breast, testicular, and prostate cancer screening were

  15. Factors of Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunice E. Lee; Louis F. Fogg; Georgia R. Sadler

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess breast cancer screening rates and explore factors related to all three measures of\\u000a breast cancer screening, mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE), among Korean immigrants\\u000a in the United States. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean women aged 40 and older in Cook County, Illinois. Of\\u000a this group,

  16. Predictors of breast cancer screening behavior in women with a strong family history of the disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie A. Price; Phyllis N. Butow; Margaret Charles; Tracey Bullen; Bettina Meiser; Joanne M. McKinley; Sue-Anne McLachlan; Kelly-Anne Phillips

    2010-01-01

    This study applied the self-regulation model to examine cognitive and emotional predictors of screening in unaffected women\\u000a with a strong family history of breast cancer. 748 unaffected female members of an Australian registry of multiple-case breast\\u000a cancer families formed the sample. Participants completed a baseline psychosocial questionnaire and a screening questionnaire\\u000a 3 years later. Multinomial logistic regression was employed to

  17. Information sources influencing urban Mexican-American women's cancer screening participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Catarina Seibt

    1993-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancer, though less common in Mexican-American than in Anglo women, are more likely to go undetected in Mexican-American women, leaving them more vulnerable to advanced disease and death. Although highly effective screening tests--the Pap smear and the mammogram--can detect these cancers early, many Mexican-American women do not regularly undergo these preventive screening tests.^ To explore the differential

  18. Long-term follow-up of pediatric cancer survivors: education, surveillance, and screening.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Wallace, W Hamish B; Hudson, Melissa M

    2006-02-01

    Cancer and its treatment predispose childhood cancer survivors to chronic or late occurring health problems that may not become clinically significant until many years after therapy. Frequently, long-term survivors of childhood cancer report late cancer-related effects that diminish quality of life and increase the risk of early mortality. Risk-based health care that involves a personalized plan for surveillance, screening, and prevention is recommended to reduce cancer-related morbidity in childhood cancer survivors. To implement optimal risk-based care, the survivor and health care provider must have accurate information about cancer diagnosis, treatment modalities, and potential cancer-related health risks to guide screening and risk-reducing interventions. However, previous studies evaluating health knowledge of childhood cancer survivors demonstrate noteworthy deficits and misperceptions about their cancer diagnosis, treatment, and cancer-related health risks. In addition, because of the relative rarity of childhood cancer, many health care providers lack familiarity with cancer-related health risks and risk-reduction methods relevant for this population. To correct these deficits, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG) developed clinical practice guidelines to foster appropriate risk-based survivor care. Herein, we discuss the development, benefits, and limitations of the SIGN and COG guidelines and the foundation they provide for standardizing long-term follow-up care of the ever-growing vulnerable population of childhood cancer survivors. PMID:16369924

  19. NCG 4.0: the network of cancer genes in the era of massive mutational screenings of cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    An, Omer; Pendino, Vera; D'Antonio, Matteo; Ratti, Emanuele; Gentilini, Marco; Ciccarelli, Francesca D

    2014-01-01

    NCG 4.0 is the latest update of the Network of Cancer Genes, a web-based repository of systems-level properties of cancer genes. In its current version, the database collects information on 537 known (i.e. experimentally supported) and 1463 candidate (i.e. inferred using statistical methods) cancer genes. Candidate cancer genes derive from the manual revision of 67 original publications describing the mutational screening of 3460 human exomes and genomes in 23 different cancer types. For all 2000 cancer genes, duplicability, evolutionary origin, expression, functional annotation, interaction network with other human proteins and with microRNAs are reported. In addition to providing a substantial update of cancer-related information, NCG 4.0 also introduces two new features. The first is the annotation of possible false-positive cancer drivers, defined as candidate cancer genes inferred from large-scale screenings whose association with cancer is likely to be spurious. The second is the description of the systems-level properties of 64 human microRNAs that are causally involved in cancer progression (oncomiRs). Owing to the manual revision of all information, NCG 4.0 constitutes a complete and reliable resource on human coding and non-coding genes whose deregulation drives cancer onset and/or progression. NCG 4.0 can also be downloaded as a free application for Android smart phones. Database URL: http://bio.ieo.eu/ncg/. PMID:24608173

  20. Factors Influencing Prostate Cancer Screening in Low-Income African Americans in Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kushal Patel; Donna Kenerson; Hong Wang; Byron Brown; Helen Pinkerton; Marilyn Burress; Leslie Cooper; Marie Canto; Flora Ukoli; Margaret Hargreaves

    2010-01-01

    : This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions to get screened for prostate cancer in low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities. It also examined obstacles to getting screened. As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization, and

  1. “I Have No Time for Potential Troubles”: Russian Immigrant Women and Breast Cancer Screening in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa Remennick

    2003-01-01

    The author's earlier study of Russian immigrant women's attitudes and practices related to the early detection of cancer has shown their low participation in breast screening activities, from BSE to mammography. Most respondents were educated women who acknowledged their personal risk, understood the role of screening, but still avoided preventive action. In this qualitative research, the gap between cognitions and

  2. Survey on colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general practice physicians in Lazio, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Federici; Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Francesco Bartolozzi; Sara Farchi; Piero Borgia; Gabriella Guastcchi

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundSeveral international guidelines have recommended the involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in screening programs, but current evidence suggests this is very difficult. We implemented a survey to understand the attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding colorectal cancer screening of GPs in the Lazio region.

  3. Healthcare Mistreatment and Continuity of Cancer Screening Among Latino and Anglo American Women in Southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Betancourt; Patricia M. Flynn; Sarah R. Ormseth

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relation of perceptions of healthcare mistreatment and related emotions to continuity of cancer screening care among women who reported healthcare mistreatment. The structure of relations among cultural beliefs about healthcare professionals, perceptions of mistreatment, mistreatment-related emotions, and continuity of screening was investigated. Participants included 313 Anglo and Latino American women of

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  5. Preliminary results of primary screening for breast cancer with the Mama Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Gästrin

    1993-01-01

    Summary In 1972 a comprehensive BSE screening strategy for the early detection of breast cancer, the “Mama Program Screening” (MPS), was developed in Finland by the author on the initiative of women's organizations. The program consists of a) initial information about the facilities of the program and BSE-performance, b) prospective surveillance of the BSE-behaviour of complying women, who use a

  6. [Clinical examination to screen for laryngeal cancer: results, problems and prospects].

    PubMed

    Ogata, A; Suzuki, M; Tanaka, K; Yamashita, T; Ohba, T; Shinden, S

    1999-10-01

    The Yokohama Municipal Cancer Detection Center, established as an affiliate of the Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital in June, 1981, has performed clinical examinations to screen for laryngeal cancer in a total of 26,377 patients (12,205 men and 14,172 women) 40 years of age or older, in the past 15 years. Approximately 9.3% (2,398) of the patients required further examination, surgery, or observation. Thirty-one cases of malignant tumor were found, 26 of laryngeal cancer, 2 of hypopharyngeal cancer, and 1 each of thyroid cancer, tonsillar cancer and acute lymphoid leukemia. In addition, 51 cases of vocal fold leukoplakia and approximately 700 cases of vocal fold polyp and polypoid vocal fold were diagnosed. As mentioned in previous reports, examinations of this type present both definite benefits and deficiencies. Many problems still remain. Examples of these are the small absolute numbers of examinees, the rather heavy burden placed upon the examining doctor, and the low incidence of laryngeal cancer in female patients. Laryngeal cancer is predominantly a male disease, but female patients should not be excluded from receiving screening examinations. In recent years, many thyroid tumors have been detected in female patients. In the future, laryngeal cancer examination may develop into a head and neck cancer examination that includes screening for thyroid cancer. PMID:10565177

  7. A comparison of axillary node status between cancers detected at the prevalence and first incidence breast screening rounds.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, P. A.; Walls, J.; Boggis, C. R.; Knox, F.; Baildam, A. D.; Bundred, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Screen-detected breast cancers are smaller than those detected in symptomatic populations and, for any given size, they are associated with fewer lymph node metastases. The management of axillary lymph nodes in patients with screen-detected breast cancer remains controversial. We have previously reported that prevalence (initial screen)-detected cancers are associated with nodal metastases in 17.4% of cases overall. Cancers < or = 10 mm, of any grade, are associated with metastases in only 5% of cases, and grade I cancers <30 mm are not associated with metastases. This led to our recommendation that axillary surgery is unnecessary for these groups of women. The present study compared the nodal status of cancers detected at the prevalence and first incidence (second) screens in order to determine whether our recommendation is appropriate for cancers detected at the first incidence screen. Overall, 30.1% of cancers detected in the first incidence screen presented axillary nodal metastases. At all size ranges, cancers detected at the first incidence screen were associated with significantly more lymph node metastases than prevalence-detected cancers. In particular, cancers < or = 10 mm were associated with metastases in 14.3% of cases. With the possible exception of grade I cancers, we believe that surgical staging of the axilla is essential for cancers detected at the first incidence screen, irrespective of size. PMID:8932348

  8. Colon Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Colorectal Cancer: Incidence and Mortality

  9. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  10. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating the already widening disparities in cancer outcomes that exist among Indigenous Australians. Modifications to the program are recommended to facilitate access and participation by Indigenous and other minority populations. Further research is also needed to understand the needs and social and cultural sensitivities of these groups around cancer screening and inform alternative approaches to bowel cancer screening. PMID:20579344

  11. A hybrid approach using the analytic hierarchy process and integer programming to screen weapon systems projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Greiner; John W. Fowler; Dan L. Shunk; W. Matthew Carlyle; Ross T. McNutt

    2003-01-01

    Screening weapon systems development projects is a complex, multicriteria decision problem that must be accomplished within a constrained resource environment. This paper presents a hybrid decision support methodology for use in the screening of weapon systems development projects. The hybrid methodology integrates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with a 0-1 integer portfolio optimization model. An AHP component allows the decision

  12. MRI breast screening in high-risk women: cancer detection and survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth; Gareth, Evans D; Kesavan, Nisha; Nisha, Kesavan; Lim, Yit; Yit, Lim; Gadde, Soujanye; Soujanye, Gadde; Hurley, Emma; Emma, Hurley; Massat, Nathalie J; Maxwell, Anthony J; Ingham, Sarah; Sarah, Ingham; Eeles, Rosalind; Rosalind, Eeles; Leach, Martin O; Howell, Anthony; Anthony, Howell; Duffy, Stephen W; Stephen, Duffy

    2014-06-01

    Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival. PMID:24687378

  13. Contact Information | Cancer Prevalence and Cost of Care Projections

    Cancer.gov

    This site is based on a study that estimates and projects the national cost of cancer care through the year 2020 separately for multiple cancer sites using the most recent available U.S. population projections, cancer incidence, survival, and cost of care data.

  14. Discovery Park Impact International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Discovery Park Impact International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN) Project NEED The development interdisciplinary projects and centers. One of the newest is the International Breast Cancer & Nutrition (IBCN effort to understand the link between breast cancer types, nutrition and the epigenome; (2) to foster

  15. Cervix cancer screening in Croatia within the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week.

    PubMed

    Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Mahovli?, Vesna; Ovanin-Raki?, Ana; Barisi?, Ana; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Babi?, Damir; Corusi?, Ante; Oreskovi?, Slavko

    2010-06-01

    Croatia still has opportunistic screening and the organized national screening has been planned. The European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week was held twice in Croatia, in January 2008 and 2009. Within the first one in 2008, information campaign "For All Women" via mass media was held, and women were invited to the organized free gynecological examination and Papanicolaou test (Pap test) in the University Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zagreb University Hospital Center. Following invitation 481 women attended the testing; the median age was 55 years. There were more women aged > or = 50 (n = 353), with the highest participation in the age group 55-59 years (n = 94). Some women came because of subjective symptoms (n = 10), but the majority of them came only for testing (n = 471). According to history of previous cytological testing, 400 women have had > or = 1 negative findings, 71 women have had > or = 1 positive findings, 9 women attended Pap test for the first time, and 1 woman does not know about previous testing. Cervical cytology was abnormal in 35 women (7.28%), the median age was 42 years with the highest proportion in the age group 30-34 years (n = 7); among all of them 21 women (60%) had no abnormal Pap test previously. The findings were: Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance--ASC-US (n = 9), ASC cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion--ASC-H (n = 1), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia--CIN 1 (n = 13), CIN 2 (n = 1), CIN 3 (n = 6), carcinoma planocellulare (n = 2), atypical glandular cells--AGC-favor reactive endocervical cells (n = 3). Among women aged < or = 49 there were 20.47% abnormal findings and among those aged > or = 50, 2.55%. According to 21 positive Pap tests previously, among women aged < or = 49 there were 30.71% while among those aged > or = 50 there were 9.07%. Within the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week in 2009, employed women from one national company were invited by internal information to the same procedure. A smaller group of younger asymptomatic women came for testing (n = 53), median age 39 years. According to history of previous cytological testing, 50 women have had > or = 1 negative findings, 3 women have had > or = 1 positive findings. In this study, Pap test was positive in 3.77% (n = 2). National screening programme should be focused on the participation of all personally invited women, especially younger age groups and under-screened women. Well designed information campaign should be implemented in national screening programme. PMID:20698138

  16. Measuring the Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening: The Importance of Follow-Up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Etzioni; Elizabeth M. Yano; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Martin L. Lee; Clifford Y. Ko; Robert H. Brook; Patricia H. Parkerton; Steven M. Asch

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  As evidence mounts for effectiveness, an increasing proportion of the United States population undergoes colorectal cancer\\u000a screening. However, relatively little is known about rates of follow-up after abnormal results from initial screening tests.\\u000a This study examines patterns of colorectal cancer screening and follow-up within the nation's largest integrated health care\\u000a system: the Veterans Health Administration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We obtained information about patients

  17. Applying public health screening criteria: how does universal newborn screening compare to universal tumor screening for lynch syndrome in adults with colorectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Cragun, Deborah; DeBate, Rita D; Pal, Tuya

    2015-06-01

    Institutions have increasingly begun to adopt universal tumor screening (UTS) programs whereby tumors from all newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are screened to identify who should be offered germline testing for Lynch syndrome (the most common cause of hereditary CRC). Given limited information about the impact of universal screening programs to detect hereditary disease in adults, we apply criteria used to evaluate public health screening programs and compare and contrast UTS with universal newborn screening (NBS) for the purpose of examining ethical implications and anticipating potential outcomes of UTS. Both UTS and a core set of NBS conditions clearly meet most of the Wilson and Jungner screening criteria. However, many state NBS panels include additional conditions that do not meet several of these criteria, and there is currently insufficient data to confirm that UTS meets some of these criteria. Comparing UTS and NBS with regard to newer screening criteria raises additional issues that require attention for both UTS and NBS. Comparisons also highlight the importance of evaluating the implementation of genomic tests to ensure or improve their effectiveness at reducing morbidity and mortality while minimizing potential harms. PMID:25323653

  18. A novel zebrafish human tumor xenograft model validated for anti-cancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-Woon; Oh, Eun-Sang; Park, Si-Hwan; Chang, Young-Tae; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Choi, Seok-Yong; Williams, Darren R

    2012-07-01

    The development of a relatively simple, reliant and cost-effective animal test will greatly facilitate drug development. In this study, our goal was the establishment of a rapid, simple, sensitive and reproducible zebrafish xenograft model for anti-cancer drug screening. We optimized the conditions for the cancer cell xenograft in terms of injected cell numbers, incubation temperature and time. A range of human carcinoma cell types were stained with a fluorescent dye prior to injection into the fish larvae. Subsequent cancer cell dissemination was observed under fluorescent microscopy. Differences in injected cell numbers were reflected in the rate of dissemination from the xenograft site. Paclitaxel, known as a microtubule stabilizer, dose-dependently inhibited cancer cell dissemination in our zebrafish xenograft model. An anti-migratory drug, LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) also decreased the cancer cell dissemination. Chemical modifications to increase cancer drug pharmacokinetics, such as increased solubility (17-DMAG compared to geldanamycin) could also be assessed in our xenograft model. In addition to testing our new model using known anti-cancer drugs, we carried out further validation by screening a tagged triazine library. Two novel anti-cancer drug candidates were discovered. Therefore, our zebrafish xenograft model provides a vertebrate animal system for the rapid screening and pre-clinical testing of novel anti-cancer agents, prior to the requirement for testing in mammals. Our model system should greatly facilitate drug development for cancer therapy because of its speed, simplicity and reproducibility. PMID:22569777

  19. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project Data Elements for the Prospective Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy J. Giroux; Ramón Rami-Porta; Kari Chansky; John J. Crowley; Patti A. Groome; Pieter E. Postmus; Valerie Rusch; Jean-Paul Sculier; Frances A. Shepherd; Leslie Sobin; Peter Goldstraw

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Retrospective Staging Project culminated in a series of recommendations to the International Union Against Cancer and to the American Joint Committee on Cancer regarding the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer. The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

  20. Time-Domain Microwave Cancer Screening: Optimized Pulse Shaping Applied to Realistically Shaped Breast Phantoms

    E-print Network

    Coates, Mark

    a frequency profile advantageous for tumor detection. We perform measurements with various tumor sizes reflector (SBR) to a modified microwave breast cancer detection system, with the goal of improving the tumorTime-Domain Microwave Cancer Screening: Optimized Pulse Shaping Applied to Realistically Shaped

  1. Supplementary Figure 1 Screening for cancer stem cell marker(s)

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    genotype profile between each patient tumor sample (lower panel) (b) Flow cytometry analysis cancer stem cells (a) Flow cytometry analysis of autofluorescence content in CRC-014 and CRC-010 tumorSupplementary Figure 1 Screening for cancer stem cell marker(s) (a) Flow cytometry analysis of CD

  2. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  3. A Chart Review of the Ordering and Documentation of Urine Toxicology Screens in a Cancer Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D Passik; Jennifer Schreiber; Kenneth L Kirsh; Russell K Portenoy

    2000-01-01

    Urine toxicology screens (UTSs) may be useful in the diagnosis or monitoring of patients with established or suspected substance abuse. In the medically ill, including those with cancer, the test may help clinicians manage therapy with controlled prescription drugs. To describe the current use of UTSs in a cancer center, the medical records of 111 patients who underwent UTS were

  4. News Note: Screening for ovarian cancer shows no reduction in mortality

    Cancer.gov

    Simultaneous screening with a blood test for the biomarker CA-125 along with a transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), compared with usual care, did not reduce ovarian cancer mortality in American women. These results, from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored trial, also show that diagnostic evaluation following a false-positive result was associated with potentially harmful complications.

  5. The Positive Experience of Screening Quality Among Users of a Cervical Cancer Detection Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo César Lazcano-Ponce; Sue Moss; Aurelio Cruz-Valdez; Patricia Alonso de Ruíz; Carlos Javier Martínez-León; Salvador Casares-Queralt; Mauricio Hernández-Avila

    2002-01-01

    Background. Our objective was to determine the main factors associated with increased utilization of a cervical cancer screening program (CCSP) in a population with a high mortality rate due to cervical cancer. Methods. A population-based study was carried out in the Mexican state of Morelos, Mexico. The study population included 3,197 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years

  6. Plasma Osteopontin Velocity Differentiates Lung Cancers from Controls in a CT Screening Population

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sasha; Harrington, Ryan; Walter, Dawn; Goldberg, Judith D.; Li, Xiaochun; Beck, Amanda; Litton, Tyler; Hirsch, Nathalie; Blasberg, Justin; Slomiany, Mark; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Donington, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As CT screening is integrated into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) care, additional parameters are needed to help distinguish cancers from benign nodules. Osteopontin (OPN), a secreted phosphoprotein, has elevated plasma levels in NSCLC. We hypothesize that changes in plasma OPN over time (i.e., OPN velocity [OPNV]) can differentiate NSCLC patients from those without cancer in a CT screening population. METHODS A nested case-control study was conducted within a NSCLC CT screening trial. Incident cancers with serial plasma were matched to controls. OPN was measured by ELISA. Demographic, OPN, and OPNV were compared between cancers and controls using Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. RESULTS Ten incident cancers were identified. The pack years distributions were similar, but cancers were older (68.0 vs. 63.3, p=0.002) and their surveillance intervals were shorter (25.5 vs. 27.0 months, p=0. 03) than matched controls. Baseline OPN was similar (median difference: ?5.15 ng/ml, p=0.50), but OPNV in the cancers was significantly greater than that of matched controls, (median difference: 1.06 ng/ml/month, p = 0.01). Accuracy rate for prediction of disease status by OPNV (adjusted for age and surveillance) was 83%. CONCLUSIONS These are early evidence for utility of monitoring plasma OPN during CT screening to assist in identification of NSCLCs. PMID:23568008

  7. Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Walboomers; A M de Roda Husman; P J Snijders; H V Stel; E K Risse; T J Helmerhorst; F J Voorhorst; C J Meijer

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of

  8. Patients with cervical cancer: why did screening not prevent these cases?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roosmarie P. de Bie; Henke C. Vergers-Spooren; Leon F. A. G. Massuger; Albertus G. Siebers; Maria R. J. Salet-van der Pol; Judith E. M. Vedder; Willem J. G. Melchers; Johan Bulten; Ruud L. M. Bekkers

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the screening history of women with cervical cancer and review normal cervical smears 5 years preceding the diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Cytological and histological results of 401 women treated for invasive cervical cancer between 1991 and 2008 at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center were studied. Ninety-eight normal smears were reviewed. RESULTS:

  9. Significance of arylsulphatase activity in the screening of colorectal and breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Zhang; Qing-Yun Zhang; Da-Hai Dong

    2009-01-01

    A I M : T o e v a l u a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f arylsulphatase (ARS) activity in the screening of colorectal and breast cancer. METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers, 22 colorectal cancer patients and 110 breast can- cer patients were included in the

  10. Full-Exon Pyrosequencing Screening of BRCA Germline Mutations in Mexican Women with Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Vaca-Paniagua; Rosa María Alvarez-Gomez; Verónica Fragoso-Ontiveros; Silvia Vidal-Millan; Luis Alonso Herrera; David Cantú; Enrique Bargallo-Rocha; Alejandro Mohar; César López-Camarillo; Carlos Pérez-Plasencia

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer comprises 10% of all breast cancers. The most prevalent genes causing this pathology are BRCA1 and BRCA2 (breast cancer early onset 1 and 2), which also predispose to other cancers. Despite the outstanding relevance of genetic screening of BRCA deleterious variants in patients with a history of familial cancer, this practice is not common in Latin American

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  12. Colonography by CT, MRI and PET\\/CT combined with conventional colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening and staging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Sun; Hua Wu; Yong-Song Guan

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cancer killer worldwide. But the disease is both curable and preventable at an early stage. Regular CRC cancer screening has been shown to reduce the risk of dying from CRC. However, the importance of large-scale screening is only now starting to be appreciated. This article reviews a variety of imaging procedures available for detecting

  13. Association of symptoms and breast cancer in population-based mammography screening in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deependra; Malila, Nea; Pokhrel, Arun; Anttila, Ahti

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to assess association of symptoms at screening visits with detection of breast cancer among women aged 50–69 years during the period 2006–2010. Altogether 1.2 million screening visits were made and symptoms (lump, retraction, secretion etc.) were reported either by women or radiographer. Breast cancer risk was calculated for each symptom separately using logistic regression [odds ratio (OR)] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of the 1,198,410 screening visits symptoms were reported in 298,220 (25%) visits. Breast cancer detection rate for women with and without symptoms was 7.8 per 1,000 and 4.7 per 1,000 screening visits, respectively, whereas lump detected 32 cancers per 1,000 screens. Women with lump or retraction had an increased risk of breast cancer, OR = 6.47, 95% CI 5.89?7.09 and OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.92–2.49, respectively. The sensitivity of symptoms in detecting breast carcinoma was 35.5% overall. Individual symptoms sensitivity and specificity ranged from, 0.66 to 14.8% and 87.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Of 5,541 invasive breast cancers, 1,993 (36%) reported symptoms at screen. Breast cancer risk among women with lump or retraction was higher in large size tumors (OR = 9.20, 95% CI 8.08–10.5) with poorly differentiated grades (OR = 5.91, 95% CI 5.03–6.94) and regional lymph nodes involvement (OR = 6.47, 95% CI 5.67–7.38). This study was done in a setting where breast tumors size is generally small, and symptoms sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing breast tumors were limited. Importance of breast cancer symptoms in the cancer prevention and control strategy needs to be evaluated also in other settings. PMID:25160029

  14. Association of symptoms and breast cancer in population-based mammography screening in Finland.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Malila, Nea; Pokhrel, Arun; Anttila, Ahti

    2015-03-15

    The study purpose was to assess association of symptoms at screening visits with detection of breast cancer among women aged 50-69 years during the period 2006-2010. Altogether 1.2 million screening visits were made and symptoms (lump, retraction, secretion etc.) were reported either by women or radiographer. Breast cancer risk was calculated for each symptom separately using logistic regression [odds ratio (OR)] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of the 1,198,410 screening visits symptoms were reported in 298,220 (25%) visits. Breast cancer detection rate for women with and without symptoms was 7.8 per 1,000 and 4.7 per 1,000 screening visits, respectively, whereas lump detected 32 cancers per 1,000 screens. Women with lump or retraction had an increased risk of breast cancer, OR?=?6.47, 95% CI 5.89-7.09 and OR?=?2.19, 95% CI 1.92-2.49, respectively. The sensitivity of symptoms in detecting breast carcinoma was 35.5% overall. Individual symptoms sensitivity and specificity ranged from, 0.66 to 14.8% and 87.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Of 5,541 invasive breast cancers, 1,993 (36%) reported symptoms at screen. Breast cancer risk among women with lump or retraction was higher in large size tumors (OR?=?9.20, 95% CI 8.08-10.5) with poorly differentiated grades (OR?=?5.91, 95% CI 5.03-6.94) and regional lymph nodes involvement (OR?=?6.47, 95% CI 5.67-7.38). This study was done in a setting where breast tumors size is generally small, and symptoms sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing breast tumors were limited. Importance of breast cancer symptoms in the cancer prevention and control strategy needs to be evaluated also in other settings. PMID:25160029

  15. A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer remains the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. Special events such as health fairs, screening days or cultural festivals are employed often for community education about cancer screening. A previous systematic review of the published literature was conducted in 2012-2013. The purpose of this study was to conduct a grey literature component of special events that promote breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. Methods We conducted a grey literature search of dissertations/theses and conference abstracts. The theses/dissertations were restricted to those: 1) written in English, 2) published from January 1990 to December 2011, 3) examined at least one of the predefined categories of special events, 4) involved cancer screening for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer, 5) included outcome data, and 6) conducted in the United States. A review of U.S. public health and cancer conference abstracts, that were readily available and had focused on at least of 3 cancer types and included outcome data, was conducted. Data were abstracted on the purpose, location, primary audience(s), activities conducted, screening provided onsite or referrals, and evaluation results. Results The grey literature review found 6 special events. The types of events found added to the numbers found in the systematic review, especially receptions or parties and cultural festivals/events. All focused on increasing breast and cervical cancer screening except one that focused on breast cancer only. The reach of these events was targeted at mostly minorities or underserved communities. Common evidence-based strategies were group education, small media, and reducing structural barriers. Group education involved presentations from physicians, lay-health advisors, or cancer survivors, while reducing structural barriers included activities such as providing screening appointment sign-ups at the event or providing transportation for event participants. Mammogram screening rates ranged from 6.8% to 60% and Pap tests from 52% to 70%. Conclusions Further evaluation of special events to promote cancer screening will prove their effectiveness. A grey literature review can augment a systematic review of published literature. Additional data about these events through the grey literature offered additional insights into the goals, intervention components and outcomes of interventions. PMID:24942822

  16. Prevalence of colorectal cancer screening among adults--Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Djenaba A; King, Jessica B; Miller, Jacqueline W; Richardson, Lisa C

    2012-06-15

    Among cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death. In 2007 (the most recent year for which data are available), >142,000 persons received a diagnosis for colorectal cancer and >53,000 persons died. Screening for colorectal cancer has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of and mortality from the disease. In 2008, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that persons aged 50-75 years at average risk for colorectal cancer be screened by using one or more of the following methods: high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) every year, sigmoidoscopy every 5 years with FOBT every 3 years, or colonoscopy every 10 years. PMID:22695464

  17. Trends in cancer screening by citizenship and health insurance, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Adriana M; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2015-06-01

    While early detection through screenings for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer is essential in improving cancer survival, it is not evenly utilized across class, race, ethnicity, or nativity. Given that utilization of early detection through screenings is not evenly distributed, immigrants who have much lower rates of health insurance coverage are at a disadvantage. We use National Health Interview Survey data linked with the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey to examine the trend in screening rates for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer from 2000 to 2010, comparing U.S.-born natives, foreign-born citizens, and foreign-born non-citizens. We find that citizenship is clearly advantageous for the foreign-born, and that screening rates are higher among citizens compared to non-citizens overall, but uninsured non-citizens sometimes have higher screening rates that uninsured natives. Health insurance is pivotal for higher screening rates with clear differences among the insured and uninsured. Policies aimed at reducing disparities in cancer screening need to take into account nativity, citizenship, and access to health insurance. PMID:25187320

  18. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation. PMID:25579107

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Qiang; Yang, Chun-Xia; Lu, Si-Han; Yang, Juan; Li, Bian-Yun; Lian, Shi-Yong; Qiao, You-Lin

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer” (EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40–69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115–¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944–¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life, ¥41 214–¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95–11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China. PMID:21352699

  20. Cervical cancer: barriers to screening in the somali community in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Ghebre, Rahel G; Sewali, Barrett; Osman, Sirad; Adawe, Amira; Nguyen, Hai T; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Joseph, Anne

    2015-06-01

    This study examined barriers to and facilitators of cervical cancer screening among Somali immigrant women in Minnesota. We adopted the socioecological framework to illustrate screening barriers at multiple levels. We conducted 23 semi-structured key informant interviews and used a thematic exploratory approach to analyze the data. Barriers were classified into individual, community or health systems levels. Obstacles included lack of knowledge, religious beliefs, fatalism, fear, embarrassment, and lack of trust in the interpreters. Participants described a need for training of healthcare providers on issues surrounding Somali women's cultural practices and sexual health. Identifying individual, community, or health system barriers and addressing them concurrently may increase use of cancer screening services among Somali women. Future interventions need to address multilevel barriers with multilevel approaches to improve utilization of cervical cancer screening services in underserved immigrant populations in the United States. PMID:25073605

  1. Improving Colorectal Cancer Screening in Primary Care Practice: Innovative Strategies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, David; Breslau, Erica S.; Zapka, Jane G.; Fletcher, Robert H.; Ransohoff, David F.; Winawer, Sidney J.

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been supported by strong research evidence and recommended in clinical practice guidelines for more than a decade. Yet screening rates in the United States remain low, especially relative to other preventable diseases such as breast and cervical cancer. To understand the reasons, the National Cancer Institute and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sponsored a review of CRC screening implementation in primary care and a program of research funded by these organizations. The evidence base for improving CRC screening supports the value of a New Model of Primary Care Delivery: 1. a team approach, in which responsibility for screening tasks is shared among other members of the practice, would help address physicians’ lack of time for preventive care; 2. information systems can identify eligible patients and remind them when screening is due; 3. involving patients in decisions about their own care may enhance screening participation; 4. monitoring practice performance, supported by information systems, can help target patients at increased risk because of family history or social disadvantage; 5. reimbursement for services outside the traditional provider—patient encounter, such as telephone and e-mail contacts, may foster enhanced screening delivery; 6. training opportunities in communication, cultural competence, and use of information technologies would improve provider competence in core elements of screening programs. Improvement in CRC screening rates largely depends on the efforts of primary care practices to implement effective systems and procedures for screening delivery. Active engagement and support of practices are essential for the enormous potential of CRC screening to be realized. PMID:17534688

  2. Who are the under- and never- screened for cancer in Ontario: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Observed breast, cervical and colon cancer screening rates are below provincial targets for the province of Ontario, Canada. The populations who are under- or never-screened for these cancers have not been described at the Ontario provincial level. Our objective was to use qualitative methods of inquiry to explore who are the never- or under-screened populations of Ontario. Methods Qualitative data were collected from two rounds of focus group discussions conducted in four communities selected using maps of screening rates by dissemination area. The communities selected were archetypical of the Ontario context: urban, suburban, small city and rural. The first phase of focus groups was with health service providers. The second phase of focus groups was with community members from the under- and never- screened population. Guided by a grounded theory methodology, data were collected and analyzed simultaneously to enable the core and related concepts about the under- and never-screened to emerge. Results The core concept that emerged from the data is that the under- and never-screened populations of Ontario are characterized by diversity. Group level characteristics of the under- and never- screened included: 1) the uninsured (e.g., Old Order Mennonites and illegal immigrants); 2) sexual abuse survivors; 3) people in crisis; 4) immigrants; 5) men; and 6) individuals accessing traditional, alternative and complementary medicine for health and wellness. Under- and never-screened could have one or multiple group characteristics. Conclusion The under- and never-screened in Ontario comprise a diversity of groups. Heterogeneity within and intersectionality among under- and never-screened groups adds complexity to cancer screening participation and program planning. PMID:24885998

  3. Breast cancer screening among females in Iran and recommendations for improved practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Babu, Giridhara R; Samari, Goleen; Cohen, Sharon Phoebe; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wahbe, Randa May; Mermash, Sherin; Galal, Osman M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer amongst women, in Iran comprising 21.4% of female cancers. There are several screening modalities for breast cancer including breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography. This research reviews the literature surrounding the implementation of these screening approaches in the Islamic Republic of Iran. After initial results produced approximately 208 articles, a total of 96 articles were included because they specifically addressed epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer, culture, religion, health seeking behavior, screening programs and the health system in Iran. Literature showed that breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were most common as there is no population-based mammography screening program in Iran. Additionally, most women appear to obtain information through the mass media. Results also indicate that Islamic beliefs and preventative medicine are very much aligned and can be used to promote breast cancer screening in Iran. These results highlight that there is a need for aggressive preventative measures focusing on breast self examination and gradually moving towards national mammography programs in Iran ideally disseminated through the media with government support. PMID:22126539

  4. A loss-of-function RNA interference screen for molecular targets in cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu N. Ngo; R. Eric Davis; Laurence Lamy; Xin Yu; Hong Zhao; Georg Lenz; Lloyd T. Lam; Sandeep Dave; Liming Yang; John Powell; Louis M. Staudt

    2006-01-01

    The pursuit of novel therapeutic agents in cancer relies on the identification and validation of molecular targets. Hallmarks of cancer include self-sufficiency in growth signals and evasion from apoptosis; genes that regulate these processes may be optimal for therapeutic attack. Here we describe a loss-of-function screen for genes required for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells using an RNA

  5. The importance of patient preference in the decision to screen for prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Barry Flood; John E. Wennberg; Robert F. Nease; Floyd J. Fowler; Jiao Ding; Lynda M. Hynes

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Routine screening for prostate cancer is controversial because of frequent false-positive results, the potential for slow,\\u000a non-life-threatening growth of untreated cancer, the uncertainty regarding whether treatment can extend life, and the potential\\u000a for treatment complications. This study examines how information about prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and the uncertain\\u000a benefits of treating prostate cancer affects patients’ desire for PSA testing.

  6. Phenotypic characterization and risk factors for interval breast cancers in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Barcelona, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laia Domingo; Maria Sala; Sònia Servitja; Josep Maria Corominas; Francisco Ferrer; Juan Martínez; Francesc Macià; Maria Jesús Quintana; Joan Albanell; Xavier Castells

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To analyze phenotypic classification and other risk factors for interval breast cancer, focusing on true interval and false\\u000a negative cancers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A nested case–control study was performed among 115 cancers detected between two screening mammograms (interval cancers) and\\u000a 115 screen-detected cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2008 in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Barcelona\\u000a (Spain). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were

  7. Screening for Breast Cancer: Systematic Evidence Review Update for the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Heidi D.; Tyne, Kari; Naik, Arpana; Bougatsos, Christina; Chan, Benjamin K.; Humphrey, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background This systematic review is an update of evidence since the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on breast cancer screening. Purpose To determine the effectiveness of mammography screening in decreasing breast cancer mortality among average-risk women age 40 to 49 and 70 and older; the effectiveness of clinical breast examination (CBE) and breast self examination (BSE); and harms of screening. Data Sources Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry and Database of Systematic Reviews (4th Quarter 2008), MEDLINE® (January 2001 to December 2008), reference lists, and Web of Science® for published studies; Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium for screening mammography data. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials with breast cancer mortality outcomes for screening effectiveness; multiple study designs and data sources for harms. Data Extraction Investigators abstracted relevant data and rated study quality using established criteria. Data Synthesis Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality by 15% for women age 39 to 49 (relative risk 0.85; 95% CrI 0.75 to 0.96; 8 trials); data are lacking for age ?70. Radiation exposure from mammography is low. Patient adverse experiences are common, transient, and do not impact screening practices. Estimates of overdiagnosis vary from 1% to 10%. Younger women have more false positive mammograms and additional imaging, but fewer biopsies than older women. Trials of CBE are ongoing; for BSE, trials showed no reductions in mortality but increased benign biopsies. Limitations Studies of older women, digital mammography, and MRI are lacking. Conclusions Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality for women age 39 to 69; data are insufficient for older women. False positive mammograms and additional imaging are common. No benefit has been shown for CBE or BSE. PMID:19920273

  8. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  9. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  10. Broadening the examination of sociocultural constructs relevant to African-American colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L Sanders; Harris, J; Clark, E M; Purnell, J; Deshpande, A D

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sociocultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on the efforts to explore alternatives to sociocultural constructs previously associated with African-American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these sociocultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African-Americans (N?=?1021), 50-75?years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Sociocultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected sociocultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism, and privacy) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was .062; 90% CI: .060-.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism, and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale development activities is discussed. PMID:24628025

  11. Low-mass-ion discriminant equation: A new concept for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Ji-Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Byung Chang; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Dae Yong; Oh, Jae Hwan; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, In-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Blood metabolites can be detected as low-mass ions (LMIs) by mass spectrometry (MS). These LMIs may reflect the pathological changes in metabolism that occur as part of a disease state, such as cancer. We constructed a LMI discriminant equation (LOME) to investigate whether systematic LMI profiling might be applied to cancer screening. LMI information including m/z and mass peak intensity was obtained by five independent MALDI-MS analyses, using 1,127 sera collected from healthy individuals and cancer patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BRC), gastric cancer (GC) and other types of cancer. Using a two-stage principal component analysis to determine weighting factors for individual LMIs and a two-stage LMI selection procedure, we selected a total of 104 and 23 major LMIs by the LOME algorithms for separating CRC from control and rest of cancer samples, respectively. CRC LOME demonstrated excellent discriminating power in a validation set (sensitivity/specificity: 93.21%/96.47%). Furthermore, in a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) of available validation samples, the discriminating power of CRC LOME was much stronger (sensitivity/specificity: 94.79%/97.96%) than that of the FOBT (sensitivity/specificity: 50.00%/100.0%), which is the standard CRC screening tool. The robust discriminating power of the LOME scheme was reconfirmed in screens for BRC (sensitivity/specificity: 92.45%/96.57%) and GC (sensitivity/specificity: 93.18%/98.85%). Our study demonstrates that LOMEs might be powerful noninvasive diagnostic tools with high sensitivity/specificity in cancer screening. The use of LOMEs could potentially enable screening for multiple diseases (including different types of cancer) from a single sampling of LMI information. PMID:24096867

  12. The Challenges of Implementing Screening Programs Across Cancer Types

    Cancer.gov

    Basic Principles of Screening ( Wilson and Jungner, 1968) 1. The condition being screened for should be an important health problem. 2. There should be an accepted treatment for patients with recognized disease. 3. Facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be available. 4. There should be a suitable test or examination, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. 5. The test should be acceptable to the population. Principles of Screening (Cont’d) 6.

  13. Health and economic impact of HPV 16 and 18 vaccination and cervical cancer screening in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Diaz; J J Kim; G Albero; S de Sanjosé; G Clifford; F X Bosch; S J Goldie

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in low-income countries, with ?25% of cases worldwide occurring in India. We estimated the potential health and economic impact of different cervical cancer prevention strategies. After empirically calibrating a cervical cancer model to country-specific epidemiologic data, we projected cancer incidence, life expectancy, and lifetime costs (I$2005), and calculated incremental

  14. The Mexican Cervical Cancer Screening Trial: self-sampling for human papillomavirus with unaided visual inspection as a secondary screen.

    PubMed

    Belinson, Jerome L; Pretorius, Robert G; Enerson, Christine; Garcia, Francisco; Cruz, Eduardo Pérez; Belinson, Suzanne E; Yeverino García, Eduardo; Brainard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Cervical Cancer Screening (MECCS) study took place in the State of Michoacán. Primary screening was by self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). The objectives were to increase the specificity of primary HPV screening by requiring 2 positive HPV tests 1 year apart in women whose secondary screen was negative according to an acetic acid-aided visual inspection (VIA). In addition, we postulated that the sensitivity of VIA would be sufficient to identify large preinvasive lesions and cancers unsuitable for cryotherapy if applied in a see-and-treat algorithm.A total of 8621 women (aged 30-50 years) were screened, and 14.3% were positive for HR-HPV. In phase 1, 11.9% of the HPV-positive women were VIA-positive and were referred for colposcopy with directed and random biopsies. If VIA-negative, women repeated the self-sample 1 year later to detect persistent HR-HPV (25.2% were positive). If persistently HR-HPV-positive in phase 2, patients again had VIA, then all women (both VIA-positive and -negative) received directed and random biopsies. If cryotherapy had been used to treat HPV- and VIA-positive women in phase 1 or persistent HR-HPV-positive (phase 2), the potential risk of undertreatment would have been 4.1%, and 66.4% of the treated patients would have had normal or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I on biopsy. The VIA triage would refer 0.73% of the patients to colposcopy owing to the lesion size, location, or the presence of a cancer. On the basis of this pilot study, we are encouraged to explore and evaluate a rapid, more sensitive, and more specific self-test. PMID:19258937

  15. Population screening for hereditary and familial cancer syndromes in Valka district of Latvia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The growing possibilities of cancer prevention and treatment as well as the increasing knowledge about hereditary cancers require proper identification of the persons at risk. The aim of this study was to test the outcome of population screening in the scientific and practical evaluation of hereditary cancer. Methods Population screening for hereditary cancer was carried out retrospectively in a geographic area of Latvia. Family cancer histories were collected from 18642 adults representing 76.6% of the population of this area. Hereditary cancer syndromes were diagnosed clinically. Molecular testing for BRCA1 founder mutations 300 T/G, 4153delA and 5382insC was conducted in 588 persons who reported at least one case of breast or ovary cancer among blood relatives. Results Clinically, 74 (0.40%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 - 0.50%) high-risk and 548 (2.94%, 95% CI: 2.71 - 3.19) moderate-risk hereditary cancer syndromes were detected covering wide cancer spectrum. All syndromes were characterised by high cancer frequency among blood relatives ranging 8.6 - 46.2% in contrast to spouse correlation of 2.5 - 3.6%. The mean age of cancer onset ranged 38.0 - 72.0 years in different syndromes. The BRCA1 gene mutations were identified in 10 (1.7%; 95% CI: 0.9 - 3.1%) probands. Families with established BRCA1 gene founder mutations were identified with the frequency 1:2663 clinically screened persons. Conclusions Population screening is a useful practical tool for the identification of persons belonging to families with high frequency of malignant tumours. The whole hereditary and familial cancer spectrum along with the age structure was identified adjusting follow-up guidelines. Another benefit of the population screening is the possibility to identify oncologically healthy persons belonging to hereditary and familial cancer families so that appropriate surveillance can be offered. Clinical diagnostics is appropriate for population screening purposes; molecular investigation provides additional information. In collaboration with family doctors, the screening is technically manageable as characterised by high compliance. PMID:21034437

  16. Using geographic methods to inform cancer screening interventions for South Asians in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature suggests that South Asians in Ontario, Canada are under-screened for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. Accordingly, we are involved in a community-engaged multi-phase study aimed at increasing cancer screening for this vulnerable group. In the work described in this manuscript, we aimed to use visual displays of spatial analyses to identify the most appropriate small geographic areas in which to pilot targeted cancer screening interventions for Ontario’s South Asian community. Methods We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS), including Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) using GeoDa software, and population-level administrative data to create multi-layered maps of: i) rates of appropriate cancer screening, ii) the percentage of residents of South Asian ethnicity, and iii) the locations of primary care practices and community health centres by census tract in the Peel Region of Ontario (population: 1.2 million). The maps were shared with partner health service and community service organizations at an intervention development workgroup meeting to examine face validity. Results The lowest rates of appropriate cancer screening for census tracts across the region were 51.1% for cervical cancer, 48.5% for breast cancer, and 42.5% for colorectal cancer. We found marked variation both in screening rates and in the proportion of South Asians residents by census tract but lower screening rates in the region were consistently associated with larger South Asian populations. The LISA analysis identified a high-risk area consisting of multiple neighbouring census tracts with relatively low screening rates for all three cancer types and with a relatively large South Asian population. Partner organizations recognized and validated the geographic location highlighted by the LISA analysis. Many primary care practices are located in this high-risk area, with one community health centre located very nearby. Conclusions In this populous region of Ontario, South Asians are more likely to reside in areas with lower rates of appropriate breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening. We have identified a high-risk area appropriate for both patient- and provider-focused interventions. Geographic Information Systems, in particular LISA analyses, can be invaluable when working with health service and community organizations to define areas with the greatest need for interventions to reduce health inequities. PMID:23622426

  17. Breast cancer detection among young survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma with screening magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tieu, Minh Thi; Cigsar, Candemir; Ahmed, Sameera; Ng, Andrea; Diller, Lisa; Millar, B-A; Crystal, Pavel; Hodgson, David C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have received chest radiotherapy are at increased risk of breast cancer. Guidelines for early breast cancer screening among these survivors are based on little data regarding clinical outcomes. This study reports outcomes of breast cancer screening with MRI and mammography (MMG) after childhood HL. METHODS We evaluated the results of breast MRI and MMG screening among 96 female survivors of childhood HL treated with chest radiotherapy. Outcomes measured included imaging sensitivity and specificity, breast cancer characteristics, and incidence of additional imaging and breast biopsy. RESULTS Median age at first screening was 30 years, and the median number of MRI screening rounds was 3. Ten breast cancers were detected in 9 women at a median age of 39 years (range, 24-43 years). Half were invasive and half were preinvasive. The median size of invasive tumors was 8 mm (range, 3-15 mm), and none had lymph node involvement. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening modalities were as follows: for MRI alone, 80% and 93.5%, respectively; MMG alone, 70% and 95%, respectively; both modalities combined, 100% and 88.6%, respectively. All invasive tumors were detected by MRI. Additional investigations were required in 52 patients, (54%), and 26 patients (27%) required breast biopsy, with 10 patients requiring more than 1 biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Screening including breast MRI with MMG has high sensitivity and specificity in pediatric HL survivors, with breast cancers detected at an early stage, although it is associated with a substantial rate of additional investigations. Cancer 2014;120:2507–2513. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Screening female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma for breast cancer with MRI and mammography detected tumors at an earlier stage than prior studies of mammography alone, although a substantial proportion of women required additional tests for benign imaging findings. The 5-year cumulative incidence of invasive or preinvasive tumors after initiating screening was 10.8%. PMID:24888639

  18. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  20. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was consistently associated with lower likelihood of screening, although less so for immigrant patients. This study highlights certain physician characteristics that are associated with cancer screening for eligible patients, including immigrant patients, and that should be considered when designing physician-targeted interventions. We have also highlighted an ethnic community, South Asians, which requires particular attention, both among its patients and its primary care providers. Future research should further explore the reasons for these findings. PMID:25430885

  1. The Edinburgh randomised trial of breast cancer screening: results after 10 years of follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, F. E.; Anderson, T. J.; Brown, H. K.; Forrest, A. P.; Hepburn, W.; Kirkpatrick, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Muir, B. B.; Prescott, R. J.; Shepherd, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Edinburgh Randomised Trial of Breast Cancer Screening recruited 44,288 women aged 45-64 years into the initial cohort of the trial during 1978-81, and 10 years of follow-up is now complete. A total of 22,944 women were randomised into the study group and were offered screening for 7 years; the remaining women formed the control group. After 10 years, breast cancer mortality is 14-21% lower in the study group than in the controls depending on the precise definition of the end point. These differences are not statistically significant; for breast cancer as the underlying cause of death the relative risk is 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.11). Rates of locally advanced and metastatic cancer were substantially lower in the study group, but screening has failed to achieve marked reductions in rates of small node-positive cancers. Those women who accepted the final invitation to screening have been monitored over the 3 year period prior to their first screen under the UK service screening programme. Interval cases, expressed as a proportion of the control incidence, increased from 12% in the first year to 67% in the third year. The reduction in breast cancer mortality for older women (aged at least 50 years) is the same as that for the total study group for this duration of follow-up. For analyses of breast cancer mortality in younger women updates recruited to the trial from 1982 to 1985 (10,383 women with 6-8 years' follow-up) have been included. The reduction in breast cancer mortality for women aged 45-49 years at entry was 22% (relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.46-1.31). PMID:8080744

  2. Paper-based plasmonic platform for sensitive, noninvasive, and rapid cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Jiahong; Wang, Beike; Li, Zhe; Huang, Hao; Li, Chengzhang; Yu, Xuefeng; Chu, Paul K

    2014-04-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) fingerprints of individual molecules offer the possibility of multiplexing as well as cancer screening. A highly sensitive, noninvasive, and rapid cancer screening platform encompassing exfoliative cytology and paper-based SERS technology is described. The SERS substrate which consists of plasmonic gold nanorods (GNRs) adsorbed on a piece of filter paper forms the flexible and three-dimensional heterogeneous scaffold for cancer screening. Different and reproducible SERS spectra are obtained from normal and cancerous cells due to specific biomolecular changes in cancerous cells. A diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the spectra values is adopted to distinguish between cells exfoliated from 20 normal and cancerous tissues, and a high sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% are achieved by I1600/1440 (peak ratio of signals at 1600-1440 cm(-1)) and I1440/1340 (1440-1340 cm(-1)), which is better than I1600/1340 (1600-1340 cm(-1)) with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 60%. The combination of exfoliative cytology and paper-based plasmonic technology enables highly sensitive, rapid, and non-invasive cancer screening and has large clinical potential. PMID:24269754

  3. Awareness and Uptake of Family Screening in Patients Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer at a Young Age

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Hanley, Marion; Hogan, Aisling M.; Sheehan, Margaret; McAnena, Oliver J.; Regan, Mark P.; Kerin, Michael J.; Joyce, Myles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. One-fifth of people who develop colorectal cancer (CRC) have a first-degree relative (FDR) also affected. There is a large disparity in guidelines for screening of relatives of patients with CRC. Herein we address awareness and uptake of family screening amongst patients diagnosed with CRC under age 60 and compare guidelines for screening. Study Design. Patients under age 60 who received surgical management for CRC between June 2009 and May 2012 were identified using pathology records and theatre logbooks. A telephone questionnaire was carried out to investigate family history and screening uptake among FDRs. Results. Of 317 patients surgically managed for CRC over the study period, 65 were under age 60 at diagnosis (8 deceased). The mean age was 51 (30–59). 66% had node positive disease. 25% had a family history of colorectal cancer in a FDR. While American and Canadian guidelines identified 100% of these patients as requiring screening, British guidelines advocated screening for only 40%. Of 324 FDRs, only 40.9% had been screened as a result of patient's diagnosis. Conclusions. Uptake of screening in FDRs of young patients with CRC is low. Increased education and uniformity of guidelines may improve screening uptake in this high-risk population. PMID:25688262

  4. CISNET: Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Modeling to guide public health research and priorities Home About Modeling Approach Cancer Sites Breast Colorectal Esophageal Lung Prostate Resources About Funding

  5. CISNET: A Genetic Screening Policy Model for Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Modeling to guide public health research and priorities Home About Modeling Approach Cancer Sites Breast Colorectal Esophageal Lung Prostate Resources About Funding

  6. CISNET: Colorectal Cancer Screening: Evaluating Trends and Outcomes

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Modeling to guide public health research and priorities Home About Modeling Approach Cancer Sites Breast Colorectal Esophageal Lung Prostate Resources About Funding

  7. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Mitra; E. K. Bancroft; Y. Barbachano; E. C. Page; C. S. Foster; C. Jameson; G. Mitchell; G. J. Lindeman; A. Stapleton; G. Suthers; D. G. Evans; D. Cruger; I. Blanco; C. Mercer; J. Kirk; L. Maehle; S. Hodgson; L. Walker; L. Izatt; F. Douglas; K. Tucker; H. Dorkins; V. Clowes; A. Male; A. Donaldson; C. Brewer; R. Doherty; B. Bulman; P. J. Osther; M. Salinas; D. Eccles; K. Axcrona; I. Jobson; B. Newcombe; C. Cybulski; W. S. Rubinstein; S. Buys; S. Townshend; E. Friedman; S. Domchek; T. Ramon Y Cajal; A. Spigelman; S. H. Teo; N. Nicolai; N. Aaronson; A. Ardern-Jones; C. Bangma; D. Dearnaley; J. Eyfjord; A. Falconer; H. Gronberg; F. Hamdy; O. Johannsson; V. Khoo; Z. Kote-Jarai; H. Lilja; J. Lubinski; J. Melia; C. Moynihan; S. Peock; G. Rennert; F. Schroder; P. Sibley; M. Suri; P. Wilson; Y. J. Bignon; S. Strom; M. Tischkowitz; A. Liljegren; D. Ilencikova; A. Abele; K. Kyriacou; C. van Asperen; L. A. L. M. Kiemeney; D. F. Easton; R. A. Eeles

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1\\/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A

  8. Applying operations research to optimize a novel population management system for cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Zai, Adrian H; Kim, Seokjin; Kamis, Arnold; Hung, Ken; Ronquillo, Jeremiah G; Chueh, Henry C; Atlas, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize a new visit-independent, population-based cancer screening system (TopCare) by using operations research techniques to simulate changes in patient outreach staffing levels (delegates, navigators), modifications to user workflow within the information technology (IT) system, and changes in cancer screening recommendations. Materials and methods TopCare was modeled as a multiserver, multiphase queueing system. Simulation experiments implemented the queueing network model following a next-event time-advance mechanism, in which systematic adjustments were made to staffing levels, IT workflow settings, and cancer screening frequency in order to assess their impact on overdue screenings per patient. Results TopCare reduced the average number of overdue screenings per patient from 1.17 at inception to 0.86 during simulation to 0.23 at steady state. Increases in the workforce improved the effectiveness of TopCare. In particular, increasing the delegate or navigator staff level by one person improved screening completion rates by 1.3% or 12.2%, respectively. In contrast, changes in the amount of time a patient entry stays on delegate and navigator lists had little impact on overdue screenings. Finally, lengthening the screening interval increased efficiency within TopCare by decreasing overdue screenings at the patient level, resulting in a smaller number of overdue patients needing delegates for screening and a higher fraction of screenings completed by delegates. Conclusions Simulating the impact of changes in staffing, system parameters, and clinical inputs on the effectiveness and efficiency of care can inform the allocation of limited resources in population management. PMID:24043318

  9. Key informant interviews with coordinators of special events conducted to increase cancer screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Escoffery, Cam; Rodgers, Kirsten; Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Howard, David; Roland, Katherine B.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Castro, Georgina; Rodriguez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Special events such as health fairs, cultural festivals and charity runs are commonly employed in the community to increase cancer screening; however, little is known about their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to assess the activities, screening outcomes, barriers and recommendations of special events to increase breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening. In-depth interviews were conducted nationally with 51 coordinators of events in June to September 2012. Health fairs and screening days were the most common events conducted, primarily for breast cancer education. Goals were to increase awareness of cancer screening and reach special populations. Evidence-based Community Guide strategies to increase cancer screening employed were: small media, reducing structural barriers, one-on-one education or group education. For each event that provided screening on-site or through referral, a mean of 35 breast, 28 cervical and 19 colorectal cancer screenings were reported. Coordinators made recommendations for further evaluation of special events, and most plan to conduct another special event. These data are novel and provide baseline documentation of activities and recommendations for a commonly used community-based cancer screening intervention that lacks evidence of effectiveness. Additional research to better understand the use of special events for increasing cancer screening is warranted. PMID:25134886

  10. Low health literacy and cancer screening among Chinese Americans in California: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Davis, Terry; Davis, James; Braun, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans. Chinese Americans comprise the largest Asian American ethnic group. Low health literacy (LHL) is associated with lower cancer screening rates, but this association has not been studied in Chinese Americans. We examined the relationship between LHL and meeting US Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for cervical, colorectal and breast cancer screening among Chinese Americans. Design Observational study of Chinese respondents in the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey. Interview languages included English, Cantonese and Mandarin. Setting California, USA Participants Chinese respondents in age/gender groupings appropriate for USPSTF cancer screening guidelines (cervical: women ages 21–65, n=632; colorectal: men or women ages 50–75, n=488; and breast: women ages 50–74, n=326). Outcomes Relationships were tested using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for healthcare access and demographic factors, including limited English proficiency (LEP). The combined effects of having both LHL and LEP were specifically examined. LHL was measured by 2-items on perceived ease-of-use of written medical materials. All study variables were self-reported. Results Cancer screening percentages among Chinese Americans were 77.8% for cervical, 50.9% for colorectal (47.9% for women and 54.2% for men), and 85.5% for breast. LHL was associated with lower odds of meeting breast cancer screening guidelines (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.82). Respondents with both LHL and LEP were significantly less likely to have up-to-date colorectal (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.97) and breast cancer screening (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.54) than those with neither health communication barrier. In all multivariable models, having seen a physician in the past year was a significant predictor of an up-to-date screening. Conclusions In Chinese Americans, LHL and LEP were negatively associated with up-to-date breast and colorectal cancer screening, independent of a recent physician visit. Efforts to promote cancer screening among Chinese Americans should consider and address LHL, LEP and physician access barriers. PMID:25564140

  11. The Candidate Cancer Gene Database: a database of cancer driver genes from forward genetic screens in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Kenneth L; Nyre, Erik T; Abrahante, Juan; Ho, Yen-Yi; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Starr, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cancer driver gene mutations is crucial for advancing cancer therapeutics. Due to the overwhelming number of passenger mutations in the human tumor genome, it is difficult to pinpoint causative driver genes. Using transposon mutagenesis in mice many laboratories have conducted forward genetic screens and identified thousands of candidate driver genes that are highly relevant to human cancer. Unfortunately, this information is difficult to access and utilize because it is scattered across multiple publications using different mouse genome builds and strength metrics. To improve access to these findings and facilitate meta-analyses, we developed the Candidate Cancer Gene Database (CCGD, http://ccgd-starrlab.oit.umn.edu/). The CCGD is a manually curated database containing a unified description of all identified candidate driver genes and the genomic location of transposon common insertion sites (CISs) from all currently published transposon-based screens. To demonstrate relevance to human cancer, we performed a modified gene set enrichment analysis using KEGG pathways and show that human cancer pathways are highly enriched in the database. We also used hierarchical clustering to identify pathways enriched in blood cancers compared to solid cancers. The CCGD is a novel resource available to scientists interested in the identification of genetic drivers of cancer. PMID:25190456

  12. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24331820

  13. Prospective study of the relationship between coffee and tea with colorectal cancer risk: The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dominianni, C; Huang, W-Y; Berndt, S; Hayes, R B; Ahn, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee and tea are commonly consumed and carry potential anticancer components that could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer; however, their relationships with colorectal cancer risk remain inconsistent. Methods: A prospective analysis was carried out to examine the relationships of coffee and tea intake with colorectal cancer risk in 57?398 men and women in the intervention arm of the National Cancer Institute-Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a national screening study that limits differential detection biases. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Results: Six hundred and eighty-one incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained during a median follow-up of 11.4 years. Greater coffee intake was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer (relative risk (RR)=1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79–1.48, Ptrend=0.23). Stratifying by cancer site (Pheterogeneity=0.48) or stage (Pheterogeneity=0.83) did not alter the relationship. Associations remained unchanged in subsets of participants for either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or when stratifying by several colorectal cancer risk factors. Similarly, greater tea intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk overall (RR=0.77, 95% CI=0.55–1.09, Ptrend=0.17) or by cancer site (Pheterogeneity=0.14) or stage (Pheterogeneity=0.60). These associations were not modified by several colorectal cancer risk factors. Conclusion: The findings of this study do not provide evidence to suggest that drinking coffee or tea is beneficial in protecting against colorectal cancer. PMID:23907431

  14. Extended Lung Cancer Incidence Follow-up in the Mayo Lung Project and Overdiagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela M. Marcus; Erik J. Bergstralh; Mark H. Zweig; Ann Harris; Kenneth P. Offord; Robert S. Fontana

    2006-01-01

    Background: A troubling aspect of cancer screening is the potential for overdiagnosis, i.e., detection of disease that, in the absence of screening, would never have been diagnosed. Overdiagnosis is of particular concern in lung cancer screen- ing because newer screening modalities can identify small nodules of unknown clinical signifi cance. Previously pub- lished analyses of data from the Mayo Lung

  15. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium cosponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22422631

  16. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Saraiya, Mona; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22418039

  17. Spectrum of very early breast cancer in a setting without organised screening

    PubMed Central

    Bhoo-Pathy, N; Subramaniam, S; Taib, N A; Hartman, M; Alias, Z; Tan, G-H; Ibrahim, R I; Yip, C-H; Verkooijen, H M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Within a setting without organised breast cancer screening, the characteristics and survival of very early breast cancer were determined. Methods: All 4930 women diagnosed with breast cancer in University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia from 1993 to 2011 were included. Factors associated with very early presentation (stage I) at diagnosis were identified. Tumour characteristics, management patterns, and survival of very early breast cancer were described, and where appropriate, compared with other settings. Results: Proportion of women presenting with stage I breast cancer significantly increased from 15.2% to 25.2% over two decades. Factors associated with very early presentation were Chinese ethnicity, positive family history of breast cancer, and recent period of diagnosis. Within stage I breast cancers, median tumour size at presentation was 1.5?cm. A majority of stage I breast cancer patients received mastectomy, which was associated with older age, Chinese ethnicity, postmenopausal status, and larger tumours. Chemotherapy was administered in 36% of patients. Five-year age-adjusted relative survival for women with stage I breast cancer was 99.1% (95% CI: 97.6–99.6%). Conclusions: The proportion of women presenting with very early breast cancer in this setting without organised screening is increasing. These women seem to survive just as well as their counterparts from affluent settings. PMID:24736587

  18. Breast cancer screening: Evidence of the effect of adjunct ultrasound screening in women with unilateral mammography-negative dense breasts

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Atoosa; Golshahi, Maryam; Sirus, Mehri; Kazemi, Kimia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with the previous history of breast cancer are in risk of contralateral breast cancer. On the other hand, increased breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and the sensitivity of detecting nonpalpable cancers in screening mammography in radiographically dense breasts is low. The use of ultrasonography in dense breast remains a controversial topic. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of routine ultrasonography in follow-up of women with the previous history of breast cancer and negative mammography but dense breasts. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 267 individuals with unilateral postmastectomy mammogram screened and 153 subjects assigned to study. There were 28 subjects with American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density 2 and 125 with ACR breast density 3-4, which there was no new finding in their mammogram in comparison to previous studies. We assumed subjects with ACR breast density 3-4 as mammographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 0 for malignancy. Standard two-view mammogram was performed for all participants, and breast ultrasound (US) examinations were performed by an expert radiologist in radial and anti-radial planes. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: The results showed that in subjects with ACR breast density 3-4, when there was no new density in two consecutive mammograms in comparison to previous studies, US also showed no possibility for malignancy (BI-RADS 1-2). And also in subjects with ACR breast density 2, when the mammographic results were BI-RADS 1-2, the US results was the same. Conclusion: Our data indicate that for the detection of breast cancer, sensitivity of US was not greater than mammography in patients with postmastectomy unilateral dense breast if there is not any new density.

  19. Breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers after risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid E. Fakkert; Liesbeth Jansen; Kees Meijer; Theo Kok; Jan C. Oosterwijk; Marian J. E. Mourits; Geertruida H. de Bock

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is offered to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the age of 25 years because of their increased risk of breast cancer. As ovarian cancer screening\\u000a is not effective, risk-reducing salpingho-oophorectomy (RRSO) is offered after child bearing age. RRSO before menopause reduces\\u000a the breast cancer risk as well as breast density. It can be questioned whether after premenopausal

  20. Exploring women's knowledge, experiences and perceptions of cervical cancer screening in an area of social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Logan, L; McIlfatrick, S

    2011-11-01

    Despite the strong evidence that cervical screening does save lives, evidence suggests that the uptake for cervical screening for women from socially deprived areas still remains low. A qualitative approach using four focus groups was undertaken with 48 women living in socially deprived areas who had accessed a mobile screening unit to receive cervical screening. Analysis of the data was undertaken using thematic content analysis. The women's knowledge of cervical cancer including associated risks, and preventative factors were extremely limited. The women expressed a negative attitude towards their experiences of cervical screening, describing negative feelings of 'fear', 'embarrassment' and feeling 'stigmatised'. Practical issues such as the timing of the appointments, issues of time and having to find child care were identified as the main barriers to screening for this group. This study highlights that practices and beliefs about screening are variable and access to health care is poorly tailored to meet the needs of the socially deprived. There is a need for accessible targeted information and strategies in order to enhance knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and screening for women living in socially deprived areas. PMID:21521388

  1. Validation of Self-Reported Colorectal Cancer Screening Behaviors among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Katz, Mira L.; Oliveri, Jill M.; Young, Gregory S.; Llanos, Adana A.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the validity of self-reported colorectal cancer (CRC) screening data provided by Appalachian Ohio residents and identified correlates of providing accurate data. Design We conducted cross-sectional telephone interviews between September 2009 and April 2010. Sample Our study included Appalachian Ohio residents (n=721) ages 51–75. Measurements We compared self-reported CRC screening data to medical records to determine validity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify correlates of providing accurate self-reported screening data. Results About 68% of participants self-reported having any CRC screening test within recommended guidelines, while medical records indicated that only 49% were within guidelines (concordance=0.76). Concordance was higher for flexible sigmoidoscopy and FOBT compared to colonoscopy, though sensitivity and positive predictive value were much higher for colonoscopy. Participants overreported CRC screening behaviors for all tests. Participants who had a regular check-up in the last two years (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 1.15-6.73) or self-rated their health as good or better (OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.12-3.16) were more likely to provide accurate screening data. Conclusions Many participants failed to provide accurate CRC screening data, and validity varied greatly across individual CRC screening tests. Future CRC screening studies among Appalachian residents should use medical records, if possible, to determine screening histories. PMID:23808856

  2. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis: exploiting forward genetic screens for cancer gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael B; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Mann, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a powerful insertional mutagen used in somatic forward genetic screens to identify novel candidate cancer genes. In the past two years, SB has become widely adopted to model human pancreatic, hepatocellular, colorectal and neurological cancers to identify loci that participate in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Oncogenomic approaches have directly linked hundreds of genes identified by SB with human cancers, many with prognostic implications. These SB candidate cancer genes are aiding to prioritize punitive human cancer genes for follow-up studies and as possible biomarkers or therapeutic targets. This review highlights recent advances in SB cancer gene discovery, approaches to validate candidate cancer genes, and efforts to integrate SB data across all tumor types to prioritize drug development and tumor specificity. PMID:24657532

  3. Has ultrasonography a role in screening for prostatic cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Clements

    1997-01-01

    .   Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as the first line test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer in asymptomatic\\u000a men. The role of transrectal ultrasound is now predominantly accepted as a means of accurate biopsy of the prostate, but there\\u000a is confusion about the best biopsy protocols for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Optimum diagnosis of prostate cancer

  4. Endometrial and ovarian cancer in women with Lynch syndrome: update in screening and prevention.

    PubMed

    Lu, Karen H; Daniels, Molly

    2013-06-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome have an additional need to address the substantial increased lifetime risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Endometrial or ovarian cancer can be the presenting cancer in individuals with Lynch syndrome, or can be a second cancer. Lifetime risk of endometrial cancer in women with MLH1 or MSH2 mutations is approximately 40 %, with a median age of 49. Women with MSH6 mutations have a similar risk of endometrial cancer but a later age of diagnosis. Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancers are primarily endometrioid, although non-endometrioid subtypes including clear cell, papillary serous and MMMT have been reported. In addition, endometrial cancers arising in the lower uterine segment, while rare in the general population, are enriched in women with Lynch syndrome. Ovarian cancer risk in women with Lynch syndrome is 6-8 %, and Lynch syndrome-associated ovarian cancers exhibit a variety of histopathological subtypes. Studies of endometrial cancer screening in Lynch syndrome have been small, and more recently have focused on the use of office endometrial biopsy to identify pre-malignant and early stage cancers. Prevention options include the use of oral contraceptives, which are known to be highly effective for decreasing risk of both endometrial and ovarian cancer in the general population, and prophylactic surgery to remove the uterus and ovaries. PMID:23765559

  5. [Skin cancer screening in Germany : The situation in 2014 with suggestions for the future].

    PubMed

    Blum, A; Kreusch, J; Stolz, W; Haenssle, H

    2015-07-01

    Based on the skin cancer screening model of Germany a critical statement is presented about skin cancer epidemiology, the total body examination and time intervals. The number of skin cancer cases will increase and the number of dermatologists will probably decrease; thus a fundamental and pragmatic strategy is required for further education and planning to comply with the increased dermato-oncological demand of an aging population. Hereby dermoscopy should be a basic diagnostic tool for the early recognition of skin cancer and precursors as well as to avoid unnecessary excisions of benign skin lesions. The excision ratio between malignant and benign skin tumours should be optimized. PMID:25859928

  6. Uncertain Futures: Individual Risk and Social Context in Decision-Making in Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon J. Craddock

    2010-01-01

    A core logic of cancer control and prevention, like much in public health, turns on the notion of decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. Population-level data are increasingly used to develop risk profiles, or estimates, that clinicians and the consumer public may use to guide individual decisions about cancer screening. Individual risk perception forms a piece of a larger social economy of decision-making and choice that makes population screening possible. Individual decision-making depends on accessing and interpreting available clinical information, filtered through the lens of personal values and both cognitive and affective behavioral processes. That process is also mediated by changing social roles and interpersonal relationships. This paper begins to elucidate the influence of this “social context” within the complexity of cancer screening. Reflecting on current work in risk and health, I consider how ethnographic narrative methods can enrich this model. PMID:20563321

  7. Implementation of cervical cancer screening and prevention in China--challenges and reality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Ming; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes great efforts that Chinese scholars had made in fighting against cervical cancer from aspects of the epidemiology, etiology, population-based screening studies, novel screening technology development, guideline, strategy and policy making and population delivery. After decades of continuous efforts, Chinese scientists successfully translated their scientific discovery to appropriate screening product development and eventually, delivered it to the whole population. We hope our experience could serve as a 'case-story' for cancer prevention in other low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, challenges confronted in the prevention and control of cervical cancer in China are reviewed as well to appeal for future multi-collaborations and potential solutions to acquire the final success of the campaign. PMID:25398583

  8. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, R.; Budukh, A. M.; Rajkumar, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes--either organized or opportunistic--have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in high-risk developing countries because of ineffective or no screening. This article briefly reviews the experience from existing screening and research initiatives in developing countries. Substantial costs are involved in providing the infrastructure, manpower, consumables, follow-up and surveillance for both organized and opportunistic screening programmes for cervical cancer. Owing to their limited health care resources, developing countries cannot afford the models of frequently repeated screening of women over a wide age range that are used in developed countries. Many low-income developing countries, including most in sub-Saharan Africa, have neither the resources nor the capacity for their health services to organize and sustain any kind of screening programme. Middle-income developing countries, which currently provide inefficient screening, should reorganize their programmes in the light of experiences from other countries and lessons from their past failures. Middle-income countries intending to organize a new screening programme should start first in a limited geographical area, before considering any expansion. It is also more realistic and effective to target the screening on high-risk women once or twice in their lifetime using a highly sensitive test, with an emphasis on high coverage (>80%) of the targeted population. Efforts to organize an effective screening programme in these developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the needed manpower, and elaborate surveillance mechanisms for screening, investigating, treating, and following up the targeted women. The findings from the large body of research on various screening approaches carried out in developing countries and from the available managerial guidelines should be taken into account when reorganizing existing programmes and when considering new screening initiatives. PMID:11693978

  9. Colorectal Screening is Associated with Reduced Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case–Control Study within the Population-Based Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Cotterchio; Michael Manno; Neil Klar; John McLaughlin; Steven Gallinger

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the first study to evaluate the association between colonic screening and colorectal cancer risk among Canadians. Methods: A case–control study was conducted. Cases were diagnosed with cancer of the colorectum, between 1997 and 2000, aged 20 to 74 years, identified through the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry and recruited by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. Controls were

  10. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

    PubMed

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically significant increase of the sensitivity for CIN2 or more of LBC with computer-assisted interpretation vs. conventional cytology with manual interpretation. However, an English RCT estimated that LBC with computer-assisted interpretation has a lower sensitivity than LBC with manual interpretation. COST AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION: In the current Italian situation the use of liquid-based cytology for primary screening is estimated to increase the costs of cytological screening. Liquid-based cytology needs shorter time for interpretation than conventional cytology. However, in the Italian situation, savings obtained from this time reduction and from the decreased number of repeats due to unsatisfactory slides are not currently sufficient to compensate the cost increase due to the prices currently applied by producers and to a possible greater number of colposcopies caused by LBC. In any case, at current prices, cost is estimated to increase even when assuming a referral rate to colposcopy with LBC similar or slightly lower than that with conventional cytology. For the costs of computer-assisted interpretation of liquid-based cytology, readers are referred to the relative HTA report (Epidemiol Prev 2012;36(5) Suppl 3:e1-43). ORGANISATIONAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS: Ethical, legal and communication problems are judged to remain unchanged when compared to screening with conventional cytology. After having used the test for some time, interpreters prefer liquid-based to conventional cytology. Reduced time for interpretation makes the adoption of LBC a possible approach to deal with shortenings of cytology interpreters which is happening in Italy. However, alternative solutions, such as computer-assisted interpretation of cytology and the use of HPV as primary screening test, should be considered. Liquid-based cytology allows performing molecular tests, in particular the HPV test. This property allows triaging women with borderline or mild cytology by "reflex" molecular or immunocytochemical tests with no need to recall them. LBC sampling can be used also if HPV is app

  11. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  12. The Conversations about Cancer (CAC) Project: Assessing Feasibility and Audience Impacts from Viewing The Cancer Play*

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Wayne A.; Buller, Mary K.; Dozier, David M.; Buller, David B.; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre-and post-performance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on 5 factor analyzed indices/indicators – two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator – and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded effort to disseminate the play nationally and to more rigorously test its impact on diverse audiences. Future directions for advancing research, education, and training across diverse academic and health care professions are discussed. PMID:24098921

  13. Demographic predictors of cancer screening among Filipino and Korean immigrants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette E Maxwell; Roshan Bastani; Umme S Warda

    2000-01-01

    Background: Little is known about cancer-screening practices of various Asian subgroups, and even less is known about factors that may predict screening in these populations.Design: Two independent surveys were conducted with 218 Filipino and 229 Korean female immigrants, aged 50 years and older, residing in Los Angeles.Results: In these convenience samples, 48% of Filipino and 41% of Korean women reported

  14. Predictors of Never Being Screened for Cervical Cancer by Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sandte L.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; King, Jessica B.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between cervical cancer screening and racial/ethnic minority status, no usual source of care, and lower socioeconomic status. This study describes the demographics and health beliefs of women who report never being screened for cervical cancer by area of residence. Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to study women aged 21–65 years who reported never being screened for cervical cancer. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to calculate predicted marginals to examine associations between never being screened and demographic characteristics and health belief model (HBM) constructs by metropolitan statistical area (MSA). After adjusting for all demographics and HBM constructs, prevalence of never being screened was higher for the following women: non-Hispanic Asians/Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (16.5 %, 95 % CI = 13.7 %, 19.8 %) who live in MSAs; those with only a high school diploma who live in MSAs (5.5 %, 95 % CI = 4.7 %, 6.5 %); those living in non-MSAs who reported “fair or poor” general health (4.1 %, 95 % CI = 3.1 %, 5.4 %); and those living in either MSAs and non-MSAs unable to see a doctor within the past 12 months because of cost (MSA: 4.4 %, 95 % CI = 4.0 %, 4.8 %; non-MSA: 3.4 %, 95 % CI = 2.9 %, 3.9 %). The Affordable Care Act will expand access to insurance coverage for cervical cancer screening, without cost sharing for millions of women, essentially eliminating insurance costs as a barrier. Future interventions for women who have never been screened should focus on promoting the importance of screening and reaching non-Hispanic Asians/Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders who live in MSAs. PMID:24162857

  15. A comparison of screening methods for colorectal cancer using simulation modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Tafazzoli; Stephen D. Roberts; R. M. Ness; Robert S. Dittus

    2005-01-01

    We used a discrete-event simulation model of the natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC) to do a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the latest CRC screening strategies recommended by the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) and the newest screening modalities for which clinical efficacy has been established. Cost-effectiveness was based on discounted costs and quality-adjusted life-years. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis examined the uncertainty

  16. Identifying Factors to Improve Oral Cancer Screening Uptake: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zohoori, Fatemeh Vida; Shah, Kamini; Mason, Julie; Shucksmith, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Aims To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake. Methods Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week), irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside. Results There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is ‘inaccessible’ on a physical and psychological level, costly, a ‘tooth specialist’ not a ‘mouth specialist’, and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer. Conclusions The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a “health” screening setting as opposed to a “dental” setting for such checks. PMID:23115644

  17. Antenatal maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: results of a demonstration project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Wald; A. Kennard; J. W. Densem; H. S. Cuckle; T. Chard; L. Butler

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the implementation of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in practice, using individual risk estimates based on maternal age and the three serum markers: alpha fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol, and human chorionic gonadotrophin. DESIGN--Demonstration project of Down's syndrome screening; women with a risk estimate at term of 1 in 250 or greater were classified as \\

  18. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale) for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological frameworks, we developed an implementation guideline to advise on interventions to increase the rate of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening. While advancements have been made in these areas of implementation science, more investigations are warranted. PMID:21958602

  19. A Pause, Progress, and Reassessment in Lung Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Unger

    2010-01-01

    1822 We are all well acquainted with the frightfully high incidence of lung cancer and the short sur- vival of patients after the diagnosis has been made. The extremely low survival rate is attributable in part to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate among patients with stage I lung cancer is

  20. COMMENTARY Evaluating the Efficacy of Screening for Recurrence of Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel S. Weiss; Linda S. Cook

    Many persons with cancer, although they receive a treatment that appears to be curative, later have a recurrence. For some forms of cancer, it seems likely that the early recognition of such recurrences could lead to a second round of treatment that proves effective, more so than if it were not given until later in the course of the disease.