Science.gov

Sample records for cancer surgery methods

  1. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  2. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer ... common types of breast cancer surgery. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) This type of surgery removes only a ...

  3. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or organs to which cancer has spread Possible risks and side effects The risks and side effects of surgery depend on how ... health before the surgery. All surgery carries some risk, including the possibility of bleeding, blood clots, infections, ...

  4. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... then be put directly into the tube. Possible complications and side effects of surgery Surgery for stomach cancer is difficult and can have complications. These can include bleeding from the surgery, blood ...

  5. Prevention of nausea and vomiting: methods and utility after surgery in cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Most cancer patients experience nausea and vomiting after surgery. Today, many methods of treatment have been developed and used for the control of such symptoms. The most important are drug therapy, relaxation, oxygen therapy and gas therapy. In addition, dexamethasone, massage therapy and using a Venturi mask have also proven effective. Due to the nature of gas consumption which leads to nausea it is recommended that use of N2O in the operating room be avoided or applied in combination with oxygen or other gases with fewer complications. PMID:25854338

  6. Methods to improve rehabilitation of patients following breast cancer surgery: a review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Siew Yim; Musa, Aisya Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Context Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer amongst women but it has the highest survival rates amongst all cancer. Rehabilitation therapy of post-treatment effects from cancer and its treatment is needed to improve functioning and quality of life. This review investigated the range of methods for improving physical, psychosocial, occupational, and social wellbeing in women with breast cancer after receiving breast cancer surgery. Method A search for articles published in English between the years 2009 and 2014 was carried out using The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Search terms included: ‘breast cancer’, ‘breast carcinoma’, ‘surgery’, ‘mastectomy’, ‘lumpectomy’, ‘breast conservation’, ‘axillary lymph node dissection’, ‘rehabilitation’, ‘therapy’, ‘physiotherapy’, ‘occupational therapy’, ‘psychological’, ‘psychosocial’, ‘psychotherapy’, ‘exercise’, ‘physical activity’, ‘cognitive’, ‘occupational’, ‘alternative’, ‘complementary’, and ‘systematic review’. Study selection Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of rehabilitation methods in improving post-operative physical, and psychological outcomes for breast cancer were selected. Sixteen articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Data extraction Included review year, study aim, total number of participants included, and results. Data synthesis Evidence for exercise rehabilitation is predominantly in the improvement of shoulder mobility and limb strength. Inconclusive results exist for a range of rehabilitation methods (physical, psycho-education, nutritional, alternative-complementary methods) for addressing the domains of psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes. Conclusion There is good evidence for narrowly-focused exercise rehabilitation in improving physical outcome particularly for shoulder mobility and lymphedema. There were inconclusive results for methods to improve psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes. There were no reviews on broader performance areas and lifestyle factors to enable effective living after treatment. The review suggests that comprehensiveness and effectiveness of post-operative breast cancer rehabilitation should consider patients’ self-management approaches towards lifestyle redesign, and incorporate health promotion aspects, in light of the fact that breast cancer is now taking the form of a chronic illness with longer survivorship years. PMID:25792854

  7. Detection methods and clinical significance of free peritoneal tumor cells found during colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sibio, Simone; Fiorani, Cristina; Stolfi, Carmine; Divizia, Andrea; Pezzuto, Roberto; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Bagaglini, Giulia; Sammartino, Paolo; Sica, Giuseppe Sigismondo

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal washing is now part of the standard clinical practice in several abdominal and pelvic neoplasias. However, in colorectal cancer surgery, intra-peritoneal free cancer cells (IFCC) presence is not routinely investigated and their prognostic meaning is still unclear. When peritoneal washing results are positive for the presence of IFCC a worse outcome is usually expected in these colorectal cancer operated patients, but it what is not clear is whether it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. It is authors’ belief that one of the main reasons why IFCC are not researched as integral part of the routine staging system for colon cancer is that there still isn’t a diagnostic or detection method with enough sensibility and specificity. However, the potential clinical implications of a routine research for the presence IFCC in colon neoplasias are enormous: not only to obtain a more accurate clinical staging but also to offer different therapy protocols, based on the presence of IFCC. Based on this, adjuvant chemotherapy could be offered to those patients found to be positive for IFCC; also, protocols of proactive intraperitoneal chemotherapy could be applied. Although presence of IFCC appears to have a valid prognostic significance, further studies are needed to standardize detection and examination procedures, to determine if there are and which are the stages more likely to benefit from routine search for IFCC. PMID:26425265

  8. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning. PMID:26427363

  9. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Radiation therapy for bile duct cancer Surgery for bile duct cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...

  10. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... will tell you when to arrive at the hospital. The surgery will take 4 to 6 hours. ... Most people stay in the hospital weeks 1 to 2 weeks after surgery. At first, you will be in the surgery area or intensive care where you can be watched closely. You will get ...

  11. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of ... and/or a medical oncologist. Types of breast surgery Most men with breast cancer have some type ...

  12. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with their doctors, as well as sperm banking (freezing and storing sperm cells obtained before treatment). Men ... Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices ...

  13. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... This extremely cold material kills tumor cells by freezing them. This treatment is also called cryotherapy . After ... Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices ...

  14. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Tegels, Juul J W; De Maat, Michiel F G; Hulsewé, Karel W E; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stoot, Jan H M B

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain. PMID:25320507

  15. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  16. Stomach Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Use State Fundraising Notices Site Comments Better Business Bureau Health On The Net National Health Council © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Cancer Society ...

  17. Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Cancer Surgery: From Current Fluorescence Molecular Imaging Methods to Future Multi-Modality Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chongwei; Du, Yang; Ye, Jinzuo; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to human health. Diagnosis and treatment using precision medicine is expected to be an effective method for preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Although anatomical and functional imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role for accurate preoperative diagnostics, for the most part these techniques cannot be applied intraoperatively. Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique that provides a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in tumor margin detection. Furthermore, existing clinical applications have proven that optical molecular imaging is a powerful intraoperative tool for guiding surgeons performing precision procedures, thus enabling radical resection and improved survival rates. However, detection depth limitation exists in optical molecular imaging methods and further breakthroughs from optical to multi-modality intraoperative imaging methods are needed to develop more extensive and comprehensive intraoperative applications. Here, we review the current intraoperative optical molecular imaging technologies, focusing on contrast agents and surgical navigation systems, and then discuss the future prospects of multi-modality imaging technology for intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery. PMID:25250092

  18. Surgery for Pre-Cancers and Cancers of the Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation therapy for cervical cancer Surgery for cervical cancer Cryosurgery A metal probe cooled with liquid nitrogen ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  19. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not a complete listing of breast cancer materials or information. The information contained herein is not ... quality or non-infringement of any of the materials, products or information provided by the organizations referenced ...

  20. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  1. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  2. Shoulder impairment before breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Ann Marie; Dwyer, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare pre- and post-operative shoulder active range of motion (AROM) values from female breast cancer survivors to population norm values for shoulder AROM; and to compare shoulder AROM differences pre- and post-surgery between female African American and White breast cancer survivors (BCA). Study design This pilot study used a convenience sample and longitudinal design measuring participants 2 times (T0 = baseline, after biopsy but within 2 weeks before BCA surgery; T1 = 2nd postoperative week). Background The U.S. has the largest BCA survivor population in history and yet the mortality burden remains highest among AA BCA survivors. AAs may also have greater burden of physical and functional side effects compared to whites and the general population. Methods and Measures The data were collected from a convenience sample (n = 33; nAA = 9, nW = 24) and included data on shoulder AROM, medical chart review for pre- and co-morbid conditions, and self-reported demographics and medical history. We used t-tests to compare sample AROM means to population norms. We then compared our sample across 2 timepoints (T0 = pre-surgery; T1 = 2 weeks post-surgery) using independent samples t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance (p < .05) to compare AA to White sub-samples AROM means. Results African Americans had significantly less shoulder abduction (at T0) and flexion (at T1) than whites. However, 100% had significantly reduced AROM for all movements at T0 (prior to surgery but after biopsy) when compared to population norms. Conclusions The significant reduction in shoulder AROM after biopsy but before surgery points to a possible unmet need for early physical therapy intervention. Further research using randomized controlled trial design is recommended. PMID:25593563

  3. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  4. [Organ-sparing surgery for penile cancer].

    PubMed

    Schlenker, B; Gratzke, C; Tilki, D; Hungerhuber, E; Schneede, P; Reich, O; Stief, C G; Seitz, M

    2008-07-01

    In patients with penile cancer health-related quality of life is closely related to organ-sparing surgery. To achieve an ideally suited treatment modality for this rare but aggressive tumor entity different operating techniques like micrographic surgery, laser treatment, and glansectomy were developed. These should offer optimal oncological treatment while preserving sexual function. This article gives an overview of indications and limits of organ-sparing treatment in penile cancer. PMID:18551271

  5. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Poruk, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19th century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20th century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections. PMID:26361403

  6. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Griffin, James F; Poruk, Katherine E; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19(th) century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20(th) century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections. PMID:26361403

  7. Anesthetic Techniques and Cancer Recurrence after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    D'Arrigo, Maria G.; Triolo, Stefania; Mondello, Stefania; La Torre, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Many of the most common anesthetics are used in surgical oncology, yet effects on cancer cells are still not known. Anesthesia technique could differentially affect cancer recurrence in oncologic patients undergoing surgery, due to immunosuppression, stimulation of angiogenesis, and dissemination of residual cancer cells. Data support the use of intravenous anesthetics, such as propofol anesthesia, thanks to antitumoral protective effects inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins E2 in cancer cells, and stimulation of immunity response; a restriction in the use of volatile anesthetics; restriction in the use of opioids as they suppress humoral and cellular immunity, and their chronic use favors angiogenesis and development of metastases; use of locoregional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia, as locoregional appears to reduce cancer recurrence after surgery. However, these findings must be interpreted cautiously as there is no evidence that simple changes in the practice of anesthesia can have a positive impact on postsurgical survival of cancer patients. PMID:24683330

  8. Robotic Surgery for Colon and Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Jung; Baik, Seung Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery, used generally for colorectal cancer, has the advantages of a three-dimensional surgical view, steadiness, and seven degrees of robotic arms. However, there are disadvantages, such as a decreased sense of touch, extra time needed to dock the robotic cart, and high cost. Robotic surgery is performed using various techniques, with or without laparoscopic surgery. Because the results of this approach are reported to be similar to or less favorable than those of laparoscopic surgery, the learning curve for robotic colorectal surgery remains controversial. However, according to short- and long-term oncologic outcomes, robotic colorectal surgery is feasible and safe compared with conventional surgery. Advanced technologies in robotic surgery have resulted in favorable intraoperative and perioperative clinical outcomes as well as functional outcomes. As the technical advances in robotic surgery improve surgical performance as well as outcomes, it increasingly is being regarded as a treatment option for colorectal surgery. However, a multicenter, randomized clinical trial is needed to validate this approach. PMID:26739822

  9. Role of minimally invasive surgery in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nezhat, Farr R; Pejovic, Tanja; Finger, Tamara N; Khalil, Susan S

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of ovarian cancer includes upfront surgery with intent to accurately diagnose and stage the disease and to perform maximal cytoreduction, followed by chemotherapy in most cases. Surgical staging of ovarian cancer traditionally has included exploratory laparotomy with peritoneal washings, hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, multiple peritoneal biopsies, and possible pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. In the early 1990s, pioneers in laparoscopic surgery used minimally invasive techniques to treat gynecologic cancers, including laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer and primary and secondary cytoreduction in advanced and recurrent disease in selected cases. Since then, the role of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology has been continually expanding, and today advanced laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques are used to evaluate and treat cervical and endometrial cancer. However, the important question about the place of the minimally invasive approach in surgical treatment of ovarian cancer remains to be evaluated and answered. Overall, the potential role of minimally invasive surgery in treatment of ovarian cancer is as follows: i) laparoscopic evaluation, diagnosis, and staging of apparent early ovarian cancer; ii) laparoscopic assessment of feasibility of upfront surgical cytoreduction to no visible disease; iii) laparoscopic debulking of advanced ovarian cancer; iv) laparoscopic reassessment in patients with complete remission after primary treatment; and v) laparoscopic assessment and cytoreduction of recurrent disease. The accurate diagnosis of suspect adnexal masses, the safety and feasibility of this surgical approach in early ovarian cancer, the promise of laparoscopy as the most accurate tool for triaging patients with advanced disease for surgery vs upfront chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and its potential in treatment of advanced cancer have been documented and therefore should be incorporated in the surgical methods of every gynecologic oncology unit and in the training programs in gynecologic oncology. PMID:24183269

  10. Prostate Cancer: Radical Prostatectomy (Surgery)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been replaced with robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALP) The prostate is removed through ports in your belly using a robotic system. The system holds and guides the laparoscopic ...

  11. Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Güner, Ali; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2014-01-01

    The interest in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has rapidly increased in recent decades and surgeons have adopted minimally invasive techniques due to its reduced invasiveness and numerous advantages for patients. With increased surgical experience and newly developed surgical instruments, MIS has become the preferred approach not only for benign disease but also for oncologic surgery. Recently, robotic systems have been developed to overcome difficulties of standard laparoscopic instruments during complex procedures. Its advantages including three-dimensional images, tremor filtering, motion scaling, articulated instruments, and stable retraction have created the opportunity to use robotic technology in many procedures including cancer surgery. Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While its overall incidence has decreased worldwide, the proportion of early gastric cancer has increased mainly in eastern countries following mass screening programs. The shift in the paradigm of gastric cancer treatment is toward less invasive approaches in order to improve the patient’s quality of life while adhering to oncological principles. In this review, we aimed to summarize the operative strategy and current literature in laparoscopic and robotic surgery for gastric cancer. PMID:25931879

  12. Lung cancer surgery: an up to date

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Chandrinos, Michail; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GLOBOCAN World Cancer Report, lung cancer affects more than 1 million people a year worldwide. In Greece according to the 2008 GLOBOCAN report, there were 6,667 cases recorded, 18% of the total incidence of all cancers in the population. Furthermore, there were 6,402 deaths due to lung cancer, 23.5% of all deaths due to cancer. Therefore, in our country, lung cancer is the most common and deadly form of cancer for the male population. The most important prognostic indicator in lung cancer is the extent of disease. The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging (AJCC) developed the tumour, node, and metastases (TNM) staging system which attempts to define those patients who might be suitable for radical surgery or radical radiotherapy, from the majority, who will only be suitable for palliative measures. Surgery has an important part for the therapy of patients with lung cancer. “Lobectomy is the gold standard treatment”. This statement may be challenged in cases of stage Ia cancer or in patients with limited pulmonary function. In these cases an anatomical segmentectomy with lymph node dissection is an acceptable alternative. Chest wall invasion is not a contraindication to resection. En-bloc rib resection and reconstruction is the treatment of choice. N2 disease represents both a spectrum of disease and the interface between surgical and non-surgical treatment of lung cancer Evidence from trials suggests that multizone or unresectable N2 disease should be treated primarily by chemoradiotherapy. There may be a role for surgery if N2 is downstaged to N0 and lobectomy is possible, but pneumonectomy is avoidable. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a systemic disease at diagnosis, because the potential for hematogenous and lymphogenic metastases is very high. The efficacy of surgical intervention for SCLC is not clear. Lung cancer resection can be performed using several surgical techniques. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a safe, efficient, well accepted and widespread technique among thoracic surgeons. The 5-year survival rate following complete resection of lung cancer is stage dependent. Incomplete resection rarely is useful and cures the patient. PMID:24102017

  13. Weight May Influence Outcomes After Lung Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_156910.html Weight May Influence Outcomes After Lung Cancer Surgery Study found the very thin or very ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, Jan. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lung cancer surgery patients are most likely to have complications ...

  14. Robotic surgery for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ambrogi, Marcello C; Fanucchi, Olivia; Melfi, Franco; Mussi, Alfredo

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade the role of minimally invasive surgery has been increased, especially with the introduction of the robotic system in the surgical field. The most important advantages of robotic system are represented by the wristed instrumentation and the depth perception, which can overcome the limitation of traditional thoracoscopy. However, some data still exist in literature with regard to robotic lobectomy. The majority of papers are focused on its safety and feasibility, but further studies with long follow-ups are necessary in order to assess the oncologic outcomes. We reviewed the literature on robotic lobectomy, with the main aim to better define the role of robotic system in the clinical practice. PMID:25207216

  15. Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogi, Marcello C; Fanucchi, Olivia; Melfi, Franco; Mussi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the role of minimally invasive surgery has been increased, especially with the introduction of the robotic system in the surgical field. The most important advantages of robotic system are represented by the wristed instrumentation and the depth perception, which can overcome the limitation of traditional thoracoscopy. However, some data still exist in literature with regard to robotic lobectomy. The majority of papers are focused on its safety and feasibility, but further studies with long follow-ups are necessary in order to assess the oncologic outcomes. We reviewed the literature on robotic lobectomy, with the main aim to better define the role of robotic system in the clinical practice. PMID:25207216

  16. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  17. Irradiation and surgery for selected cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.T.

    1982-08-01

    Combinations of radiation therapy with surgery originated when the surgeon thought he had transected cancer. Unrealistic expectations, however, plagued these combinations until it was appreciated that the dose required to eradicate a given cancerous mass varied primarily with its volume and the associated oxygen tension of its cells. This helped to establish the rationale for combining irradiation and surgery and enabled the radiation therapist to more closely tailor dose needs to each specific clinical problem. Tailoring of dose remains crude. Our greatest errors continue to be attributable to poor definition of tumor extent and the underestimation of residual tumor volume. We need more precise information from the surgeon and pathologist along with greater knowledge of patterns of spread. To the degree that such added information becomes available, we have the means to increase loco-regional control rates.

  18. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  19. [Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Junji

    2016-02-01

    Chemoradiotherapy using fluorouracil was initially investigated as a postoperative adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. However, a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) of surgery, chemoradiotherapy, and chemotherapy demonstrated that chemoradiotherapy was inferior to no chemoradiotherapy, while the efficacy of radiotherapy as adjuvant therapy was controversial. Since gemcitabine was established as a standard therapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer, several RCTs have revealed that gemcitabine is also an effective adjuvant therapy. In Japan, S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, was approved for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, and a phase III study compared S-1 with gemcitabine as adjuvant therapy. This study examined whether S-1 was non-inferior to gemcitabine and found it superior. As a result, S-1 is recognized as the first-choice adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer in Japan. FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel was recently demonstrated to prolong survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. To improve the survival rate of patients who undergo surgery, these chemotherapeutic regimens with higher response rate are also currently under investigation compared with gemcitabine as adjuvant therapies in RCTs. Furthermore, neoadjuvant therapy using gemcitabine plus S-1, FOLFIRINOX, or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel is expected to improve outcomes of surgical treatments, and various clinical trials of neoadjuvant therapies using those regimens are currently under investigation. PMID:27067680

  20. Radiation May Help After Surgery for 'Soft-Tissue' Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158322.html Radiation May Help After Surgery for 'Soft-Tissue' Cancers ... called soft-tissue sarcomas may benefit more from radiation therapy after surgery than younger patients do, a ...

  1. Surgery for Liver Metastases From Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martella, Luca; Bertozzi, Serena; Londero, Ambrogio P.; Steffan, Agostino; De Paoli, Paolo; Bertola, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of surgical therapy in patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the results obtained with local treatment of hepatic metastases in patients with gastric cancer, by performing a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1990 and 2014. These works included multiple studies that evaluated the different survival rate among patients who underwent local treatment, such as hepatectomy or radiofrequency ablation, for hepatic metastases derived from primary gastric cancer. The collected studies were evaluated for heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality, and a pooled hazard ratio (HR) was calculated with a confidence interval estimated at 95% (95% CI). After conducting a thorough research among all published works, 2337 studies were found and after the review process 11 observational studies were included in the analysis. The total amount of patients considered in the survival analysis was 1010. An accurate analysis of all included studies reported a significantly higher survival rate in the group of patients who underwent the most aggressive local treatment for hepatic metastases (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.46–0.95) as opposed to patients who underwent only palliation or systemic treatment. Furthermore, palliative local treatment of hepatic metastases had a higher survival rate if compared to surgical (without liver surgery) and systemic palliation (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96). Considering the only 3 studies where data from multivariate analyses was available, we found a higher survival rate in the local treatment groups, but the difference was not significant (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.22–1.15). Curative and also palliative surgery of liver metastases from gastric cancer may improve patients’ survival. However, further trials are needed in order to better understand the role of surgery in this group of patients. PMID:26252272

  2. National Practice in Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Aydan; Karasoy, Durdu; Kurt, Halil; Baskan, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although breast cancer surgery is regarded as a “clean” surgery, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are higher than expected. There is no consensus regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective breast surgery. The nationwide survey was conducted to determine the trend of antibiotic prophylaxis in breast cancer among Turkish surgeons. Methods The survey was sent to surgeons who are member of Turkish Surgical Association (TSA) via e-mail from TSA web address. A 15 item web-based survey consisted of surgeon demographics and the use of prophylactic antibiotic in patients with risk factors related to SSI. Results The number of completed questionnaires was 245. The most common antibiotic used was first generation of cephalosporins. A majority of respondents indicated that prophylaxis was preferred in patients with high risk of SSI including preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, older age, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, immediate reconstruction (P < 0.05). However, the use of drain did not significantly influence antibiotic prophylaxis (P = 0.091). Conclusions The use of prophylactic antibiotic was strongly dependent on the presence of some risk factors; however, the variation in current practice regarding antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrated a lack of its effect on preventing SSI after breast cancer surgery. PMID:24400029

  3. High Rate of Sexual Dysfunction Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Caglar; Tinay, Ilker; Yegen, Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although rectal cancer is a very common malignancy and has an improved cure rate in response to oncological treatment, research on rectal-cancer survivors' sexual function remains limited. Sexual dysfunction (SD) after rectal cancer treatment was measured, and possible predisposing factors that may have an impact on the development of this disorder were identified. Methods Patients undergoing curative rectal cancer surgery from January 2012 to September 2013 were surveyed using questionnaires. The female sexual function index or the International Index of Erectile Function was recorded. A multiple logistic regression was used to test associations of clinical factors with outcomes. Results Fifty-six men (56%) and 28 women (44%) who completed the questionnaire were included in the study. A total of 76 patients of the 86 patients (90.5%) with the diagnosis of rectal cancer who were included in this study reported different levels of SD after radical surgery. A total of 64 patients (76%) from the whole cohort reported moderate to severe SD after treatment of rectal cancer. Gender (P = 0.011) was independently associated with SD. Female patients reported significantly higher rates of moderate to severe SD than male patients. Patients were rarely treated for dysfunction. Conclusion Sexual problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, but patients are rarely treated for SD. Female patients reported higher rates of SD than males. These results point out the importance of sexual (dys)function in survivors of rectal cancer. More attention should be drawn to this topic for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25360427

  4. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Byung Mo; Lee, Bong Hwa; Kim, Byung Chun; Park, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery. Results Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, P<0.001), but the time to soft food intake (6.0 vs 6.6 days, P=0.036) and the postoperative hospital stay (13.7 vs 15.7 days, P=0.018) were shorter in the laparoscopic group. The number of harvested lymph nodes was lower in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (20.3 vs 24.3, P<0.001). The 5-year overall survival (90.8% vs 88.6%, P=0.540) and disease-free survival (86.1% vs 78.9%, P=0.201) rates were similar in both groups. Conclusion The present study showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated with several perioperative benefits and similar oncologic outcomes to open surgery for the resection of transverse colon cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery offers a safe alternative to open surgery in patients with transverse colon cancer. PMID:27143915

  5. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szab, Ferenc Jnos; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results. PMID:25260081

  6. Interval debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Manusirivithaya, Sumonmal; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Bryant, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Interval debulking surgery (IDS), following induction or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, may have a role in treating advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III to IV) where primary debulking surgery is not an option. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and complications of IDS for women with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group’s Specialised Register to June 2012, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2012, Issue 6, MEDLINE to June 2012 and EMBASE to June 2012. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing survival of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, who had IDS performed between cycles of chemotherapy after primary surgery with survival of women who had conventional treatment (primary debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy). Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Searches for additional information from study authors were attempted. We performed meta-analysis of overall and progression-free survival (PFS), using random-effects models. Main results Three RCTs randomising 853 women, of whom 781 were evaluated, met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of three trials for overall survival (OS) found no statistically significant difference between IDS and chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.06, I2 = 58%). Subgroup analysis for OS in two trials, where the primary surgery was not performed by gynaecologic oncologists or was less extensive, showed a benefit of IDS (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.87, I2 = 0%). Meta-analysis of two trials for PFS found no statistically significant difference between IDS and chemotherapy alone (HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.33, I2 = 83%). Rates of toxic reactions to chemotherapy were similar in both arms (risk ratio = 1.19, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.66, I2 = 0%), but little information was available for other adverse events or quality or life (QoL). Authors’ conclusions We found no conclusive evidence to determine whether IDS between cycles of chemotherapy would improve or decrease the survival rates of women with advanced ovarian cancer, compared with conventional treatment of primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. IDS appeared to yield benefit only in women whose primary surgery was not performed by gynaecologic oncologists or was less extensive. Data on QoL and adverse events were inconclusive. PMID:23633332

  7. Identifying Colon Cancer Patients Who May Need More Than Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156799.html Identifying Colon Cancer Patients Who May Need More Than Surgery Small ... easily detected genetic marker could help identify aggressive colon cancer in early stages, telling doctors that these patients ...

  8. Incidence of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Cancer Surgery at National Comprehensive Cancer Network Centers

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Heather; Niland, Joyce; Milne, Dana; ter Veer, Anna; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Farma, Jeffrey M.; Lai, Lily; Skibber, John M.; Small, William; Wilkinson, Neal; Schrag, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic colectomy has been shown to have equivalent oncologic outcomes to open colectomy for the management of colon cancer, but its adoption nationally has been slow. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with laparoscopic colorectal resection at National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) centers. Methods: Data on patients undergoing surgery for colon and rectal cancer at NCCN centers from 2005 to 2010 were obtained from chart review of medical records for the NCCN Outcomes Project and included information on socioeconomic status, insurance coverage, comorbidity, and physician-reported Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. Associations between receipt of minimally invasive surgery and patient and clinical variables were analyzed with univariate and multivariable logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: A total of 4032 patients, diagnosed between September 2005 and December 2010, underwent elective colon or rectal resection for cancer at NCCN centers. Median age of colon cancer patients was 62.6 years, and 49% were men. The percent of colon cancer patients treated with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) increased from 35% in 2006 to 51% in 2010 across all centers but varied statistically significantly between centers. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with minimally invasive surgery for colon cancer patients who had surgery at an NCCN institution were older age (P = .02), male sex (P = .006), fewer comorbidities (P ≤ .001), lower final T-stage (P < .001), median household income greater than or equal to $80000 (P < .001), ECOG performance status = 0 (P = .02), and NCCN institution (P ≤ .001). Conclusions: The use of MIS increased at NCCN centers. However, there was statistically significant variation in adoption of MIS technique among centers. PMID:25527640

  9. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  10. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  11. Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: An Update in 2015.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung Myun; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, robotic surgery for rectal cancer has rapidly gained acceptance among colorectal surgeons worldwide, with well-established safety and feasibility. The lower conversion rate and better surgical specimen quality of robotic compared with laparoscopic surgery potentially improves survival. Earlier recovery of voiding and sexual function after robotic total mesorectal excision is another favorable outcome. Long-term survival data are sparse with no evidence that robotic surgery offers major benefits in oncological outcomes. Although initial reports are promising, more rigorous scientific evaluation in multicenter, randomized clinical trials should be performed to definitely determine the advantages of robotic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:26875201

  12. Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: An Update in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jung Myun; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, robotic surgery for rectal cancer has rapidly gained acceptance among colorectal surgeons worldwide, with well-established safety and feasibility. The lower conversion rate and better surgical specimen quality of robotic compared with laparoscopic surgery potentially improves survival. Earlier recovery of voiding and sexual function after robotic total mesorectal excision is another favorable outcome. Long-term survival data are sparse with no evidence that robotic surgery offers major benefits in oncological outcomes. Although initial reports are promising, more rigorous scientific evaluation in multicenter, randomized clinical trials should be performed to definitely determine the advantages of robotic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:26875201

  13. Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2014-12-14

    Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

  14. Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

  15. Current controversies in breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Critchley, A C; Thompson, A M; Chan, H Y; Reed, M W

    2013-02-01

    Contemporary management of the axilla in breast cancer surgery remains in evolution. Axillary lymph node status in breast cancer is a major prognostic factor and remains integral to guiding adjuvant treatment decisions. There remains controversy regarding the management of the node-positive axilla in clinically node-negative primary breast cancer. Trials to date have suggested re-evaluation of the historical therapeutic strategy that a positive sentinel node requires axillary node dissection. However, further evidence is required before modern clinical management of the axilla should be altered. As patient awareness and technical expertise grow, national rates of breast reconstruction after mastectomy continue to rise. Oncoplastic techniques continue to evolve and many patients are suitable for a plethora of reconstructive options. Despite the widespread practice of breast reconstruction globally, there is limited randomised evidence comparing the optimal type and/or timing of breast reconstruction on which to base practice. Breast reconstruction type is either purely autologous, implant-based or a combination of these two techniques. We explore the benefits and limitations of these techniques and some of the key findings of the National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit. The timing of reconstruction after mastectomy is either immediate (a single procedure) or delayed (for an indefinite period after mastectomy). The ideal reconstruction is one that is best aligned to the patient's expectations, as this will achieve the highest levels of long-term patient satisfaction. Selecting the optimal type of breast reconstruction at the right time for the right patient remains the key challenge in breast reconstruction. PMID:23183307

  16. Factors Associated With Fatigue After Surgery in Women With Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Francis; Bonnetain, Franck; Velten, Michel; Conroy, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with cancer. However, the precise determinants of fatigue are still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate factors correlated with cancer-related fatigue before surgery and just before subsequent adjuvant therapy. Methods. Patients completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item quality-of-life questionnaire before and after surgery, the Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Life Orientation Test before surgery, and the State Anxiety Inventory before the start of adjuvant therapy. Multiple regression analysis of determinants of change in MFI-20 total score after surgery was conducted. Results. A series of 466 eligible patients with stage I–III breast cancer with planned surgery were recruited. An increase in MFI-20 total score after surgery was significantly correlated with higher preoperative fatigue and lower role functioning before surgery; a decrease in role functioning, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning after surgery; an increase in insomnia after surgery; and a higher state anxiety after surgery. Disease stage, lymph node metastases, surgical procedure, and demographic characteristics (e.g., age, marital status, having children, educational level) were not correlated with fatigue in multivariate analysis. Conclusion. These results suggest that worsening fatigue after surgery for breast cancer is associated with a decrease in physical functioning and an increase in psychological distress rather than with the cancer characteristics. Therefore, screening measures should be implemented at the time of diagnosis—before starting treatment—to identify psychologically vulnerable patients and to offer them professional support. PMID:23404818

  17. [Surgery for lung cancer in elderly].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V D; Grigor'eva, S P; Mirzoian, O S; Ibragimova, D F; Nikoda, V V; Vyzhigina, M A; Bazarov, D V

    2010-01-01

    The growth of malignant tumors of lungs among elderly patients together with overall increase of people older then 70, aroused new problems in surgery and anesthesiology. Nowadays, modern medicine succeeded minimal postoperative mortality and lethality among such patients, 19,7 and 6,4%, respectively. 3 and 5-year survival among operated patients was 68 and 42%. Actually, overall lethality rate was determined mainly by relative and conquering diseases. Lobectomy should be considered a method of choice, although sublobar resection is appropriate by lung tumors of stages 1 and 2. PMID:21169924

  18. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  19. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Yasumitsu; Hattori, Masakazu; Douden, Kenji; Ishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hashizume, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) for colorectal cancer on short-term clinical and oncological outcomes by comparison with multiport conventional laparoscopic colectomy (CLC). METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE for the time period of 2008 to December 2014 to retrieve all relevant literature. The search terms were “laparoscopy”, “single incision”, “single port”, “single site”, “SILS”, “LESS” and “colorectal cancer”. Publications were included if they were randomized controlled trials, case-matched controlled studies, or comparative studies, in which patients underwent single-incision (SILS or LESS) laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Studies were excluded if they were non-comparative, or not including surgery involving the colon or rectum. A total of 15 studies with 589 patients who underwent SILC for colorectal cancer were selected. RESULTS: No significant differences between the groups were noted in terms of mortality or morbidity. The benefit of the SILC approach included reduction in conversion rate to laparotomy, but there were no significant differences in other short-term clinical outcomes between the groups. Satisfactory oncological surgical quality was also demonstrated for SILC for the treatment of colorectal cancer with a similar average lymph node harvest and proximal and distal resection margin length as multiport CLC. CONCLUSION: SILC can be performed safely with similar short-term clinical and oncological outcomes as multiport CLC. PMID:26843918

  20. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for gastric cancer: Does it really benefit the patient?

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Tohru; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Masaji

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation surgery is accepted as a standard treatment procedure for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, the benefit of reduced lymphadenectomy based on SLN examination remains unclear in cases of gastric cancer. Here, we review previous studies to determine whether SLN navigation surgery is beneficial for gastric cancer patients. Recently, a large-scale prospective study from the Japanese Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery reported that the endoscopic dual tracer method, using a dye and radioisotope for SLN biopsy, was safe and effective when applied to cases of superficial and relatively small gastric cancers. SLN mapping with SLN basin dissection was preferred for early gastric cancer since it is minimally invasive. However, previous studies reported that limited gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy may not improve the patient’s postoperative quality of life (QOL). As a result, the benefit of SLN navigation surgery for gastric cancer patients, in terms of their QOL, is limited. Thus, endoscopic and laparoscopic limited gastrectomy combined with SLN navigation surgery has the potential to become the standard minimally invasive surgery in early gastric cancer. PMID:26973385

  1. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for gastric cancer: Does it really benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Tani, Tohru; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Masaji

    2016-03-14

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation surgery is accepted as a standard treatment procedure for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, the benefit of reduced lymphadenectomy based on SLN examination remains unclear in cases of gastric cancer. Here, we review previous studies to determine whether SLN navigation surgery is beneficial for gastric cancer patients. Recently, a large-scale prospective study from the Japanese Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery reported that the endoscopic dual tracer method, using a dye and radioisotope for SLN biopsy, was safe and effective when applied to cases of superficial and relatively small gastric cancers. SLN mapping with SLN basin dissection was preferred for early gastric cancer since it is minimally invasive. However, previous studies reported that limited gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy may not improve the patient's postoperative quality of life (QOL). As a result, the benefit of SLN navigation surgery for gastric cancer patients, in terms of their QOL, is limited. Thus, endoscopic and laparoscopic limited gastrectomy combined with SLN navigation surgery has the potential to become the standard minimally invasive surgery in early gastric cancer. PMID:26973385

  2. Study Pinpoints Best Timing for Rectal Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... release from the American College of Surgeons. "This kind of analysis is what we need in medicine and surgery. We need to have good population-based data," Mantyh added. Colon and rectal cancers ...

  3. Surgery for gallbladder cancer: The need to generate greater evidence.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Barreto, Savio G

    2009-11-30

    The outcomes for gallbladder cancer remain largely dismal to this day. Overall, the low incidence of gallbladder cancer around the world coupled with an even lower number of patients amenable to surgery at the time of presentation, has precluded the generation of evidence-based guidelines for the management of this cancer. However, while the incidence of the cancer may be decreasing in some parts of the world, in other countries such as India, Japan and Chile, gallbladder cancer continues to affect a sizeable population of patients. As such, there is a growing need to define what constitutes an adequate surgery for each stage of this cancer, based on sound evidence. This editorial provides a broad overview of the existing problems in the management of gallbladder cancer and appeals for multi-institutional studies aimed at answering some of the pertinent questions on the surgical management of gallbladder cancer. PMID:21160792

  4. Different methods for target volume delineation of glandular breast tissue following breast-conserving surgery in breast cancer: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    XU, MIN; LI, JIANBIN; LIU, SHANSHAN; WANG, SUZHEN; WANG, WEI; LI, FENGXIANG; LIU, TONGHAI; YU, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate an optimal and feasible method for delineating the target volume of glandular breast tissue following breast-conserving surgery. A total of 15 patients who underwent radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery were recruited into the study. Clinical target volume was delineated by the following three methods based on computed tomography (CT): Anatomical landmarks (CTVan), breast palpation (CTVpa) and CT scan images (CTVgl). The target volume, degree of inclusion (DI) and conformal index (CI) defined by these methods were compared. The difference was significant between CTVan and CTVgl, and CTVpa and CTVgl (P<0.0001). The CI between CTVan and CTVpa was 0.644±0.122, significantly higher than that between CTVan and CTVgl (0.264±0.108; P<0.0001) or between CTVpa and CTVgl (0.328±0.115; P<0.0001). The DI of CTVpa in CTVan was 0.890±0.08 and the opposite was 0.709±0.144, while that of DI of CTVgl in CTVan or CTVpa was 0.994±0.005 and 0.989±0.008, respectively. The boundary difference between CTVan and CTVpa was 3.35±7.23, 5.57±13.37, 1.75±11.62 and 11.25±4.07 mm for the medial, lateral, cephalic and caudal boundaries, respectively. A significant difference was observed in the target volume of the breast defined by the three methods. The target volume defined by CTVgl was significantly smaller than that identified by the other two methods. Overall, the combination of palpation marks and anatomical landmarks to define the contouring scope of the breast was indicated to be a relatively rational method for delineating the target volume of the breast. PMID:26622544

  5. [From standard to precision treatment: the development of surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ji, J F; Ji, X; Bu, Z D

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer is the 5(th) of all the malignancies, and the mortality is the 3(rd). The type and resection area of gastric cancer surgery have changed a lot. D2 lymph node dissection is recommended for locally advanced gastric cancer. Prophylactic pancreatectomy or splenectomy is not necessary for radical resection. Indication of minimally invasive surgery is confined to early gastric cancer with distal gastrectomy. Less extensive approach of early stage cases is suitable, and application of sentinel lymph node is a potential method. Meanwhile, the development of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy during the perioperative period also improved the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Recently, the development of molecular biology, such as the maturity of the new generation sequencing approach, started a new era of precision treatment for gastric cancer. PMID:26932881

  6. Gastrointestinal Cancers With Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Loggie, Brian W; Thomas, Peter

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the underlying rationale for the use of cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CS+HIPEC) in the treatment of patients with primary gastrointestinal tumors with metastatic peritoneal disease. It examines the advantages of CS+HIPEC in peritoneal cancers and explores the controversies surrounding this treatment. For low-grade cancers, such as pseudomyxoma peritonei, CS+HIPEC is standard of care. However, for more aggressive tumors, such as gastric cancers, the results with this approach are not as encouraging and patient selection is very important. Generally, the cost of HIPEC is not prohibitive and increases the cost of surgery by only a small percentage. Overall, the consensus is that HIPEC is probably beneficial for less aggressive cancers. We believe that CS+HIPEC should be standard of care for appendiceal and colorectal cancers with peritoneal disease. For other cancers, such as gastric, pancreatic, or small bowel cancers, further study is warranted. PMID:26178339

  7. Is surgery always necessary in rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Sabbaga, Jorge; Braghiroli, Maria Ignez; Hoff, Paulo M

    2014-07-01

    Rectal cancer is a major health problem around the world, representing about one-third of the total colorectal cancer cases. Because of its anatomical location, there is a higher risk of local recurrence, and treatment often requires a complex multidisciplinary approach which includes neoadjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and a radical surgical procedure that commonly leads to a permanent colostomy. The cure rate with this strategy is good, with some patients having no residual disease in the surgical specimen. While the prognosis for those patients is excellent, their quality of life is permanently compromised. In this article, we review risks and benefits of the standard treatment approach and compare standard treatment with alternative methods aimed at rectal preservation. PMID:25144282

  8. The quality of research synthesis in surgery: the case of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses populate the literature on the effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. The utility of this body of work is unclear. The objective of this study was to synthesize all such systematic reviews in terms of clinical effectiveness, to appraise their quality, and to determine whether areas of duplication exist across reviews. Methods Systematic reviews comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer were identified using a comprehensive search protocol (1991 to 2008). The primary outcome was overall survival. The methodological quality of reviews was appraised using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) instrument. Abstraction and quality appraisal was carried out by two independent reviewers. Reviews were synthesized, and outcomes were compared qualitatively. A citation analysis was carried out using simple matrices to assess the comprehensiveness of each review. Results In total, 27 reviews were included; 13 reviews included only randomized controlled trials. Rectal cancer was addressed exclusively by four reviews. There was significant overlap between review purposes, populations and, outcomes. The mean AMSTAR score (out of 11) was 5.8 (95% CI: 4.6 to 7.0). Overall survival was evaluated by ten reviews, none of which found a significant difference. Three reviews provided a selective meta-analysis of time-to-event data. Previously published systematic reviews were poorly and highly selectively referenced (mean citation ratio 0.16, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.22). Previously published trials were not comprehensively identified and cited (mean citation ratio 0.56, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.65). Conclusions Numerous overlapping systematic reviews of laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer exist in the literature. Despite variable methods and quality, survival outcomes are congruent across reviews. A duplication of research efforts appears to exist in the literature. Further systematic reviews or meta-analyses are unlikely to be justified without specifying a significantly different research objective. This works lends support to the registration and updating of systematic reviews. PMID:22588035

  9. [Oncoplastic surgery for the treatment of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Colombo, G; Dellacasa, I; Ruvolo, V; Ottonello, M; Bormioli, M; Meszaros, P

    2009-10-01

    Surgery is still the gold standard in breast cancer. Also if the elective treatment, thanks to the adjuvant therapy, ha became more conservative than once was, breast surgery remains, in the mind of the woman affected by breast cancer, a demolitive surgery. The collaboration bet-ween the breast surgeon and the plastic surgeon has to be closer than it is, in order to obtain the total asportation of the tumor and an esthetic result that limits the psychological trauma to the woman. Oncoplastic surgery is the answer to these human and medical necessities, giving the correct approaches about breast volume, tumor volume, radicality of the treatment and esthetic outcome. This review will focus on different oncoplastic approaches, to help improving both the esthetic outcome of breast cancer resection and the likelihood of surgeons obtaining wide surgical margins in preparation for breast-conserving radiotherapy. PMID:19749675

  10. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Frangioni, John V

    2013-09-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better and less expensively than current standards. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light (700-900 nm) has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes, minimize the time patients are under anaesthesia and lower health-care costs largely by way of its improved contrast and depth of tissue penetration relative to visible light. Accordingly, the past few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this Review, we introduce the concept of NIR fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, examine the clinical trial literature to date and outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization. Although NIR seems to be superior to many traditional imaging techniques, its incorporation into routine care of patients with cancer depends on rigorous clinical trials and validation studies. PMID:23881033

  11. Overuse of surgery in patients with pancreatic cancer. A nationwide analysis in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Balzano, Gianpaolo; Capretti, Giovanni; Callea, Giuditta; Cantù, Elena; Carle, Flavia; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background According to current guidelines, pancreatic cancer patients should be strictly selected for surgery, either palliative or resective. Methods Population-based study, including all patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer in Italy between 2010 and 2012. Hospitals were divided into five volume groups (quintiles), to search for differences among volume categories. Results There were 544 hospitals performing 10 936 pancreatic cancer operations. The probability of undergoing palliative/explorative surgery was inversely related to volume, being 24.4% in very high-volume hospitals and 62.5% in very low-volume centres (adjusted OR 5.175). Contrarily, the resection rate in patients without metastases decreased from 86.9% to 46.1% (adjusted OR 7.429). As for resections, the mortality of non-resective surgery was inversely related to volume (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, mortality of non-resective surgery was higher than that for resections (8.2% vs. 6.7%; p < 0.01). Approximately 9% of all resections were performed on patients with distant metastases, irrespective of hospital volume group. The excess cost for the National Health System from surgery overuse was estimated at 12.5 million euro. Discussion. Discrepancies between guidelines on pancreatic cancer treatment and surgical practice were observed. An overuse of surgery was detected, with serious clinical and economic consequences. PMID:27154812

  12. Complications following surgery with or without radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, C J D; Cheung, P; Herschorn, S; Saskin, R; Su, J; Klotz, L H; Kulkarni, G S; Lee, Y; Kodama, R T; Narod, S A; Nam, R K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Men undergoing treatment of clinically localised prostate cancer may experience a number of treatment-related complications, which affect their quality of life. Methods: On the basis of population-based retrospective cohort of men undergoing surgery, with or without subsequent radiotherapy, or radiotherapy alone for prostate cancer in Ontario, Canada, we measured the incidence of treatment-related complications using administrative and billing data. Results: Of 36 984 patients, 15 870 (42.9%) underwent surgery alone, 4519 (12.2%) underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy, and 16 595 (44.9%) underwent radiotherapy alone. For all end points except urologic procedures, the 5-year cumulative incidence rates were lowest in the surgery only group and highest in the radiotherapy only group. Intermediary rates were seen in the surgery followed by radiotherapy group, except for urologic procedures where rates were the highest in this group. Although age and comorbidity were important predictors, radiotherapy as the primary treatment modality was associated with higher rates for all complications (adjusted hazard ratios 1.6–4.7, P=0.002 to <0.0001). Conclusions: In patients treated for prostate cancer, radiation after surgery increases the rate of complications compared with surgery alone, though these rates remain lower than patients treated with radiation alone. This information may inform patient and physician decision making in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:25688739

  13. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancers: Surgery Alone Versus Surgery Plus Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Hee Keun; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the role of radiotherapy after curative-intent surgery in the management of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1997 through 2005, 78 patients with EHBD cancer were surgically staged. These patients were stratified by the absence of adjuvant radiation (n = 47, group I) versus radiation (n = 31, group II) after resection. Pathology examination showed 27 cases in group I and 20 cases in group II had microscopically positive resection margins. The patients in group II received 45 to 54 Gy of external beam radiotherapy. The primary endpoints of this study were overall survival, disease-free survival, and prognostic factors. Results: There were no differences between the 5-year overall survival rates for the two groups (11.6% in group I vs. 21% in group II). However, the patients with microscopically positive resection margins who received adjuvant radiation therapy had higher median disease-free survival rates than those who underwent surgery alone (21 months vs. 10 months, respectively, p = 0.042). Decreasing local failure was found in patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (61.7% in group I and 35.6% in group II, p = 0.02). Outcomes of the patients with a positive resection margin and lymph node metastasis who received postoperative radiation therapy were doubled compared to those of patients without adjuvant radiotherapy. Resection margin status, lymph node metastasis, and pathology differentiation were significant prognostic factors in disease-free survival. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy might be useful in patients with EHBD cancer, especially for those patients with microscopic residual tumors and positive lymph nodes after resection for increasing local control.

  14. Chronic preoperative pain and psychological robustness predict acute postoperative pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, J; Thornton, A J; Scott, N W; Marfizo, S; Powell, R; Johnston, M; Wells, M; Heys, S D; Thompson, A M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated preoperative and surgical risk factors for acute postoperative pain after surgery for breast cancer. We investigated demographic, psychological, pain-related and surgical risk factors in women undergoing resectional surgery for breast cancer. Methods: Primary outcomes were pain severity, at rest (PAR) and movement-evoked pain (MEP), in the first postoperative week. Results: In 338 women undergoing surgery, those with chronic preoperative pain were three times more likely to report moderate to severe MEP after breast cancer surgery (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.45–6.99). Increased psychological ‘robustness', a composite variable representing positive affect and dispositional optimism, was associated with lower intensity acute postoperative PAR (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48–0.82) and MEP (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54–0.93). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and intraoperative nerve division were associated with reduced postoperative pain. No relationship was found between preoperative neuropathic pain and acute pain outcomes; altered sensations and numbness postoperatively were more common after axillary sample or clearance compared with SLNB. Conclusion: Chronic preoperative pain, axillary surgery and psychological robustness significantly predicted acute pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer. Preoperative identification and targeted intervention of subgroups at risk could enhance the recovery trajectory in cancer survivors. PMID:22850552

  15. Interval Between Surgery and Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy for Distal Rectal Cancer: Does Delayed Surgery Have an Impact on Outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Habr-Gama, Angelita Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Proscurshim, Igor; Nunes dos Santos, Rafael Miyashiro; Kiss, Desiderio; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Cecconello, Ivan

    2008-07-15

    Background: The optimal interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and surgery in the treatment of patients with distal rectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this interval has an impact on survival. Methods and Materials: Patients who underwent surgery after CRT were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a sustained complete clinical response (cCR) 1 year after CRT were excluded from this study. Clinical and pathologic characteristics and overall and disease-free survival were compared between patients undergoing surgery 12 weeks or less from CRT and patients undergoing surgery longer than 12 weeks from CRT completion and between patients with a surgery delay caused by a suspected cCR and those with a delay for other reasons. Results: Two hundred fifty patients underwent surgery, and 48.4% had CRT-to-surgery intervals of 12 weeks or less. There were no statistical differences in overall survival (86% vs. 81.6%) or disease-free survival rates (56.5% and 58.9%) between patients according to interval ({<=}12 vs. >12 weeks). Patients with intervals of 12 weeks or less had significantly higher rates of Stage III disease (34% vs. 20%; p = 0.009). The delay in surgery was caused by a suspected cCR in 23 patients (interval, 48 {+-} 10.3 weeks). Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for this subset were 84.9% and 51.6%, not significantly different compared with the remaining group (84%; p = 0.96 and 57.8%; p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusions: Delay in surgery for the evaluation of tumor response after neoadjuvant CRT is safe and does not negatively affect survival. These results support the hypothesis that shorter intervals may interrupt ongoing tumor necrosis.

  16. Does surgery have a role in managing incurable gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Thrumurthy, Sri G; Chaudry, M Asif; Chau, Ian; Allum, William

    2015-11-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer is decreasing, the outcomes of this disease are among the poorest of all solid-organ tumours, predominantly due to the frequent presence of stage IV metastatic disease at primary presentation. Stage IV gastric cancer is incurable and carries a very poor prognosis (5-year survival rate of ∼4%); palliative chemotherapy remains the standard of care, but increasing evidence indicates that palliative surgery can provide a prognostic and symptomatic benefit, particularly in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Ongoing prospective trials should further clarify the efficacy of palliative surgery in comparison with other treatment modalities. Until such data are available, surgery should not be offered as a standard first-line treatment, but can be considered in selected cases after thorough multidisciplinary discussions involving the patient. Patient selection for both gastrectomy and nonresectional surgery must include consideration of various factors that predict quality of life after surgery. This Perspectives summarizes the available evidence and discusses the utility of palliative surgery in relation to other therapeutic modalities in the management of incurable gastric cancer. PMID:26260039

  17. The evolution of cancer surgery and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wyld, Lynda; Audisio, Riccardo A; Poston, Graeme J

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is the oldest oncological discipline, dating back thousands of years. Prior to the advent of anaesthesia and antisepsis 150 years ago, only the brave, desperate, or ill-advised patient underwent surgery because cure rates were low, and morbidity and mortality high. However, since then, cancer surgery has flourished, driven by relentless technical innovation and research. Historically, the mantra of the cancer surgeon was that increasingly radical surgery would enhance cure rates. The past 50 years have seen a paradigm shift, with the realization that multimodal therapy, technological advances, and minimally invasive techniques can reduce the need for, or the detrimental effects of, radical surgery. Preservation of form, function, and quality of life, without compromising survival, is the new mantra. Today's surgeons, no longer the uneducated technicians of history, are highly trained medical professionals and together with oncologists, radiologists, scientists, anaesthetists and nurses, have made cancer surgeries routine, safe, and highly effective. This article will review the major advances that have underpinned this evolution. PMID:25384943

  18. Present laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeo; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-10

    In many clinical studies, laparoscopic surgery (LS) for colon cancer has been shown to be less invasive than open surgery (OS) while maintaining similar safety. Furthermore, there are no significant differences between LS and OS in long-term outcomes. Thus, LS has been accepted as one of the standard treatments for colon cancer. In the treatments of rectal cancer as well, LS has achieved favorable outcomes, with many reports showing long-term outcomes comparable to those of OS. Furthermore, the magnification in laparoscopy improves visualization in the pelvic cavity and facilitates precise manipulation, as well as providing excellent educational effects. For these reasons, rectal cancer has seemed to be well indicated for LS, as has been colon cancer. The indication for LS in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, which is relatively unresectable (e.g., cancer invading other organs), remains an open issue. In recent years, new techniques such as single-port and robotic surgery have begun to be introduced for LS. Presently, various clinical studies in our country as well as in most Western countries have demonstrated that LS, with these new techniques, are gradually showing long-term outcomes. PMID:27081638

  19. Present laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takeo; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    In many clinical studies, laparoscopic surgery (LS) for colon cancer has been shown to be less invasive than open surgery (OS) while maintaining similar safety. Furthermore, there are no significant differences between LS and OS in long-term outcomes. Thus, LS has been accepted as one of the standard treatments for colon cancer. In the treatments of rectal cancer as well, LS has achieved favorable outcomes, with many reports showing long-term outcomes comparable to those of OS. Furthermore, the magnification in laparoscopy improves visualization in the pelvic cavity and facilitates precise manipulation, as well as providing excellent educational effects. For these reasons, rectal cancer has seemed to be well indicated for LS, as has been colon cancer. The indication for LS in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, which is relatively unresectable (e.g., cancer invading other organs), remains an open issue. In recent years, new techniques such as single-port and robotic surgery have begun to be introduced for LS. Presently, various clinical studies in our country as well as in most Western countries have demonstrated that LS, with these new techniques, are gradually showing long-term outcomes. PMID:27081638

  20. Quality of Online Information to Support Patient Decision-Making in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jordan G.; Tucholka, Jennifer L.; Steffens, Nicole M.; Neuman, Heather B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer patients commonly use the internet as an information resource. Our objective was to evaluate the quality of online information available to support patients facing a decision for breast surgery. Methods Breast cancer surgery-related queries were performed (Google and Bing), and reviewed for content pertinent to breast cancer surgery. The DISCERN instrument was used to evaluate websites’ structural components that influence publication reliability and ability of information to support treatment decision-making. Scores of 4/5 were considered “good”. Results 45 unique websites were identified. Websites satisfied a median 5/9 content questions. Commonly omitted topics included: having a choice between breast conservation and mastectomy (67%) and potential for 2nd surgery to obtain negative margins after breast conservation (60%). Websites had a median DISCERN score of 2.9 (range 2.0–4.5). Websites achieved higher scores on structural criteria (median 3.6 [2.1–4.7]), with 24% rated as “good”. Scores on supporting decision-making questions were lower (2.6 [1.3–4.4]), with only 7% scoring “good”. Conclusion Although numerous breast cancer-related websites exist, most do a poor job providing women with essential information necessary to actively participate in decision-making for breast cancer surgery. Providing easily-accessible, high-quality online information has the potential to significantly improve patients’ experiences with decision-making. PMID:26417898

  1. Laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Antonakis, Pantelis T; Ashrafian, Hutan; Isla, Alberto Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer poses a significant public health problem, especially in the Far East, due to its high incidence in these areas. Surgical treatment and guidelines have been markedly different in the West, but nowadays this debate is apparently coming to an end. Laparoscopic surgery has been employed in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer for two decades now, but with controversies about the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Despite these difficulties, the apparent advantages of the laparoscopic approach helped its implementation in early stage and distal gastric cancer, with an increase on the uptake for distal gastrectomy for more advanced disease and total gastrectomy. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence about the laparoscopic approach yet. In this review article we present and analyse the current status of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:25339815

  2. Technical Aspects of Gallbladder Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Qadan, Motaz; Kingham, T Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this review, the authors present an updated description of gallbladder cancer in 2 sections based on presentation: disease that presents incidentally following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and malignancy that is suspected preoperatively. Elements pertaining to technical aspects of surgical resection provide the critical focus of this review and are discussed in the context of evidence-based literature on gallbladder cancer today. PMID:27017862

  3. The role of guidelines in quality improvement for cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Browman, George P; Brouwers, Melissa

    2009-06-15

    In February 2008, Cancer Surgery Alberta hosted a conference on surgical outcomes and quality. The objective here is to review the interactions between quality/outcomes and guidelines, highlighting surgeons' roles. Potential interactions between quality measurement and guidelines are discussed. We analyzed data from practitioner surveys about guidelines to determine surgeons' participation compared with other specialists. The response rate of surgeons in both community-based and academic practices to guideline development surveys was equivalent to other cancer disciplines. PMID:19466734

  4. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  5. Comparison of pregabalin versus ketamine in postoperative pain management in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, Essam; Hassan, Mohamed Elsayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast surgery compromises one of the most common cancer surgeries in females and commonly followed by acute postoperative pain. Pregabalin and ketamine have been used in many previous studies and was found to have a good analgesic profile. We assumed that pregabalin and ketamine can be used in control of postoperative pain in female patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Material and Methods: Ninety female patients scheduled for cancer breast surgery were allocated in three groups (30 patients each), control group (group c) received preoperative placebo, pregabalin group (group p) received oral 150 mg pregabalin 1 h before surgery, ketamine group (group k) received intravenous (IV) 0.5 mg/kg ketamine with induction of anesthesia followed by 0.25 mg/kg/h IV throughout the surgery. All patients received general anesthesia and after recovery, the three groups were assessed in the first postoperative 24 h for postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), total 24 h morphine consumption, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), sedation score >2 and any complications from the drugs used in the study. Results: The use of pregabalin or ketamine was found to reduce total postoperative morphine consumption with P < 0.001. There was no difference between pregabalin and ketamine groups in opioid requirement. There was no difference between the three groups in postoperative VAS scores or incidence of PONV and sedation score >2. Conclusion: The use of preoperative oral 150 mg pregabalin 1 h before surgery or IV 0.5 mg ketamine with induction of anesthesia can reduce postoperative opioid consumption in breast cancer surgery without change in sedation or PONV and with a good safety profile. PMID:26240541

  6. Surgery for Cancer of the Vulva (Vulvectomy)

    MedlinePlus

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  7. [Complications of radical surgery for advanced ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Chéreau, E; Ballester, M; Lesieur, B; Selle, F; Coutant, C; Rouzier, R; Daraï, E

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of advanced ovarian cancer should include surgery with optimal cytoreduction, which is the first prognosis factor. This surgery usually requires extensive resection (pelvic surgery, extensive lymphadenectomy, upper abdominal surgery and sometimes multiple intestinal resection). The complete surgery usually requires a resection of the diaphragm peritoneum in 10 to 100% of cases, intestinal resection in 20 to 100% of cases, splenectomy in 1 to 33% of cases, pancreatectomy in 0 11% of cases, resection of liver metastases in 0 to 16% of cases and cholecystectomy in 2 to 20% of cases. The main complications reported were digestive fistula (1.4 to 8.2%), lymphocyst (0.6 to 32%), septic complications (3.7 to 41.4%) and pulmonary complications (0 to 59%) in case of diaphragmatic surgery. The postoperative mortality ranges from 0.3 to 5.7%. Radical surgery increases the rate of complete cytoreduction with significant morbidity and postoperative mortality. Because these complications decrease survival, it is essential to assess the risk of occurrence of these events to inform patients. PMID:21183387

  8. Rates of breast cancer surgery in Canada from 2007/08 to 2009/10: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wagar, Brandon; Bryant, Heather; Hewitt, Maria; Wai, Elaine; Dabbs, Kelly; McFarlane, Anne; Rahal, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgery is a common and important component of breast cancer treatment. We assessed the rates of breast cancer surgery across Canada from 2007/08 to 2009/10. Methods We used hospital and day surgery data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information to assemble a cohort of women who had undergone breast cancer surgery. We identified the index surgical procedure and subsequent surgical procedures performed within 1 year for each woman included in the analysis. We calculated the crude mastectomy rate for each province, and we calculated the adjusted mastectomy rate for select jurisdictions using a logistic regression model fitted using age, neighbourhood income quintile and travel time. Results In total, 57 840 women underwent breast cancer surgery during the study period. Among women with unilateral invasive breast cancer, the crude mastectomy rate was 39%. Adjusted rates for mastectomy varied widely by province (26%–69%). The rate of re-excision within 1 year for women who had breast-conserving surgery as their index procedure was 23% and varied by province in terms of frequency and type (mastectomy or repeat breast-conserving surgery). Among women who underwent mastectomy for unilateral invasive breast cancer, 6% also underwent contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, and 7% had immediate breast reconstruction following surgery. Of mastectomy procedures, 20% were performed as day surgery; for breast-conserving surgery, 70% were performed as day surgery. Interpretation There is substantial interprovincial variation in surgical care for breast cancer in Canada. Further research is needed to better understand such variation, and continued monitoring should be the focus of quality initiatives. PMID:25077125

  9. Short-term outcomes after laparoscopic surgery following preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Byong Hyon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Park, Jun Beom; Song, Min Sang; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The safety and the feasibility of performing laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) have not yet been established. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery performed after preoperative CRT. Methods We enrolled 124 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Of these patients, 56 received preoperative CRT (CRT group), whereas 68 did not (non-CRT group). The patients who were found to have distant metastasis and open conversion during surgery were excluded. The clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated and the short-term outcomes were compared between the CRT and non-CRT groups. Results The mean operation time was longer in the CRT group (294 minutes; range, 140 to 485 minutes; P = 0.004). In the non-CRT group, the tumor sizes were larger (mean, 4.0 cm; range, 1.2 to 8.0 cm; P < 0.001) and more lymph nodes were harvested (mean, 12.9; range, 0 to 35; P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in time to first bowel movement, tolerance of a soft diet, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complication rate. Conclusion Performing laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative CRT may be safe and feasible if performed by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon. Randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up studies are necessary to support our results. PMID:23166887

  10. Combination of surgery and radiation in the treatment of cancer. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, D.A.; Thrall, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Although radiation and surgery have been combined for the treatment of cancer in humans and animals since the 1920s, little has been written about the methods of combining radiation and surgery and the efficacy of this combination for the treatment of animal tumors. This article reviews the rationale for combining radiation and surgery for the treatment of cancer and the ways in which these two modalities can be combined with emphasis placed on the advantages and disadvantages of preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy. The role of preoperative and postoperative irradiation for the treatment of various animal tumors is discussed. Directions for future clinical trials are pointed out. Finally, the importance of surgeons and radiation oncologists communicating with each other and participating in cooperative treatment methods is stressed. 36 references.

  11. Risk of spread of ovarian cancer after laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Canis, M; Rabischong, B; Botchorishvili, R; Tamburro, S; Wattiez, A; Mage, G; Pouly, J L; Bruhat, M A

    2001-02-01

    The incidence of the spread of ovarian cancer after laparoscopic surgery is difficult to establish from the current literature. The prognosis incidence of a trocar site metastasis without peritoneal dissemination is not known. Data from general surgeons in prospective studies from a single institution suggested that in colon cancer the risk is low, whereas it seems to be much higher in multicentric studies of undiagnosed gallbladder cancer. Experimental studies suggested that laparoscopy has advantages and disadvantages. However, the risk of dissemination is high when a large number of malignant cells and a carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum are present, a situation encountered when managing adnexal tumours with large vegetations. Animal studies will allow the development of a peritoneal environment adapted to the treatment of cancer. The ovary is an intraperitoneal organ and ovarian cancer a peritoneal disease, so the risk of peritoneal spread may be higher in ovarian cancer than in other gynecological cancers. A careful preoperative evaluation appears to be the best way to prevent these risks. It should also be used to choose which patient should be operated by which surgical team. The second step is a careful and cautious laparoscopic diagnosis, so that more than 98% of ovarian cancers encountered can be treated immediately and effectively. The laparoscopic management of ovarian cancer remains controversial; it should be performed only in prospective clinical trials. Until the results of such studies become available, an immediate vertical midline laparotomy remains the gold standard if a cancer is encountered. PMID:11176227

  12. [Lung cancer: Stereotactic body radiation therapy and surgery].

    PubMed

    Antoni, D; Srour, I; Mornex, F

    2015-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer is now well established for patients who are not eligible to surgery. These patients can benefit from a curative treatment, which is a new therapeutic indication. Protocols are effective and well tolerated even for the most fragile patients. Three randomized trials comparing stereotactic body radiation therapy and surgery failed due to poor accrual. However, taking into account the favourable available data, the choice of stereotactic body radiation therapy in first intention arises. The treatment decision has to be discussed in a multidisciplinary way, while considering the opinion of the patient, who must be clearly informed about the principle of both therapeutic options. PMID:26358983

  13. Radiotherapy and chemoradiation after surgery for early cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda; Siu, Shing Shun N; Luesley, David; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review first published in Issue 4, 2009. There is an ongoing debate about the indications for, and value of, adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery in women with early cervical cancer. Certain combinations of pathological risk factors are thought to represent sufficient risk for recurrence, that they justify the use of postoperative pelvic radiotherapy, though this has never been shown to improve overall survival, and use of more than one type of treatment (surgery and radiotherapy) increases the risks of side effects and complications. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant therapies (radiotherapy, chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, chemoradiation) after radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer (FIGO stages IB1, IB2 or IIA). Search methods For the original review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 4, 2008. The Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE (January 1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1950 to November 2008). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. For this update, we extended the database searches to September 2011 and searched the MetaRegister for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared adjuvant therapies (radiotherapy, chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, or chemoradiation) with no radiotherapy or chemoradiation, in women with a confirmed histological diagnosis of early cervical cancer who had undergone radical hysterectomy and dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Information on grade 3 and 4 adverse events was collected from the trials. Results were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Main results Two RCTs, which compared adjuvant radiotherapy with no adjuvant radiotherapy, met the inclusion criteria; they randomised and assessed 397 women with stage IB cervical cancer. Meta-analysis of these two RCTs indicated no significant difference in survival at 5 years between women who received radiation and those who received no further treatment (risk ratio (RR) = 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 2.4). However, women who received radiation had a significantly lower risk of disease progression at 5 years (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9). Although the risk of serious adverse events was consistently higher if women received radiotherapy rather than no further treatment, these increased risks were not statistically significant, probably because the rate of adverse events was low. Authors’ conclusions We found evidence, of moderate quality, that radiation decreases the risk of disease progression compared with no further treatment, but little evidence that it might improve overall survival, in stage IB cervical cancer. The evidence on serious adverse events was equivocal. PMID:22592722

  14. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong Wan; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Park, Ho Yong; Byun, Jin Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer. Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons. Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15), the lower lateral quadrant (n=2), and the central lateral area (n=3). Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer. PMID:23898433

  15. Surgery for Pre-Cancers and Cancers of the Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Cervical Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » View Overview Guide » Español » ... topics below to get started. What Is Cervical Cancer? What is cervical cancer? What are the key ...

  16. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy is a standard therapy for early-stage breast cancer patients. In addition, recent developments in oncoplastic surgery have improved cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. Therefore, a breast surgeon’s current role in BCS is not only to perform a curative resection of cancerous lesions with adequate surgical margins, but also to preserve the shape and appearance of the treated breast. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery (EBCS), which has the advantage of a less noticeable scar, was developed more than ten years ago. Recently, some clinical studies have reported the feasibility, oncological outcomes, aesthetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction of EBCS. Herein, we will review the EBCS clinical studies that have been conducted so far and discuss current issues regarding this operative method. PMID:25083503

  17. [Robotic surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingping; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin

    2016-05-25

    The outstanding advantages of robotic surgery include the stable and three-dimension image and the convenience of surgery manipulation. The disadvantages include the lack of factile feedback, high cost and prolonged surgery time. It was reported that robotic surgery was associated with less trauma stress and faster recovery in elderly patients(≥75 years old) when compared with open surgery. Elderly people have a higher incidence of carcinogenesis and also have more comorbidities and reduced functional reserve. Clinical data of patients over 75 years old treated by robotic surgery in Zhongshan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University from March 2011 to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 24 consecutive patients were included with a median age of 77.8 years old. There were 18 male and 6 female patients. Among them, 14 patients were diagnosed with descending and sigmoid colon cancers while 10 with rectal cancers; 19 had tumor size larger than 5 cm; 16 were diagnosed with ulcerative adenocarcinoma. Fourteen patients were complicated with hypertension, 6 with cardiopulmonary diseases, 4 with diabetes mellitus and 3 with cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty-two patients underwent low anterior resection and 2 abdominoperineal resection. The estimated blood loss was 85 ml; the median operation time was (123.1±45.2) min; the median number of retrieved lymph node was 12.4. Postoperative pathologic results showed that 3 patients were stageI(, 10 stageII(, and 11 stageIII(. Postoperative complication was observed in 3 patients: urinary infection in 1 case, intraperitoneal infection in 1 case and atria fibrillation in 1 case, respectively. Median time to first postoperative flatus was 2.8 days. Our results indicated that robotic surgery is safe and feasible in the elderly patients. The next generation of robotic system may make up for these deficiencies through new technologies. With the advantage of more advanced surgical simulator, robotic surgery will play a more important role in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27215513

  18. Thirty days post-operative mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    van Eeghen, Elmer E.; den Boer, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of surgery for colorectal cancer is cure. Unfortunately post-operative mortality occurs. This study aims to identify co-morbidity and causes of mortality in the post-operative period in relation to direct technical complications of surgery. Methods All consecutive patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer were included. Co-morbidity was determined via the Charlson co-morbidity score. The post-operative course was studied and cause of death within 30 days was determined. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 died within 30 days after surgery and group 2 survived for longer than 30 days. Results Twenty three out of 333 patients (6.9%) with colon cancer and 6 out of 112 (5.3%) with rectal cancer died in the post-operative period. Patients in group 1 were significantly older than patients in group 2 (P<0.001). Patients in group 1 with colon cancer also significantly had more often a higher stage of cancer (P=0.03). The Charlson co-morbidity score for patients with colon cancer in group 1 was mean 5.17 (SD 1.57, range, 1-8), and for rectal cancer mean 4.83 (SD 2.32, range, 2-7). There was no difference in Charlson co-morbidity score when patients from groups 1 and 2 were compared. In group 1, 13 (44%) died as a direct consequence of technical surgical complications. Sixteen patients died due to complications because of pre-existing co-morbidity. Conclusions Post-operative mortality very often is the direct result of pre-existing co-morbidity and not always the direct result of the surgical procedure. PMID:26697192

  19. Morbidity and Mortality Following Breast Cancer Surgery in Women

    PubMed Central

    El-Tamer, Mahmoud B.; Ward, B Marie; Schifftner, Tracy; Neumayer, Leigh; Khuri, Shukri; Henderson, William

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most reports on postoperative (OP) morbidity and mortality following breast cancer surgery (BCS) are limited by relatively small sample size resulting in a lack of national benchmarks for quality of care. This paper reports the 30-day morbidity and mortality following BCS in women using a large prospective multi-institutional database. Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Patient Safety in Surgery, prospectively collected inpatient and outpatient 30 day postoperative morbidity and mortality data on patients undergoing surgery at 14 university and 4 community centers. Using the procedure CPT code, the database was queried for all women undergoing mastectomy (MT) or lumpectomy with an axillary procedure (L-ANP). Morbidity and mortality were categorized as mortality, wound, cardiac, renal, pulmonary, and central nervous system. Logistic regression models for the prediction of wound complications were developed. Preoperative variables having bivariate relationships with postoperative wound complications with P ≤ 0.20 were submitted for consideration. Results: We identified 1660 and 1447 women who underwent MT and l-ANP, respectively. The mean age was 55.9 years. The majority of procedures were under general anesthesia. The 30-day postoperative mortality for MT and l-ALNP were 0.24% and 0%, respectively. The most frequent morbid complication was wound infection, more commonly occurring in the mastectomy (4.34%) group versus the lumpectomy group (1.97%). Cardiac and pulmonary complications occurred infrequently in the mastectomy group (cardiac: MT, 0.12%; and pulmonary: MT, 0.66%). There were no cardiac or pulmonary complications in the lumpectomy group. CNS morbidities were rare in both surgical groups (MT, 0.12%; and l-ALNP, 0.07%). Development of a UTI was more common in women who underwent a mastectomy (0.66%) when compared with women that had a lumpectomy (0.14%). The only significant predictors of a wound complication were morbid obesity (BMI >30), having had a MT, low preoperative albumin and hematocrit greater than 45%. Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality rates following BCS in women are low, limiting their value in assessing quality of care. Mastectomy carries higher complication rate than l-ANP with wound infection being the most common. PMID:17457156

  20. Supportive care after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Allinson, Veronica M; Dent, Jo

    Routine follow-up after treatment for breast cancer aims to monitor for recurrence, manage late effects of treatment and give patients information, support and reassurance. However, most symptoms of local recurrence are first identified by patients so time spent following up women who are essentially well may not be clinically beneficial or cost effective. To better use its resources, Calderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust developed a follow-up education programme for patients at low-to-moderate risk; after two years an audit showed it reduced overall patient anxiety and routine hospital appointments, maintained standards of care and provided patient with an effective support network. PMID:26012052

  1. Current State of Vascular Resections in Pancreatic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, Thilo; Schneider, Lutz; Büchler, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the Western world and, even in 2014, a therapeutic challenge. The only chance for long-term survival is radical surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy which can be performed in about 20% of all PDAC patients by the time of diagnosis. As pancreatic surgery has significantly changed during the past years, extended operations, including vascular resections, have become more frequently performed in specialized centres and the border of resectability has been pushed forward to achieve a potentially curative approach in the respective patients in combination with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies. In contrast to adjuvant treatment which has to be regarded as a cornerstone to achieve long-term survival after resection, neoadjuvant treatment strategies for locally advanced findings are currently under debate. This overview summarizes the possibilities and evidence of vascular, namely, venous and arterial, resections in PDAC surgery. PMID:26609306

  2. Outcomes of Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bertoglio, Camillo; Bertoglio, Camillo; De Luca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandro; Galli, Freddy; Scandroglio, Ildo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer in the elderly compared with younger patients. Methods: We retrospectively considered a consecutive unselected series of 159 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic procedures for colorectal cancer at our institution between January 2007 and December 2009. Of these patients, 101 (63.5%) were ?70 years of age (Group A), and 58 (36.5%) were >70 (Group B). Operative steps and instrumentation were standardized. Demographics, disease-related, operative, and short-term data were analyzed for each group, and an appropriate statistical comparison was made. Comorbidity was quantified by using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: We reviewed right colectomies (29.5%), left colectomies (44.7%), rectal resections (19.5%), and other procedures (6.3%). There was no significant difference in sex ratio, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiology score, type of surgical procedures, and tumor stage between Group A and Group B. A statistically higher comorbidity according to the Charlson index characterized Group B (2.2 vs 3.8; P=.034). Median operative time (22878.1min vs 224.397.6min; NS), estimated blood loss (50.094.8mL vs 31.272.7mL; NS), conversion rate (2.0% vs 1.7%; NS), and timing to canalization (4.51.7dd vs 4.41.3dd; NS) were statistically comparable in both Groups. Group B was associated with a significantly longer length of hospital stay compared with Group A (8.12.8dd vs 10.86.6dd; P<.01) There was no statistically significant difference in major postoperative complications (3.8% vs 3.4%; NS), reoperations (0.9% vs 1.7%; NS), and 30-day mortality (0% vs 1.7%; NS). Conclusions: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery appears feasible and safe in elderly patients with increased comorbidity. PMID:21985716

  3. Optical coherence tomography in guided surgery of GI cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Abelevich, Alexander I.; Zagaynov, Vladimir E.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Denisenko, Arkady N.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kutis, Irina S.

    2005-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new high spatial resolution, real-time optical imaging modality, known from prior pilot studies for its high sensitivity to invasive cancer. We reported our results in an OCT feasibility study for accurate determination of the proximal border for esophageal carcinoma and the distal border for rectal carcinoma. The OCT study enrolled 19 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and 24 patients with distal esophageal carcinoma (14 squamous cell carcinomas, 10 adenocarcinomas). During pre-surgery planning endoscopy we performed in vivo OCT imaging of the tumor border at four dial clock axes (12, 3, 6 and 9 o"clock). The OCT border then was marked by an electrocoagulator, or by a methylene blue tattoo. A cold biopsy (from the esophagus) was performed at visual and OCT borders and compared with visual and OCT readings. 27 post-surgery excised specimens were analyzed. OCT borders matched the histopathology in 94% cases in the rectum and 83.3% in the esophagus. In the cases of a mismatch between the OCT and histology borders, a deep tumor invasion occurred in the muscle layer (esophagus, rectum). Because of its high sensitivity to mucosal cancer, OCT can be used for pre-surgery planning and surgery guidance of the proximal border for esophageal carcinoma and the distal border for rectal carcinoma. However, deep invasion in the rectum or esophageal wall has to be controlled by alternative diagnostic modalities.

  4. Pan-European survey on the implementation of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery with emphasis on cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Thijs; Besselink, Marc G.; Shamali, Awad; Butturini, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Edwin, Bjørn; Troisi, Roberto; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Dagher, Ibrahim; Bassi, Claudio; Abu Hilal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive (MI) pancreatic surgery appears to be gaining popularity, but its implementation throughout Europe and the opinions regarding its use in pancreatic cancer patients are unknown. Methods A 30-question survey was sent between June and December 2014 to pancreatic surgeons of the European Pancreatic Club, European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association and 5 European national pancreatic societies. Incomplete responses were excluded. Results In total, 237 pancreatic surgeons responded. After excluding 34 incomplete responses, 203 responses from 27 European countries were included. 164 (81%) surgeons were employed at a university hospital, 184 (91%) performed advanced MI surgery and 148 (73%) performed MI distal pancreatectomy. MI pancreatoduodenectomy was performed by 42 (21%) surgeons, whereas 9 (4.4%) surgeons had performed more than 10 procedures. Robot-assisted MI pancreatic surgery was performed by 28 (14%) surgeons. 63 (31%) surgeons expected MI distal pancreatectomy for cancer to be inferior to open distal pancreatectomy concerning oncological outcomes. 151 (74%) surgeons expected to benefit from training in MI distal pancreatectomy and 149 (73%) were willing to participate in a randomized trial on this topic. Conclusions MI distal pancreatectomy is a common procedure, although its use for cancer is still disputed. MI pancreatoduodenectomy is still an uncommon procedure. Specific training and a randomized trial regarding MI pancreatic cancer surgery are welcomed. PMID:26902136

  5. Influence of psychological intervention on pain and immune functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinying; Cui, Limin; Wang, Wei; Su, Quanzhi; Li, Xiuzhi; Wu, Junben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of psychological intervention on pain, immune system and adrenocortical functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery. Methods: We selected 124 patients who received surgery for treating stage I or II lung cancer and divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group received comprehensive psychological intervention while the control group was given conventional nursing intervention. Pain of patients in two groups was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Before and after intervention, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ and free cortisol level in serum were measured. Moreover, QLQ-C30, a life quality measurement scale developed by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was used. Results: Compared to control group, VAS of patients in experimental group remarkably decreased before anesthesia, 6 hour, 12 hour 24 hour and 48 hour after surgery (P<0.05), and moreover, OLQ-C30 score and various factor scores (except physical symptoms) in experimental group were much higher (P<0.05). No statistical significant difference was found in immune index between two groups before intervention (P>0.05). Differences of CD3+ and CD4+ before and after intervention were both statistically significant (P<0.05), so did free cortisol level (P<0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive psychological intervention can effectively relieve pain, improve immune functions and enhance quality of life for patients suffering from lung cancer surgery. PMID:27022366

  6. [The development of concept of partial surgery of the larynx due to supraglottic cancer].

    PubMed

    Strek, P; Modrzejewski, M; Sk?adzie?, J; Belowska, J; Olszewski, E

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown the conception of partial surgery of the larynx due to cancer primary develops in the supraglottic. The evolution of this method which is a consequence of progress in anatomical and embryological knowledge as well as technical possibilities of surgeons has been introduced. The modern methods of partial removal of larynx let resume physiological function of larynx with oncological security. PMID:10822976

  7. Effect of additional surgery after noncurative endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamanouchi, Kohei; Ogata, Shinichi; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Shimoda, Ryo; Nakayama, Atsushi; Akutagawa, Takashi; Shirai, Shimpei; Takeshita, Eri; Yamamoto, Koji; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Iwakiri, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) without lymph node metastasis. However, some patients undergo noncurative ESD. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term clinical outcomes of noncurative ESD with or without additional surgery. Patients and methods: We investigated the chart data from all patients who had undergone ESD for EGC at Saga Medical School Hospital and Saga Prefectural Medical Centre Koseikan between 2001 and 2012. A total of 957 cases (1047 lesions) of EGC underwent ESD, and 99 had noncurative ESD. In total, 20 cases were excluded because their follow-up period was < 3 years. We divided the patients into observation and additional surgery groups, and we compared the survival rate and related factors between the groups. Results: After noncurative ESD, 28 /79 patients (35.4 %) underwent additional surgery and 51/79 (64.6 %) were followed up without surgery. The average age of patients in the observation group was higher than that of the additional surgery group (75.9 vs. 71.6 years; P = 0.03). The incidence of hypertension was significantly higher in the observation group compared with the additional surgery group (51.0 vs. 25.9 %; P = 0.03). The overall survival rate of the additional surgery group was longer than that of the observation group. However, only one patient died from gastric cancer in the observation group. The disease-specific survival rate did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: It might be acceptable to follow up without additional surgery for some patients with comorbidity and who were elderly after noncurative ESD for EGC. PMID:26793781

  8. The Association of Deep Vein Thrombosis With Cancer Treatment Modality: Chemotherapy or Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Samare Fekri, Mitra; Khalily Zade, Mahdie; Fatehi, Shima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a well-recognized complication in patients with cancer. Chemotherapy and cancer surgery increase the risk of DVT in these patients. There are a few reports about the prevalence of DVT in patients with cancer regarding different managing modalities. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DVT in patients with cancer, who were hospitalized in teaching hospitals, according to their treatment intervention. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 602 patients with cancer in Kerman, Iran, during years 2006-2007. Among the subjects, 301 had been operated and the rest had received chemotherapy. The prevalence of DVT was determined based on patients variables, cancer factors, and therapeutic modalities. Results: Totally, 349 subjects (58%) were male. DVT incidence was 19.9%, most of the cases were over 40 years of age (82.2%), and 21.2% of males and 18.2% of females had developed DVT. The prevalence of DVT in chemotherapy group was higher than that in surgery group (21.9% and 17.9%, respectively); however, this difference was statistically insignificant. DVT developed more frequently in lung cancer (42%) with small cell carcinoma being the most common pathologic finding (42.9%) in those with lung cancer (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: DVT occurs frequently in patients with malignancies. In this study, there was no association between DVT prevalence and age as well as sex; nonetheless, the prevalence was significantly higher in some sites and in patients with certain pathologies. Although DVT prevalence was higher in chemotherapy than in surgery, the difference was insignificant. Informing patients with cancer about symptoms of DVT and prophylactic interventions are warranted. PMID:25593718

  9. Effects of surgery on the cancer stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, D P; O'Leary, E; Foley, N; Cotter, T G; Wang, J H; Redmond, H P

    2016-03-01

    Recent identification of a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in solid tumors has greatly enhanced the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cancer cell metastasis. In keeping with Pagets 'seed and soil' theory, CSCs display dependence upon stromal derived factors found within the niche in which they reside. Inflammatory mediators act as a 'fertilizer' within this niche when interacting with CSCs at the tumor-stromal interface and can potentiate the metastatic ability of CSCs. Interestingly, the same components of the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by cancer patients perioperatively are known to promote the metastagenic potential of CSCs. On the basis of this observation we discuss how surgery-induced inflammation potentiates colon CSC involvement in the metastatic process. We hypothesize that the high rates of recurrence and metastasis associated with tumor resection are potentiated by the effects of surgery-induced inflammation on CSCs. Finally we discuss potential therapeutic strategies for use in the perioperative window to protect cancer patients from the oncological effects of the pro-inflammatory milieu. PMID:26810247

  10. Surgery May Beat Radiation for Men with Early Stage Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate cancer," said Dr. David Samadi, chief of robotic surgery at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York ... David Samadi, M.D., chairman, urology, and chief, robotic surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Jonathan ...

  11. Experts reviews of the multidisciplinary consensus conference colon and rectal cancer 2012: science, opinions and experiences from the experts of surgery.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, C J H; Boelens, P G; Tanis, P J; Espin, E; Mroczkowski, P; Naredi, P; Pahlman, L; Ortiz, H; Rutten, H J; Breugom, A J; Smith, J J; Wibe, A; Wiggers, T; Valentini, V

    2014-04-01

    The first multidisciplinary consensus conference on colon and rectal cancer was held in December 2012, achieving a majority of consensus for diagnostic and treatment decisions using the Delphi Method. This article will give a critical appraisal of the topics discussed during the meeting and in the consensus document by well-known leaders in surgery that were involved in this multidisciplinary consensus process. Scientific evidence, experience and opinions are collected to support multidisciplinary teams (MDT) with arguments for medical decision-making in diagnosis, staging and treatment strategies for patients with colon or rectal cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of curative treatment for colon and rectal cancer. Standardizing treatment is an effective instrument to improve outcome of multidisciplinary cancer care for patients with colon and rectal cancer. In this article, a review of the following focuses; Perioperative care, age and colorectal surgery, obstructive colorectal cancer, stenting, surgical anatomical considerations, total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery and training, surgical considerations for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC), surgery in stage IV colorectal cancer, definitions of quality of surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery, preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, and how about functional outcome after surgery? PMID:24268926

  12. Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Shingo; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (SPVATS) emerged several years ago as a new, minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of respiratory surgery, and is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for some thoracic surgeons in Europe and Asia. However, the adoption rate of this procedure in the United States and Japan remains low. We herein reviewed our experience of SPVATS for early lung cancer in our center, and evaluated the safety and minimal invasiveness of this technique. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone SPVATS for pathological stage I lung cancer in Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between September 2012 and October 2015. In SPVATS, an approximately 4-cm incision was made at the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. A rib spreader was not used at the incision site, and surgical manipulation was performed very carefully in order to avoid contact between surgical instruments and the intercostal nerves. The same surgeon performed surgery on all patients, and analyzed laboratory data before and after surgery. Results Eighty-four patients underwent anatomical lung resection for postoperative pathological stage I lung cancer. The mean wound length was 4.2 cm. Eighty-four patients underwent lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was 1.85%±0.36%. Our patients consisted of 49 men (58.3%) and 35 women (41.7%), with 64, 18, 1, and 1 having adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The mean operative time was 175±21 min, operative blood loss 92±18 mL, and duration of drain placement 1.9±0.6 days. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 7.1±1.7 days, numeric rating scale (NRS) 1 week after surgery 2.8±0.6, and occurrence rate of allodynia 1 month after surgery 10.7%. No patient developed serious complications, and no deaths occurred within 30 days of surgery. Two patients (2.4%) were converted to open thoracotomy. Conclusions SPVATS is a safe and feasible technique, and is promising for next-generation thoracoscopic surgery. It may also reduce postoperative wound pain and contribute to improvements in the activities of daily living of patients. PMID:27014483

  13. Emergency surgery for large bowel obstruction caused by cancer.

    PubMed

    Busić, Zeljko; Cupurdija, Kristijan; Kolovrat, Marijan; Servis, Drazen; Amić, Fedor; Cavka, Mislav; Patrlj, Leonardo; Nikolić, Igor; Cavka, Vlatka

    2014-03-01

    There are several options for surgical treatment of large bowel obstruction caused by cancer, depending on location of obstruction, intraoperative local findings (perforation, peritonitis, bowel dilatation proximal to obstruction) and patients' condition. Resection and anastomosis as one stage surgery would be prefered procedure. Anastomotic leakage, on the other hand, highly elevates risk of mortality and mobidity. The most important question is whether to, in resectable cases, perform primary resection with anastomosis or not. This study was retrospective and included 40 patients that have undergone emergency surgery for large bowel obstruction caused by cancer. According to whether resection and anastomosis was made at initial surgery or not, patients were grouped in group A (N = 18) and group B (N = 21), respectively. We have analysed the type of surgical procedure, days of hospitalization, mortality, anastomotic leakeage, wound infection and other postoperative complications. Our results show that there is no major difference in mortality and morbidity in these two groups, suggesting that for selected patients primary resection and anastomosis is a safe option of tratment with acceptable risk. Since there are no strict guidelines or scorring system which would point the tratment option the decision about the choice of procedure still remains the burden of surgeon and depends on its experience and subspeciality. Our experience recomends primary resection and anastomosis except in cases of bowel perforation on tumor site, in cases of extreme dilatation and atony of bowel proximal to obstruction site and severe hypoproteinemia and anemia. PMID:24851603

  14. Robotic-assisted surgery versus open surgery in the treatment of rectal cancer: the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Liao, Guixiang; Li, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Xianming; Deng, Haijun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted rectal cancer surgery (RRCS) and open rectal cancer surgery (ORCS). Electronic database (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library) searches were conducted for all relevant studies that compared the short-term and long-term outcomes between RRCS and ORCS. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences, and hazard ratios were calculated. Seven studies involving 1074 patients with rectal cancer were identified for this meta-analysis. Compared with ORCS, RRCS is associated with a lower estimated blood loss (mean difference [MD]: -139.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -159.11 to -120.86; P < 0.00001), shorter hospital stay length (MD: -2.10, 95% CI: -3.47 to -0.73; P = 0.003), lower intraoperative transfusion requirements (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.99, P = 0.05), shorter time to flatus passage (MD: -0.97, 95% CI = -1.06 to -0.88, P < 0.00001), and shorter time to resume a normal diet (MD: -1.71.95% CI = -3.31 to -0.12, P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in surgery-related complications, oncologic clearance, disease-free survival, and overall survival between the two groups. However, RRCS was associated with a longer operative time. RRCS is safe and effective. PMID:27228906

  15. The role of surgery in the management of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mustard, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    This is a review of one surgeon's personal experience with 85 patients with thyroid cancer treated over a 20-year period. The data confirm that for papillary thyroid tumours, with rare exceptions, the prognosis is excellent. Anaplastic lesions, however, are consistently lethal. Follicular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma fall between these extremes. A simple clinical classification is offered as a guide to operative management and a reliable index of prognosis. Patients with clinically apparent, "manifest cancer" have serious, life-threatening disease; many such patients die of their disease. Patients with "neck lumps not yet diagnosed" usually have papillary carcinoma; their prognosis is excellent. Patients whose thyroid tumours fall into the category of "malignant nodule" or "pathologist's cancer" are particularly fortunate: in this series no such patient has died. The importance of age in relation to thyroid cancer is also confirmed: non of the patients first treated before the age of 40 years has died of cancer. For young patients with favourable disease the author recommends conservative surgical treatment, which avoids cosmetic deformity or functional disability, to be followed by administration of levothyroxine to suppress production of thyroid=stimulating hormone. For patients with "unfavourable" thyroid cancer valuable palliation can often be achieved by a combination of surgery and irradiation. Survival rates for the total series are 76% at 5 years and 60% at 10 years. PMID:1139493

  16. [Cases of Obstructive Colon Cancer for Which Elective Surgery Was Performed after Colonic Stent Placement].

    PubMed

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Koike, Kota; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the short-term outcomes of 20 patients with obstructive colon cancer who underwent colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery (BTS) during the 3-year period between April 2012 and March 2015. Subjects comprised 13 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 68.3 years. Placement and decompression were successfully achieved in all of the patients. Oral ingestion became possible from a mean of 2.7 days after placement. No serious complications associated with placement were encountered. Total colonoscopy was performed after placement in 17 patients (85%), and independent advanced cancer was seen in the proximal portion of the colon in 1 patient. Elective surgery was performed for all of the patients after placement. Excluding the 2 patients for whom preoperative chemotherapy or treatment of another disease was prioritized, the mean interval to surgery for the remaining 18 patients was 23.2 days. The operative procedure performed was laparoscopic surgery in 8 patients (40%). Although minor leakage (n=1) and abdominal wall abscess (n=1) were observed as postoperative complications, the patients generally had an uneventful course. Colonic stent placement for obstructive colon cancer is relatively easy and safe, and may be considered as an effective treatment method that enables favorable intestinal decompression preoperatively and one-stage resection. PMID:26805323

  17. External validation of a claims-based algorithm for classifying kidney-cancer surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David C; Saigal, Christopher S; Warren, Joan L; Leventhal, Meryl; Deapen, Dennis; Banerjee, Mousumi; Lai, Julie; Hanley, Jan; Litwin, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Background Unlike other malignancies, there is no literature supporting the accuracy of medical claims data for identifying surgical treatments among patients with kidney cancer. We sought to validate externally a previously published Medicare-claims-based algorithm for classifying surgical treatments among patients with early-stage kidney cancer. To achieve this aim, we compared procedure assignments based on Medicare claims with the type of surgery specified in SEER registry data and clinical operative reports. Methods Using linked SEER-Medicare data, we calculated the agreement between Medicare claims and SEER data for identification of cancer-directed surgery among 6,515 patients diagnosed with early-stage kidney cancer. Next, for a subset of 120 cases, we determined the agreement between the claims algorithm and the medical record. Finally, using the medical record as the reference-standard, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the claims algorithm. Results Among 6,515 cases, Medicare claims and SEER data identified 5,483 (84.1%) and 5,774 (88.6%) patients, respectively, who underwent cancer-directed surgery (observed agreement = 93%, κ = 0.69, 95% CI 0.66 – 0.71). The two data sources demonstrated 97% agreement for classification of partial versus radical nephrectomy (κ = 0.83, 95% CI 0.81 – 0.86). We observed 97% agreement between the claims algorithm and clinical operative reports; the positive predictive value of the claims algorithm exceeded 90% for identification of both partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Medicare claims represent an accurate data source for ascertainment of population-based patterns of surgical care among patients with early-stage kidney cancer. PMID:19500395

  18. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  19. Robotic surgery: review of prostate and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Sohn, William; Lee, Hak J; Ahlering, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has become to replace many of the open procedures in urology because of the obvious benefits in perioperative morbidity. However, because of the technical challenges and steep learning curve, the adoption of laparoscopy has been limited to only highly skilled laparoscopic surgeons. The introduction of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif) has offered significant technical advantages over laparoscopic surgery. Because of the wide acceptance of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy over the past decade, it has paved the way for urologists to tackle other complex operations, such as a radical cystectomy to decrease the morbidity of the operation. The goal of this article was to review the history and discuss the application and current status of the robot in both prostate and bladder cancer management. We present our technique of performing a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and the application of the robust prostate experience to robotic cystectomy. PMID:23528721

  20. Management of Thyroid Nodules and Surgery for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Shaha, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer has seen a worldwide increase in the last three decades. Whether this is due to a ‘true increase’ in incidence or simply increased detection of otherwise subclinical disease remains unclear. The treatment of thyroid cancer revolves around appropriate surgical intervention, minimising complications and the use of adjuvant therapy in select circumstances. Prognostic features and risk stratification are crucial in determining the appropriate treatment. There continues to be considerable debate in several aspects of management in these patients. Level 1 evidence is lacking, and there are limited prospective data to direct therapy, hence limiting decision-making to retrospective analyses, treatment guidelines based on expert opinion and personal philosophies. This overview focuses on the major issues associated with the investigation of thyroid nodules and the extent of surgery. As overall survival in well-differentiated thyroid cancer exceeds 95%, it is important to reduce over-treating the large majority of patients, and focus limited resources on high-risk patients who require aggressive treatment and closer attention. The onus is on the physician to avoid treatment-related complications from thyroid surgery and to offer the most efficient and cost-effective therapeutic option. PMID:20381323

  1. Nanobiotechnology promotes noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    The successful cancer eradication in a noninvasive manner is the ultimate objective in the fight against cancer. As a "bloodless scalpel," high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as one of the most promising and representative noninvasive therapeutic modalities for cancer surgery. However, large-scale clinical applications of HIFU are still in their infancy because of critical efficiency and safety issues which remain to be solved. Fortunately, recently developed nanobiotechnology provides an alternative efficient approach to improve such important issues in HIFU, especially for cancer therapy. This Research News presents the very recent exciting progresses on the elaborate design and fabrication of organic, inorganic, and organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles for enhancing the HIFU ablation efficiency against tumor tissues. It is highly expected that this Research News can arouse more extensive research enthusiasm on the development of functional nanomaterials for highly efficient HIFU-based synergistic therapy, which will give a promising noninvasive therapeutic modality for the successful cancer therapy with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues, due to the noninvasive and site-specific therapeutic features of HIFU. PMID:24898413

  2. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: surgery, surveillance and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by autosomal dominance and high penetrance. In 30-50% of cases, a causative germline mutation in CDH1, the E-cadherin gene, may be identified. Female carriers of CDH1 mutations also have an increased (20-40%) risk of lobular breast cancer. Endoscopic surveillance of patients with CDH1 mutations is ineffective because early foci of HDGC are typically small and underlie normal mucosa. CDH1 mutation carriers are therefore offered the option of prophylactic gastrectomy, which commonly reveals early foci of invasive signet-ring cell cancer. We review recommendations for genetic testing, surveillance and prophylactic surgery in HDGC. Areas for future research are discussed, including development of new screening modalities, optimal timing of prophylactic gastrectomy, identification of additional causative mutations in HDGC, management of patients with CDH1 missense mutations and prevention/early detection of lobular breast cancer in CDH1 mutation carriers. PMID:18684065

  3. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MANAGEMENT OF ORAL CANCERSURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jatin P.; Gil, Ziv

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with a high prevalence in South Asia. Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain the most dominant etiologic factors, however HPV has been recently implicated in oral cancer. Surgery is the most well established mode of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. The factors that affect choice of treatment are related to the tumor and the patient. Primary site, location, size, proximity to bone, and depth of infiltration are factors which influence a particular surgical approach. Tumors that approach or involve the mandible require specific understanding of the mechanism of bone involvement. This facilitates the employment of mandible sparing approaches such as marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy. Reconstruction of major surgical defects in the oral cavity requires use of a free flap. The radial forearm free flap provides excellent soft tissue and lining for soft tissue defects in the oral cavity. The fibula free flap remains the choice for mandibular reconstruction. Over the course of the past thirty years there has been improvement in the overall survival of patients with oral carcinoma largely due to the improved understanding of the biology of local progression, early identification and treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck, and employment of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. The role of surgery in primary squamous cell carcinomas in other sites in the head and neck has evolved with integration of multidisciplinary treatment approaches employing chemotherapy and radiotherapy either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, larynx preservation with concurrent chemoradiotherapy has become the standard of care for locally advanced carcinomas of the larynx or pharynx requiring total laryngectomy. On the other hand, for early staged tumors of the larynx and pharynx, transoral laser microsurgery has become an effective means of local control of these lesions. Advances in skull base surgery have significantly improved the survivorship of patients with malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses approaching or involving the skull base. Surgery thus remains the mainstay of management of a majority of neoplasms arising in the head and neck area. Similarly, the role of the surgeon is essential throughout the life history of a patient with a malignant neoplasm in the head and neck area, from initial diagnosis through definitive treatment, post-treatment surveillance, management of complications, rehabilitation of the sequelae of treatment, and finally for palliation of symptoms. PMID:18674952

  4. Fast-track laparoscopic surgery: A better option for treating colorectal cancer than conventional laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    TAUPYK, YERLAN; CAO, XUEYUAN; ZHAO, YINQUAN; WANG, CHAO; WANG, QUAN

    2015-01-01

    Fast-track surgery (FTS), a multimodal rehabilitation technique, has been recommended as surgical therapy for colorectal cancer. The objective of the present study was to compare the outcomes of FTS and conventional laparoscopic surgery. This study was a blinded randomized trial. A total of 70 patients with colorectal cancer were divided into two groups and underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection. The FTS group consisted of 31 patients and the control group consisted of 39 patients. Protocols for the treatment of the FTS group included skipping pre-operative mechanical bowel preparation, early restoration of diet and early post-operative ambulation. Outcome measures, length of hospital stay, post-operative surgical stress response [C-reactive protein (CRP)] and post-operative complications were compared between the two groups. The average length of total hospital stay for the FTS and the control groups was 5.9±0.8 and 10.9±1.3 days, respectively (P<0.05), and the length of post-operative hospital stay for the FTS and control group was 4.3±0.8 and 8.0±1.1 days, respectively. (P<0.05) First flatus time for the FTS and control groups was 1.6±0.8 and 2.5±0.9 days, respectively (P<0.05). Defecation time for the FTS and control groups was 2.2±0.7 and 4.5±0.7 days, respectively (P<0.05). The time to restoration of a solid diet also showed a significant difference between the FTS and control groups (1.1±0.3 vs. 3.6±0.9 days; P<0.05). Following surgery, due to post-operative surgical stress, the two groups CRP levels increased significantly, but the levels of the FTS group were lower than those of the conventional control group (P<0.05). There was no difference in post-operative complications between the FTS and control groups. This study confirms that FTS shortens hospital stay and accelerates the recovery of bowel function without increase of post-operative complications. FTS is safe, improves post-operative recovery and is a better option than conventional laparoscopic surgery for treating colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26171048

  5. Robotic Surgery in Women With Ovarian Cancer: Surgical Technique and Evidence of Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Minig, Lucas; Padilla Iserte, Pablo; Zorrero, Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is a new technology that has been progressively implemented to treat endometrial and cervical cancer. However, the use of robotic surgery for ovarian cancer is limited to a few series of cases and comparative studies with laparoscopy or laparotomy. The technical issues concerning robotic surgery, as well as clinical evidence, are described in this review. Robotic surgery in early stage, advanced stage, and relapsed ovarian cancer is discussed separately. In conclusion, evidence regarding the use of robotic-assisted surgical treatment for women with ovarian cancer is still scarce, but its use is progressively growing. Robotic-assisted staging in selected patients with early stage disease has an important role in referral institutions when well-trained gynecologists perform surgeries. However, minimally invasive surgery in patients with advanced stage or relapsed ovarian cancer requires further investigation, even in selected cases. PMID:26538410

  6. Cytoreductive Surgery plus HIPEC for Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Goéré, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Occurring either synchronously or metachronously to the primary tumor, peritoneal metastases (PM) are diagnosed in 8 to 20 % of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Prognosis of these patients appears to be worse than those with other sites of metastases. While systemic therapy has shown significant prolongation of survival in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, the outcomes in the subset of patients with PM has been much inferior. Over the last 2 decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been effective in substantially prolonging survival in patients with colorectal PM and have the potential to cure certain patients as well. This article reviews the current evidence for CRS and HIPEC to treat colorectal PM as well as future research going on in this form of locoregional treatment. PMID:27065708

  7. An evaluation of treatment results of emergency versus elective surgery in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Bahattin; Yılmaz, Kerim Bora; Akıncı, Melih; Şahin, Alpaslan; Kulaçoğlu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Colorectal cancer is still one of the most common causes of cancer related deaths in the world despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment modalities, and application of community-based screening methods. Symptoms of colorectal cancer are non-specific and usually manifest following local progression. A number of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer present to emergency departments with obstruction as the first sign of disease without any previous symptoms. This presentation is an indication for emergency surgery that has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the factors associated with early diagnosis and survival by comparing postoperative results of colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery under emergency or elective situation. Material and Methods: Files of colorectal patients treated between 2009–2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Data on patient age, gender, operation type, intraoperative results, length of hospital stay, co-morbidities, postoperative complications and pathological results were evaluated and compared. Results: There was no statistical difference between groups in terms of age, gender, and pathology results (p>0.05). The difference between groups in terms of postoperative length of hospital stay, presence of co-morbid diseases, pathological stage, and postoperative complications was statistically significant (p<0.05). Length of hospital stay, advanced stage on admission, complications such as surgical site infection, evisceration, and anastomosis leakage rates were higher in patients in the emergency surgery group. Conclusion: Risk groups should be determined in order to diagnose colorectal cancer patients at an early stage while they are still asymptomatic, and this information should be incorporated into effective screening programs. This approach will be beneficial to treatment outcomes, complication rates, length of hospital stay, and survival and treatment results.

  8. The Role of Non-Curative Surgery in Incurable, Asymptomatic Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Luo, Hui-yan; Jin, Ying; Wei, Xiao-li; Xu, Rui-hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Although general agreement exists on palliative surgery with intent of symptom palliation in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the role of non-curative surgery for incurable, asymptomatic AGC is hotly debated. We aim to clarify the role of non-curative surgery in patients with incurable, asymptomatic AGC under the first-line chemotherapy. Methods A total of 737 patients with incurable, asymptomatic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2008 and May 2012 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed, comprising 414 patients with non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy, and 323 patients with first-line chemotherapy only. The clinicopathologic data, survival, and prognosis were evaluated, with propensity score adjustment for selection bias. Results The median overall survival (OS) outcomes significantly favored non-curative surgery group over first-line chemotherapy only group in entire population (28.00 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), stage 4 patients (23.87 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), young patients (28.70 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000) and elderly patients (23.07 versus 10.27 months, P = 0.031). The median OS advantages of non-curative surgery over first-line chemotherapy only were also maintained when the analyses were restricted to single organ metastasis (P = 0.001), distant lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), peritoneal metastasis (P = 0.000), and multi-organ metastasis (P = 0.010). Significant OS advantages of non-curative surgery over chemotherapy only were confirmed solid by multivariate analyses before and after adjustment on propensity score (P = 0.000). Small subsets of patients with surgery of single metastatic lesion after previous curative gastrectomy, and with surgery of both primary and single metastatic sites showed sound median OS. Conclusions There is a role for non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy for incurable, asymptomatic AGC, in terms of survival. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to fill a gap in knowledge about the value of metastectomy and patient selection strategies. PMID:24358318

  9. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  10. Improving quality of breast cancer surgery through development of a national breast cancer surgical outcomes (BRCASO) research database

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common measures of surgical quality are 30-day morbidity and mortality, which poorly describe breast cancer surgical quality with extremely low morbidity and mortality rates. Several national quality programs have collected additional surgical quality measures; however, program participation is voluntary and results may not be generalizable to all surgeons. We developed the Breast Cancer Surgical Outcomes (BRCASO) database to capture meaningful breast cancer surgical quality measures among a non-voluntary sample, and study variation in these measures across providers, facilities, and health plans. This paper describes our study protocol, data collection methods, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of these data. Methods We included 4524 women ≥18 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2003-2008. All women with initial breast cancer surgery performed by a surgeon employed at the University of Vermont or three Cancer Research Network (CRN) health plans were eligible for inclusion. From the CRN institutions, we collected electronic administrative data including tumor registry information, Current Procedure Terminology codes for breast cancer surgeries, surgeons, surgical facilities, and patient demographics. We supplemented electronic data with medical record abstraction to collect additional pathology and surgery detail. All data were manually abstracted at the University of Vermont. Results The CRN institutions pre-filled 30% (22 out of 72) of elements using electronic data. The remaining elements, including detailed pathology margin status and breast and lymph node surgeries, required chart abstraction. The mean age was 61 years (range 20-98 years); 70% of women were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, 20% with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 10% with invasive lobular carcinoma. Conclusions The BRCASO database is one of the largest, multi-site research resources of meaningful breast cancer surgical quality data in the United States. Assembling data from electronic administrative databases and manual chart review balanced efficiency with high-quality, unbiased data collection. Using the BRCASO database, we will evaluate surgical quality measures including mastectomy rates, positive margin rates, and partial mastectomy re-excision rates among a diverse, non-voluntary population of patients, providers, and facilities. PMID:22472011

  11. External irradiation prior to conservative surgery for breast cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Feuilhade, F.; Piedbois, P.; Pavlovitch, J.M.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Julien, M.; Pierquin, B. )

    1991-07-01

    From 1981 to 1987, 138 patients with breast cancer unsuitable for primary tumorectomy received initial external radiotherapy (45 Gy/25f/35d) in order to reduce the tumor volume so that secondary limited surgery could be performed. There were 81 T2 and 57 T3. Fifty-seven percent of the patients had a tumor larger than 4.5 cm. After completion of the radiotherapy, 22 patients (16%) showed no more evidence of a tumor either clinically or radiologically and received a boost of 25 Gy. In 52 cases (38%) the tumor regression allowed for secondary tumorectomy followed by a boost of 20 Gy. Sixty-four patients (46%) showed either little or no tumor regression: radical surgery was performed in 14 cases (10%) and high dose boost curietherapy (37 Gy) in the 50 (36%) remaining patients who refused mastectomy. Breast conservation in good condition was thus obtained in 74 patients (54%). Sufficient tumor regression to allow secondary tumorectomy was more often observed in T2 than in T3, in poorly differentiated tumors or mucinous type, and in tumor with well defined mammographic aspects. Actuarial 5-year local control and disease-free survival rates after limited surgery were, respectively, 90% and 73%. No particular complications were observed after secondary tumorectomy. This therapeutic approach is encouraging in patients with large T2 and T3 breast tumors, but a longer follow-up is required to assess definitive conclusions.

  12. [Evaluation and treatment of chronic pain after cervicofacial cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Donnadieu, S; Nguyen, S; Bertrand, J; Dru, M; Laccourreye, O; Laccourreye, H

    1992-01-01

    When lasting pain occurs after surgery of head and neck cancer, tumoral recurrence should be considered. In addition to curative treatment, relief of pain is often provided by opioid analgesics. Doses vary according to tolerance and patient. Other than digestive routes of administration may be required. Here are two clinical reports: the first case with cervical epidural analgesia by ambulatory autoadministration device (Patient control analgesia), the other one with intrathecal in C7-T1 catheter with port access in which morphine was injected every 24 hours resulting in efficient analgesia, in metastatic Pancoast's syndrome. Surgical or radiotherapy sequelae sometimes bring about pain; bilateral cervicalgy described as burns associated with pain-related depression, 18 months after glotto-subglottic partial laryngectomy, requires psychological support and carbamazepine for desafferation pain removed within 6 months. When the only treatment left appears to be analgesia after surgery of head and neck cancer, follow-up in a multidisciplinary pain treatment centre allows a therapeutical management with optimum tolerance and efficiency. PMID:1485751

  13. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Ramakrishnan Ayloor; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer associated peritoneal carcinomatosis (GCPC) has a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than one year. Systemic chemotherapy including targeted agents has not been found to significantly increase the survival in GCPC. Since recurrent gastric cancer remains confined to the abdominal cavity in many patients, regional therapies like aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been investigated for GCPC. HIPEC has been used for three indications in GC- as an adjuvant therapy after a curative surgery, HIPEC has been shown to improve survival and reduce peritoneal recurrences in many randomised trials in Asian countries; as a definitive treatment in established PC, HIPEC along with CRS is the only therapeutic modality that has resulted in long-term survival in select groups of patients; as a palliative treatment in advanced PC with intractable ascites, HIPEC has been shown to control ascites and reduce the need for frequent paracentesis. While the results of randomised trials of adjuvant HIPEC from western centres are awaited, the role of HIPEC in the treatment of GCPC is still evolving and needs larger studies before it is accepted as a standard of care. PMID:26811651

  14. [Current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Robotic surgery was launched in Japan in 2000.In particular, the development of the da Vinci S Surgical System was a major breakthrough. It was introduced in Japan for the first time through our hospital in January 2009. Since then, the number of surgical robots used has been dramatically increasing, with up to approximately 160 robots all over the country. To date, we have performed more than 500 robotic surgeries, including 180 gastrectomies, at our hospital. Our data suggest that compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the use of the da Vinci Surgical System in minimally invasive gastrectomy for gastric cancer might improve short-term outcomes, particularly in terms of preventing postoperative local complications. Thus, we believe that use of surgical robots become increasingly beneficial for more extensive resections and operations that require more advanced skills, even though a couple of issues remain to be solved, such as long operative time, high cost, and limited experience and evidence. In this article, the current status and future perspectives regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer are presented based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:25434438

  15. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Ramakrishnan Ayloor; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-01-21

    Gastric cancer associated peritoneal carcinomatosis (GCPC) has a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than one year. Systemic chemotherapy including targeted agents has not been found to significantly increase the survival in GCPC. Since recurrent gastric cancer remains confined to the abdominal cavity in many patients, regional therapies like aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been investigated for GCPC. HIPEC has been used for three indications in GC- as an adjuvant therapy after a curative surgery, HIPEC has been shown to improve survival and reduce peritoneal recurrences in many randomised trials in Asian countries; as a definitive treatment in established PC, HIPEC along with CRS is the only therapeutic modality that has resulted in long-term survival in select groups of patients; as a palliative treatment in advanced PC with intractable ascites, HIPEC has been shown to control ascites and reduce the need for frequent paracentesis. While the results of randomised trials of adjuvant HIPEC from western centres are awaited, the role of HIPEC in the treatment of GCPC is still evolving and needs larger studies before it is accepted as a standard of care. PMID:26811651

  16. A multimodal nano agent for image-guided cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinzi; Muhanna, Nidal; De Souza, Raquel; Wada, Hironobu; Chan, Harley; Akens, Margarete K; Anayama, Takashi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Serra, Stefano; Irish, Jonathan; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative imaging technologies including computed tomography and fluorescence optical imaging are becoming routine tools in the cancer surgery operating room. They constitute an enabling platform for high performance surgical resections that assure local control while minimizing morbidity. New contrast agents that can increase the sensitivity and visualization power of existing intraoperative imaging techniques will further enhance their clinical benefit. We report here the development, detection and visualization of a dual-modality computed tomography and near-infrared fluorescence nano liposomal agent (CF800) in multiple preclinical animal models of cancer. We describe the successful application of this agent for combined preoperative computed tomography based three-dimensional surgical planning and intraoperative target mapping (>200 Hounsfield Units enhancement), as well as near-infrared fluorescence guided resection (>5-fold tumor-to-background ratio). These results strongly support the clinical advancement of this agent for image-guided surgery with potential to improve lesion localization, margin delineation and metastatic lymph node detection. PMID:26218742

  17. Risk of Cancer After Lumbar Fusion Surgery With Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 (rh-BMP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Gregory S.; Kou, Tzuyung Doug

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort study among Medicare beneficiaries with lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Objective. To determine the risk of subsequent cancer among patients who received recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP) at surgery compared with those who did not. Summary of Background Data. rhBMP is commonly used to promote bone union after spinal surgery. BMP receptors are present on multiple cancer types, but the risk of cancer after receiving rhBMP has not been well studied. Methods. We identified 146,278 subjects aged 67 years and older who underwent surgery in 2003 to 2008 and were followed through 2010 for a new diagnosis of 1 of 26 cancers. Proportional hazards models were used to determine cancer risk associated with rhBMP use. Results. rhBMP was administered in 15.1% of the cohort. After an overall average follow-up of 4.7 years, 15.4% of rhBMP-treated and 17.0% of untreated patients had a new cancer diagnosis, with most commonly recorded types as prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal. In a multivariate proportional hazards model, there was no association of rhBMP with cancer risk (hazard ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.95–1.02). There was also no association of rhBMP with the risk of any individual cancer types. The results were consistent in analyses using 2 secondary definitions of incident cancer. Conclusion. In this large population-based analysis of Medicare beneficiaries, we found no evidence that administration of rhBMP at the time of lumbar fusion surgery was associated with cancer risk. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:23883824

  18. Development of a screening instrument for risk factors of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sipilä, R; Estlander, A-M; Tasmuth, T; Kataja, M; Kalso, E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain can have a significant effect on the quality of life of women being treated for breast cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to develop a screening tool to identify presurgical demographic, psychological and treatment-related factors that predict persistence of significant pain in the operated area after 6 months from surgery. Methods: Background and self-reported questionnaire data were collected the day before surgery and combined with treatment-related data. Pain in the operated area was assessed 6 months after surgery with a questionnaire. The Bayesian model was used for the development of a screening tool. Results: Report of preoperative chronic pain, more than four or more previous operations, preoperative pain in the area to be operated, high body mass index, previous smoking and older age were included in the six-factor model that best predicted significant pain at the follow-up in the 489 women studied. Conclusion: A six-factor risk index was developed to estimate the risk of developing significant pain after breast cancer surgery. Neither treatment- nor mood-related variables were included in the model. Identification of risk factors may lead to prevention of persistent postsurgery pain. This tool could be used for target prevention to those who are at the highest risk of developing persistent postsurgery pain. PMID:23093294

  19. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  20. Risk-reducing surgery for ovarian cancer: outcomes in 300 surgeries suggest a low peritoneal primary risk

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D Gareth R; Clayton, Richard; Donnai, Paul; Shenton, Andrew; Lalloo, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is currently advocated for the reduction of both breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers, but residual risk of peritoneal primary cancer remains a concern. A sequential series of women attending a single institution for ovarian risk management underwent either risk-reducing surgery or screening. A person-years at risk analysis was used to compare observed versus expected cancers. In total, 300 women underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, including 160 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Three occult ovarian cancers were detected at surgery. There have been 2400.4 years of follow-up and 15.79 expected cancers. No peritoneal cancers have occurred. Amongst 503 women controls with 3444.3 years of follow-up, 15.93 ovarian cancers were expected and 17 were found. There were six ovarian cancer-related deaths in the control group compared with one in the surgery group. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in a single institution has so far avoided peritoneal cancer incidence. PMID:19367322

  1. Outcome of Trimodality-Eligible Esophagogastric Cancer Patients Who Declined Surgery after Preoperative Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Takashi; Correa, Arlene M.; Suzuki, Akihiro; Blum, Mariela A.; Chien, Pamela; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Welsh, James; Lin, Steven H.; Maru, Dipen M.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Weston, Brian; Rice, David C.; Vaporciyan, Ara A.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with localized esophageal cancer (EC) who can withstand surgery, the preferred therapy is chemoradiation followed by surgery (trimodality). However, after achieving a clinical complete response [clinCR; defined as both post-chemoradiation endoscopic biopsy showing no cancer and physiologic uptake by positron emission tomography (PET)], some patients decline surgery. The literature on the outcome of such patients is sparse. Method: Between 2002 and 2011, we identified 622 trimodality-eligible EC patients in our prospectively maintained databases. All patients had to be trimodality eligible and must have completed preoperative staging after chemoradiation that included repeat endoscopic biopsy and PET among other routine tests. Results: Out of 622 trimodality-eligible patients identified, 61 patients (9.8%) declined surgery. All 61 patients had a clinCR. The median age was 69 years (range 47–85). Males (85.2%) and Caucasians (88.5%) were dominant. Baseline stage was II (44.2%) or III (52.5%), and histology was adenocarcinoma (65.6%) or squamous cell carcinoma (29.5%). Forty-two patients are alive at a median follow-up of 50.9 months (95% CI 39.5–62.3). The 5-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 58.1 ± 8.4 and 35.3 ± 7.6%, respectively. Of 13 patients with local recurrence during surveil-lance, 12 had successful salvage resection. Conclusion: Although the outcome of 61 EC patients with clinCR who declined surgery appears reasonable, in the absence of a validated prediction/prognosis model, surgery must be encouraged for all trimodality-eligible patients. PMID:22964903

  2. Palliative surgery versus medical management for bowel obstruction in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kucukmetin, Ali; Naik, Raj; Galaal, Khadra; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Bowel obstruction is a common feature of advanced or recurrent ovarian cancer. Patients with bowel obstruction are generally in poor physical condition with a limited life expectancy. Therefore, maintaining their QoL with effective symptom control is the main purpose of the management of bowel obstruction. Objectives To compare the effectiveness and safety of palliative surgery (surgery performed to control the cancer, reduce symptoms and improve quality of life for those whose cancer is not able to be entirely removed) and medical management for bowel obstruction in women with ovarian cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), Issue 1 2009, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to February 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Studies that compared palliative surgery and medical interventions, in adult women diagnosed with ovarian cancer who had either full or partial obstruction of the bowel. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs that used multivariable statistical adjustment for baseline case mix were eligible. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. One non-randomised study was identified so no meta-analyses were performed. Main results The search strategy identified 183 unique references of which 22 were identified as being potentially eligible on the basis of title and abstract. Only one study met our inclusion criteria and was included in the review. It analysed retrospective data for 47 women who received either palliative surgery (n = 27) or medical management with Octreotide (n = 20) and reported overall survival and perioperative mortality and morbidity. Women with poor performance status were excluded from surgery. Although six (22%) women who received surgery had serious complications of the operation and three (11%) died of complications, multivariable analysis found that women who received surgery had significantly (p < 0.001) better survival than women who received Octreotide, after adjustment for important prognostic factors. However, the magnitude of this effect was not reported. Quality of life (QoL) was not reported and adverse events were incompletely documented. Authors’ conclusions We found only low quality evidence comparing palliative surgery and medical management for bowel obstruction in ovarian cancer. Therefore we are unable to reach definite conclusions about the relative benefits and harms of the two forms of treatment, or to identify sub-groups of women who are likely to benefit from one treatment or the other. However, there is weak evidence in support of surgical management to prolong survival. PMID:20614464

  3. The treatment of breast cancer in one day surgery. A four year experience.

    PubMed

    Tirone, Andrea; Cesaretti, Manuela; Vuolo, Giuseppe; Gaggelli, Ilaria; Guarnieri, Alfredo; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Verre, Luigi; Savelli, Vinno; Varrone, Fabrizio; D'Onofrio, Pasquale; Di Bella, Caterina; Carli, Antonio Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    The number of short-stay surgery procedures has progressively increased since the concept of short-stay surgery was first introduced. Initially this type of surgery was reserved for patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair, proctological surgery, and various minor procedures. Careful patient selection makes it possible to apply one-day surgery to other surgical specialties including breast cancer surgery. Reducing the length of hospital stay lowers health care costs, and shortens waiting lists. The most important benefits for patients are a more rapid return to work and positive psychological effects. Exclusion criteria for one-day surgery are the lack of home care, excessive distance from place of treatment and the presence of any concomitant pathology that is a contraindication to this type of surgery. We report our experience in oncological surgery of the breast in one-day surgery. PMID:23698193

  4. Survival Impact of Secondary Cytoreductive Surgery for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer in an Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani Akhil; Chia, Yin Nin; Lim, Yong Kuei; Yam, Kwai Lam; Lim, Cindy; Teo, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery in Asian patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and to assess prognostic variables on overall post-recurrence survival time. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who underwent secondary cytoreduction at the Gynaecological Cancer Center at the KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, between 1999 and 2009. Eligible patients included those who had been firstly treated by primary cytoreductive surgery and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and had a period of clinical remission of at least six months and subsequently underwent secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrence. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate various variables influencing the overall survival. Results Twenty-five patients met our eligibility criteria. The median age was 52 years (range=31–78 years). The median time from completion of primary treatment to recurrence was 25.1 months (range=6.4–83.4). Secondary cytoreduction was optimal in 20 of 25 patients (80%). The median follow-up duration was 38.9 months (range=17.8–72.4) and median overall survival time was 33.1 months (95% confidence interval, 15.3–undefined.). Ten (40.0%) patients required bowel resection, but no end colostomy was performed. One (4.0%) patient had wedge resection of the liver, one (4.0%) had a distal pancreatectomy, one (4.0%) had a unilateral nephrectomy, and one (4.0%) had adrenalectomy. There were no operative deaths. The overall survival of patients who responded to secondary cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly longer than those patients who did not respond to the treatment. Of those patients who responded to the surgical management, patients with clear cell carcinoma fared well compared to those with the endometrioid, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and papillary serous type (p<0.001). Complete secondary cytoreductive surgery appeared to have some relationship to overall survival but was not statistically significant. Conclusion In carefully selected patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, optimal cytoreductive surgery is possible and in a subgroup of patients who respond to surgery and chemotherapy survival is significantly longer. PMID:26421115

  5. Risk Factors of Postoperative Pneumonia after Lung Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jin, Sang-Man; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jun; Kang, Chang-Hyun; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yang, Seok-Chul; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Han, Sung Koo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Shim, Young Soo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of postoperative pneumonia (POP) after lung cancer surgery. The 417 lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection in a tertiary referral hospital were included. Clinical, radiological and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively. Male and female ratio was 267:150 (median age, 65 yr). The incidence of POP was 6.2% (26 of 417) and in-hospital mortality was 27% among those patients. By univariate analysis, age ≥ 70 yr (P < 0.001), male sex (P = 0.002), ever-smoker (P < 0.001), anesthesia time ≥ 4.2 hr (P = 0.043), intraoperative red blood cells (RBC) transfusion (P = 0.004), presence of postoperative complications other than pneumonia (P = 0.020), forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% (P = 0.002), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide < 80% predicted (P = 0.015) and preoperative levels of serum C-reactive protein ≥ 0.15 mg/dL (P = 0.001) were related with risk of POP. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 70 yr (OR = 3.563, P = 0.014), intraoperative RBC transfusion (OR = 4.669, P = 0.033), the presence of postoperative complications other than pneumonia (OR = 3.032, P = 0.046), and FEV1/FVC < 70% (OR = 3.898, P = 0.011) were independent risk factors of POP. In conclusion, patients with advanced age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, postoperative complications other than pneumonia and a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio have a higher risk for pneumonia after lung cancer surgery. PMID:21860545

  6. Minimally invasive surgery for endometrial cancer: Does operative start time impact surgical and oncologic outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Katrina N.; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Nick, Alpa M.; Fleming, Nicole D.; dos Reis, Ricardo; Munsell, Mark F.; Westin, Shannon N.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recent literature in ovarian cancer suggests differences in surgical outcomes depending on operative start time. We sought to examine the effects of operative start time on surgical outcomes for patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery for endometrial cancer. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery for endometrial cancer at a single institution between 2000 and 2011. Surgical and oncologic outcomes were compared between patients with an operative start time before noon and those with a surgical start time after noon. Results A total of 380 patients were included in the study (245 with start times before noon and 135 with start times after noon). There was no difference in age (p=0.57), number of prior surgeries (p=0.28), medical comorbidities (p=0.19), or surgical complexity of the case (p=0.43). Patients with surgery starting before noon had lower median BMI than those beginning after noon, 31.2 vs. 35.3 respectively (p=0.01). No significant differences were observed for intraoperative complications (4.4% of patients after noon vs. 3.7% of patients before noon, p=0.79), estimated blood loss (median 100 cc vs. 100 cc, p=0.75), blood transfusion rates (7.4% vs. 8.2%, p=0.85), conversion to laparotomy (12.6% vs. 7.4%, p=0.10). There was no difference in operative times between the two groups (198 minutes vs. 216.5 minutes, p=0.10). There was no association between operative start time and postoperative non-infectious complications (11.9% vs. 11.0%, p=0.87), or postoperative infections (17.8% vs. 12.3%, p=0.78). Length of hospital stay was longer for surgeries starting after noon (median 2 days vs. 1 day, p=0.005). No differences were observed in rates of cancer recurrence (12.6% vs. 8.8%, p=0.39), recurrence-free survival (p=0.97), or overall survival (p=0.94). Conclusion Our results indicate equivalent surgical outcomes and no increased risk of postoperative complications regardless of operative start time in minimally invasive endometrial cancer staging, despite longer length of hospital stay for surgeries beginning after noon. PMID:24945591

  7. Airway management and postoperative length of hospital stay in patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali Sarfraz; Dogar, Samie Asghar; Lal, Shankar; Akhtar, Shabbir; Khan, Fauzia Anis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: General anesthesia and airway management of patients for head and neck cancer surgery is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Appropriate assessment and planning are essential for successful airway management. Our objectives were to review airway management strategies in patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery in our tertiary care institution and also to observe the effect of airway management techniques on postoperative length of hospital stay (PLOS). Material and Methods: A retrospective medical record review of 400 patients who underwent major head and neck cancer surgery in our institution was conducted. A special form was used, and records were searched for airway and anesthetic management in the operating room and recovery room, and for PLOS. Results: 289 (72.25%) of the patients were male, and 111 (27.75%) female. 49.8% of patients had Mallampati score of 3 and 4. Airway was managed with tracheostomy in 81 (20.25%) patients; nasal intubation was performed in 177 (44.25%) and oral intubation in 142 (35.5%) patients. Postoperative emergency tracheostomy was not done in any of the patients. Conclusion: Median postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer (P = 0.0005) in patients who had a tracheostomy performed compared with those where the airway was managed without it. PMID:27006541

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Navigation Surgery for Early Gastric Cancer: Is It a Safe Procedure in Countries with Non-Endemic Gastric Cancer Levels? A Preliminary Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Elizabeth Gomes; Victer, Felipe Carvalho; Neves, Marcelo Soares; Pinto, Márcia Ferreira; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo De Souza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early diagnosis of gastric cancer is still the exception in Western countries. In the East, as in Japan and Korea, this disease is an endemic disorder. More conservative surgical procedures are frequently performed in early gastric cancer cases in these countries where sentinel lymph node navigation surgery is becoming a safe option for some patients. This study aims to evaluate preliminary outcomes of patients with early gastric cancer who underwent sentinel node navigation surgeries in Brazil, a country with non-endemic gastric cancer levels. Materials and Methods From September 2008 to March 2014, 14 out of 205 gastric cancer patients underwent sentinel lymph node navigation surgeries, which were performed using intraoperative, endoscopic, and peritumoral injection of patent blue dye. Results Antrectomies with Billroth I gastroduodenostomies were performed in seven patients with distal tumors. The other seven patients underwent wedge resections. Sentinel basin resections were performed in four patients, and lymphadenectomies were extended to stations 7, 8, and 9 in the other 10. Two patients received false-negative results from sentinel node biopsies, and one of those patients had micrometastasis. There was one postoperative death from liver failure in a cirrhotic patient. Another cirrhotic patient died after two years without recurrence of gastric cancer, also from liver failure. All other patients were followed-up for 13 to 79 months with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery appears to be a safe procedure in a country with non-endemic levels of gastric cancer. PMID:27104022

  9. Late Onset Remnant Gastric Cancer with Afferent Loop Syndrome 47 Years after Billroth II Surgery

    PubMed Central

    şahin, Memduh; Ozlu, Bahattin; Erdogan, Kivilcim Eren

    2015-01-01

    Remnant gastric cancer is a rare clinical entity. Herein we describe a patient with remnant gastric cancer that presented with afferent loop syndrome 47 years after Billroth II surgery. Symptoms of serious bilious vomiting were an indication to perform early endoscopic diagnosis, followed by complete gastric resection. In particular, patients that have undergone surgery due to benign indications should be examined endoscopically, even a long time after initial surgery. PMID:26064763

  10. Transoral surgery for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer - The paradigm shift of the head and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tateya, Ichiro; Shiotani, Akihiro; Satou, Yasuo; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Morita, Shuko; Muto, Manabu; Ito, Juichi

    2016-02-01

    Transoral surgery is a less invasive treatment that is becoming a major strategy in the treatment of laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. It is a minimally invasive approach that has no skin incision and limits the extent of tissue dissection, disruption of speech and swallowing muscles, blood loss, damage to major neurovascular structures, and injury to normal tissue. Transoral approaches to the laryngo-pharynx, except for early glottis cancer, had been limited traditionally to tumors that can be observed directly and manipulated with standard instrumentation and lighting. Since the 1990s, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been used as an organ preservation strategy with good oncological control and good functional results, although it has not been widely used because of its technical difficulty. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is becoming popular as a new treatment modality for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer, and surgical robots are used widely in the world since United States FDA approval in 2009. In spite of the global spread of TORS, it has not been approved by the Japan FDA, which has led to the development of other low-cost transoral surgical techniques in Japan. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) was developed as a new transoral surgery system for laryngo-pharyngeal lesions to address the problems of TLM. In TOVS, a rigid endoscope is used to visualize the surgical field instead of a microscope and the advantages of TOVS include the wide operative field and working space achieved using the distending laryngoscope and videolaryngoscope. Also, with the spread of narrow band imaging (NBI), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which are widely used for superficial cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, have been applied for the superficial laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. Both EMR and ESD are performed mainly by gastroenterologists with a sharp dissector and magnifying endoscopy (ME)-NBI with minimal surgical margin. Endoscopic laryngo-pharyngeal surgery (ELPS) was developed to treat laryngo-pharyngeal superficial cancer by modifying the ESD procedure. The concept of ELPS is the same as that of ESD, however, the resection procedure is performed by a head and neck surgeon with both hands using a ME-NBI and rigid curved laryngo-pharyngoscope. These four procedures are low cost with similar oncological and functional outcomes to TORS. TORS may be less expensive than chemoradiotherapy, but the number of hospitals that can afford da Vinci surgical systems is limited. Even in the era of robotic surgery, these four procedures will be good options for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. PMID:26298233

  11. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer. PMID:26811619

  12. Laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery: Current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2016-01-14

    Laparoscopic gastrectomy has been widely accepted as a standard alternative for the treatment of early-stage gastric adenocarcinoma because of its favorable short-term outcomes. Although controversies exist, such as establishing clear indications, proper preoperative staging, and oncologic safety, experienced surgeons and institutions have applied this approach, along with various types of function-preserving surgery, for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. With technical advancement and the advent of state-of-the-art instruments, indications for laparoscopic gastrectomy are expected to expand as far as locally advanced gastric cancer. Laparoscopic gastrectomy appears to be promising; however, scientific evidence necessary to generalize this approach to a standard treatment for all relevant patients and care providers remains to be gathered. Several multicenter, prospective randomized trials in high-incidence countries are ongoing, and results from these trials will highlight the short- and long-term outcomes of the approach. In this review, we describe up-to-date findings and critical issues regarding laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:26811620

  13. Laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery: Current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastrectomy has been widely accepted as a standard alternative for the treatment of early-stage gastric adenocarcinoma because of its favorable short-term outcomes. Although controversies exist, such as establishing clear indications, proper preoperative staging, and oncologic safety, experienced surgeons and institutions have applied this approach, along with various types of function-preserving surgery, for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. With technical advancement and the advent of state-of-the-art instruments, indications for laparoscopic gastrectomy are expected to expand as far as locally advanced gastric cancer. Laparoscopic gastrectomy appears to be promising; however, scientific evidence necessary to generalize this approach to a standard treatment for all relevant patients and care providers remains to be gathered. Several multicenter, prospective randomized trials in high-incidence countries are ongoing, and results from these trials will highlight the short- and long-term outcomes of the approach. In this review, we describe up-to-date findings and critical issues regarding laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:26811620

  14. Current status of surgical treatment of gastric cancer in the era of minimally invasive surgery in China: Opportunity and challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, En-Hao; Ling, Tian-Long; Cao, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. In the past decade, with the developments in surgical instruments and technologies, minimally invasive surgery has rapidly become an accepted treatment for gastric cancer in China. Many Chinese surgeons and researchers have contributed to the rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. Their efforts have transformed into unique laparoscopic technique, workshops, academic communications, education and international communications in China. Meanwhile, many retrospective comparative trials and randomized controlled trials have revealed the advantages in minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. However, multicenter randomized controlled trials are still needed to delineate significantly quantifiable differences between laparoscopic and open gastrectomy. With more and more experience has accumulated, laparoscopic gastrectomy has been performed on older and overweight patients. Moreover, advanced minimally invasive techniques, such as modified laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymphadenectomy, various laparoscopic gastric reconstruction methods and robotic gastrectomy have been developed. It seems that China owns the potential to keep up with her neighbor, Japan and Korea, to become one of leading countries utilizing minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. PMID:26889972

  15. A goggle navigation system for cancer resection surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junbin; Shao, Pengfei; Yue, Ting; Zhang, Shiwu; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    We describe a portable fluorescence goggle navigation system for cancer margin assessment during oncologic surgeries. The system consists of a computer, a head mount display (HMD) device, a near infrared (NIR) CCD camera, a miniature CMOS camera, and a 780 nm laser diode excitation light source. The fluorescence and the background images of the surgical scene are acquired by the CCD camera and the CMOS camera respectively, co-registered, and displayed on the HMD device in real-time. The spatial resolution and the co-registration deviation of the goggle navigation system are evaluated quantitatively. The technical feasibility of the proposed goggle system is tested in an ex vivo tumor model. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using a goggle navigation system for intraoperative margin detection and surgical guidance.

  16. Conservative treatment for breast cancer. Complications requiring reconstructive surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, J. 3d.; Paletta, C.; Hartrampf, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Women who select conservative treatment for carcinoma of the breast (tumor excision followed by supervoltage radiation therapy) place a premium on breast preservation and aesthetics. When local control fails and they require a mastectomy, or when the aesthetic appearance is unacceptable, they may request breast reconstruction. The goal of this study is to evaluate a series of 10 patients who required reconstructive breast surgery after complications of conservative treatment. Patient classification: I. Breast or chest wall necrosis (3). II. Breast fibrosis and gross asymmetry (3). III. Local recurrence of breast cancer (5). IV. Positive margins after the initial lumpectomy (1). The mean age was 34 years. Radiation dosage average was 5252 rads with two patients receiving iridium-192 implant boosts. The reconstructive management was complex and usually required a major musculocutaneous flap because of the radiation effects.

  17. Surgery for gallbladder cancer in the US: a need for greater lymph node clearance

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Often identified incidentally after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for presumably benign biliary disease, reoperation with partial hepatic resection and periportal lymph node dissection (LND) is frequently performed. The impact of lymph node (LN) clearance for GBC remains unclear. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried for patients diagnosed with GBC between 1988 and 2009. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of survival. Results A total of 11,815 patients diagnosed with GBC were identified. Cancer-directed surgery was performed in 8,436 (71.3%) patients. Optimal LN clearance (defined as ?4 LNs) is associated with young age, advanced T-stage, no radiation therapy, and radical surgery (all <0.001). Greater LND improves survival for all stages (P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariable analysis of patients with node-negative disease demonstrated that early stage, greater LND, and radical surgery were strong independent predictors of survival. Conclusions Extensive lymphadenectomy correlates with longer survival even in node negative patients. Extensive LND should be performed in patients with GBC as many patients in the USA are undertreated. PMID:26487937

  18. [Four cases of double bypass surgery involving choledochojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy for inoperable peripancreatic head cancer].

    PubMed

    Tsujie, Masanori; Isono, Sayuri; Sato, Katsuaki; Kawai, Kenji; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Hara, Johji; Kitani, Kotaro; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yukawa, Masao; Watatani, Masahiro; Inoue, Masatoshi

    2013-11-01

    Peripancreatic head cancer often causes obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, which reduces the quality of life and hinders the administration of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we report 4 cases of double bypass surgery( biliary and gastric) for the treatment of inoperable peripancreatic head cancer. The patients' ages ranged from 64 to 72 years. Two patients had pancreatic head cancer and 2 had ampullary cancer. No postoperative morbidity was observed and all 4 patients resumed oral intake within 5 days after surgery and began receiving chemotherapy within 1 month after surgery. There was immediate relief of biliary obstruction in all 3 patients with obstructive jaundice. None of the patients experienced recurrence of obstructive jaundice requiring biliary drainage. Two patients who died of cancer were able to consume food orally just before they died. Although bypass surgery is more invasive than endoscopic stenting, it may be safe and useful not only for palliation, but also for induction or continuation of chemotherapy. PMID:24393956

  19. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hao-Yun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Liang, Tyng-Yeu; Lee, King-The; Hou, Ming-Feng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL) outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery. Methods This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23) at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery. Results All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05). During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of usability testing, the five constructs were rated on a Likert scale from 1–7 as follows: system usefulness (5.6±1.8), ease of use (5.6±1.5), information quality (5.4±1.4), interface quality (5.5±1.4), and overall satisfaction (5.5±1.6). Conclusions The current trend in clinical medicine is applying therapies and interventions that improve QOL. Therefore, a potentially vast amount of internet-based QOL data is available for use in defining patient populations that may benefit from therapeutic intervention. Additionally, before undergoing breast conserving surgery, patients should be advised that their postoperative QOL depends not only on the success of the surgery, but also on their preoperative functional status. PMID:26422018

  20. Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery with carbon nanoparticles: implication in tumor location and lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Chongping; Jin, Na; Zhang, Zaizhong; Ke, Jun; Yu, Yinghao; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To examine the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to track nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery. During breast-conserving surgery, it is often very challenging to determine the boundary of tumor and identify involved lymph nodes. Currently used methods are useful in identifying tumor location, but do not provide direct visual guidance for resection margin during surgery. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuzhou General Hospital (Fuzhou, China). The current retrospective analysis included 16 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery under the guidance of preoperative marking using a carbon nanoparticle, as well as 3 patients receiving carbon nanoparticle marking followed by neoadjuvant treatment and then breast-conserving surgery. The Tumor Node Metastasis stage in the 16 cases included: T1N0M0 in 7, T1N1M0 in 2, T2N0M0 in 4, and T2N1M0 in the remaining 3 cases. The nanoparticle was injected at 12 sites at 0.5 cm away from the apparent edge under colored ultrasonography along 6 tracks separated by 60 degrees (2 sites every track). Lymph node status was also examined. The resection edge was free from cancer cells in all 16 cases (and the 3 cases with neoadjuvant treatment). Cancer cells were identified in majority of stained lymph nodes, but not in any of the unstained lymph nodes. No recurrence or metastasis was noticed after the surgery (2 to 22-month follow-up; median: 6 months). Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer with carbon nanoparticle could guide breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25761181

  1. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer after Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Case-Matched Study of Short-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Sok; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Dae Yong; Chang, Hee Jin; Nam, Byung-Ho; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Robotic surgery is expected to have advantages over laparoscopic surgery; however, there are limited data regarding the feasibility of robotic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Therefore, we evaluated the short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods Thirty-three patients with cT3N0-2 rectal cancer after preoperative CRT who underwent robotic low anterior resection (R-LAR) between March 2010 and January 2012 were matched with 66 patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection (L-LAR). Perioperative clinical outcomes and pathological data were compared between the two groups. Results Patient characteristics did not differ significantly different between groups. The mean operation time was 441 minutes (R-LAR) versus 277 minutes (L-LAR, p < 0.001). The open conversion rate was 6.1% in the R-LAR group and 0% in the L-LAR group (p=0.11). There were no significant differences in the time to flatus passage, length of hospital stay, and postoperative morbidity. In pathological review, the mean number of harvested lymph nodes was 22.3 in R-LAR and 21.6 in L-LAR (p=0.82). Involvement of circumferential resection margin was positive in 16.1% and 6.7%, respectively (p=0.42). Total mesorectal excision (TME) quality was complete in 97.0% in R-LAR and 91.0% in L-LAR (p=0.41). Conclusion In our study, short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal cancer after CRT were similar to those of laparoscopic surgery in respect to bowel function recovery, morbidity, and TME quality. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the functional results and long-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. PMID:25779367

  2. Preoperative Biliary Drainage in Cases of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Shimizu, Akinori; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Kawamura, Ryota; Tsushima, Ken; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To elucidate the optimum preoperative biliary drainage method for patients with pancreatic cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Material and Methods. From January 2010 through December 2014, 20 patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer underwent preoperative biliary drainage and NAC with a plastic or metallic stent and received NAC at Hiroshima University Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed delayed NAC and complication rates due to biliary drainage, effect of stent type on perioperative factors, and hospitalization costs from diagnosis to surgery. Results. There were 11 cases of preoperative biliary drainage with plastic stents and nine metallic stents. The median age was 64.5 years; delayed NAC occurred in 9 cases with plastic stent and 1 case with metallic stent (p = 0.01). The complication rates due to biliary drainage were 0% (0/9) with metallic stents and 72.7% (8/11) with plastic stents (p = 0.01). Cumulative rates of complications determined with the Kaplan-Meier method on day 90 were 60% with plastic stents and 0% with metallic stents (log-rank test, p = 0.012). There were no significant differences between group in perioperative factors or hospitalization costs from diagnosis to surgery. Conclusions. Metallic stent implantation may be effective for preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer treated with NAC. PMID:26880897

  3. Robotic-Assisted Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Early Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Tamara Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To show the feasibility and safety of robotic-assisted laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer in women of reproductive age. Methods and Design: The first patient was a 29-year-old para 0 woman with well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary and complex endometrial hyperplasia with marked atypia. The second patient was a 31-year-old para 0 woman with an immature grade 1 teratoma. Both patients underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgical staging. Results: In the first patient, there were no intra- or postoperative complications. Operative time was 5 hours 43 minutes and estimated blood loss was 100 mL. She was discharged home on postoperative day 1. She received 3 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel, as well as medroxyprogesterone acetate for the duration of chemotherapy. She conceived twice spontaneously since surgery and had two successful deliveries. She currently has no evidence of disease. In the second patient, there were no intra- or postoperative complications. Operative time was 2 hours 52 minutes and estimated blood loss was 200 mL. She was discharged home on postoperative day 1. She declined adjuvant chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. She conceived spontaneously 4 months later and had a normal vaginal delivery. She currently has no evidence of disease. Conclusions: Because fertility-sparing surgery is now accepted as a viable option in young women with early-stage ovarian cancer, less invasive techniques are being used. With the advent of robotic-assisted surgery and its advantages over conventional laparoscopy, we show that it is a safe and feasible approach in select patients. This is the first reported series on robotic fertility-sparing surgery, but more research is needed. PMID:24960498

  4. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life-saving care.

  5. Selective elimination of breast cancer surgery in exceptional responders: historical perspective and current trials.

    PubMed

    van la Parra, Raquel F D; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    With improvements in chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and our fundamental understanding of the relationship of tumor subtype and pathologic complete response (pCR), there has been dramatic improvement in pCR rates in the past decade, especially among triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancers. Rates of pCR in these groups of patients can be in the 60 % range and thus question the paradigm for the necessity of breast and nodal surgery in all cases, particularly when the patient will be receiving adjuvant local therapy with radiotherapy. Current practice for patients who respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is often to proceed with the same breast and axillary procedures as would have been offered women who had not received NCT, regardless of the apparent clinical response. Given these high response rates in defined subgroups among exceptional responders it is appropriate to question whether surgery is now a redundant procedure in their overall management. Further, definitive radiation without surgical resection with or without systemic therapy has been proven effective for several other malignant disease sites including some stages of esophageal, anal, laryngeal, prostate, cervical, and lung carcinoma. The main impediments for potential elimination of surgery have been the fact that prior and current standard and functional breast imaging methods are incapable of accurate prediction of residual disease and that integrating percutaneous biopsy of the breast primary and nodes following NCT may circumvent this issue. This article highlights historical attempts at omission of surgery following NCT in an earlier era, the current status of breast and nodal imaging to predict residual carcinoma, and ongoing and planned trials designed to identify appropriate patients who might be selected for clinical trials designed to test the safety of selected elimination of breast cancer surgery in percutaneous image-guided biopsy-proven exceptional responders to NCT. PMID:26951131

  6. Computer assisted intervention surgery planning and navigation for percutaneous microwave ablation of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Weiming; Sheng, Lin; Song, Yixu; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Yannan; Jia, Peifa

    2011-03-01

    Microwave ablation is a promising option in lung cancer therapy. However, it's rarely used in percutaneous lung cancer therapy compared to liver cancer, because the presence of a large amount of air within the lung creates significant back shadowing artifacts that preclude adequate delineation of anatomic details on sonography. To utilize microwave ablation in malignant lung tumor therapy, we developed a novel percutaneous intervention surgery navigation system (CAINS-I), which capitalizes on using computer assisted technology to help lung cancer patients whose condition are not amenable to surgical resection, sonographic guidance and intraoperative CT surgery. In these surgeries, preoperative CT images with patient respiration state are first acquired, which are then visualized using GPU-accelerated volume rendering. The optimal surgery trajectories are then planned based on 3D thermal field computation and surgery simulation in the surgery planning software. During the surgery, the patient breath is control by a portable volume ventilator system which could limit the movement and displacement of the tumor. Then the microwave probe is punctured into the tumor according to the dynamic respiratory state and the tumor is ablated by microwave energy. After the surgery, postoperative CT are acquired and compared to the preoperative CT, and the surgery is evaluated by compare preoperative and postoperative CT images. The development of this technique represented an advance from the traditional ways for lung cancer therapy and significantly extends the indications of microwave ablation.

  7. Complex permittivities of breast tumor tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Takumi; Kubota, Shin-ichi; Kuroki, Shin-ichiro; Sogo, Kenta; Arihiro, Koji; Okada, Morihito; Kadoya, Takayuki; Hide, Michihiro; Oda, Miyo; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2014-06-01

    The variability in measurements of complex permittivities of tumor tissues between multiple samples could be attributed to the volume fraction of cancer cells in the excised tumor tissue. By the use of a digital photomicrograph image and hematoxylin-eosin staining, it was found that the malignant tumor tissue was not fully occupied by the cancer cells, but the cells were distributed locally in the stroma cells depending on the growth of cancer. The results showed that the volume fraction of cancer cells in the tumor tissue had a correlation to the measured conductivity and dielectric constant in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 6 GHz. It introduces a method to understand and gauge variability in measurements between different tumors.

  8. Segmental thoracic spinal has advantages over general anesthesia for breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elakany, Mohamed Hamdy; Abdelhamid, Sherif Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thoracic spinal anesthesia has been used for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and abdominal surgeries, but not in breast surgery. The present study compared this technique with general anesthesia in breast cancer surgeries. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were enrolled in this comparative study with inclusion criteria of ASA physical status I-III, primary breast cancer without known extension beyond the breast and axillary nodes, scheduled for unilateral mastectomy with axillary dissection. They were randomly divided into two groups. The thoracic spinal group (S) (n = 20) underwent segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl at T5-T6 interspace, while the other group (n = 20) underwent general anesthesia (G). Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, intraoperative complications, postoperative discharge time from post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), postoperative pain and analgesic consumption, postoperative adverse effects, and patient satisfaction with the anesthetic techniques were recorded. Results: Intraoperative hypertension (20%) was more frequent in group (G), while hypotension and bradycardia (15%) were more frequent in the segmental thoracic spinal (S) group. Postoperative nausea (30%) and vomiting (40%) during PACU stay were more frequent in the (G) group. Postoperative discharge time from PACU was shorter in the (S) group (124 38 min) than in the (G) group (212 46 min). The quality of postoperative analgesia and analgesic consumption was better in the (S) group. Patient satisfaction was similar in both groups. Conclusions: Segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia has some advantages when compared with general anesthesia and can be considered as a sole anesthetic in breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph node clearance. PMID:25885990

  9. Bariatric Surgery and Liver Cancer in a Consortium of Academic Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baiyu; Yang, Hannah P; Ward, Kristy K; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is implicated as an important factor in the rising incidence of liver cancer in the USA. Bariatric surgery is increasingly used for treating morbid obesity and comorbidities. Using administrative data from UHC, a consortium of academic medical centers in the USA, we compared the prevalence of liver cancer among admissions with and without a history of bariatric surgery within a 3-year period. Admissions with a history of bariatric surgery had a 61% lower prevalence of liver cancer compared to those without a history of bariatric surgery (prevalence ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.44), and these inverse associations persisted within strata of sex, race, and ethnicity. This hospital administrative record-based analysis suggests that bariatric surgery could play a role in liver cancer prevention. PMID:26757918

  10. Surgery and hormonal treatment for prostate cancer and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Canalichio, Katie; Jaber, Yasmeen

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers effecting men today. With earlier detection and improvements in available treatment modalities, there still remains significant morbidity associated with the treatment of PC. Male sexual health and erectile function are greatly impacted by these therapies and remain a concern to PC survivors. This article reviews the current literature on male sexual health following radical prostatectomy (RP) or androgen ablation therapy for PC. Each treatment modality affects male sexual function to an appreciable level, although certain patients have better outcomes if they have preoperative potency, are younger, or have nerve-sparing surgery. There is a delayed recovery up to 2 years seen in erectile function following RP. With androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), attempts can be made at different administration strategies and exercise may possibly play a role in maintaining erectile function. Penile rehabilitation protocols attempt to protect erectile function immediately following therapy through different modalities, although no one approach has been agreed upon. PMID:26816817

  11. CT Imaging Biomarkers Predict Clinical Outcomes After Pancreatic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liang; Shi, Xiaohua; Xue, Huadan; Wu, Huanwen; Chen, Ge; Sun, Hao; He, Yonglan; Jin, Zhengyu; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine whether changes in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) parameters could predict postsurgery overall and progression-free survival (PFS) in pancreatic cancer patients. Seventy-nine patients with a final pathological diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included in this study from June 2008 to August 2012. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT of tumors was obtained before curative-intent surgery. Absolute enhancement change (AEC) and relative enhancement change (REC) were evaluated on DCE-CT. PFS and overall survival (OS) were compared based on CT enhancement patterns. The markers of fibrogenic alpha-smooth muscle antigen (α-SMA) and periostin in tumor specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The χ2 test was performed to determine whether CT enhancement patterns were associated with α-SMA-periostin expression levels (recorded as positive or negative). Lower REC (<0.9) was associated with shorter PFS (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31–0.89) and OS (HR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25–0.78). The α-SMA and periostin expression level were negatively correlated with REC (both P = 0). Among several CT enhancement parameters, REC was the best predictor of patient postsurgery survival. Low REC was associated with a short progression-free time and poor survival. The pathological studies suggested that REC might be a reflection of cancer fibrogenic potential. PMID:26844495

  12. Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Surgery or Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Abacıoğlu, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients. PMID:25759766

  13. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood loss during head and neck cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Atul P; Chaukar, Devendra A; Patil, Vijaya P; Metgudmath, Rajendra B; Hawaldar, Rohini W; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transfusion of blood and blood products poses several hazards. Antifibrinolytic agents are used to reduce perioperative blood loss. We decided to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TA) on blood loss and the need for transfusion in head and neck cancer surgery. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 240 patients undergoing supramajor head and neck cancer surgeries were prospectively randomised to either TA (10 mg/kg) group or placebo (P) group. After induction, the drug was infused by the anaesthesiologist, who was blinded to allocation, over 20 min. The dose was repeated every 3 h. Perioperative (up to 24 h) blood loss, need for transfusion and fluid therapy was recorded. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed at fixed intervals in the first 100 patients. Patients were watched for post-operative complications. Results: Two hundred and nineteen records were evaluable. We found no difference in intraoperative blood loss (TA - 750 [600–1000] ml vs. P - 780 [150–2600] ml, P = 0.22). Post-operative blood loss was significantly more in the placebo group at 24 h (P - 200 [120–250] ml vs. TA - 250 [50–1050] ml, P = 0.009), but this did not result in higher number of patients needing transfusions (TA - 22/108 and P - 27/111 patients, P = 0.51). TEG revealed faster clot formation and minimal fibrinolysis. Two patients died of causes unrelated to study drug. Incidence of wound complications and deep venous thrombosis was similar. Conclusion: In head and neck cancer surgery, TA did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or need for transfusions. Perioperative TEG variables were similar. This may be attributed to pre-existing hypercoagulable state and minimal fibrinolysis in cancer patients. PMID:26962250

  14. [Perioperative standardized management under the guidance of fast track surgery in gastric cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanglong; Zhou, Yanbing

    2015-02-01

    Fast track surgery is referred as the integration of different medical intervention actively during peri-operative period to accelerate the rehabilitation of patients undergoing operation. The propose of fast track surgery has brought about great changes in the treatment mode of many diseases, and the concept has been used in a variety of operations, especially the gastrointestinal surgery. Fast track surgery covers the preoperative appropriate preparation and assessment, sophisticated operative manipulation, and the standardization of postoperative treatment and nursing care. According to clinical trials, fast track surgery is associated with reduced post-operative complications, hospital stay and cost in patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgery. However, some problems exist in the application of fast track surgery in clinical practice, including the multidisciplinary coordination and higher readmission rates etc. A large number of evidence-based clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of fast track, so we believe that the fast track surgery will be applied more widely. PMID:25656116

  15. Laparoscopic vs. open approach for colorectal cancer: evolution over time of minimal invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the late '80s the successes of the laparoscopic surgery for gallbladder disease laid the foundations on the modern use of this surgical technique in a variety of diseases. In the last 20 years, laparoscopic colorectal surgery had become a popular treatment option for colorectal cancer patients. Discussion Many studies emphasized on the benefits stating the significant advantages of the laparoscopic approach compared with the open surgery of reduced blood loss, early return of intestinal motility, lower overall morbidity, and shorter duration of hospital stay, leading to a general agreement on laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to conventional open surgery for colon cancer. The reduced hospital stay may also decrease the cost of the laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer, despite th higher operative spending compared with open surgery. The average reduction in total direct costs is difficult to define due to the increasing cost over time, making challenging the comparisons between studies conducted during a time range of more than 10 years. However, despite the theoretical advantages of laparoscopic surgery, it is still not considered the standard treatment for colorectal cancer patients due to technical limitations or the characteristics of the patients that may affect short and long term outcomes. Conclusions The laparoscopic approach to colectomy is slowly gaining acceptance for the management of colorectal pathology. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer demonstrates better short-term outcome, oncologic safety, and equivalent long-term outcome of open surgery. For rectal cancer, laparoscopic technique can be more complex depending on the tumor location. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery may translate better care quality for oncological patients and lead to increased cost saving through the introduction of active enhanced recovery programs which are likely cost-effective from the perspective of the hospital health-care providers. PMID:24267544

  16. Breast Cancer Stage, Surgery, and Survival Statistics for Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2004–2012

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Robert; Moran, Patti; Cariou, Charlene; Bordeaux, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women’s Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whether disparities existed in cause-specific survival (a net survival measure representing survival of a specified cause of death in the absence of other causes of death) between women screened by WHC and outside WHC and to determine how type of surgery or survival varies with stage at diagnosis. Methods WHC data were linked to Idaho’s central cancer registry to compare stage distribution, type of surgery, and cause-specific survival between women with WHC-linked breast cancer and a comparison group of women whose records did not link to the WHC database (nonlinked breast cancer). Results WHC-linked breast cancer was significantly more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage of disease than nonlinked breast cancer. Because of differences in stage distribution between WHC-linked and nonlinked breast cancers, overall age-standardized, cause-specific breast cancer survival proportions diverged over time, with a 5.1 percentage-point deficit in survival among WHC-linked cases at 5 years of follow-up (83.9% vs 89.0%). Differences in type of surgery and cause-specific survival were attenuated when controlling for stage. Conclusion This study suggests that disparities may exist for Idaho WHC enrollees in the timely diagnosis of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study to publish comparisons of cause-specific breast cancer survival between NBCCEDP-linked and nonlinked cases. PMID:25789497

  17. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Hout, Bertha A. in 't; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; Hullu, Joanne A. de; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Nijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H.B.; Mourits, Marian J.E. . E-mail: m.j.e.mourits@og.umcg.nl

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery.

  18. Voice Outcome in Patients Treated With Endoscopic Laryngopharyngeal Surgery for Superficial Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Morita, Shuko; Ishikawa, Seiji; Muto, Manabu; Hirano, Shigeru; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Ito, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endoscopic laryngopharyngeal surgery (ELPS) is a minimally invasive transoral surgery that was developed to treat superficial larygo-pharyngeal cancer, in which a mucosal lesion is resected transorally while preserving deeper structures by subepithelial injection. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate voice outcome in patients who underwent ELPS for superficial hypopharyngeal cancer. As important structures in producing voice, such as intrinsic laryngeal muscles, their fascia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve, are located in the medial side of the piriform sinus and the postcricoid region of the hypopharynx, we focused on patients with cancer lesions involving these regions. Methods From April 2010 to March 2011, 25 consecutive patients with superficial laryngopharyngeal cancer were treated with ELPS at Kyoto University Hospital. Among the 25 patients, 11 patients with cancer lesions on the medial side of the piriform sinus or the postcricoid area were studied. Preoperative and postoperative voice functions including maximum phonation time (MPT), mean flow rate (MFR), jitter, shimmer, soft phonation index (SPI), and noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), were compared retrospectively. Results Five of 11 cancer lesions had submucosal invasion and no lesion had invaded the muscular layer pathologically. T stage was classified as Tis in 5 cases, T1 in 4 cases, and T2 in 2 cases. All lesions involved the medial side of the piriform sinus and 2 also involved the postcricoid area. Vocal fold movement was normal in all cases after the surgery. Average preoperative and postoperative values for MPT, MFR, jitter, shimmer, SPI, and NHR, were 22.7 seconds and 23.4 seconds, 165 mL/sec and 150 mL/sec, 1.53% and 1.77%, 3.82% and 5.17%, 35.5 and 36.6, and 0.13% and 0.14%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between preoperative and postoperative data for all values examined. Conclusion ELPS is useful in preserving voice function in the treatment of superficial hypopharyngeal cancer. Preserving the deeper structures including intrinsic muscles and their fascia may be important for preserving voice function as long as the lesions are superficial. PMID:26976030

  19. Increased time from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery is associated with higher pathologic complete response rates in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Talha; Ruth, Karen; Scott, Walter J.; Burtness, Barbara A.; Cohen, Steven J.; Konski, Andre A.; Cooper, Harry S.; Astsaturov, Igor; Meyer, Joshua E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiation treatment and surgery has been described as an important predictor of pathologic response to therapy in non-esophageal cancer sites. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy to better understand the impact of the timing of surgery on pathologic complete response rates in esophageal cancer. Methods Two hundred thirty one sequentially treated patients from 2000 to 2011 were identified for this study, 88 of these patients completed neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy at our institution. The interval between completion of chemoradiation and surgery was calculated for each patient. The patients were categorized into quartiles and also 3-week interval groups. Treatment factors and surgical morbidity data including the estimated blood loss and length of operative stay were also assessed. Results Quartiles for the neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery interval were <45 days, 46-50 days, 51-63 days, and 64+ days. Corresponding pathologic complete response rates were 12.5%, 20.0%, 22.7% and 40.9% (p=0.03). Results for 3-week intervals were similar (p=0.02). There was no association between increasing time interval between the ending of neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery and length of stay longer than 2 weeks. Conclusions A longer interval between completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery was associated with higher pathologic complete response rates without an impact on surgical morbidity. PMID:25440267

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients with Lymphedema Who Survived More than One Year after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Hyun; Min, Yu-Sun; Park, Ho Yong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify the influence of lymphedema on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) more than 1 year after breast cancer surgery. Methods Ninety-six breast cancer patients who survived more than 1 year after surgery and 104 members of the general population were recruited. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of lymphedema. HRQOL was evaluated with the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey. Results There were no statistically significant differences in any scales between groups: groups of breast cancer survivors with and without lymphedema. Compared with the general population, breast cancer survivors had lower quality of life scores in all scales, although the vitality and mental health scales did not differ from chance variation at the 5% level. Conclusion In this study, the presence of lymphedema in breast cancer patients who survived over 1 year after surgery might not affect the quality of life. However quality of life of breast cancer survivors is lower than in general population except for some mental health components. PMID:23346175

  1. Factors related to the implementation and use of an innovation in cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, R.; Sargeant, J.; Porterm, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Nationally, efforts to implement an innovation in cancer surgery—a Web-based synoptic reporting tool—are ongoing in five provinces. The objective of the present study was to identify the key multilevel factors influencing implementation and early use of this innovation for breast and colorectal cancer surgery at two academic hospitals in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods We used case-study methodology to examine the implementation of surgical synoptic reporting. Methods included semi-structured interviews with key informants (surgeons, implementation team members, and report end users; n = 9), nonparticipant observation, and document analysis. A thematic analysis was conducted separately for each method, followed by explanation-building to integrate the evidence and to identify the key multilevel factors influencing implementation. An audit was performed to determine use. Results Key factors influencing implementation were these: Innovation–values fit Flexibility with the innovation and implementation The innovation is not flawless Strengthening the climate for implementation Resource needs and availability Partner engagement Surgeon champions and involvement In a 6-month period after implementation, 91.2% and 58.0% respectively of eligible breast and colorectal cancer surgeries were reported using the new tool. Conclusions An improved understanding of the multilevel factors influencing the implementation of innovations is critical to planning effective change interventions in health care. Further study is needed to explore differences in the use of the innovation between breast and colorectal cancer surgeons. Findings will inform the study of additional cases of synoptic reporting implementation, enabling cross-case analyses and identification of higher-level themes that may be applied in similar settings or contexts. PMID:22184488

  2. Facial reconstruction with a bone-anchored prosthesis following destructive cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    MELLO, MONICA C.P.; PIRAS, JOAQUIM AUGUSTO OLIVEIRA; TAKIMOTO, ROBERTO M.; CERVANTES, ONIVALDO; ABRAÃO, MÁRCIO; DIB, LUCIANO L.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of craniofacial defects following cancer surgery may be performed using several techniques and materials. This case report describes surgery for a large tumor, as well as the rehabilitation process which involved a craniofacial prosthesis covering the whole defect of the anterior brain, orbit, mid-face and hard palate. The results suggest that a craniofacial prosthesis anchored on titanium implants is a viable alternative as a retention system, and also a good alternative to other reconstructive surgeries. PMID:23205082

  3. Observation as Good as Surgery for Some Men with Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Many men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer could forego radical prostatectomy and live as long as men who have immediate surgery, according to long-awaited results from a clinical trial published July 19, 2012, in NEJM.

  4. Timing May Be Key to Success of Surgery, Chemo for Early Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. Another expert said that a patient's medical ... Dr. Lauren Cassell, chief of breast surgery at New York City's Lenox Hill Hospital, agreed. "There's nothing wrong ...

  5. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  6. Sepsis following cancer surgery: the need for early recognition and standardised clinical care.

    PubMed

    Hiong, A; Thursky, K A; Teh, B W; Haeusler, G M; Slavin, M A; Worth, L J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the implementation of multimodal bundles of care in hospitalised patients, post-operative sepsis in patients with cancer still accounts for a significant burden of illness and substantial healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for cancer are at particular risk of sepsis due to underlying malignancy, being immunocompromised associated with cancer management and the complexity of surgical procedures performed. In this review, we evaluate the burden of illness and risks for sepsis following surgery for cancer. Current evidence supporting standardised strategies for sepsis management (including early recognition and resuscitation) is examined together with challenges in implementing quality improvement programs. PMID:26882129

  7. [Examination of stent treatment and bypass surgery for unresectable advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Asako; Katsube, Takao; Usuda, Atsuko; Miyaki, Akira; Asaka, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Murayama, Minoru; Konno, Soichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the outcomes of endoscopic stent placement (n=9) and bypass surgery (n=9) with regard to perioperative complications and dietary intake conditions in patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer with stenosis. Regarding perioperative complications, 1 patient in the stent group experienced a stent failure and 1 patient in the bypass group developed an adhesive ileus. Dietary intake began from the first day in the stent group and from the fourth day in the bypass group, and it was continued for 55 and 113 days, respectively. There was no difference in the introduction of chemotherapy or length of treatment between the groups, and the survival period for the patients in the stent and bypass groups was 83 and 127 days, respectively. Endoscopic stent placement for unresectable advanced gastric cancer with stenosis is a safe and effective method for improving the quality of life( QOL) of patients. PMID:24393891

  8. Total mesorectal excision for mid and low rectal cancer: Laparoscopic vs robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Feroci, Francesco; Vannucchi, Andrea; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Cantafio, Stefano; Garzi, Alessia; Formisano, Giampaolo; Scatizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic and robotic surgery for middle and low rectal cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database containing 111 patients who underwent minimally invasive rectal resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) with curative intent between January 2008 and December 2014 (robot, n = 53; laparoscopy, n = 58). The patients all had a diagnosis of middle and low rectal adenocarcinoma with stage I-III disease. The median follow-up period was 37.4 mo. Perioperative results, morbidity a pathological data were evaluated and compared. The 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Patients were comparable in terms of preoperative and demographic parameters. The median surgery time was 192 min for laparoscopic TME (L-TME) and 342 min for robotic TME (R-TME) (P < 0.001). There were no differences found in the rates of conversion to open surgery and morbidity. The patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery stayed in the hospital two days longer than the robotic group patients (8 d for L-TME and 6 d for R-TME, P < 0.001). The pathologic evaluation showed a higher number of harvested lymph nodes in the robotic group (18 for R-TME, 11 for L-TME, P < 0.001) and a shorter distal resection margin for laparoscopic patients (1.5 cm for L-TME, 2.5 cm for R-TME, P < 0.001). The three-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Both L-TME and R-TME achieved acceptable clinical and oncologic outcomes. The robotic technique showed some advantages in rectal surgery that should be validated by further studies. PMID:27053852

  9. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast tumours in the search for better oncological and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26862490

  10. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole MA; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing “blind” surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast tumours in the search for better oncological and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26862490

  11. Management of Bowel Obstruction in Patients with Stage IV Cancer: Predictors of Outcome after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Francescutti, Valerie; Miller, Austin; Satchidanand, Yashodhara; Alvarez-Perez, Amy; Dunn, Kelli Bullard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with Stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction (BO) present a complicated management problem. We sought to determine if specific parameters could predict outcome after surgery. Methods Records of patients with Stage IV cancer and BO treated from 1991–2008 were reviewed. For surgical patients, 30-day morbidity and 90-day mortality were assessed using exact multivariable Logistic regression methods. Results Of 198 patients, 132 (66.7%) underwent surgery, 66 medical treatment alone, and demographics were similar. 41 (20.7%) patients were diagnosed with Stage IV cancer and BO synchronously, all treated surgically; the remaining presented metachronously. Medically managed patients were more likely to have received chemotherapy in the 30 days prior to BO [45/66 (68.2%) vs 40/132 (30.3%), p <0.01]. In the surgical group, 30-day morbidity was 35.6%, while 90-day mortality was 42.3%. Median overall survival for synchronous patients was 14.1 months (95 % CI 7.6, 23.2), and 3.7 months (95 % CI 2.5, 5.2) and 3.6 months (95 % CI 1.5, 5.2) for metachronous patients treated surgically and medically, respectively. A multivariate model for 90-day surgical mortality identified low serum albumin, metachronous presentation, and ECOG > 1 as predictors of death (p<0.05). A model for 30-day surgical morbidity yielded low hematocrit as a predictive factor (p<0.05). Conclusions This cohort identifies characteristics indicative of morbidity and mortality in Stage IV cancer and BO. Low serum albumin, ECOG > 1, and metachronous presentation predicted for 90-day surgical mortality. These data suggest factors that can be used to frame treatment discussion plans with patients. PMID:22990648

  12. Indications for postoperative radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer after surgery with positive surgical margins

    PubMed Central

    Kamecki, Krzysztof; Makarewicz, Roman; Siekiera, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among men in Poland. The main methods of radical treatment are radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. In patients who have been correctly qualified for surgery, a positive surgical margin is always an unexpected and undesirable factor. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of positive margins in more than 100 consecutive patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. Material and methods The study included 114 patients aged 44–78 years (mean 61.5 years) who underwent surgery for prostate cancer in stage cT1-3N0/M0 (according to the TNM staging system) in the years 2010-2011 in the Clinical Department of Oncological Urology in the Center of Oncology in Bydgoszcz. Results The presence of positive surgical margins was found in 45 (39.47%) patients, and in 20 (17.54%) margins were assessed as close (1–2 mm). Among the patients with positive surgical margins about 22% had biochemical recurrence. Among patients with negative surgical margins 13% of pT2c and 12.5% of pT3a had biochemical recurrence. Patients with positive surgical margins, along with patients diagnosed with tumor extending beyond the prostate (pT3a) or invading seminal vesicles (pT3b), are at an increased risk of recurrence and progression, reaching up to 30–50% over 10 years. The risk is 2–4 times higher than in patients without positive operating margins. PMID:24592127

  13. Correlation of ADRB1 rs1801253 Polymorphism with Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl After Cancer Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Chunlei; Sui, Zhifu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmin; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to explore the association between β1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1) rs1801253 polymorphism and analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgeries in Chinese Han populations. Material/Methods Postoperative fentanyl consumption of 120 patients for analgesia was recorded. Genotype distributions were detected by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) method. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Differences in postoperative VAS score and postoperative fentanyl consumption for analgesia in different genotype groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test was also performed to test the analgesic effect of fentanyl. Results Frequencies of Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg genotypes were 45.0%, 38.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, and passed the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) had no significant differences at different times. After surgery, the VAS score and fentanyl consumption in Arg/Arg group were significantly higher than in other groups at the postoperative 2nd hour, but the differences were not obvious at the 4th hour, 24th hour, and the 48th hour. The results suggest that the Arg/Arg homozygote increased susceptibility to postoperative pain. The preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test suggested that individuals with Arg/Arg genotype showed worse analgesic effect of fentanyl compared to other genotypes. Conclusions In Chinese Han populations, ADRB1 rs1801253 polymorphism might be associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgery. PMID:26694722

  14. Effect of Interval to Definitive Breast Surgery on Clinical Presentation and Survival in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Perera, Francisco; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Hammond, A.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of clinical presentation and interval to breast surgery on local recurrence and survival in early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The data from 397 patients with Stage T1-T2N0 breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and breast radiotherapy between 1985 and 1992 were reviewed at the London Regional Cancer Program. The clinical presentation consisted of a mammogram finding or a palpable lump. The intervals from clinical presentation to definitive breast surgery used for analysis were 0-4, >4-12, and >12 weeks. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival were determined for the three groups. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical presentation and interval to definitive surgery on survival. Results: The median follow-up was 11.2 years. No statistically significant difference was found in local recurrence as a function of the interval to definitive surgery (p = .424). A significant difference was noted in disease-free survival (p = .040) and cause-specific survival (p = .006) with an interval of >12 weeks to definitive breast surgery. However, the interval to definitive surgery was dependent on the presentation for cause-specific survival, with a substantial effect for patients with a mammographic presentation and a negligible effect for patients with a lump presentation (interaction p = .041). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an interval of >12 weeks to breast surgery might be associated with decreased survival for patients with a mammographic presentation, but it appeared to have no effect on survival for patients presenting with a palpable breast lump.

  15. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING TWO ANESTHETIC METHODS FOR SHOULDER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Prata Nascimento, Luis Gustavo; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Oliveira Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Strose, Eric; de Mello, Sérgio Cabral; Saletti, Deise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suprascapular nerve block in combination with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space, compared with interscalene block. Methods: Forty-five patients with small or medium-sized isolated supraspinatus tendon lesions who underwent arthroscopic repair were prospectively and comparatively evaluated through random assignation to three groups of 15, each with a different combination of anesthetic methods. The efficacy of postoperative analgesia was measured using the visual analogue scale for pain and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and opioid drug consumption. Inhalation anesthetic consumption during surgery was also compared between the groups. Results: The statistical analysis did not find any statistically significant differences among the groups regarding anesthetic consumption during surgery or postoperative analgesic efficacy during the first 48 hours. Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space is an excellent alternative to interscalene block, particularly in hospitals in which an electrical nerve stimulating device is unavailable. PMID:27022569

  16. Hematogenous umbilical metastasis from colon cancer treated by palliative single-incision laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Tomohide; Okada, Noriyuki; Nakauchi, Masaya; Hiramoto, Shuji; Kikuchi-Mizota, Ayako; Kyogoku, Masahisa; Oike, Fumitaka; Sugimoto, Hidemitsu; Tanaka, Junya; Morikami, Yoshiki; Shigemoto, Kaori; Ota, Toyotsugu; Kaneko, Masanobu; Nakatsuji, Masato; Okae, Shunji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Yoshioka, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule (SMJN) is a rare umbilical nodule that develops secondary to metastatic cancer. Primary malignancies are located in the abdomen or pelvis. Patients with SMJN have a poor prognosis. An 83-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of a rapidly enlarging umbilical mass. Endoscopic findings revealed advanced transverse colon cancer. computer tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography revealed tumors of the transverse colon, umbilicus, right inguinal lymph nodes, and left lung. The feeding arteries and drainage veins for the SMJN were the inferior epigastric vessels. Imaging findings of the left lung tumor allowed for identification of the primary lung cancer, and a diagnosis of advanced transverse colon cancer with SMJN and primary lung cancer was made. The patient underwent local resection of the SMNJ and subsequent single-site laparoscopic surgery involving right hemicolectomy and paracolic lymph node dissection. Intra-abdominal dissemination to the mesocolon was confirmed during surgery. Histopathologically, the transverse colon cancer was confirmed to be moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. We suspect that SMJN may occur via a hematogenous pathway. Although chemotherapy for colon cancer and thoracoscopic surgery for the primary lung cancer were scheduled, the patient and her family desired home hospice. Seven months after surgery, she died of rapidly growing lung cancer. PMID:24179626

  17. A new stage of sentinel node navigation surgery in early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takashi; Fushida, Sachio; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Kinami, Shinichi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel node (SN) navigation surgery is expected to realize organ- and function-preserving surgery with SN mapping, and has been applied in operations for breast cancer and melanoma. But there has been no definite evidence for the SN concept in gastric cancer. A prospective multicenter trial to confirm the SN concept for gastric cancer conducted by the Japan Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery reported that the SN detection rate, sensitivity of positive SNs, and accuracy of nodal status are 97.5% (387/397), 93% (53/57), and 99% (383/387), respectively. A detailed analysis of the trial suggested that strictly the "lymphatic basin concept" rather than the "SN concept" was confirmed in early gastric cancer. The Japan Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery started a new trial of function-preserving gastrectomy with lymphatic basin dissection (LBD) for early gastric cancer without metastasis in SNs on the basis of this promising outcome of the trial. It is supposed that LBD guarantees curability in SN navigation surgery for early gastric cancer. Full-thickness resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection in combination with laparoscopic LBD will soon be a new treatment option for early gastric cancer. PMID:25433568

  18. Methods for Cancer Epigenome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Raman P.; Fouse, Shaun D.; Bell, Robert J.A.; Costello, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of epimutations in tumor cells is crucial for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of cancer. Alterations in DNA methylation in cancer are functionally important and clinically relevant, but even this well-studied area is continually re-evaluated in light of unanticipated results, including a strong connection between aberrant DNA methylation in adult tumors and polycomb group profiles in embryonic stem cells, cancer-associated genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators such as DNMT3A and TET family genes, and the discovery of abundant 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a product of TET proteins acting on 5-methylcytosine, in human tissues. The abundance and distribution of covalent histone modifications in primary cancer tissues relative to normal cells is a largely uncharted area, although there is good evidence for a mechanistic role of cancer-specific alterations in epigenetic marks in tumor etiology, drug response and tumor progression. Meanwhile, the discovery of new epigenetic marks continues, and there are many useful methods for epigenome analysis applicable to primary tumor samples, in addition to cancer cell lines. For DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, next-generation sequencing allows increasingly inexpensive and quantitative whole-genome profiling. Similarly, the refinement and maturation of chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has made possible genome-wide mapping of histone modifications, open chromatin and transcription factor binding sites. Computational tools have been developed apace with these epigenome methods to better enable the accuracy and interpretation of the data from the profiling methods. PMID:22956508

  19. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer in the older person: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Moug, S.J.; McCarthy, K.; Coode-Bate, J.; Stechman, M.J.; Hewitt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic surgery is being increasingly offered to the older person. Objective To systematically review the literature regarding laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in older people and compare to younger adult populations. Study selection We included randomized controlled trials that compared open to laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Older people were defined as being 65 years and above. Outcome measures Overall survival and post-operative morbidity and mortality. Secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay, wound recurrence, disease-free survival and conversion rate. Results Seven trials included older people, average age of approximately 70 years. Two reported data specific to older patients (over 70 years): The ALCCaS study reported reduced length of stay and short-term complication rates in the laparoscopic group when compared to open surgery (8 versus 10 days, and 36.7% versus 50.6% respectively) and the CLASICC study reported equivalent 5 year survival between arms and a reduction of 2 days length of stay following laparoscopic surgery in older people. In trials which considered data on older and younger participants all five trials reported comparable overall survival and showed comparable or reduced complication rates; two demonstrated significantly shorter length of stay following laparoscopic surgery compared to open surgery. Conclusion Large numbers of older people have been included in well-conducted, multi-centre, randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery. This systematic review suggests that age itself should not be a factor when considering the best surgical option for older patients. PMID:26468376

  20. Feasibility of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery as Compared to Open Surgery for Sigmoid Colon Cancer: A Case-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang Eun; Jung, Eun-Joo; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Paik, Jin Hee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes by comparing hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) with open surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. Methods Twenty-six patients who underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic anterior resection (HAL-AR group) and 52 patients who underwent a conventional open anterior resection during the same period were enrolled (open group) in this study with a case-controlled design. Results Pathologic parameters were similar between the two groups. The incidences of immediate postoperative leukocytosis were 38.5% in the HAL-AR group and 69.2% in the open group (P = 0.009). There were no significant differences between the two groups as to leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrits (P = 0.758, P = 0.383, and P = 0.285, respectively). Of the postoperative recovery indicators, first flatus, sips of water and soft diet started on postoperative days 3, 5, 7 in the HALS group and on days 4, 5, 6 in the open group showed statistical significance (P = 0.021, P = 0.259, and P = 0.174, respectively). Administration of additional pain killers was needed for 1.2 days in the HAL-AR group and 2.4 days in the open group (P = 0.002). No significant differences in the durations of hospital stay and the rates of postoperative complications were noted, and no postoperative mortality was encountered in either group. Conclusion The patients with sigmoid colon cancer who underwent a HAL-AR had a lower incidence of postoperative leukocytosis, less administration of pain killers, and faster first flatus than those who underwent open surgery. Clinical outcomes for patients' recovery and pathology status were similar between the two groups. Therefore, a HAL-AR for sigmoid colon cancer is feasible and has the same benefit as minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23586010

  1. Results of conservative surgery and radiation therapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, R.T.; Smith, B.L. )

    1990-10-01

    For stage I or II breast cancer, conservative surgery and radiation therapy are as effective as modified radical or radical mastectomy. In most cases, cosmetic considerations and the availability of therapy are the primary concerns. The extent of a surgical resection less than a mastectomy has not been a subject of a randomized trial and is controversial. It appears that removal of a quadrant of the breast for small lesions is safe but excessive. It may be possible to limit the breast resection to gross tumor removal for most patients while using wider resections for patients with an extensive intraductal component or for invasive lobular carcinoma. It also appears that excluding patients from breast conservation on the basis of positive margins on the first attempt at tumor excision may be unnecessarily restrictive. Although patients with an extensive intraductal component or invasive lobular carcinoma should have negative margins, it appears that a patient with predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma can be treated without re-excision if all gross tumor has been resected and there is no reason to suspect extensive microscopic disease. Patients with indeterminate margins should have a re-excision. Axillary dissection provides prognostic information and prevents progression of the disease within the axilla. Axillary dissections limited to level I will accurately identify a substantial number of patients who have pathologically positive but clinically negative nodes. When combined with radiation therapy to the axilla, a level I dissection results in a limited number of patients with progressive axillary disease. Patients with pathologically positive axillas and patients at particularly high risk for systemic disease because of the extent of axillary node involvement can be identified by dissections of levels I and II. 60 references.

  2. Nonclinical factors associated with surgery received for treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Satariano, E R; Swanson, G M; Moll, P P

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Women diagnosed with early breast cancer have had the opportunity to receive breast-conserving surgical treatment, which reduces the physical and psychological morbidity heretofore associated with breast removal. METHODS. Nonclinical factors associated with women receiving partial mastectomies with radiation (P + R) compared with modified radical mastectomies without radiation (MOR) were examined in 2238 Black and White women diagnosed, in 1985 through 1987, with early-stage breast cancer in the metropolitan Detroit area. RESULTS. Age at diagnosis and size of hospital were the strongest predictors of type of surgery received, with younger women (less than 55 years of age) and women treated in larger hospitals (more than 500 beds) more than twice as likely to receive P + R. Stratifying on race, age at diagnosis remained the strongest predictor for White women, followed by hospital size. Among Black women, hospital size was more strongly associated with surgery received than was age. CONCLUSIONS. Younger women and women undergoing treatment at large hospitals are more likely to receive the breast-conserving P + R. Black women treated in small hospitals appear to be particularly unlikely to receive P + R. PMID:1739146

  3. Recurrent colorectal cancer after endoscopic resection when additional surgery was recommended

    PubMed Central

    Takatsu, Yukiko; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Ogura, Atsushi; Nagata, Jun; Nagasaki, Toshiya; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Nagayama, Satoshi; Ueno, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type of recurrence after endoscopic resection in colorectal cancer patients and whether rescue was possible by salvage operation. METHODS: Among 4972 patients who underwent surgical resection at our institution for primary or recurrent colorectal cancers from January 2005 to February 2015, we experienced eight recurrent colorectal cancers after endoscopic resection when additional surgical resection was recommended. RESULTS: The recurrence patterns were: intramural local recurrence (five cases), regional lymph node recurrence (three cases), and associated with simultaneous distant metastasis (three cases). Among five cases with lymphatic invasion observed histologically in endoscopic resected specimens, four cases recurred with lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. All cases were treated laparoscopically and curative surgery was achieved in six cases. Among four cases located in the rectum, three cases achieved preservation of the anus. Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (enteritis). CONCLUSION: For high-risk submucosal invasive colorectal cancers after endoscopic resection, additional surgical resection with lymphadenectomy is recommended, particularly in cases with lymphovascular invasion. PMID:26900295

  4. Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Kundu, Ratul; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hazra, Bimal; Mitra, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h). Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1st, 2nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital. PMID:25276627

  5. Health outcome and economic measurement in breast cancer surgery: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cano, Stefan; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; Thoma, Achilleas; Feeny, David; Pusic, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    As breast cancer surgery techniques continue to advance, treatment options continue to increase, bringing with them increased scrutiny of health outcomes and healthcare cost. In addition, patients are becoming more involved in their own medical care and are demanding meaningful data to help them better understand expected outcomes. With these changes and advancements, there is a growing emphasis on evidence-based practice. In this article, we focus on scientific considerations, challenges to and opportunities for improving outcome measurement related to breast cancer surgery. There are two main messages from this article. First, until recently, rigorously developed specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures for breast cancer surgery patients have not been available for use. However, with the recent introduction of new PRO measures, such as the BREAST-Q, there is now good potential to collect useful outcome data on patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life, and to better understand the relative impact of different surgical procedures, decision making and clinical practice on patient outcome. Thus, PRO research using rigorously developed breast cancer surgery-specific measures is in its infancy, but growing steadily. Second, there is a great need but lack of specific health economic measures developed for use in breast cancer surgery research. In fact, research into the economic evaluation of breast cancer surgery is an area that has received less attention than that of PRO measure development, but there is good opportunity to expand this area of research in breast cancer surgery. Further studies are required to gain a clearer view of the role that generic preference and utility measures could play, how best to synthesize health-related quality of life and economic metrics data, and the potential use of new disease-specific tools. PMID:20950073

  6. Factors Affecting Survival in Patients Undergoing Palliative Spine Surgery for Metastatic Lung and Hepatocellular Cancer: Dose the Type of Surgery Influence the Surgical Results for Metastatic Spine Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kee-Yong; Ahn, Ju-Hyun; Park, Hyung-Youl

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical treatment for metastatic spine disease has been becoming more prominent with the help of technological advances and a few favorable reports on the surgery. In cases of this peculiar condition, it is necessary to establish the role of surgery and analyze the factors affecting survival. Methods From January 2011 to April 2015, 119 patients were surgically treated for metastatic spine lesions. To reduce the bias along the heterogeneous cancers, the primary cancer was confined to either the lung (n = 25) or the liver (n = 18). Forty-three patients (male, 32; female, 11; mean age, 57.5 years) who had undergone palliative surgery were enrolled in this study. Posterior decompression and fusion was performed in 30 patients (P group), and anteroposterior (AP) reconstruction was performed in 13 patients (AP group) for palliative surgery. Pre- and postoperative (3 months) pain (visual analogue scale, VAS), performance status (Karnofsky performance score), neurologic status (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] grade), and spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) were compared. The survival period and related hazard factors were also assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results Most patients experienced improvements in pain and performance status (12.3% ± 17.2%) at 3 months postoperatively. In terms of neurologic recovery, 9 patients (20.9%) graded ASIA D experienced neurological improvement to ASIA E while the remainder was status quo. In an analysis according to operation type, there was no significant difference in patient demographics. At 12 months postoperatively, cumulative survival rates were 31.5% and 38.7% for the P group and the AP group, respectively (p > 0.05). Survival was not affected by the pre- and postoperative pain scale, Tokuhashi score, neurologic status, SINS, or operation type. Preoperative Karnofsky performance score (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 0.96) and improvement of performance status after surgery (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.97) significantly affected survival after operation. Conclusions There was no significant difference in surgical outcomes and survival rates between posterior and AP surgery for metastatic lesions resulting from lung and hepatocellular cancer. Preoperative Karnofsky score and improvement of performance status had a significant impact on the survival rate following surgical treatment for these metastatic spine lesions. PMID:26330957

  7. Medical and psychosocial effects of early discharge after surgery for breast cancer: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonnema, Jorien; van Wersch, Anneke M E A; van Geel, Albert N; Pruyn, Jean F A; Schmitz, Paul I M; Paul, Marinus A; Wiggers, Theo

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To assess the medical and psychosocial effects of early hospital discharge after surgery for breast cancer on complication rate, patient satisfaction, and psychosocial outcomes. Design: Randomised trial comparing discharge from hospital 4 days after surgery (with drain in situ) with discharge after drain removal (mean 9 days in hospital). Psychosocial measurements performed before surgery and 1 and 4 months after. Setting: General hospital and cancer clinic in Rotterdam with a socioeconomically diverse population. Subjects: 125 women with operable breast cancer. Main outcome measures: Incidence of complications after surgery for breast cancer, patient satisfaction with treatment, and psychosocial effects of short stay or long stay in hospital. Results: Patient satisfaction with the short stay in hospital was high; only 4% (2/56 at 1 month after surgery and 2/52 at 4 months after surgery) of patients indicated that they would have preferred a longer stay. There were no significant differences in duration of drainage from the axilla between the short stay and long stay groups (median 8 v 9 days respectively, P=0.45) or the incidence of wound complications (10 patients v 9 patients). The median number of seroma aspirations per patient was higher for the long stay group (1 v 3.5, P=0.04). Leakage along the drain occurred more frequently in short stay patients (21 v 10 patients, P=0.04). The two groups did not differ in scores for psychosocial problems (uncertainty, anxiety, loneliness, disturbed sleep, loss of control, threat to self esteem), physical or psychological complaints, or in the coping strategies used. Before surgery, short stay patients scored higher on scales of depression (P=0.03) and after surgery they were more likely to discuss their disease with their families (at 1 month P=0.004, at 4 months P=0.04). Conclusions: Early discharge from hospital after surgery for breast cancer is safe and is well received by patients. Early discharge seems to enhance the opportunity for social support within the family. Key messages Early discharge from hospital after breast cancer surgery does not lead to an increase in the incidence of wound infection or seroma formation A short stay in hospital, with support from community nurses on the patient’s return home, is acceptable to patients Psychosocial rehabilitation is not influenced by early discharge Recovery in the family environment may facilitate discussion of the illness Patients recovering from surgery for breast cancer need not spend more than three days in hospital provided that they are in good physical condition and there is adequate nursing support available in the community PMID:9554895

  8. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    SciTech Connect

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences.

  9. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  10. Analysis of Risk Factors and Management of Anastomotic Leakage After Rectal Cancer Surgery: An Indian Series.

    PubMed

    Jatal, Sudhir; Pai, Vishwas D; Demenezes, Jean; Desouza, Ashwin; Saklani, Avanish P

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether sphincter preservation is possible among patients who develop anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery. The secondary objective was to determine the factors that may contribute to anastomotic leakage. This is a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database. All patients with rectal cancer who underwent restorative proctectomy over 1 year were included in the study. The parameters analyzed were age, preoperative hemoglobin and albumin, neoadjuvant therapy, type of surgery, level of ligation of inferior mesenteric pedicle, technique of anastomosis, and defunctioning proximal stoma. In this study, 176 cases of anterior resection were included,of which15 (8.5 %) had anastomotic leakage. None of the factors contributing to anastomotic leakage reached statistical significance on univariate analysis. Among the patients who had proximal defunctioning ileostomy (n = 9), five (56 %) required re-surgery whereas other four were managed with antibiotics and presacral drainage alone (44 %). Among the patients who didnot have proximal defunctioning ileostomy (n = 6), all (100 %) required re-surgery. Among the 12 eligible patients, stoma reversal was successful in eight (67 %) patients. This study highlights the importance of defunctioning proximal stoma in reducing the incidence and severity of anastomotic leakage as well as the need and extent of re-surgery for low rectal cancer. Sphincter preservation is possible in majority of patients who develop anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:27065680

  11. Preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients: video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Zong, Zhenfeng; Yuan, Jun; Song, Xiang; Ren, Mingming; Meng, Qingjun; Dai, Guoguang; Kong, Fanyi; Xie, Shumin; Cheng, Siying; Gao, Tianwen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients and differences in the psychological and social factors that influence treatment decision-making. Methods One hundred and forty patients with stage I lung cancer were recruited from Hebei Cangzhou Central Hospital. Before surgery, the patients completed a questionnaire that surveyed their preferences for treatment and the relevant influencing factors. Differences in psychological and social characteristics were compared between lung cancer patients who chose video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and those who opted for open thoracotomy. Results Among the 135 valid questionnaires, 79 patients preferred VATS and 56 patients chose open thoracotomy. Potential side effects, doctors’ recommendation, the prognosticated chance for cure, cosmesis, and financial burden influenced the patients’ decisions. Conclusion The minimally invasive advantages of VATS, including lesser trauma to the chest wall, earlier remission of postoperative pain, faster recovery, less bleeding, and improved cardiopulmonary function made VATS more attractive to patients needing lobectomy for lung cancer. However, the choice of VATS over open thoracotomy is still influenced by the degree of prognosticated cure and the feasibility of surgery. PMID:25336927

  12. Quality of life in rectal cancer patients after radical surgery: a survey of Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in disease-free survivors after radical surgery for rectal cancer in a Chinese mainland population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey from August 2002 to February 2011 by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires of 438 patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer. Patients who were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, had no relevant major comorbidities and whose disease had not recurred were asked to complete both questionnaires. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL were compared by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results In total, 285 patients responded to the survey (response rate, 65.1%). Psychological-related HRQoL variables such as emotional function (P = 0.021) and future perspectives (P = 0.044) were poorer for younger patients than for older patients; and physiological-related HRQoL was reflected by physical function (P = 0.039), which was poorer for older patients than for younger patients. In terms of physiologic function and symptoms concerning HRQoL, such as pain (P = 0.002) and insomnia (P = 0.018), females had lower values than males. Low education and unemployment were associated with a worse HRQoL. HRQoL was worse for patients with stomas compared to those without, especially in psychosocial areas such as role function (P = 0.025), social function (P <0.001) and body image (P = 0.004). Financial HRQoL was worse for younger patients and patients with stoma. Conclusions HRQoL aspects and degrees to which they were impaired after curative surgery for rectal cancer were different when compared by many sociodemographic and clinical factors in Chinese mainland patients. PMID:24886668

  13. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant. PMID:26590997

  14. Prognostic and Predictive Model for Stage II Colon Cancer Patients With Nonemergent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Dong; Wang, Ji-Nan; Sui, Bai-Qiang; Zeng, Yong-Ji; Chen, Jun-Qing; Dai, Dong-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No ideal prognostic model has been applied to clearly identify which suitable high-risk stage II colon cancer patients with negative margins undergoing nonemergent surgery should receive adjuvant chemotherapy routinely. Clinicopathologic and prognostic data of 333 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent D2 or D3 lymphadenectomy during nonemergent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Four pathologically determined factors, including adjacent organ involvement (RR 2.831, P = 0.001), histologic differentiation (RR 2.151, P = 0.009), lymphovascular invasion (RR 4.043, P < 0.001), and number of lymph nodes retrieved (RR 2.161, P = 0.011), were identified as independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Importantly, a simple cumulative scoring system clearly categorizing prognostic risk groups was generated: risk score = ∑ coefficient’ × status (AOI + histological differentiated + lymphovascular invasion + LNs retrieved). Our new prognostic model may provide valuable information on the impact of lymphovascular invasion, as well as powerfully and reliably predicting prognosis and recurrence for this particular cohort of patients. This model may identify suitable patients with an R0 resection who should receive routine postoperative adjuvant therapy and may help clinicians to facilitate individualized treatment. In this study, we aim to provide an ideal and quantifiable method for clinical decision making in the nonemergent surgical treatment of stage II colon cancer. Our prognostic and predictive model should be applied in multicenter, prospective studies with large sample sizes, in order to obtain a more reliable clinical recommendation. PMID:26735527

  15. Surgery Choices for Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tattoo that looks like the areola (the dark area around your nipple). There are two main ... feeling in your breast, nipple, and areola (the dark area around your nipple). Maybe. After surgery, the ...

  16. Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer by Transumbilical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Surgery: A Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui-Hua; Liu, Mu-Biao; He, Yuan-Li

    2016-04-01

    To compare the outcomes of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) versus traditional laparoscopic surgery (TLS) for early stage endometrial cancer (EC).We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with early stage EC who were surgically treated by TU-LESS or TLS between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. We identified 18 EC patients who underwent TU-LESS. Propensity score matching was used to match this group with 18 EC patients who underwent TLS.All patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy by TU-LESS or TLS without conversion to laparoscopy or laparotomy. Number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved, operative time and estimated blood loss were comparable between 2 groups. Satisfaction values of the cosmetic outcome evaluated by the patient at day 30 after surgery were significantly higher in TU-LESS group than that in TLS group (9.6 ± 0.8 vs 7.5 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery, postoperative hospital stay, and hospital cost.For the surgical management of early stage EC, TU-LESS may be a feasible alternative approach to TLS, with comparable short-term surgical outcomes and superior cosmetic outcome. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to identify these benefits. PMID:27057851

  17. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  18. Early Post Operative Enteral Versus Parenteral Feeding after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Mashhadi, Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Zilaee, Marzie; Rezaei, Reza; Maddah, Ghodratollah; Majidi, Mohamad Reza; Bahadornia, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is reported to be high. In particular, patients with esophageal cancer are prone to malnutrition, due to preoperative digestive system dysfunctions and short-term non-oral feeding postoperatively. Selection of an appropriate method for feeding in the postoperative period is important in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone esophagectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 were randomly assigned into either enteral feeding or parenteral feeding groups, with the same calorie intake in each group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C3, C4 and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as well as the rate of surgical complications, restoration of bowel movements and cost was assessed in each group. Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of serum albumin, prealbumin or transferrin. However, C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group compared with the parenteral group, while hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. Bowel movements were restored sooner and costs of treatment were lower in the enteral group. Postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. There was one death in the parenteral group 10 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that enteral feeding can be used effectively in the first days after surgery, with few early complications and similar nutritional outcomes compared with the parenteral method. Enteral feeding was associated with reduced inflammation and was associated with an improvement in immunological responses, quicker return of bowel movements, and reduced costs in comparison with parenteral feeding. PMID:26568935

  19. Emotional and informational needs of women experiencing outpatient surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Doreen E; Bennett, Lorna R; Kearney, Anne; Westera, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative study about informational and emotional needs of women who had surgery for breast cancer on an outpatient basis. Nineteen women volunteered for the study. The interviews, lasting approximately 60 minutes, were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using content analysis outlined by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). Findings are organized according to: 1) emotional and informational needs prior to and immediately after surgery; 2) emotional and informational supports while recovering at home; and 3) emotional responses to the outpatient surgery experience. Overall, women were satisfied with the experience of surgery for breast cancer on an outpatient basis, but there were several aspects that warrant closer attention, such as the amount and timing of information delivery, discharge care, and the need for consistent community nursing support and follow-up. PMID:24707704

  20. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Design Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Setting Academic cancer center oncology clinic. Participants 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Interventions Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Main Outcome Measure Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Results Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70–0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Conclusions Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation. PMID:26076031

  1. Cancer surgery induces inflammation, immunosuppression and neo-angiogenesis, but is it influenced by analgesics?

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Surgery remains a main part of the treatment of most solid tumors. Paradoxically, rapid disease progression may be a consequence of surgery in patients presenting with a dysregulated inflammatory response, and increased angiogenesis consequent to a suppressed antitumoral immune response. Physicians taking care of cancer patients should be aware of the important findings that indicate that analgesic techniques could play a role in these phenomena. PMID:24358839

  2. A meta-analysis of fast track surgery for patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S; Zou, Z; Chen, F; Li, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This meta-analysis evaluated the safety and efficacy of fast track surgery (FTS) for patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy. Methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1 January 1995 and 21 June 2013 comparing FTS with conventional perioperative care for patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy were identified in the PubMed, Embase™ and Cochrane Library databases, and were analysed systematically using RevMan software (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Results Seven RCTs (524 patients) were analysed. Compared with conventional perioperative care, FTS treatment with/without laparoscopy was associated with shorter postoperative hospitalisation, less hospitalisation expenditure (both p<0.00001), less pain and better quality of life. Short-term morbidity and readmission rates did not differ between treatments. No incidents of death occurred during the short-term follow-up period. Conclusions In patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy, the FTS pathway reduces the length and cost of postoperative hospitalisation while maintaining short-term morbidity, readmission and mortality rates comparable with those of conventional care. PMID:25519256

  3. Neoadjuvant Treatment Does Not Influence Perioperative Outcome in Rectal Cancer Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Alexis; Weitz, Juergen Slodczyk, Matthias; Koch, Moritz; Jaeger, Dirk; Muenter, Marc; Buechler, Markus W.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing resection of primary rectal cancer, with a specific focus on the effect of neoadjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: This exploratory analysis of prospectively collected data included all patients who underwent anterior resection/low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary rectal cancer between October 2001 and October 2006. The study endpoints were perioperative surgical and medical morbidity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of potential risk factors were performed. Results: A total of 485 patients were included in this study; 425 patients (88%) underwent a sphincter-saving anterior resection/low anterior resection, 47 (10%) abdominoperineal resection, and 13 (2%) multivisceral resection. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 100 patients (21%), and 168 (35%) underwent neoadjuvant short-term radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy). Patient age and operative time were independently associated with perioperative morbidity, and operative time, body mass index >27 kg/m{sup 2} (overweight), and resection type were associated with surgical morbidity. Age and a history of smoking were confirmed as independent prognostic risk factors for medical complications. Neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with a worse outcome. Conclusion: The results of this prospective study have identified several risk factors associated with an adverse perioperative outcome after rectal cancer surgery. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with increased perioperative complications.

  4. Chemoradiation Therapy for Potentially Resectable Gastric Cancer: Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Who Do Not Undergo Planned Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Michelle M.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Badgwell, Brian D.; Phan, Alexandria T.; Delclos, Marc E.; Maru, Dipen; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes among resectable gastric cancer patients treated preoperatively with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) but rendered ineligible for planned surgery because of clinical deterioration or development of overt metastatic disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2004, 39 patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer received preoperative CRT but failed to undergo surgery. At baseline clinical staging, 33 (85%) patients had T3-T4 disease, and 27 (69%) patients had nodal involvement. Most patients received 45 Gy of radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients underwent induction chemotherapy before CRT. Actuarial times to local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The cause for surgical ineligibility was development of metastatic disease (28 patients, 72%; predominantly peritoneal, 18 patients), poor performance status (5 patients, 13%), patient/physician preference (4 patients, 10%), and treatment-related death (2 patients, 5%). With a median follow-up of 8 months (range, 1-95 months), actuarial 1-year LC, DC, and OS were 46%, 12%, and 36%, respectively. Median LC and OS were 11.0 and 10.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer treated with preoperative CRT are found to be ineligible for surgery principally because of peritoneal progression. Patients who are unable to undergo planned surgery have outcomes comparable to that of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy alone. CRT provides durable LC for the majority of the remaining life of these patients.

  5. Cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (SOCceR trial): a multicenter randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvement in treatment for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer is needed. Standard therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer consists of platinum-based chemotherapy. Median overall survival is reported between 18 and 35 months. Currently, the role of surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer is not clear. In selective patients a survival benefit up to 62 months is reported for patients undergoing complete secondary cytoreductive surgery. Whether cytoreductive surgery in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer is beneficial remains questionable due to the lack of level I-II evidence. Methods/Design Multicentre randomized controlled trial, including all nine gynecologic oncologic centres in the Netherlands and their affiliated hospitals. Eligible patients are women, with first recurrence of FIGO stage Ic-IV platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer or fallopian tube cancer, who meet the inclusion criteria. Participants are randomized between the standard treatment consisting of at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy and the experimental treatment which consists of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy. Primary outcome measure is progression free survival. In total 230 patients will be randomized. Data will be analysed according to intention to treat. Discussion Where the role of cytoreductive surgery is widely accepted in the initial treatment of ovarian cancer, its value in recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer has not been established so far. A better understanding of the benefits and patients selection criteria for secondary cytoreductive surgery has to be obtained. Therefore the 4th ovarian cancer consensus conference in 2010 stated that randomized controlled phase 3 trials evaluating the role of surgery in platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer are urgently needed. We present a recently started multicentre randomized controlled trial that will investigate the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy will improve progression free survival in selected patients with first recurrence of platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register number: NTR3337. PMID:24422892

  6. Oncoplastic breast surgery for centrally located breast cancer: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Munetsugu; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Okumura, Hiroshi; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2014-02-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), which combines the concepts of oncologic and plastic surgery, is becoming more common worldwide. We herein report the results of OBS in Japanese patients with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) and Paget's disease. We performed OBS combining partial mastectomy and immediate volume replacement on patients with non-ptotic and/or small breasts, and volume reduction surgery for patients with ptotic breasts, as reported in Western countries. Japanese encounters are described in this report as a case series. PMID:25083497

  7. Can Acute Pain Treatment Reduce Postsurgical Comorbidity after Breast Cancer Surgery? A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Fumimasa; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Matsuda, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yosuke; Yamakita, Shunsuke; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Sawa, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Regional analgesia, opioids, and several oral analgesics are commonly used for the treatment of acute pain after breast cancer surgery. While all of these treatments can suppress the acute postsurgical pain, there is growing evidence that suggests that the postsurgical comorbidity will differ in accordance with the type of analgesic used during the surgery. Our current study reviewed the effect of analgesics used for acute pain treatments on the major comorbidities that occur after breast cancer surgery. A considerable number of clinical studies have been performed to investigate the relationship between the acute analgesic regimen and common comorbidities, including inadequate quality of recovery after the surgery, persistent postsurgical pain, and cancer recurrence. Previous studies have shown that the choice of the analgesic modality does affect the postsurgical comorbidity. In general, the use of regional analgesics has a beneficial effect on the occurrence of comorbidity. In order to determine the best analgesic choice after breast cancer surgery, prospective studies that are based on a clear definition of the comorbidity state will need to be undertaken in the future. PMID:26495309

  8. Increased precision of orthotopic and metastatic breast cancer surgery guided by matrix metalloproteinase-activatable near-infrared fluorescence probes

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Yamin; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Ye, Jinzuo; Wang, Jiandong; Wang, Zhongliang; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Advanced medical imaging technology has allowed the use of fluorescence molecular imaging-guided breast cancer surgery (FMI-guided BCS) to specifically label tumour cells and to precisely distinguish tumour margins from normal tissues intra-operatively, a major challenge in the medical field. Here, we developed a surgical navigation system for real-time FMI-guided BCS. Tumours derived from highly metastatic 4T1-luc breast cancer cells, which exhibit high expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), were established in nude mice; these mice were injected with smart MMP-targeting and “always-on” HER2-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes. The fluorescence signal was imaged to assess in vivo binding of the probes to the tumour and metastatic sites. Then, orthotopic and metastatic breast tumours were precisely removed under the guidance of our system. The post-operative survival rate of mice was improved by 50% with the new method. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining for MMP2 and CD11b further confirmed the precision of tumour dissection. Our method facilitated the accurate detection and complete removal of breast cancer tumours and provided a method for defining the molecular classification of breast cancer during surgery, thereby improving prognoses and survival rates. PMID:26395067

  9. Increased precision of orthotopic and metastatic breast cancer surgery guided by matrix metalloproteinase-activatable near-infrared fluorescence probes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Yamin; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Ye, Jinzuo; Wang, Jiandong; Wang, Zhongliang; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Advanced medical imaging technology has allowed the use of fluorescence molecular imaging-guided breast cancer surgery (FMI-guided BCS) to specifically label tumour cells and to precisely distinguish tumour margins from normal tissues intra-operatively, a major challenge in the medical field. Here, we developed a surgical navigation system for real-time FMI-guided BCS. Tumours derived from highly metastatic 4T1-luc breast cancer cells, which exhibit high expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), were established in nude mice; these mice were injected with smart MMP-targeting and "always-on" HER2-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes. The fluorescence signal was imaged to assess in vivo binding of the probes to the tumour and metastatic sites. Then, orthotopic and metastatic breast tumours were precisely removed under the guidance of our system. The post-operative survival rate of mice was improved by 50% with the new method. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining for MMP2 and CD11b further confirmed the precision of tumour dissection. Our method facilitated the accurate detection and complete removal of breast cancer tumours and provided a method for defining the molecular classification of breast cancer during surgery, thereby improving prognoses and survival rates. PMID:26395067

  10. Early enteral nutrition in combination with parenteral nutrition in elderly patients after surgery due to gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dongping; Sun, Zhufeng; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Zhaozai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nutritional support via different routes in elderly patients after surgery for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Methods: 105 patients with GI cancer were randomly divided into early enteral nutrition (EEN) group (n = 35), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group (n = 35) and EN+PN group (n = 35). Results: The nutrition status and immunity were significantly compromised in all patients, while the liver function was improved at 3 days after surgery as compared to those before surgery. At 7 days after surgery, they returned to preoperative level. The nutrition status was comparable among 3 groups at 3 and 7 days after surgery (P > 0.05). ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in TNP group were significantly higher than those in EEN group and EN+PN group (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the liver function between EEN group and EN+PN group (P > 0.05). The CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells and CD4/CD8 in EEN group and EN+PN group were significantly higher than those in TPN group (P < 0.05), but significant difference was not observed between EEN group and EN+PN group (P > 0.05). The NK cells in EN+PN group were significantly higher than in TPN group (P < 0.01). The incidence of diarrhea in EEN group was significantly higher than in TPN group and EN+PN group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: EN+PN is superior to EEN alone and TPN alone in the old patients with GI cancer in reducing the postoperative complications, improving the immunity and decreasing the hospital stay. PMID:26550350

  11. [Key points and difficulties in implementing enhanced recovery after surgery of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangxing; Li, Jun; Ding, Kefeng

    2016-03-25

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), a hotspot of modern surgery, aims to make patients get early recovery of physical and psychological condition from surgical injury through reducing interference of inner-equilibrium. Our center has carried out fast track multi-disciplinary treatment (FTMDT) trail of colorectal cancer since 2009. This paper discusses the key points and difficulties in implementing ERAS for colorectal cancer from the association between ERAS and shortening of hospital stay, the idea renewal of medical staff and comprehensive therapy mode based on our experience and current situations in China. PMID:27003642

  12. Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Lin, Chen-Sung; Shih, Chih-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, novel results using pulmonary wedge resection executed through single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was first described. Since that time, single-port VATS has been advocated for the treatment of a spectrum of thoracic diseases, especially lung cancer. Lung cancer remains one of the top three cancer-related deaths in Taiwan, and surgical resection remains the “gold standard” for early-stage lung cancer. Anatomical resections (including pneumonectomy, lobectomy, and segmentectomy) remain the primary types of lung cancer surgery, regardless of whether conventional open thoracotomy, or 4/3/2-ports VATS are used. In the past three years, several pioneers have reported their early experiences with single-port VATS lobectomy, segmentectomy, and pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Our goal was to appraise their findings and review the role of single-port VATS in the treatment of lung cancer. In addition, the current concept of mini-invasive surgery involves not only smaller resections (requiring only a few incisions), but also sub-lobar resection as segmentectomy. Therefore, our review will also address these issues. PMID:24455171

  13. POSTOPERATIVE FUNCTION FOLLOWING RADICAL SURGERY IN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER PATIENTS OVER 80 YEARS OF AGE―AN OBJECTION TO “AGEISM”―

    PubMed Central

    FUKATA, SHINJI; ANDO, MASAHIKO; AMEMIYA, TAKESHI; KUROIWA, KOJIRO; ODA, KOJI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: With rapid growth in the elderly population, the number of elderly cancer patients who should be offered life-prolonging radical surgery has been increasing. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the outcome of elective radical surgery for gastric or colorectal cancer patients 80 years of age or older, including the natural course of recovery of functional independence, in order to avoid the negative attitude held toward surgery that is due only to patients’ high chronological age. METHODS: Physical condition, ADL, and QOL of 108 patients 80 years of age or older with gastric or colorectal cancer were evaluated preoperatively and at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th postoperative months. RESULTS: There were no operative deaths, and the morbidity rate was 27.9%. Only 6% of the patients showed a decrease in ADL at the 6th postoperative month. This decrease typically occurred following discharge from the hospital. Patient QOL showed recovery to an extent equal to or better than average preoperative scores. CONCLUSIONS: Of the patients who underwent elective surgery for gastric or colorectal cancer, only a few showed a protracted decline in ADL, and most exhibited better QOL after surgery. Surgical treatment should therefore be considered, whenever needed, for elderly patients 80 years of age or older with gastric or colorectal cancer. PMID:23092097

  14. Retrospective cohort study of an enhanced recovery programme in oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, P A C; Shaw, C; Hine, C; Scholtes, S; Koutra, M; Andrew, H; Hacking, M; Allum, W H

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Enhanced recovery programmes have been established in some areas of elective surgery. This study applied enhanced recovery principles to elective oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery. Methods An enhanced recovery programme for patients undergoing open oesophagogastrectomy, total and subtotal gastrectomy for oesophageal and gastric malignancy was designed. A retrospective cohort study compared length of stay on the critical care unit (CCU), total length of inpatient stay, rates of complications and in-hospital mortality prior to (35 patients) and following (27 patients) implementation. Results In the cohort study, the median total length of stay was reduced by 3 days following oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy. The median length of stay on the CCU remained the same for all patients. The rates of complications and mortality were the same. Conclusions The standardised protocol reduced the median overall length of stay but did not reduce CCU stay. Enhanced recovery principles can be applied to patients undergoing major oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy as long as they have minimal or reversible co-morbidity. PMID:26414360

  15. Low-cost surface reconstruction for aesthetic results assessment and prediction in breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Rene M; Hipwell, John H; Williams, Norman R; Keshtgar, Mohammed R S; Hawkes, David J; Stoyanov, Danail

    2015-08-01

    The high incidence and low mortality of breast cancer surgery has led to an increasing emphasis on the cosmetic outcome of surgical treatment. Advances in aesthetic evaluation, as well as surgical planning and outcome prediction, have been investigated by using geometrically precise 3D modelling of the breast surface prior to surgery and after the procedure. However, existing solutions are based on expensive site specific setups and remain weakly validated. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using low-cost RGBD cameras as an affordable and mobile system for breast surface reconstruction. The methodology relies on sensor calibration, uncertainty-driven point filtering, dense reconstruction and subsequent multi-view joint optimization to diffuse residual pose errors. Results from a phantom study, with ground truth obtained through commercially available scanners, indicate that the approach is promising with RMS errors in order of 2 mm. A clinical study shows the practical applicability of our method and compares favourably to high-end scanning solutions. PMID:26737627

  16. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: survival outcomes and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is playing an ever increasing role in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) with peritoneal metastases (PM) as results approach those of surgical resection of liver metastases. Selection criteria for treatment type, sequence and timing of currently available therapies remain ill-defined. Methods We review the current published literature analyzing outcomes by treatments with surgery, systemic chemotherapy, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, and ongoing clinical trials. A clinical pathway that incorporates all currently available therapies, determining the timing and sequence of such therapies was constructed. Results Most of the literature on outcome data comes from studies reporting the results of CRS and HIPEC with large series showing a median survival of 32-47 months. Meanwhile, the vast majority of patients, over 90% in the United States, are being treated with palliative systemic therapies following the NCCN guidelines. Conclusions Cooperation between medical and surgical oncologists represents an unmet need in oncology when it comes to patients with CRC with PM. The presented clinical pathway constitutes a feasible and much needed first step to start this cooperation. PMID:26941985

  17. Z skin incision in reduced-port surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    FUJINO, SHIKI; MIYOSHI, NORIKATSU; OHUE, MASAYUKI; NOURA, SHINGO; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; HIGASHIYAMA, MASAHIKO; YANO, MASAHIKO

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) has recently gained in popularity due to the fewer trocars and shorter incision, leading to reduced wound pain and improved cosmetic outcome. In July, 2013, reduced-port surgery (RPS) was introduced and has been performed thereafter in our hospital. An umbilical incision is used for a main port in RPS, through which the specimen is removed and the anastomosis is performed. In order to make the incision shorter, we introduced the Z skin incision in RPS. In this study, we aimed to discuss this method and evaluate the short-term outcome. Among CRC patients undergoing RPS, Z skin incision (n=14) was compared to conventional skin incision (n=15). The clinical and surgical factors were evaluated and there were no significant differences in terms of gender, age, body mass index, tumor site, procedure, operative time, blood loss or complications between the two groups. The median incision length at the umbilicus was significantly shorter in the Z incision group (P=0.004). Particularly in functional end-to-end anastomosis, the median incision length was 2.5 cm in the Z skin incision group and 4.0 cm in the conventional incision group (P=0.018). In conclusion, Z skin incision is a useful technique for achieving an effective length of skin incision in RPS for CRC.

  18. Multifunctional mesoporous composite nanocapsules for highly efficient MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Sun, Yang; Zheng, Yuanyi; Zeng, Deping; Li, Faqi; Zhang, Shengjian; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Ming; He, Qianjun; Zhang, Linlin; Shi, Jianlin

    2011-12-23

    Bloodless surgical knife: Nano-biotechnology has been introduced into imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) cancer surgery by adopting engineered multifunctional manganese-based mesoporous composite nanocapsules as the contrast agents for T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and simultaneously as synergistic agents for MRI-guided HIFU cancer surgery. PMID:22076783

  19. Race of the clock: reducing delay to curative breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Loretta; Laronga, Christine; Coyne, Karen; Hildreth, Lynne

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of Moffitt Cancer Center data on time from breast biopsy to first definitive surgery showed an average of 6.9 weeks, which concerned the breast program faculty members. Delays in curative surgery may impact mortality, quality of life, and time to adjuvant therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze steps from breast biopsy to definitive breast cancer surgery and to develop proposals and strategies for improvement. Data were collected from various sources, including the tumor registry, patient appointment system, tumor board lists, and the NCCN Oncology Outcomes Database for Breast Cancer. Three phases of the surgical process were identified with regard to lead time: biopsy to first consult (BX-FC); first consult to tumor board (FC-TB); and tumor board to surgery (TB-SU). Other factors, including operating room capacity and schedules, were also evaluated. The greatest percentage of total lead time occurred in the TB-SU phase (52% vs 35% in BX-FC, and 13% in FC-TB phases). The longest average lead time, 3.6 weeks, was also in the TB-SU phase. The TB-SU time was greatest when surgery was scheduled after tumor board and if surgery required breast reconstruction. Limitation of physician capacity was a major factor in treatment delay. The Opportunity for Improvement project enabled institutional analysis of the need for quality improvement in time for curative surgery for breast cancer. A significant factor that created time delay was physician capacity. As a result, additional faculty and staff have been recruited. A new expanded facility is currently in progress that will provide more physical space and services. PMID:24614044

  20. Health Problems Can Plague Seniors After Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... as they prepare for surgery. Now that the prevalence of such events is known, treatment approaches that keep these age-related health concerns in mind may be better applied in the future to better assist these patients," lead author Dr. Hung-Jui Tan, a fellow in ...

  1. Can We Be Less Radical with Surgery for Early Cervical Cancer?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Madeleine C; Tidy, John A

    2016-03-01

    Although a rare cancer in the developed world due to the success of cervical screening programmes, cervical cancer remains one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women under the age of 35 years old. Radical hysterectomy and more recently radical trachelectomy have been highly effective in curing the majority of women with early stage disease. Many, however, are left with long-term 'survivorship' issues including bowel, bladder and sexual dysfunction. In view of these chronic co-morbidities, many clinicians now consider whether a less radical approach to surgery may be an option for some women. This review focuses on the current evidence for the safety of conservative surgery for early stage cervical cancer with regard to cure rates in comparison to standard management, as well as any improvement in short and long-term morbidity associated with a more conservative approach. PMID:26838586

  2. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  3. Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Robotic-Assisted Surgery with Traditional Laparotomy for Rectal Cancer-Indian Study.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Ashwin, K R; Rajashekhar, Jaka; Zaveri, Shabber

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the common cancers in India. Surgical management is the mainstay of initial treatment for majority of patients. Minimally invasive surgery has gained acceptance for the surgical treatment of rectal cancer because, compared with laparotomy, it is associated with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization, and faster recovery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety, feasibility, technique, and outcomes (postoperative, oncological, and functional) of robotic-assisted rectal surgery in comparison with open surgery in the Indian population. A prospective randomized study was undertaken from August 2011 to December 2012. Fifty patients who presented with rectal carcinoma were randomized to either robotic arm (RA) or open arm (OA) group. Both groups were matched for clinical stage and operation type. Technique and feasibility of robotic-assisted surgery in terms of operating time, estimated blood loss, margins status, total number of lymph nodes retrieved, hospital stay, conversion to open procedure, complications, and functional outcomes were analyzed. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the RA than in the OA group (310 vs 246 min, P < 0.001) but was significantly reduced in the latter part of the robotic-assisted patients compared with the initial patients. The mean estimated blood loss was significantly less in the RA compared with the OA group (165.14 vs 406.04 ml, P < 0.001). None of the patients had margin positivity. The mean distal resection margin was significantly longer in the RA than in the OA group (3.6 vs 2.4 cm, P < 0.001). A total of 100 % of patients in the RA group had complete mesorectal excision while two patients in the OA group had incomplete mesorectal excision. The average number of retrieved lymph nodes was adequate for accurate staging. The number of lymph nodes removed by robotic method is slightly higher than the open method (16.88 vs 15.20) but with no statistical significance. Conversion rate was nil. The mean hospital stay was significantly shorter in the RA group (7.52 vs 13.24 days, P < 0.001). Postoperative and functional outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Robotic-assisted surgery is an emerging technique in our country. Robotic-assisted rectal cancer surgery is safe with low conversion rates and acceptable morbidity and is oncologically feasible. PMID:27011458

  4. Impact of preoperative serum albumin on 30-day mortality following surgery for colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Montomoli, Jonathan; Erichsen, Rune; Antonsen, Sussie; Nilsson, Tove; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objective Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), but it is hampered by high mortality. Human serum albumin (HSA) below 35 g/L is associated with poor overall prognosis in patients with CRC, but evidence regarding the impact on postoperative mortality is sparse. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study including patients undergoing CRC surgery in North and Central Denmark (1997–2011). We categorised patients according to HSA concentration measured 1–30 days prior to surgery date. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to compute 30-day mortality and Cox regression model to compute HRs as measures of the relative risk of death, controlling for potential confounders. We further stratified patients by preoperative conditions, including cancer stage, comorbidity level, and C reactive protein concentration. Results Of the 9339 patients undergoing first-time CRC surgery with preoperative HSA measurement, 26.4% (n=2464) had HSA below 35 g/L. 30-day mortality increased from 4.9% among patients with HSA 36–40 g/L to 26.9% among patients with HSA equal to or below 25 g/L, compared with 2.0% among patients with HSA above 40 g/L. The corresponding adjusted HRs increased from 1.75 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.45) among patients with HSA 36–40 g/L to 7.59 (95% CI 4.95 to 11.64) among patients with HSA equal to or below 25 g/L, compared with patients with HSA above 40 g/L. The negative impact associated with a decrement of HSA was found in all subgroups. Conclusions A decrement in preoperative HSA concentration was associated with substantial concentration-dependent increased 30-day mortality following CRC surgery. PMID:26462287

  5. Robot-assisted thoracic surgery versus open thoracic surgery for lung cancer: a system review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangze; Gao, Shugeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the perioperative morbidity and mortality outcomes of robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) with open thoracic surgery (OTS) for patients with lung cancer. We searched articles indexed in the Pubmed and Sciencedirect published as of July 2015 that met our predefined criteria. A meta-analysis was performed by combining the results of reported incidences of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The relative risk (RR) was used as a summary statistic. Five eligible articles with 2433 subjects were considered in the analysis (5 articles for morbidity, while 3 articles for mortality). Overall, pooled analysis indicated that perioperative morbidity and mortality rate was significantly lower among patients who underwent RATS than patients who underwent OTS (for morbidity: RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.92; P<0.01; for mortality: RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.59; P=0.007). No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that RATS resulted in significantly lower perioperative morbidity and mortality rate compared with OTS cases. Thus, we suggest RATS be an appropriate alternative to OTS for lung cancer resection. RATS should be studied further in selected centers and compared with OTS in a randomized fashion to better define its potential advantages and disadvantages. PMID:26770372

  6. [Outcomes of Tertiary Debulking Surgery(TDS)for Re-Recurrent Ovarian Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Shinya; Konishi, Haruhisa; Okame, Shinichi; Komatsu, Masaaki; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The survival of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who have completed secondary debulking surgery (SDS) has been shown to increase. However, whether tertiary debulking surgery (TDS) aimed at complete surgery is useful in patients with a second recurrence is unclear. Eight patients who had undergone SDS were treated after a second recurrence in our hospital. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Consequently, TDS was performed in 4 of the patients (TDSgr). All 4 patients underwent complete debulking surgery, 2 patients received blood transfusions, and none had serious postoperative complications. The median treatment free interval (TFI) from recurrence surgery to the second recurrence was 16 months (range, 9-23 months), and the median TFI after the second recurrence was 30.5 months (range, 15-69 months). Meanwhile, the median TFI after the second recurrence was 7.5 months (range, 1-31 months) in the 4 patients who did not undergo TDS (non-TDSgr). The median survival times after the second recurrence in TDSgr and non-TDSgr were 53 months (range, 41-69 months) and 12 months (range, 2-30 months), respectively. When complete surgery is indicated in patients with a second recurrent ovarian cancer after SDS, in case of good physical condition with single or multiple recurrent lesions, TDS may increase survival and TFI. PMID:27067855

  7. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

  8. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-15

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  9. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  10. Increase in number of circulating disseminated epithelial cells after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer monitored by MAINTRAC® is a predictor for relapse: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Rolle, Axel; Günzel, Rainer; Pachmann, Ulrich; Willen, Babette; Höffken, Klaus; Pachmann, Katharina

    2005-01-01

    Background Lung cancer still remains one of the most commonly occurring solid tumors and even in stage Ia, surgery fails in 30% of patients who develop distant metastases. It is hypothesized that these must have developed from occult circulating tumor cells present at the time of surgery, or before. The aim of the present study was to detect such cells in the peripheral blood and to monitor these cells following surgery. Methods 30 patients treated for lung cancer with surgery were monitored for circulating epithelial cells (CEC) by taking peripheral blood samples before, 2 weeks and 5 months after surgery and/or radiotherapy (RT) chemotherapy (CT) or combined RT/CT using magnetic bead enrichment and laser scanning cytometry (MAINTRAC®) for quantification of these cells. Results In 86% of the patients CEC were detected before surgery and in 100% at 2 weeks and 5 months after surgery. In the control group, which consisted of 100 normal donors without cancer, 97 % were negative for CEC. A significantly higher number of CEC was found preoperatively in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than in those with adenocarcinoma. In correlation to the extent of parenchymal manipulation 2 weeks after surgery, an increase in numbers of CEC was observed with limited resections (18/21) whereas pneumonectomy led to a decrease (5/8) of CEC, 2 weeks after surgery. The third analysis done 5 months after surgery identified 3 groups of patients. In the group of 5 patients who received neo- or adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy there was evidence that monitoring of CEC can evaluate the effects of therapy. Another group of 7 patients who underwent surgery only showed a decrease of CEC and no signs of relapse. A third group of 11 patients who had surgery only, showed an increase of CEC (4 with an initial decrease after surgery and 7 with continuous increase). In the group with a continuous increase during the following 24 months, 2 early relapses in patients with stage Ia adenocarcinoma were observed. The increase of CEC preceded clinical detection by six months. Conclusion We consider, therefore, that patients with adenocarcinoma and a continuous increase of CEC after complete resection for lung cancer are at an increased risk of early relapse. PMID:15801980

  11. Laparoscopic Surgery for Acute Appendicitis in Children With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Julia; Stringel, Gustavo; Ozkaynak, Mehmet Fevzi; McBride, Whitney; Pandya, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominal pain during cancer chemotherapy may be caused by medical or surgical conditions. A retrospective review of 5 children with cancer who had appendicitis while receiving chemotherapy was performed. Case Descriptions: Three had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 1 each had T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Two of the patients had a Pediatric Appendectomy Score of 6, and 1 each had a score of 7, 5, and 2. All had evidence of appendicitis on computed tomography. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed without any perioperative complication. Discussion: Appendicitis is an important diagnosis in children with cancer, and laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and the procedure of choice. PMID:26390529

  12. Reconstructive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    The field of head and neck surgery has gone through numerous changes in the past two decades. Microvascular free flap reconstructions largely replaced other techniques. More importantly, there has been a paradigm shift toward seeking not only to achieve reliable wound closure to protect vital structures, but also to reestablish normal function and appearance. The present paper will present an algorithmic approach to head and neck reconstruction of various subsites, using an evidence-based approach wherever possible. PMID:26556426

  13. 17-Week Delay Surgery after Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer with Complete Pathological Response

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marisa D.; Gomes, Manuel T.; Moreno, Filipa; Rocha, Anabela; Lopes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) followed by curative surgery still remains the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The main purpose of this multimodal treatment is to achieve a complete pathological tumor response (ypCR), with better survival. The surgery delay after CRT completion seems to increase tumor response and ypCR rate. Usually, time intervals range from 8 to 12 weeks, but the maximum tumor regression may not be seen in rectal adenocarcinomas until several months after CRT. About this issue, we report a case of a 52-year-old man with LARC treated with neoadjuvant CRT who developed, one month after RT completion, an acute myocardial infarction. The need to increase the interval between CRT and surgery for 17 weeks allowed a curative surgery without morbidity and an unexpected complete tumor response in the resected specimen (given the parameters presented in pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 11 weeks after radiotherapy completion). PMID:26579325

  14. [Current status and novel approach of robotic surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic technique is now widely used in rectal surgery because of its advantages in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, short- and long-term outcomes. Total mesorectal excision(TME) is recommended as the standard procedure for rectal cancer. Laparoscopic TME, however, can be challenging due to its two-dimensional vision, restricted instrument movements, and a prolonged learning curve. Robotic surgery overcomes these intrinsic limitations by superior three-dimensional magnified optics, stable retraction platform, and 7 degrees of freedom of instrument movements, and offers an easier operation and shorter learning curve. This review summarizes the advantages as well as the current status of robotic rectal surgery, and explores the novel approach and new techniques with the related literature and the author's own experience. PMID:26303685

  15. The role of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Ovarian Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage (Stages III and IV) when peritoneal cancer spread has already occurred. The standard treatment comprises of surgery to remove all macroscopic disease followed by systemic chemotherapy. Despite all efforts, it recurs in over 75 % of the cases, most of these recurrences being confined to the peritoneal cavity. Recurrent ovarian cancer has a poor long term outcome and is generally treated with multiple lines of systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. The propensity of ovarian cancer to remain confined to the peritoneal cavity warrants an aggressive locoregional approach. The combined treatment comprising of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) that removes all macroscopic disease and HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy) has been effective in providing long term survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastases of gastrointestinal origin. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy used as adjuvant therapy has shown a survival benefit in ovarian cancer. This has prompted the use of CRS and HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer as a part of first line therapy and second line therapy for recurrent disease. This article reviews the current literature and evidence for the use of HIPEC in ovarian cancer. PMID:27065709

  16. Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study. Journal of the National Cancer ... of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 ...

  17. Radical resection of right upper lung cancer using uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery with non-intubated anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Guilin; Guo, Zhihua; Liang, Lixia; Dong, Qinglong

    2015-01-01

    Background Presently, the clinical effect of radical video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is equal to that of traditional open chest surgery and has received worldwide recognition of its advantages: less trauma and faster recovery. In the attempt to further the advancement of minimally invasive surgery the operative techniques of uniportal VATS and non-intubated anesthesia have been developed. These techniques have been widely applied in hospitals around the world, however there are few reports on the combined use of these techniques: non-intubated uniportal VATS. Methods We report a case of peripheral lung cancer in the right-upper-lobe for which a non-intubated uniportal VATS resection was performed. This method was chosen as a result of the small size of the lesion and the placement in the right upper lobe. Results The postoperative course of this patient was good. Pathological results indicated infiltrating adenocarcinoma of the right upper lobe; there was no metastasis in hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Pathology results of the stump of the bronchus and vessels were also negative. Conclusions Uniportal VATS with non-intubated anesthesia was a feasible and safe option for this patient, and may be an alternative minimally invasive option for patients with peripheral lung cancer. PMID:26793360

  18. [Technology: training centers--a new method for learning surgery in visceral surgery].

    PubMed

    Troidl, H

    1996-01-01

    The importance of training centers can be best described after first answering a few questions like: 1. What kind of surgery will we deal with in the future? 2. What kind of surgeon do we need for this surgery, if it is basically different? 3. How will this surgeon have to be educated/trained for this different surgery? Although I am aware of the fact, that statements about future prospects are usually doomed to fail, I maintain that endoscopic surgery will be an essential part of general surgery. If this is so, surgery will be dominated by extremely complicated technology, new techniques and new instruments. It will be a "different" surgery. It will offer more comfort at the same safety. The surgeon of the future will still need a certain personality; he will still need intuition and creativity. To survive in our society, he will have to be an organiser and even a businessman. Additionally, something new has to be added: he will have to understand modern, complicated technology and will have to use totally different instruments for curing surgical illness. This makes it clear that we will need a different education/training and may be even a different selection of surgeons. We should learn from other professions sharing common interests with surgery, for example, sports where the common interest is achieving most complicated motions and necessarily highly differentiated coordination. Common interest with airline pilots is the target of achieving absolute security. They have a highly differentiated selection and training concept. Training centers may be-under certain prerequisites-a true alternative for this necessary form of training. They must have a concept, i.e. contents and aims have to be defined, structured and oriented on the requirements of surgery for the patient. Responsibility for the concept, performance and control can only be in the hands of Surgical Societies and Universities. These prerequisites correspond most likely to training centers being established by universities and managed by them. Training centers set up by the industry contain some trouble spots, from "sponsoring" over "normal business" to "corruption". Being aware of the fact that training centers will replace traditional "surgery schools"-teaching in their current state is technology and techniques-they are a true alternative for learning/training in general surgery. PMID:9101978

  19. Quality of life after conservative laryngeal surgery: a multidimensional method of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vigili, Maurizio Giovanni; Colacci, Anna Cristina; Magrini, Marta; Cerro, Paola; Marzetti, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction with care are particularly important in the field of oncology. The definition of QoL and the requirements for its measurement are still a matter of debate, but it is generally accepted that QoL is a multidimensional concept involving three different domains: physical, psychological and social. The aim of this study was to test a simple, inexpensive, multidimensional method of QoL measurement, based both on patients' perception of clinical outcome and the quantitatively evaluated clinical outcome, equally weighted, in patients who underwent three different types of conservative laryngeal surgery: horizontal laryngectomy (HG), supraglottic laryngectomy (SL) and subtotal reconstructive laryngectomy (SRL). The following were carried out for each patient: subjective-objective evaluation of speech [computerized spectrographic analysis of fundamental frequency (FO), percentage of noise and intensity and logopedic evaluation of speech], evaluation of deglutition (videofluoroscopic parameters, and qualitative assessment) and evaluation of physical, social, emotional and functional well-being (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, FACT-G, and modified University of Washington Quality of life Scale, UWQoL). Each assessment was given a score rating from one to three points. The overall evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative score for each field and for each type of laryngeal surgery shows that SL results in the best post-operative QoL. Although HG is less damaging and involves swifter functional recovery times, its slightly lower score is due to the poorer quality of speech. The analysis of the results obtained confirm the need to set up an evaluation protocol combining both the subjective perceptions of the patient, as well as the more objective evaluation of the functions that are impaired following surgery. The protocol described above, although limited by the low number of cases, was easy to carry out, inexpensive and applicable in relation to the various types of surgery that may compromise phonation and deglutition. PMID:11954919

  20. Techniques for restoring bowel continuity and function after rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Hong

    2006-01-01

    A very low local recurrence rate of 3%-6% (associated with improved 5 year survival) is possible when proper oncological surgery is performed of mid and distal rectal adenocarcinoma. Restoration of bowel continuity is possible in most cases, without compromise of cancer clearance. Re-anastomosis can be performed with stapled, transabdominal hand-sewn or coloanal pull-through techniques. However after a direct (straight) anastomosis of the colon to the distal rectum/anus, up to 33% of patients have 3 or more bowel movements/d; some can be troubled with up to 14 stools a day. Construction of a 6-cm colonic J-pouch is likely to cause some reversed peristalsis which improves postoperative bowel frequency without causing neo-rectum evacuation problems. Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis patients have a median of 3 bowel movements a day compared with a median of 6 a day for straight anastomoses, at 1 year after surgery. In the longer term, bowel adaptation may enable the function after a straight anastomosis to approximate that of a colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis. This probably depends in the former, upon whether the more rigid sigmoid colon or more distensible descending colon is used. An additional advantage of the colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis is the lower risk of anastomotic complications. A more vascularized side-to-end (colonic J-pouch-anal) anastomosis is likely to heal better than an end-to-end (straight) anastomosis. Where the pelvis is too narrow for a bulky colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis, a coloplasty-anal-anastomosis is an option. The latter results in postoperative bowel function comparable with the colonic J-pouch. However, the risk of anastomotic complications is higher possibly related to its end-to-end anastomotic configuration. Laparoscopic techniques for accomplishing all the above are being proven to be effective. Restorative surgery for rectal cancer can be safely and effectively performed with methods to improve bowel function very acceptably; the future advances are likely in laparoscopy. PMID:17072945

  1. Laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery for early stage ovarian cancer: a single-centre case series and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is as yet limited evidence about fertility-sparing surgery for early ovarian cancer (EOC) carried out laparoscopically. We sought to analyze recurrence patterns and fertility outcome in a cohort of ovarian cancer patients who underwent fertility-saving laparoscopic surgical staging. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing fertility-sparing laparoscopic staging procedures for presumed EOC at a single gynecologic oncology service. Oncologic safety and reproductive outcome were the main outcome measures. The pertinent literature is reviewed. Results The study cohort consisted of 12 women. Cases included 5 invasive epithelial tumors and 7 nonepithelial tumors. The disease was reclassified to a higher stage in one woman. After a median follow up period of 38months (range: 14108), the overall survival was 100% and recurrence-free survival 90.9%. Five (100%) of patients who attempted pregnancy conceived spontaneously. Three of them had uneventful term pregnancy delivering healthy babies. The literature search yielded 62 cases of laparoscopic fertility conserving surgery for ovarian cancer. There were 4 (6.2%) recurrences. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rate were not estimable as earlier publications lack essential data. Conclusions Laparoscopic staging may represent a viable option for premenopausal women seeking fertility preservation in the setting of early ovarian cancer. More research is needed to determine whether laparoscopy may offer reproductive benefits to this particular population. PMID:24917888

  2. Stage III and localized stage IV breast cancer: irradiation alone vs irradiation plus surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Bedwinek, J.; Rao, V.; Perez, C.; Lee, J.; Fineberg, B.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred forty-seven patients with non-inflammatory, Stage III and IV breast cancer were treated with irradiation alone (54 patients) or with a combination of irradiation and mastectomy (93 patients). In the T/sub 3/ category, the local failure rate was 45% (5/11) for the irradiation alone patients vs 12% (3/25) for the irradiation plus surgery patients; in the T/sub 4/ category these figures were 65% (28/43) vs 13% (9/68), respectively. Corresponding local failure rates by size of primary tumor were 50% (2/4) vs 15% (5/29) for tumors 0-5 cm, 43% (0/21) vs 14% (6/45) for 5-8 cm tumors, and 75% (22/29) vs 5% (1/20) for tumors greater than or equal to8 cm. The rates of regional failure for the two treatment methods were compared according to N stage; they were 9% (2/23) for irradiation alone vs 11% (8/76) for irradiation plus surgery in the N/sub 0//sub -//sub 1/ category, and 58% (18/31) vs 18% (3/17), respectively, for the N/sub 2//sub -//sub 3/ category. A dose response analysis for patients with tumors greater than 5 cm treated with irradiation alone did not show a decrease in local failure rate with increasing total tumor dose over a range of 4000 to 7000 rad, suggesting that doses in this range are too low for these large tumors. Since a significant late complication rate has been reported with doses higher than this, patients with non-inflammatory, but large (>5 cm) tumors, should be treated with a combination of surgery and irradiation whenever possible to achieve maximum local-regional control with a minimum probability of complications. In 36 patients with inflammatory carcinoma, the rates of local and regional failure were 52% (15/29) and 38% (11/29), respectively, for patients treated with irradiation alone, and 14% (1/7) and 29% (2/7), respectively, for patients receiving irradiation plus surgery.

  3. Current Status of Surgical Planning for Orthognathic Surgery: Traditional Methods versus 3D Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A.; Howell, Lori K.; Boutros, Shadi; Scott, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthognathic surgery has traditionally been performed using stone model surgery. This involves translating desired clinical movements of the maxilla and mandible into stone models that are then cut and repositioned into class I occlusion from which a splint is generated. Model surgery is an accurate and reproducible method of surgical correction of the dentofacial skeleton in cleft and noncleft patients, albeit considerably time-consuming. With the advent of computed tomography scanning, 3D imaging and virtual surgical planning (VSP) have gained a foothold in orthognathic surgery with VSP rapidly replacing traditional model surgery in many parts of the country and the world. What has yet to be determined is whether the application and feasibility of virtual model surgery is at a point where it will eliminate the need for traditional model surgery in both the private and academic setting. Methods: Traditional model surgery was compared with VSP splint fabrication to determine the feasibility of use and accuracy of application in orthognathic surgery within our institution. Results: VSP was found to generate acrylic splints of equal quality to model surgery splints in a fraction of the time. Drawbacks of VSP splint fabrication are the increased cost of production and certain limitations as it relates to complex craniofacial patients. Conclusions: It is our opinion that virtual model surgery will displace and replace traditional model surgery as it will become cost and time effective in both the private and academic setting for practitioners providing orthognathic surgical care in cleft and noncleft patients. PMID:25750846

  4. Current trends in initial management of laryngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery.

    PubMed

    Silver, Carl E; Beitler, Jonathan J; Shaha, Ashok R; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2009-09-01

    The role of open surgery for management of laryngeal cancer has been greatly diminished during the past decade. The development of transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery (TLS), improvements in delivery of radiation therapy (RT) and the advent of multimodality protocols, particularly concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) have supplanted the previously standard techniques of open partial laryngectomy for early cancer and total laryngectomy followed by adjuvant RT for advanced cancer. A review of the recent literature revealed virtually no new reports of conventional conservation surgery as initial treatment for early stage glottic and supraglottic cancer. TLS and RT, with or without laser surgery or CCRT, have become the standard initial treatments for T1, T2 and selected T3 laryngeal cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may have an emerging role in the treatment of early laryngeal cancer. Anterior commissure involvement presents particular difficulties in application of TLS, although no definitive conclusions have been reached with regard to optimal treatment of these lesions. Results of TLS are equivalent to those obtained by conventional conservation surgery, with considerably less morbidity, less hospital time and better postoperative function. Oncologic results of TLS and RT are equivalent for glottic cancer, but with better voice results for RT in patients who require more extensive cordectomy. The preferred treatment for early supraglottic cancer, particularly for bulkier or T3 lesions is TLS, with or without postoperative RT. The Veterans Administration Study published in 1991 established the fact that the response to neoadjuvant CT predicts the response of a tumor to RT. Patients with advanced tumors that responded either partially or completely to CT were treated with RT, and total laryngectomy was reserved for non-responders. This resulted in the ability to preserve the larynx in a significant number of patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer, while achieving local control and overall survival results equivalent to those achieved with initial total laryngectomy. Following this report, similar "organ preservation" protocols were employed in many centers. By 2003, results of the RTOG 93-11 trial, utilizing CCRT as initial treatment, were published, demonstrating a higher rate of laryngeal preservation with this protocol. Surgery was reserved for treatment failures. This concept changed the paradigm for management of advanced laryngeal cancer, greatly reducing the number of laryngectomies performed. While supracricoid laryngectomy has been employed for selected patients, total laryngectomy is the usual procedure for salvage of failure after non-surgical treatment. PMID:19597837

  5. [Surgery].

    PubMed

    Roulin, D; Hbner, M; Demartines, N

    2013-01-16

    In 2012, an innovative approach for staged in situ liver transection was proposed that could allow for even more aggressive major hepatectomies. Otherwise, after 25 years, laparoscopy became "traditional" and other minimally invasive techniques continue to be developed but their indications deserve further investigation. Less aggressive treatment in non-complicated diverticulitis becomes more popular, and even antibiotic treatment has been challenged by a randomized study. In colorectal oncology, local resection or observation only seems to become a valuable approach in selected patients with complete response after neo adjuvant chemoradiation. Finally, enhanced recovery pathways (ERAS) have been validated and is increasingly accepted for colorectal surgery and ERAS principles are successfully applied in other surgical fields. PMID:23409643

  6. Surgery Triggers Outgrowth of Latent Distant Disease in Breast Cancer: An Inconvenient Truth?

    PubMed Central

    Retsky, Michael; Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Baum, Michael; Gukas, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these data, we proposed that metastatic breast cancer growth commonly includes periods of temporary dormancy at both the single cell phase and the avascular micrometastasis phase. We also suggested that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. These iatrogenic events are apparently very common in that over half of all metastatic relapses progress in that manner. Assuming this is true, there should be ample and clear evidence in clinical data. We review here the breast cancer paradigm from a variety of historical, clinical, and scientific perspectives and consider how dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy would be observed and what this would mean. Dormancy can be identified in these diverse data but most conspicuous is the sudden synchronized escape from dormancy following primary surgery. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a new paradigm for early stage breast cancer. We also suggest a new treatment that is meant to stabilize and preserve dormancy rather than attempt to kill all cancer cells as is the present strategy. PMID:24281072

  7. Benefits versus risks in conservation surgery with irradiation for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, S.H.; Mandel, J.

    1984-07-01

    This report analyzes the survival and complications inherent in the conventional treatment of breast cancer, radical mastectomy, and the more conservative procedure, conservation surgery with irradiation. Both procedures have benefits and risks. The benefits as measured by survivorship appear to be approximately the same. The major benefit of conservation surgery with irradiation is that the breast is left intact. The possible complication of irradiation carcinogenesis is addressed, and the literature analyzed. This review indicates that the absolute risk of breast cancer developing in the second breast is not nearly as great as originally thought. It is concluded that if a woman with breast cancer is a candidate for either mastectomy or the conservative procedure, it is the clinician's obligation to objectively present the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of these procedures.

  8. Remapping the body: learning to eat again after surgery for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, David; Donovan, Jenny L; Kavadas, Vas; Cramer, Helen; Blazeby, Jane M

    2007-07-01

    Surgery for esophageal cancer offers the hope of cure but might impair quality of life. The operation removes tumors obstructing the esophagus but frequently leaves patients with eating difficulties, leading to weight loss. Maintaining or increasing body weight is important to many patients, both as a means of returning to "normal" and as a means of rejecting the identity of the terminal cancer patient, but surgery radically alters embodied sensations of hunger, satiety, swallowing, taste, and smell, rendering the previously taken-for-granted experience of eating unfamiliar and alien. Successful recovery depends on patients' learning how to eat again. This entails familiarization with physiological changes but also coming to terms with the social consequences of spoiled identity. The authors report findings from in-depth interviews with 11 esophageal cancer patients, documenting their experiences as they struggle to achieve a process of adaptation that is at once physiological, psychological, and social. PMID:17582019

  9. Current Status of Minimally Invasive Surgery for Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, James

    2016-05-01

    Recent randomized controlled data have shown possible limitations to laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer. The retrospective data, used as the basis for designing the trials, and which showed no problems with the technique, are discussed. The design of the randomized trials is discussed relative to the future meta-analysis of the recent data. The implications of the current findings on practice are discussed as surgeons try to adjust their practice to the new findings. The possible next steps for clinical and research innovations are put into perspective as new technology is considered to compensate for newly identified limitations in the laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:26831061

  10. Role of physiotherapy and patient education in lymphedema control following breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shiang-Ru; Hong, Rong-Bin; Chou, Willy; Hsiao, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether education in combination with physiotherapy can reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods We analyzed 1,217 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2011 who underwent tumor resection and axillary lymph node dissection. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A (n=415), who received neither education nor physiotherapy postsurgery; Group B (n=672), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery; and Group C (n=130), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery, followed by a physiotherapy program. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether BCRL developed. BCRL risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results During the follow-up, 188 patients (15.4%) developed lymphedema, including 77 (18.6%) in Group A, 101 (15.0%) in Group B, and 10 (7.7%) in Group C (P=0.010). The median period from surgery to lymphedema was 0.54 years (interquartile range =0.18–1.78). The independent risk factors for BCRL included positive axillary lymph node invasion, a higher (>20) number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, and having undergone radiation therapy, whereas receiving an educational program followed by physiotherapy was a protective factor against BCRL (hazard ratio =0.35, 95% confidence interval =0.18–0.67, P=0.002). Conclusion Patient education that begins within the first week postsurgery and is followed by physiotherapy is effective in reducing the risk of BCRL in women with breast cancer. PMID:25750536

  11. Endoscopic laser scalpel for head and neck cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Snehal; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Kirov, Stefan; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, such as laparoscopic surgery and endoscopy, provide reliable disease control with reduced impact on the function of the diseased organ. Surgical lasers can ablate, cut and excise tissue while sealing small blood vessels minimizing bleeding and risk of lymphatic metastases from tumors. Lasers with wavelengths in the IR are readily absorbed by water causing minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ideal for surgery near critical anatomical structures. MIS techniques have largely been unable to adopt the use of lasers partly due to the difficulty in bringing the laser into the endoscopic cavity. Hollow waveguide fibers have been adapted to bring surgical lasers to endoscopy. However, they deliver a beam that diverges rapidly and requires careful manipulation of the fiber tip relative to the target. Thus, the principal obstacle for surgical lasers in MIS procedures has been a lack of effective control instruments to manipulate the laser in the body cavity and accurately deliver it to the targeted tissue. To overcome this limitation, we have designed and built an endoscopic laser system that incorporates a miniature dual wedge beam steering device, a video camera, and the control system for remote and /or robotic operation. The dual wedge Risley device offers the smallest profile possible for endoscopic use. Clinical specifications and design considerations will be presented together with descriptions of the device and the development of its control system.

  12. Uptake of an innovation in surgery: observations from the cluster-randomized Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer trial

    PubMed Central

    Simunovic, Marko; Coates, Angela; Smith, Andrew; Thabane, Lehana; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Levine, Mark N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Theory suggests the uptake of a medical innovation is influenced by how potential adopters perceive innovation characteristics and by characteristics of potential adopters. Innovation adoption is slow among the first 20% of individuals in a target group and then accelerates. The Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC) trial assessed if rectal cancer surgery outcomes could be improved through surgeon participation in the QIRC strategy. We tested if traditional uptake of innovation concepts applied to surgeons in the experimental arm of the trial. Methods The QIRC strategy included workshops, access to opinion leaders, intra-operative demonstrations, postoperative questionnaires, and audit and feedback. For intraoperative demonstrations, a participating surgeon invited an outside surgeon to demonstrate optimal rectal surgery techniques. We used surgeon timing in a demonstration to differentiate early and late adopters of the QIRC strategy. Surgeons completed surveys on perceptions of the strategy and personal characteristics. Results Nineteen of 56 surgeons (34%) requested an operative demonstration on their first case of rectal surgery. Early and late adopters had similar perceptions of the QIRC strategy and similar characteristics. Late adopters were less likely than early adopters to perceive an advantage for the surgical techniques promoted by the trial (p = 0.023). Conclusion Most traditional diffusion of innovation concepts did not apply to surgeons in the QIRC trial, with the exception of the importance of perceptions of comparative advantage. PMID:24284150

  13. The dark side of the moon: Impact of moon phases on long-term survival, mortality and morbidity of surgery for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective Superstition is common and causes discomfiture or fear, especially in patients who have to undergo surgery for cancer. One superstition is, that moon phases influence surgical outcome. This study was performed to analyse lunar impact on the outcome following lung cancer surgery. Methods 2411 patients underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer in the past 30 years at our institution. Intra-and postoperative complications as well as long-term follow-up data were entered in our lung-cancer database. Factors influencing mortality, morbidity and survival were analyzed. Results Rate of intra-operative complications as well as rate of post-operative morbidity and mortality was not significantly affected by moon phases. Furthermore, there was no significant impact of the lunar cycle on long-term survial. Conclusion In this study there was no evidence that outcome of surgery for lung cancer is affected by the moon. These results may help the physician to quite the mind of patients who are somewhat afraid of wrong timing of surgery with respect to the moon phases. However, patients who strongly believe in the impact of moon phase should be taken seriously and correct timing of operations should be conceded to them as long as key-date scheduling doesn't constrict evidence based treatment regimens. PMID:19380291

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of risk of malignancy index in predicting complete tumor removal at primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Håkansson, Fanny; Antonsen, Sofie L; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Engelholm, Svend A; Høgdall, Claus

    2013-06-01

    Ovarian cancer patients in whom complete tumor removal is impossible with primary debulking surgery (PDS) may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery. However, the task of performing a pre-operative evaluation of the feasibility of PDS is difficult. We aimed to investigate whether the risk of malignancy index (RMI) was a useful marker for this evaluation. RMI and surgical outcome were investigated in 164 patients, 49 of whom had no residual tumor after PDS. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.72 (confidence interval: 0.64-0.80). The possibility of complete tumor removal decreased with increasing RMI and there was a tendency towards higher RMI in patients with residual tumor after PDS, but no single cut-off value of RMI produced useful clinical predictive values. In conclusion, RMI alone is not an optimal method to determine whether complete tumor removal is possible with PDS. PMID:23566210

  15. How to select elderly colorectal cancer patients for surgery: a pilot study in an Italian academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Giampaolo; Pasini, Francesco; Ghignone, Federico; Zattoni, Davide; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Parlanti, Daniele; Montroni, Isacco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cancer is one of the most common diagnoses in elderly patients. Of all types of abdominal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) is undoubtedly the most frequent. Median age at diagnosis is approximately 70 years old worldwide. Due to the multiple comorbidities affecting elderly people, frailty evaluation is very important in order to avoid over- or under-treatment. This pilot study was designed to investigate the variables capable of predicting the long-term risk of mortality and living situation after surgery for CRC. Methods Patients with 70 years old and older undergoing elective surgery for CRC were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were preoperatively screened using 11 internationally-validated-frailty-assessment tests. The endpoints of the study were long-term mortality and living situation. The data were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis to verify the predictive value of score indices in order to identify possible risk factors. Results Forty-six patients were studied. The median follow-up time after surgery was 4.6 years (range, 2.9-5.7 years) and no patients were lost to follow-up. The overall mortality rate was 39%. Four of the patients who survived (4/28, 14%) lost their functional autonomy. The preoperative impaired Timed Up and Go (TUG), Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) scoring systems were significantly associated with increased long term mortality risk. Conclusion Simplified frailty-assessing tools should be routinely used in elderly cancer patients before treatment in order to stratify patient risk. The TUG, ECOG-PS, IADLs and VES-13 scoring systems are potentially able to predict long-term mortality and disability. Additional studies will be needed to confirm the preliminary data in order to improve management strategies for oncogeriatric surgical patients. PMID:26779367

  16. Short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted and open surgery for colorectal cancer: a single center retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic procedure is a rapid developed technique in colorectal surgery. In this investigation we aim at assessing the diversities of short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Methods A total number of 519 patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled for this study. The patients underwent either laparoscopic-assisted surgery (LAP) (n = 254) or open surgery (OP) (n = 265). Surgical techniques, perioperative managements and clinical follow-ups were standardized. Short-term perioperative data and medium-term recurrence and survival were compared and analyzed between the two groups. Results There were no differences in perioperative parameters between the two groups except in regards to a trend of faster recovery in laparoscopic procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative complications, reoperation rate, or perioperative mortality. Statistically significant differences in a faster return of gastrointestinal function and shorter hospital stay were identified in favor of laparoscopic-assisted resection. In colon and rectal cancer cases separately, the overall survival, cancer-free survival and recurrence rate were similar in two groups. There was also no tendency of significant differences in overall survival, cancer-free survival and recurrence in stage I-II and stage III patients in two cancer categories between the two groups, respectively. pT, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were independent predictors of overall death risk, while pT, pN, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage were found to be the independent predictors of recurrence risk in enrolled patients database. Conclusions Laparoscopic-assisted procedure has more benefits on postoperative recovery, while has the same effects on medium-term recurrence and survival compared with open surgery in the treatment of non-metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:21794159

  17. A case of anaphylactic shock attributed to latex allergy during gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woohyung; Lee, Jue Hee; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Latex allergy is a known cause of allergic contact dermatitis. It produces mild symptoms, including skin rash and itching, which usually subside in a few days. However, latex allergy can also induce anaphylaxis, a severe type I hypersensitivity reaction that can cause urticaria, angioedema, hypotension, tachycardia, and bronchospasm. We report a case of anaphylactic shock during gastric cancer surgery in a patient with no previous allergic history. Surgery was suspended when hypotension, tachycardia, and wheezing developed. A thorough workup revealed that the patient had a latex allergy. The patient subsequently underwent curative gastrectomy performed with latex-free procedures. PMID:22319734

  18. Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotic administration for breast cancer surgery in overweight or obese patients: research highlight.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2013-05-01

    The rate of surgical site infection (SSI) after breast surgery is higher than expected for a 'clean procedure'. There is currently no consensus on the use of antibiotics, and as a result there is variation in use. An infection may compromise cosmesis and delay the start of adjuvant therapy. This research highlight reviews a recent paper by Gulluoglu and colleagues investigating the use of antibiotics in overweight and obese patients undergoing breast cancer surgery and also reviews the current literature on this important topic. PMID:25083467

  19. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Verla, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    ‘Failure to rescue’ is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  20. [Predictive factors for locally recurrent rectal cancer after primary curative surgery].

    PubMed

    Gao, Haoji; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Ren

    2015-11-25

    Local recurrence is a major clinical challenge after primary rectal cancer surgery. Although there is a possibility that R0 resection can be achieved, the outcome is still not favorable due to the low R0 resection rate and complexity of the surgery. Therefore prevention has a higher priority over treatment afterwards. As TME principle is accepted worldwide, the local recurrence rate has been reduced dramatically. And there are other factors associated with local recurrence including CRM, operation type, staging and PNI. Proper chemoradiotherapy may reduce the risk, however benefit always comes with side effect, therefore risk stratification is important. PMID:26616817

  1. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Verla, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    'Failure to rescue' is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  2. Bleeding in Hepatic Surgery: Sorting through Methods to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Fabrizio; Garancini, Mattia; Uggeri, Fabio; Degrate, Luca; Nespoli, Luca; Gianotti, Luca; Nespoli, Angelo; Uggeri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Liver resections are demanding operations which can have life threatening complications although they are performed by experienced liver surgeons. The parameter “Blood Loss” has a central role in liver surgery, and different strategies to minimize it are a key to improve results. Moreover, recently, new technologies are applied in the field of liver surgery, having one goal: safer and easier liver operations. The aim of this paper is to review the different principal solutions to the problem of blood loss in hepatic surgery, focusing on technical aspects of new devices. PMID:23213268

  3. Rectal cancer level significantly affects rates and patterns of distant metastases among rectal cancer patients post curative-intent surgery without neoadjuvant therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer patients have a higher incidence of pulmonary metastases than those with colon cancer. This study aimed to examine the effects of rectal cancer level on recurrence patterns in rectal cancer patients. Methods Patients with T3/T4 rectal cancers who underwent surgery between 2002 and 2006 were recruited in this study. All the patients were followed up on until death. Recurrence patterns and survival rates were calculated in relation to clinical variables. Results There were 884 patients were enrolled in this study. Patients with low-rectal cancer had significantly worse five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates (47.25% and 44.07%, respectively) than patients with mid-rectal (63.46% and 60.22%, respectively) and upper-rectal cancers (73.91% and 71.87%, respectively). The level of the tumor (P <0.001), nodal status (P <0.001), tumor invasion depth (P <0.001), and tumor differentiation (P = 0.047, P = 0.015) significantly affected the surgical outcomes related to OS and DFS in the univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, the level of the rectal cancer was a significant risk factor (hazard ratio 1.114; 95% CI, 1.074 to 1.161; P <0.001) for local recurrence, lung metastases, bone metastases, and systemic lymph node metastases. Significantly higher incidence rates of bone (53.8%) and brain metastases (22.6%) after initial lung metastases rather than initial liver metastases (14.8% and 2.9%, respectively) were also observed. Conclusions For rectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection, the rectal cancer level significantly affected surgical outcomes including rates and patterns of distant metastases. PMID:24980147

  4. [A Case of Long-Term Survival after Surgeries for Gastric Cancer and Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuya; Wajima, Naoki; Akasaka, Harue; Sakuraba, Shingo; Muroya, Takahiro; Kubo, Norihito; Okano, Kensuke; Uchida, Chiaki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman. In October 2011, she underwent distal gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for gastric cancer (pT4a, pN3b, Stage ⅢC [JCGC 14th Edition]). She then received S-1 plus CDDP combination therapy and S-1 monotherapy as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies for 1 year, and was followed up as an outpatient. In April 2013, a significant increase in the CA19-9 level was noted, and CT indicated a right ovarian tumor. Ovarian metastasis from the gastric cancer was diagnosed, and the response to 3 courses of weekly PTX was stable disease. No findings indicated metastasis to other organs. In July 2013, a salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, after which her CA19-9 level returned to the normal range. Follow-up was adopted as the postoperative strategy in part due to the desires of the patient. Presently, 3 years and 6 months after the initial surgery and 1 year and 9 months after the last surgery, no recurrence has been detected. Generally, ovarian metastasis from gastric cancer is considered to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, our patient showed long-term survival after surgeries for gastric cancer and asynchronous ovarian metastasis. Here, we report the details of our case and review the relevant literature. PMID:26805246

  5. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  6. Thymic metastasis of breast cancer 22 years after surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Miwa, Ken; Takagi, Yuzo; Yurugi, Yohei; Taniguchi, Yuji; Ishiguro, Kiyosuke

    2013-11-01

    We report a rare case of thymic metastasis of breast cancer. A 68-year-old woman, who had undergone surgery for cancer in her right breast and had been free of recurrence for 22 years, was noted to have an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray at a regular medical checkup. Further workup, including chest CT, revealed a 22 × 18-mm mass in the anterior mediastinum. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET showed increased fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake that was highly suggestive of thymoma. Thoracoscopic thymothymectomy was performed. The tumor had invaded the pericardium, which was also resected. A small nodule was found in the right lung, and it was also resected. The intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis was breast cancer metastasis to the thymus and lung. The pathological diagnosis was luminal A solid tubular carcinoma (strongly estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive, HER2 negative) with an MIB-1 index of less than 5%. After surgery, the patient was treated with an aromatase inhibitor. As of August 2013, she has been free of recurrence for more than 36 months. It is extremely rare for breast cancer to metastasize to the thymus more than 20 years after surgery. PMID:24308597

  7. Minimally invasive concomitant aortic and mitral valve surgery: the Miami Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Valve surgery via a median sternotomy has historically been the standard of care, but in the past decade various minimally invasive approaches have gained increasing acceptance. Most data available on minimally invasive valve surgery has generally involved single valve surgery. Therefore, robust data addressing surgical techniques in patients undergoing double valve surgery is lacking. For patients undergoing combined aortic and mitral valve surgery, a minimally invasive approach, performed via a right lateral thoracotomy (the Miami Method), is the preferred method at our institution. This method is safe and effective and leads to an enhanced recovery in our patients given the reduction in surgical trauma. The following perspective details our surgical approach, concepts and results for combined aortic and mitral valve surgery. PMID:25694974

  8. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: implications of genetic testing for screening and prophylactic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Ford, James M; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer show familial clustering, and 3% show autosomal dominance and high penetrance. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal-dominant, inherited cancer syndrome in which affected individuals develop diffuse-type gastric cancer at a young age. Inactivating mutations in the E-cadherin gene CDH1 have been identified in 30% to 50% of patients. CDH1 mutation carriers have an approximately 70% lifetime risk of developing DGC, and affected women carry an additional 20% to 40% risk of developing lobular breast cancer. Because endoscopic surveillance is ineffective in identifying early HDGC, gene-directed prophylactic total gastrectomy currently is offered for CDH1 mutation carriers. In series of asymptomatic individuals undergoing total gastrectomy for CDH1 mutations, the removed stomachs usually contain small foci of early DGC, making surgery not prophylactic but curative. The authors of this review recommend consideration of total gastrectomy in CDH1 mutation carriers at an age 5 years younger than the youngest family member who developed gastric cancer. Individuals who choose not to undergo prophylactic gastrectomy should be followed with biannual chromoendoscopy, and women with CDH1 mutations also should undergo regular surveillance with magnetic resonance imaging studies of the breast. Because of the emergence of gene-directed gastrectomy for HDGC, today, a previously lethal disease is detected by molecular techniques, allowing curative surgery at an early stage. PMID:18798546

  9. Thromboembolism after hip surgery. Comparison of screening methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsunaga, M.M.; Ferris, E.B. III; Kong, A.Y.; Kistner, R.L.; Mayfield, G.W.; Lindberg, R.F.; Jones, D.A.

    1986-09-15

    Venous thromboembolism is a serious and, often, asymptomatic complication of hip surgery. A reliable screening test is needed to detect thrombi early to prevent death from pulmonary emboli. Noninvasive screening tests were ineffective in our study of 453 patients. We recommend early use of ventilation/perfusion lung scanning in all patients after hip surgery. In those who have positive results, ascending venography can be used to localize the thrombus and anticoagulation therapy can be started early.

  10. Risk-reducing surgery in hereditary gynecological cancer: Clinical applications in Lynch syndrome and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, MASATAKA; BANNO, KOUJI; YANOKURA, MEGUMI; IIDA, MIHO; NAKAMURA, KANAKO; NOGAMI, YUYA; UMENE, KIYOKO; MASUDA, KENTA; KISU, IORI; UEKI, ARISA; HIRASAWA, AKIRA; TOMINAGA, EIICHIRO; AOKI, DAISUKE

    2015-01-01

    Risk-reducing surgery (RRS) is defined as a prophylactic approach with removal of organs at high risk of developing cancer, which is performed in cases without lesions or absence of clinically significant lesions. Hereditary gynecological cancers for which RRS is performed include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome. For HBOC, RRS in the United States (US) is recommended for women with mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA)1 and BRCA2 genes and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is generally performed. This procedure may reduce the risk of breast, ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer, although ovarian deficiency symptoms occur postoperatively. For Lynch syndrome, RRS in the US is considered for postmenopausal women or for women who do not desire to bear children and BSO and hysterectomy are usually performed. This approach may reduce the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, although ovarian deficiency symptoms also occur. For RRS, there are several issues that must be addressed to reduce the risk of cancer development in patients with HBOC or Lynch syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review to discuss RRS with a focus on hereditary gynecological cancer. PMID:25798252

  11. Medicare Breast Surgery Fees and Treatment Received by Older Women with Localized Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Jack; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Mitchell, Jean M; Weeks, Jane C; Guadagnoli, Edward; Hwang, Yi-Ting

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether area-level Medicare physician fees for mastectomy and breast conserving surgery were associated with treatment received by Medicare beneficiaries with localized breast cancer and to compare these results with an earlier analysis conducted using small areas (three-digit zip codes) as the unit of observation. Data Source Medicare claims and physician survey data for a national sample of elderly (aged 67 or older) Medicare beneficiaries with localized breast cancer treated in 1994 (unweighted n=1,787). Study Design Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate a model of treatment received as a function of Medicare fees, controlling for other area economic factors, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, physician experience, and region. Principal Findings In 1994, average Medicare fees (adjusted for the effects of modifiers and procedure mix) for mastectomy (MST) and breast conserving surgery (BCS) were $904 and $305, respectively. Holding other fees and factors fixed, a 10 percent increase in the BCS fee increased the odds of breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy relative to mastectomy to 1.34 (p=0.02), while a 10 percent decrease in the MST fee increased the odds of breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy to 1.86 (p<0.01). Conclusions Among older women with localized breast cancer, financial incentives appear to influence the use of mastectomy and breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that physicians are responsive to financial incentives when the alternative procedures have clinically equivalent outcomes and the patient's clinical condition does not dominate the treatment choice. We also find that the fee effects derived from this analysis of individual data with more precise measurement of both diagnosis and treatment are qualitatively similar to the results of the small-area analysis. This suggests that the earlier study was not severely affected by ecological bias or other data limitations inherent in Medicare claims data. PMID:12785561

  12. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Rautiainen, Noora; Sellman, Jaana; Saarilahti, Kauko; Mäkitie, Antti; Rihkanen, Heikki; Laranne, Jussi; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Wigren, Tuija; Sala, Eeva; Lindholm, Paula; Grenman, Reidar; Joensuu, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO{sub 2} laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option.

  13. When is it safe to omit surgery in primary peritoneal cancer with small volume disease?

    PubMed

    Pounds, Rachel; Kehoe, Sean

    2015-08-01

    Primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) is considered a very rare condition, with mesotheliomas deemed the only true PPC when considering the cellular content and embryological derivation of the peritoneum. However, in women, PPC are seen in much greater abundance than that in men and the type of cancer detected is often that of a serous epithelial carcinoma, histologically similar to serous ovarian carcinomas. The management is also similar, i.e. surgery and platin-based chemotherapy. The definition clinically of PPC is that of widespread carcinomatosis with normal-sized ovaries. The carcinomatosis is often extensive, and the only bulk disease may be within the omentum and achieving complete clearance of all disease at primary surgery unlikely. Thus, the concept of using chemotherapy as the main strategy is a reasonable approach and may well be the best single therapeutic option in some patients. This paper reviews the data on PPC and how this approach could be assessed. PMID:26045131

  14. Rehabilitation Nutrition for Possible Sarcopenic Dysphagia After Lung Cancer Surgery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Uwano, Rimiko

    2016-06-01

    Sarcopenic dysphagia is characterized by the loss of swallowing muscle mass and function associated with generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this report, the authors describe a patient with possible sarcopenic dysphagia after lung cancer surgery and was treated subsequently by rehabilitation nutrition. A 71-year-old man with lung cancer experienced complications of an acute myocardial infarction and pneumonia after surgery. He was ventilated artificially, and a tracheotomy was performed. The patient received diagnoses of malnutrition, severe sarcopenia, and possible sarcopenic dysphagia. His dysphagia was improved by a combination of dysphagia rehabilitation including physical and speech therapy and an improvement in nutrition initiated by a nutrition support team. Finally, he no longer had dysphagia and malnutrition. Sarcopenic dysphagia should be considered in patients with sarcopenia and dysphagia. Rehabilitation nutrition using a combination of both rehabilitation and nutritional care management is presumptively useful for treating sarcopenic dysphagia. PMID:26829095

  15. The Role of VATS in Lung Cancer Surgery: Current Status and Prospects for Development

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Dariusz; Orlowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of anatomic lung resection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) 20 years ago, VATS has experienced major advances in both equipment and technique, introducing a technical challenge in the surgical treatment of both benign and malignant lung disease. The demonstrated safety, decreased morbidity, and equivalent efficacy of this minimally invasive technique have led to the acceptance of VATS as a standard surgical modality for early-stage lung cancer and increasing application to more advanced disease. Formerly there was much debate about the feasibility of the technique in cancer surgery and proper lymph node handling. Although there is a lack of proper randomized studies, it is now generally accepted that the outcome of a VATS procedure is at least not inferior to a resection via a traditional thoracotomy. PMID:26294970

  16. Colonic Metastasis Presenting as an Intraluminal Fungating Mass 8 Years After Surgery for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Rye; Kim, Bong Man; Kim, You Me; Lee, Won Ae

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of colonic metastasis from ovarian cancer presented as an intraluminal fungating mass mimicking primary colon cancer 8 years after surgery for ovarian cancer. A 70-year-old woman presented with constipation. She had undergone an extended total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for an ovarian papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma 8 years earlier. Colonoscopy showed a large fungating mass 10 cm from the anal verge that was suspected to be colorectal cancer. A computed tomography scan showed a bulky intraluminal fungating mass in the rectosigmoid junction. After a lower anterior resection and a pathologic diagnosis, a diagnosis of a papillary serous adenocarcinoma due to metastasis from an ovarian tumor was made for this patient. PMID:26576399

  17. [Two Cases of Digestive Organ Cancer in Patients with Situs Inversus Treated with Laparoscopic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuya; Saito, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Chika, Noriyasu; Amano, Kunihiko; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Ishiguro, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Oki, Shinji; Mochiki, Erito; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    Case 1: A 53-year-old woman had a positive fecal occult blood test during an examination performed in June 2014, and she visited our department in August. Colonoscopic examination showed a type 2 rectal cancer 4 cm from the anal verge. CT showed situs inversus totalis. We performed laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (D2) for a diagnosis of cT1b, N0, M0, Stage Ⅰrectal cancer. Case 2: A 60-year-old man had a positive fecal occult blood test. Colonoscopic examination showed a type 2 cancer of the ascending colon. Chest radiography showed dextrocardia, but the arrangement of the organs in the abdomen was normal. We performed laparoscopic ileocecal resection (D3) for a diagnosis of cT2, N0, M0, StageⅠ colon cancer. Laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely in patients with situs inversus totalis. PMID:26805287

  18. The Cognitive and Psychological Impact of BRCA Genetic Counseling in Before and After Definitive Surgery Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Juliette; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Malo, Teri; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xiuhua; McIntyre, Jessica; Brzosowicz, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined changes in cancer-related knowledge, distress, and decisional conflict from pretest- to post-genetic counseling (GC) in before definitive surgery (BDS) and after definitive surgery (ADS) breast cancer (BC) patients. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected at baseline; primary outcome data were collected before (T1) and after (T2) pretest GC. Within group changes for cancer-related knowledge, distress, and decisional conflict over GT were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Of 103 BC patients, 87 were ADS and 16 were BDS patients. Analyses revealed that both groups reported significant increases in knowledge between T1 and T2 (median change = 4.2, p = .004, and 2.7, p < .001, for BDS and ADS patients, respectively). Overall cancer-related distress showed a downward trend between T1 and T2 for both groups and was significant for BDS patients (p = .041). Reports of BDS patients trended toward overall and subscale-specific increases in decisional conflict, with the exception of the uncertainty which trended downward, but did not reach significance. Overall decisional conflict decreased in ADS patients, approaching marginal significance (p = .056), with significant improvements in informed decision making (median change = -12.6, p < .001; i.e., pretest GC yielded improved knowledge of benefits, risks, and side effects of available options). Conclusions These pilot data suggest that pretest GC increases cancer-related knowledge for both BDS and ADS patients, decreases distress in BDS, and improves informed decision making in ADS patients. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to replicate these results. PMID:22766984

  19. Improved Postoperative Pain Control for Cytoreductive Surgery in Women With Ovarian Cancer Using Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Yumi; Yun, Jung Yeon; Yeon, Seungmin; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have compared different methods of postoperative pain management in abdominal laparotomy patients; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to compare the pain scores and complications of patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer and used either patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) or patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain management. We hypothesized that PCEA would be superior to PCA for postoperative pain management in ovarian cancer surgery. Materials and Methods The medical records of women who underwent ovarian cancer surgery in 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Pain scores for postoperative days (PODs) 0 to 5 days and the incidence of complications were examined and compared in patients who received PCEA and PCA. Means were compared using an independent sample t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test, and proportions were compared using Fisher exact test or a χ2 test at each time point. A mixed-effects model was applied to determine correlations among repeated measurements. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Of the 105 study patients, 38 received PCEA and 67 received PCA. Pain scores were significantly lower in the PCEA group than the PCA group at POD 0 (2.47 ± 1.75 vs 4.39 ± 1.17; P < 0.001), 1 (2.65 ± 1.02 vs 3.32 ± 1.09; P < 0.001), and 3 (2.17 ± 1.13 vs 2.79 ± 1.08; P = 0.011), and tended to be lower in the PCEA group at PODs 2, 4, and 5. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia provided significantly better pain relief as analyzed by a mixed-effect model. Complications were not significantly different between both groups. There was no significant difference in pain relief between both groups at PODs 4 and 5. Conclusions Patient-controlled epidural analgesia was more effective for postoperative pain management compared with PCA from POD 0 to POD 3 in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery, without increasing the morbidity. PMID:26825838

  20. Evolution of Gastric Cancer Treatment: From the Golden Age of Surgery to an Era of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Gastric cancer imposes a global health burden. Although multimodal therapies have proven to benefit patients with advanced diseases after curative surgery, the prognosis of most advanced cancer patients still needs to be improved. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of gastric cancer treatment. Indeed, without curative surgery, variations and combinations of chemotherapy and/or radiation cannot bring clinically meaningful success. Centered around D2 surgery, adjuvant and peri-operative multimodal therapies have improved survival in a certain group of gastric cancer patients. Moving toward a personalized cancer therapy era, molecular targeted strategies have been tested in clinical trials for gastric cancer. With some success and failures, we have learned valuable lessons regarding the biology of gastric cancer and the clinical relevance of biological therapies in addition to conventional treatments. Future treatment of gastric cancer will be shifted to molecularly tailored and genome information-based personalized therapy. Collaboration across disciplines and actively adopting emerging anti-cancer strategies, along with in-depth understanding of molecular and genetic underpinnings of tumor development and progression, are imperative to realizing personalized therapy for gastric cancer. Although many challenges remain to be overcome, we envision that the era of precision cancer medicine for gastric cancer has already arrived and anticipate that current knowledge and discoveries will be transformed into near-future clinical practice for managing gastric cancer patients. PMID:26256958

  1. Evolution of Gastric Cancer Treatment: From the Golden Age of Surgery to an Era of Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer imposes a global health burden. Although multimodal therapies have proven to benefit patients with advanced diseases after curative surgery, the prognosis of most advanced cancer patients still needs to be improved. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of gastric cancer treatment. Indeed, without curative surgery, variations and combinations of chemotherapy and/or radiation cannot bring clinically meaningful success. Centered around D2 surgery, adjuvant and peri-operative multimodal therapies have improved survival in a certain group of gastric cancer patients. Moving toward a personalized cancer therapy era, molecular targeted strategies have been tested in clinical trials for gastric cancer. With some success and failures, we have learned valuable lessons regarding the biology of gastric cancer and the clinical relevance of biological therapies in addition to conventional treatments. Future treatment of gastric cancer will be shifted to molecularly tailored and genome information-based personalized therapy. Collaboration across disciplines and actively adopting emerging anti-cancer strategies, along with in-depth understanding of molecular and genetic underpinnings of tumor development and progression, are imperative to realizing personalized therapy for gastric cancer. Although many challenges remain to be overcome, we envision that the era of precision cancer medicine for gastric cancer has already arrived and anticipate that current knowledge and discoveries will be transformed into near-future clinical practice for managing gastric cancer patients. PMID:26256958

  2. [Delicate management of gastric cancer surgery process and surgical quality control].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer and the mortality are high in China. Because of the special location of organs and complex lymphatic drainage, the treatment outcomes are variable. Other factors that restrict the treatment effects include heterogeneous malignant biological profiles, socioeconomic status, and treatment. D2 lymphadenectomy had been established as the mainstream of standard surgical treatment and showed favorable outcomes. It is demonstrated that evidence based medicine, delicate management of gastric cancer surgery process and quality control help to improve the treatment outcomes and benefit patients maximally. PMID:25656115

  3. [Scoring systems for assessment of 30-day mortality after colorectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Degett, Thea Helene; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-03-01

    Post-operative mortality from colorectal cancer depends on multiple factors and varies across countries and hospitals. Pre-operative risk prediction can be helpful in surgical decision-making. Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of post-operative mortality. The Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality (P-POSSUM) model and a revised Association of Colo-proctology of Great Britan and Ireland (ACPGBI) model are the most accurate predictors in colorectal cancer surgery. No scoring systems have been validated in the Danish population. PMID:25786698

  4. Techniques and Outcome of Surgery for Locally Advanced and Local Recurrent Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Renehan, A G

    2016-02-01

    Locally advanced primary rectal cancer is variably defined, but generally refers to T3 and T4 tumours. Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment for these tumours but there is a high-risk for local recurrence. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2011) guidelines recommend that patients with these tumours be considered for preoperative chemoradiotherapy and this is the starting point for any discussion, as it is standard care. However, there are many refinements of this pathway and these are the subject of this overview. In surgical terms, there are two broad settings: (i) patients with tumours contained within the mesorectal envelope, or in the lower rectum, limited to invading the sphincter muscles (namely some T2 and most T3 tumours); and (ii) patients with tumours directly invading or adherent to pelvic organs or structures, mainly T4 tumours - here referred to as primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision (PRC-bTME). Major surgical resection using the principles of TME is the mainstay of treatment for the former. Where anal sphincter sacrifice is indicated for low rectal cancers, variations of abdominoperineal resection - referred to as tailored excision - including the extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE), are required. There is debate whether or not plastic reconstruction or mesh repair is required after these surgical procedures. To achieve cure in PRC-bTME tumours, most patients require extended multivisceral exenterative surgery, carried out within specialist multidisciplinary centres. The surgical principles governing the treatment of recurrent rectal cancer (RRC) parallel those for PRC-bTME, but typically only half of these patients are suitable for this type of major surgery. Peri-operative morbidity and mortality are considerable after surgery for PRC-bTME and RRC, but unacceptable levels of variation in clinical practice and outcome exist globally. To address this, there are now major efforts to standardise terminology and classifications, to allow appropriate comparisons in future studies. PMID:26683258

  5. Association between Image Characteristics on Chest CT and Severe Pleural Adhesion during Lung Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kwang Nam; Sung, Yong Won; Oh, Se Jin; Choi, Ye Ra; Cho, Hyoun; Choi, Jae-Sung; Moon, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between image characteristics on preoperative chest CT and severe pleural adhesion during surgery in lung cancer patients. We included consecutive 124 patients who underwent lung cancer surgeries. Preoperative chest CT was retrospectively reviewed to assess pleural thickening or calcification, pulmonary calcified nodules, active pulmonary inflammation, extent of emphysema, interstitial pneumonitis, and bronchiectasis in the operated thorax. The extent of pleural thickening or calcification was visually estimated and categorized into two groups: localized and diffuse. We measured total size of pulmonary calcified nodules. The extent of emphysema, interstitial pneumonitis, and bronchiectasis was also evaluated with a visual scoring system. The occurrence of severe pleural adhesion during lung cancer surgery was retrospectively investigated from the electrical medical records. We performed logistic regression analysis to determine the association of image characteristic on chest CT with severe pleural adhesion. Localized pleural thickening was found in 8 patients (6.5%), localized pleural calcification in 8 (6.5%), pulmonary calcified nodules in 28 (22.6%), and active pulmonary inflammation in 22 (17.7%). There was no patient with diffuse pleural thickening or calcification in this study. Trivial, mild, and moderate emphysema was found in 31 (25.0%), 21 (16.9%), and 12 (9.7%) patients, respectively. Severe pleural adhesion was found in 31 (25.0%) patients. The association of localized pleural thickening or calcification on CT with severe pleural adhesion was not found (P = 0.405 and 0.107, respectively). Size of pulmonary calcified nodules and extent of emphysema were significant variables in a univariate analysis (P = 0.045 and 0.005, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, moderate emphysema was significantly associated with severe pleural adhesion (odds ratio of 11.202, P = 0.001). In conclusion, severe pleural adhesion might be found during lung cancer surgery, provided that preoperative chest CT shows substantial pulmonary calcified nodules or emphysema. PMID:27171235

  6. A novel spectral imaging system for use during pancreatic cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peller, Joseph; Shipley, A. E.; Trammell, Susan R.; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Farahi, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most pancreatic cancer patients will die within the first year of diagnosis, and just 6% will survive five years. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure for pancreatic cancer patients. Accurately identifying the tumors margins in real time is a significant difficulty during pancreatic cancer surgery and contributes to the low 5-year survival rate. We are developing a hyperspectral imaging system based on compressive sampling for real-time tumor margin detection to facilitate more effective removal of diseased tissue and result in better patient outcomes. Recent research has shown that optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue and will likely become an important minimally invasive diagnostic tool for a range of diseases. Reflectance spectroscopy provides information about tissue morphology, while laser-induced autofluorescence spectra give accurate information about the content and molecular structure of the emitting tissue. We are developing a spectral imaging system that targets emission from collagen and NAD(P)H as diagnostics for differentiating healthy and diseased pancreatic tissue. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of our camera system to acquire hyperspectral images and its potential application for imaging autofluorescent emission from pancreatic tissue.

  7. Quality indicators for colorectal cancer surgery and care according to patient-, tumor-, and hospital-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) care has improved considerably, particularly since the implementation of a quality of care program centered on national evidence-based guidelines. Formal quality assessment is however still needed. The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with practice variation in CRC patient care. Methods CRC patients identified from all cancer centers in South-West France were included. We investigated variations in practices (from diagnosis to surgery), and compliance with recommended guidelines for colon and rectal cancer. We identified factors associated with three colon cancer practice variations potentially linked to better survival: examination of ≥12 lymph nodes (LN), non-use and use of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and stage III patients, respectively. Results We included 1,206 patients, 825 (68%) with colon and 381 (32%) with rectal cancer, from 53 hospitals. Compliance was high for resection, pathology report, LN examination, and chemotherapy use for stage III patients. In colon cancer, 26% of stage II patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 71% of stage III patients. 84% of stage US T3T4 rectal cancer patients received pre-operative radiotherapy. In colon cancer, factors associated with examination of ≥12 LNs were: lower ECOG score, advanced stage and larger hospital volume; factors negatively associated were: left sided tumor location and one hospital district. Use of chemotherapy in stage II patients was associated with younger age, advanced stage, emergency setting and care structure (private and location); whereas under-use in stage III patients was associated with advanced age, presence of comorbidities and private hospitals. Conclusions Although some changes in practices may have occurred since this observational study, these findings represent the most recent report on practices in CRC in this region, and offer a useful methodological approach for assessing quality of care. Guideline compliance was high, although some organizational factors such as hospital size or location influence practice variation. These factors should be the focus of any future guideline implementation. PMID:22813349

  8. Lymphatic mapping and lymphedema surgery in the breast cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Oscar; Sosin, Michael; Hashmi, Mahjabeen Aftab; Poysophon, Poysophon; Henderson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb lymphedema can be an unfortunate sequela following the oncologic treatment of breast cancer. The surgical treatment of lymphedema has had a recent renewed clinical interest paralleling innovative descriptions of surgical techniques and imaging modalities. In addition, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of lymphedema has allowed improved translation to the clinical condition. Various surgical options exist to decrease the symptom-burden of upper limb lymphedema, including vascularized lymph node (VLN) transfer, lymphovenous bypass (LVB), liposuction, lymphatic grafting, and excisional procedures. Modern imaging techniques help to improve the consistency and accuracy of these surgical treatment options. A multi-modal treatment plan utilizing non-operative and surgical therapies has the potential to improve various factors related to overall patient quality of life. This review details all of the current operative treatment strategies and modern imaging modalities used in the treatment of lymphedema. PMID:26161309

  9. Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Varsos, G.; Yahalom, J. )

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended.

  10. Oncologic Outcomes of Surgery in T3 Prostate Cancer: Experience of a Single Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Milonas, D.; Smailyte, G.; Jievaltas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to present the oncologic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors of overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-progression-free survival (DPFS), and biochemical-progression-free survival (BPFS) after surgery for pT3 prostate cancer (PCa). Methods. Between 2002 and 2007, a pT3 stage after radical prostatectomy was detected in 182 patients at our institution. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate OS, CSS, DPFS, and BPFS. Cox regression was used to identify predictive factors of survival. Results. pT3a was detected in 126 (69%) and pT3b in 56 (31%) of cases. Five-year OS, CSS, DPFS, and BPFS rates were 90.7%, 94%, 91.8%, and 48.4%, respectively. Survival was significantly different when comparing pT3a to pT3b groups. The 5-year OS, CSS, DPFS, and BPFS were 96% versus 72%, 98% versus 77%, 97.3% versus 79.3%, and 60% versus 24.2%, respectively. Specimen Gleason score was the most significant predictor of OS, CSS, DPFS, and BPFS. The risk of death increased up to 3-fold when a Gleason score 8–10 was present at the final pathology. Conclusions. Radical prostatectomy may offer very good CSS, OS, DPFS, and BPFS rates in pT3a PCa. However, outcomes in patients with pT3b or specimen Gleason ≥8 were significantly worse, suggesting the need for multimodality treatment in those cases. PMID:22216025

  11. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  12. Clinical analysis of intraoperative radiotherapy during breast-conserving surgery of early breast cancer in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Qinfu; Wang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during breast-conserving surgery (BCS) have been reported when used either as a boost at the time of surgery or as the sole radiation treatment, the clinical safety and cosmetic outcome of IORT in the Chinese Han population has not. This report reviews oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for Chinese Han breast cancer patients who received IORT either as a boost or as their sole radiation treatment at our hospital. Method From July 2008 to December 2012, 50 early-stage Chinese Han breast cancer patients received BCS and IORT, either as boost or as their sole radiation treatment. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, according to our institution's guidelines. Patients were followed to determine oncologic events, short-term toxicity and overall cosmesis. Results With a median follow-up of 51.8 months (range 22.6 months to 75.7 months), 2 patients (4.0%) developed local relapses and were salvaged by mastectomy. There were no metastases and no deaths. The average wound healing time was 17 days. Three patients (6.0%) developed postoperative infection, 5 patients (10.0%) had delayed wound healing, and 2 patients (4.0%) experienced wound edema. There were no lyponecrosis or hematomas observed. The evaluation of cosmetic outcome showed 44 patients (88.0%) graded as excellent or good while 6 patients (12.0%) were graded as fair or poor. No patients experienced radiotherapy related acute hematological toxicity, but 3 patients (6.0%), all IORT boost patients, developed skin pigmentation. Conclusion For early-stage breast cancer patients, intraoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in the Chinese Han population is both safe and reliable and has resulted in very acceptable cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26517686

  13. Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS) and non-conservative (NCS) procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate) and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold), whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC), explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70). Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:21504577

  14. Local regional effectiveness of surgery and radiation therapy in the treatment of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Montague, E.D.; Fletcher, G.H.

    1985-05-01

    Although gross tumor can be controlled with high doses of radiation therapy, control is achieved at the expense of severe radiation sequelae. In order to improve tumor control with minimum complications, the field of treatment should contain only subclinical disease. This article reviews the successful combination of surgery for the removal of gross cancer and radiation of moderate dose for the treatment of subclinical disease in patients with breast cancer. In patients with clinically favorable and operable disease, the combination of a radical or modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy of 5000 rad to the peripheral lymphatics and chest wall can secure 90% of the treated areas. For patients with locally and regionally advanced breast cancer, the combination of a simple mastectomy and dissection of the lateral axilla followed by postoperative irradiation of 5000 rad in 5 weeks to the chest wall, axilla, and peripheral lymphatic areas will control more than 85% of the patients treated as compared with approximately 70% control when surgery or radiotherapy alone is used, even with chemotherapy. Yet another clinical application of the subclinical disease concept is the successful combination of conservation surgery (whether segmental mastectomy, quadrantectomy, or wide excision) for gross tumor in the breast and axilla and irradiation for residual microscopic and multiple foci of tumor, yielding more than 90% control of locoregional disease with survival rates equal to those patients treated with radical or modified radical mastectomy. Results of multiple clinical trials and reported series are reviewed.

  15. [A case of pancreatic cancer with local recurrence and liver metastases eight years after surgery].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hajime; Mizuma, Masamichi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Abe, Tomoya; Okada, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Kei; Karasawa, Hideaki; Masuda, Kunihiro; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; Fukase, Koji; Sakata, Naoaki; Okada, Takaho; Nakagawa, Kei; Hayashi, Hiroki; Morikawa, Takanori; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Naito, Takeshi; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2014-11-01

    Here we report a rare case of late recurrence of pancreatic cancer 8 years after surgery. A woman in her mid-fifties was hospitalized for examination of epigastralgia. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 4 cm nodule at the pancreatic head with suspected invasion of the superior mesenteric vein. She underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with wedge resection of superior mesenteric vein and intraoperative radiation therapy. Pathological findings showed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and T3N1M0, Stage IIB according to The Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM classification. As adjuvant chemotherapy, 56 courses of gemcitabine (GEM) were administered in 3.5 years. Because of long-term use of GEM, common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) Grade 3 anemia occurred, and chemotherapy was discontinued. Tumor markers were evaluated every month and CT scans were taken every 6 months for 5 years. Subsequently, CT was performed annually. The patient was hospitalized for high-grade fever, 8.5 years after surgery. CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) detected local recurrence with liver metastases. GEM was administered again, but was ineffective. The patient died 9 years after surgery. In conclusion, even if long-term survival is achieved in pancreatic cancer, follow-ups should not be stopped. PMID:25731467

  16. The role of separate margins sampling in endoscopic laser surgery for early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Lahav, Yonatan; Davidi, Erez Shmuel; Haimovich, Yaara; Hain, Moshe; Halperin, Doron

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions Sampling surgical margins in trans-oral laser microsurgery for early glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may allow for increased local control rate, although with no difference in local control by endoscopic treatment alone. Objective To further delineate the role of routinely sampling separate surgical margins, in patients with early glottic SCC undergoing endoscopic laser resection. Methods A retrospective case control study. One hundres and two early glottic cancer patients staged Tis-T2 underwent endoscopic laser surgery with curative intent as the primary treatment. Separate margins from the surgical bed were sampled following complete tumor resection in 64 patients; in 38 patients no margins were sampled. Results Margin sampling showed a tendency towards reduced risk for local recurrence, adjusted HR = 0.439 (p-value = 0.096). However, there was no difference in local control by endoscopic treatment alone. The patients with sampled margins were further divided based on margins' status: 39 (61%) had negative margins, and 25 (39%) had positive margins. Compared with negative margins, patients with positive margins showed increased risk for recurrence, adjusted HR = 8.492 (p = 0.008). When margins were not sampled the risk for local recurrence was increased compared to negative margins (adjusted HR = 7.875, p-value = 0.008), and relatively comparable to what was observed when sampled margins were positive (adjusted HR = 0.927, p-value = 0.88). PMID:26817681

  17. HOSPITAL-LEVEL VARIATION IN THE QUALITY OF UROLOGIC CANCER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Gore, John L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Daratha, Kenn B.; Roberts, Kenneth P.; Lin, Daniel W.; Wessells, Hunter; Porter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Unexplained variation in outcomes after common surgeries raises concerns about the quality and appropriateness of surgical care. Understanding variation in surgical outcomes may identify processes that could affect the quality of surgical and postoperative care. We sought to examine hospital-level variation in outcomes following inpatient urologic oncology procedures. Methods We identified subjects that underwent radical cystectomy, radical nephrectomy, and radical prostatectomy from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS) for the years 2003–2007. We measured postoperative length of stay (LOS) and classified LOS exceeding the 75th percentile as prolonged, the occurrence of Agency for Healthcare Quality Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), readmissions, and death. We adjusted for patient age and comorbidity in random effects multilevel multivariable models that assessed hospital-level outcomes. Results We identified 853 cystectomy subjects from 37 hospitals, 3,018 nephrectomy subjects from 51 hospitals, and 8,228 prostatectomy subjects from 51 hospitals. Complications captured by PSIs were rare. Hospital-level variation was most profound for LOS outcomes after nephrectomy and prostatectomy (8.1% and 26.7% of variance in prolonged LOS, respectively), thromboembolic events after nephrectomy (8.0% of variance), and mortality after cystectomy (7.1% of variance). Conclusions Hospital-level variation confounds the care of urologic cancer patients in the state of Washington. Transparent reporting of surgical outcomes and local quality improvement initiatives should be considered to ameliorate the observed variation and improve the quality of cystectomy, nephrectomy, and prostatectomy care. PMID:21792864

  18. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  19. Color-coding cancer and stromal cells with genetic reporters in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of pancreatic cancer enhances fluorescence-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Yano, S; Hiroshima, Y; Maawy, A; Kishimoto, H; Suetsugu, A; Miwa, S; Toneri, M; Yamamoto, M; Katz, M H G; Fleming, J B; Urata, Y; Tazawa, H; Kagawa, S; Bouvet, M; Fujiwara, T; Hoffman, R M

    2015-07-01

    Precise fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) for pancreatic cancer has the potential to greatly improve the outcome in this recalcitrant disease. To achieve this goal, we have used genetic reporters to color code cancer and stroma cells in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The telomerase-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing adenovirus OBP-401 was used to label the cancer cells of a pancreatic cancer PDOX. The PDOX was previously grown in a red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic mouse that stably labeled the PDOX stroma cells bright red. The color-coded PDOX model enabled FGS to completely resect the pancreatic tumors including stroma. Dual-colored FGS significantly prevented local recurrence, which bright-light surgery or single-color FGS could not. FGS, with color-coded cancer and stroma cells has important potential for improving the outcome of recalcitrant-cancer surgery. PMID:26088297

  20. A feasibility study of NIR fluorescent image-guided surgery in head and neck cancer based on the assessment of optimum surgical time as revealed through dynamic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Junkichi; Fujimaki, Mitsuhisa; Ohba, Shinichi; Anzai, Takashi; Yoshii, Ryota; Ito, Shin; Kojima, Masataka; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to minimize surgical stress and preserve organs, endoscopic or robotic surgery is often performed when conducting head and neck surgery. However, it is impossible to physically touch tumors or to observe diffusely invaded deep organs through the procedure of endoscopic or robotic surgery. In order to visualize and safely resect tumors even in these cases, we propose using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence method for navigation surgery in head and neck cancer. Objective To determine the optimum surgical time for tumor resection after the administration of ICG based on the investigation of dynamic ICG fluorescence imaging. Methods Nine patients underwent dynamic ICG fluorescence imaging for 360 minutes, assessing tumor visibility at 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 minutes. All cases were scored according to near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging visibility scored from 0 to 5. Results Dynamic NIR fluorescence imaging under the HyperEye Medical System indicated that the greatest contrast in fluorescent images between tumor and normal tissue could be observed from 30 minutes to 1 hour after the administration of ICG. The optimum surgical time was determined to be between 30 minutes to 2 hours after ICG injection. These findings are particularly useful for detection and safe resection of tumors invading the parapharyngeal space. Conclusion ICG fluorescence imaging is effective for the detection of head and neck cancer. Preliminary findings suggest that the optimum timing for surgery is from 30 minutes to 2 hours after the ICG injection. PMID:23630424

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in cancer patients undergoing major lung surgery.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowski, Krzysztof; Tyczka, Joanna; Szczesny, Damian; Bienert, Agnieszka; Wiczling, Paweł; Kut, Katarzyna; Plenzler, Emilia; Kaliszan, Roman; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2015-04-01

    Despite the growing number of cancer cases and cancer surgeries around the world, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of anesthetics used in this population are poorly understood. Patients operated due to cancer are usually in severe state and often require chemotherapy. It might affect the PK/PD of drugs used in this population. Therefore, in this study we explored the PK/PD of propofol in cancer patients having a major lung surgery. 23 patients that underwent a propofol-fentanyl total intravenous anesthesia were included in the analysis. A large set of demographic, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters was collected for the purpose of covariate analysis. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling in NONMEM was used to analyze the collected data. A three-compartment model was sufficient to describe PK of propofol. The anesthetic effect (AAI index) was linked to the propofol effect site concentrations through a sigmoidal E max model. A slightly higher value of clearance, a lower value of distribution clearance, and a decreased volume of peripheral compartment were observed in our patients, as compared with the literature values reported for healthy volunteers by Schnider et al. and by Eleveld et al. Despite these differences, both models led to a clinically insignificant bias of -8 and -1 % in concentration predictions, as reflected by the median performance error. The C e50 and propofol biophase concentration at the time of postoperative orientation were low and equaled 1.40 and 1.13 mg/L. The population PK/PD model was proposed for cancer patients undergoing a major lung surgery. The large body of studied covariates did not affect PK/PD of propofol significantly. The modification of propofol dosage in the group of patients under study is not necessary when TCI-guided administration of propofol by means of the Schnider model is used. PMID:25628234

  2. Quality of life in rectal cancer surgery: What do the patient ask?

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Luglio, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer surgery has dramatically changed with the introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME), which has demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of local recurrence. The combination of TME with radiochemotherapy has led to a reduction of local failure to less than 5%. On the other hand, surgery for rectal cancer is also impaired by the potential for a significant loss in quality of life. This is a new challenge surgeons should think about nowadays: If patients live more, they also want to live better. The fight against cancer cannot only be based on survival, recurrence rate and other oncological endpoints. Patients are also asking for a decent quality of life. Rectal cancer is probably a paradigmatic example: Its treatment is often associated with the loss or severe impairment of faecal function, alteration of body anatomy, urogenital problems and, sometimes, intractable pain. The evolution of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the last decades is an important example, which emphasizes the importance that themes like scar, recovery, pain and quality of life might play for patients. The attention to quality of life from both patients and surgeons led to several surgical innovations in the treatment of rectal cancer: Sphincter saving procedures, reservoir techniques (pouch and coloplasty) to mitigate postoperative faecal disorders, nerve-sparing techniques to reduce the risk for sexual dysfunction. Even more conservative procedures have been proposed alternatively to the abdominal-perineal resection, like the local excisions or transanal endoscopic microsurgery, till the possibility of a wait and see approach in selected cases after radiation therapy. PMID:26730279

  3. Breast cancer surgery: an historical narrative. Part I. From prehistoric times to Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Sakorafas, George H; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Cancer was known as a disease since prehistoric times. Management of breast cancer evolved slowly through centuries in the ancient world up to the Renaissance. This period is marked by the absence of any scientifically verifiable understanding of the true nature of cancer and its natural history and consequently by a lack of effective treatment. Breast has been considered as a symbol of femininity, fertility and beauty. Hippocrates proposed that breast cancer, among other neoplasms, was a 'systemic disease' caused by an excess of black bile. The humoral theory was further supported by Galen and dominated for centuries in medicine. Fulguration and breast amputation by using various instruments to achieve a rapid operation were widely used up to the 18th century. The Renaissance was a revolutionary period, since it stimulated medical practice; at that time physicians started to scientifically study medicine. Vesalius greatly contributed in the advancement of surgery, and he vigorously opposed Galen's doctrines. Many great surgeons of that time (including Paré, Cabrol, Servetto, Scultetus, Tulp, Fabry von Hilded, etc.) advanced the science of surgery. Interestingly, Bartoleny Gabrol (1590) in Montpellier advocated radical mastectomy, which was popularised by Halsted, 300 years later. However, the lack of anaesthesia and the problem of wound infections (due to the lack of the aseptic techniques) generated significance and often problems for the surgeons of that time. Surgery was often 'heroic' but primitive and even inhumane by current standards. Therapeutic nihilism was the prevailing altitude regarding breast cancer, at least among the vast majority of surgeons. PMID:19674074

  4. Which method of pancreatic surgery do medical consumers prefer among open, laparoscopic, or robotic surgery? A survey

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Wooil; Park, Jae Woo; Han, In Woong; Kang, Mee Joo; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consumers' preferences are not considered in developing or implementing new medical technologies. Furthermore, little efforts are made to investigate their demands. Therefore, their preferred surgical method and the factors affecting that preference were investigated in pancreatic surgery. Methods Six-hundred subjects including 100 medical personnel (MP) and 500 lay persons (LP) were surveyed. Questionnaire included basic information on different methods of distal pancreatectomy; open surgery (OS), laparoscopic surgery (LS), and robotic surgery (RS). Assuming they required the operation, participants were told to indicate their preferred method along with a reason and an acceptable cost for both benign and malignant conditions. Results For benign disease, the most preferred method was LS. Limiting the choice to LS and RS, LS was preferred for cost and well-established safety and efficacy. OS was favored in malignant disease for the concern for radicality. Limiting the choice to LS and RS, LS was favored for its better-established safety and efficacy. The majority thought that LS and RS were both overpriced. Comparing MP and LP responses, both groups preferred LS in benign and OS in malignant conditions. However, LP more than MP tended to prefer RS under both benign and malignant conditions. LP thought that LS was expensive whereas MP thought the cost reasonable. Both groups felt that RS was too expensive. Conclusion Though efforts for development of novel techniques and broadening indication should be encouraged, still more investments and research should focus on LS and OS to provide optimal management and satisfaction to the patients. PMID:24761401

  5. Sphincter saving surgery is the standard procedure for treatment of low rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Khair, M A; Khanam, F; Haque, S; Alam, M K; Haque, M M; Salam, M A; Sikder, A H

    2013-04-01

    Carcinoma rectum is a challenging problem both for the developed and underdeveloped countries. Colorectal cancer accounts for 9% of all cancer deaths (49,920) in 2009 in USA. Carcinoma involving the lower part of the rectum is now successfully managed by sphincter saving surgery with less morbidity and uneventful recovery. To observe the objective, subjective and functional outcome of the patients suffering from cancer of the lower third of the rectum managed by surgical intervention with preservation of sphincter. A comparative study was carried out on 54 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ultra-low anterior resection in the department of surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the tumor distance from anal verge. Thirty one (57%) patients were in Group A (Experimental) where tumor distance was 5cm from anal verge and upper 1cm of anal sphincter was sacrificed during surgical intervention. Twenty three (43%) patients were in Group B (Control) where tumor distance was 6cm from anal verge and whole length (4cm) of anal sphincter was preserved during surgical intervention. Functional integrity of anal sphincter was assessed between these two groups of patients following surgery. The mean age of the patients was 45.96±14.41 years. During surgery, ultra low anterior resection was performed to remove the tumor in all patients and for anastomosis double stapling technique was performed in 52(96%) patients and hand sewn technique was performed in 2(4%) patients irrespective of tumor distance from anal verge. Covering ileostomy was fashioned in all but one patient. During post-operative follow up anal sphincter muscle tone, anal sphincter function (Anal continence, p = 0.54), Quality of life (Social life, p = 0.54; Professional life, p = 0.23; House work and Need a diaper, p = 0.54) were not significantly impaired in both groups. Functional outcome of anal sphincter muscle and quality of life was not impaired in comparison to general population after low rectal cancer surgery. PMID:23715349

  6. Is ERAS in laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer changing risk factors for delayed recovery?

    PubMed

    P?dziwiatr, Micha?; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kisielewski, Micha?; Mat?ok, Maciej; Major, Piotr; Wierdak, Mateusz; Budzy?ski, Andrzej; Ljungqvist, Olle

    2016-03-01

    There is evidence that implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols into colorectal surgery reduces complication rate and improves postoperative recovery. However, most published papers on ERAS outcomes and length of stay in hospital (LOS) include patients undergoing open resections. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the factors affecting recovery and LOS in patients after laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer combined with ERAS protocol. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic resection were prospectively evaluated. They were divided into two subgroups depending on their reaching the targeted length of stay-LOS (75 patients in group 1-?4days, 68 patients in group 2->4days). A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess for factors (demographics, perioperative parameters, complications and compliance with the ERAS protocol) independently associated with LOS of 4days or longer. The median LOS in the entire group was 4days. The postoperative complication rate was higher (18.7 vs. 36.7%), and the compliance with ERAS protocol was lower (91.2 vs. 76.7%) in group 2. There was an association between the pre- and postoperative compliance and the subsequent complications. In uni- and multivariate analysis, the lack of balanced fluid therapy (OR 3.87), lack of early mobilization (OR 20.74), prolonged urinary catheterization (OR 4.58) and use of drainage (OR 2.86) were significantly associated with prolonged LOS. Neither traditional patient risk factors nor the stage of the cancer was predictive of the duration of hospital stay. Instead, compliance with the ERAS protocol seems to influence recovery and LOS when applied to laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:26873739

  7. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mennie, Joanna C.; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O’Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. Conclusion The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women’s experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of treatment. PMID:27148870

  8. Case-Matched comparison of contemporary radiation therapy to surgery in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Sophie G.; Mills, Stacey E.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Theodorescu, Dan . E-mail: dt9d@virginia.edu

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Few studies critically compare current radiotherapy techniques to surgery for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, despite an urgent need to determine which approach offers superior cancer control. Our objective was to compare rates of biochemical relapse-free survival (BFS) and surrogates of disease specific survival among men with high risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate as a function of treatment modality. Methods and Materials: Retrospective data from 409 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {>=}10 or Gleason 7-10 or Stage {>=}T2b cancer treated uniformly at one university between March 1988 and December 2000 were analyzed. Patients had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy implant alone (BTM), or external beam radiotherapy with brachytherapy boost with short-term neoadjuvant and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (BTC). From the total study population a 1:1 matched-cohort analysis (208 patients matched via prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score) comparing RP with BTC was performed as well. Results: Estimated 4-year BFS rates were superior for patients treated with BTC (BTC 72%, BTM 25%, RP 53%; p < 0.001). Matched analysis of BTC vs. RP confirmed these results (BTC 73%, BTM 55%; p = 0.010). Relative risk (RR) of biochemical relapse for BTM and BTC compared with RP were 2.92 (1.95-4.36) and 0.56 (0.36-0.87) (p < 0.001, p = 0.010). RR for BTC from the matched cohort analysis was 0.44 (0.26-0.74; p = 0.002). Conclusions: High-risk prostate cancer patients receiving multimodality radiation therapy (BTC) display apparently superior BFS compared with those receiving surgery (RP) or brachytherapy alone (BTM)

  9. Retraction Note: Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Wu; Li, Peng-Zhou; Zhu, Li-Yong; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-01-01

    In the article entitled, "Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis" which was published in Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 1350-1357, sections in the text have been directly copied from a previously published article, entitled, "The Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Sorena Afshar, Seamus B. Kelly, Keith Seymour, Jose Lara, Sean Woodcock, John C. Mathers  in Obesity Surgery 2014; 24(10):1793-1799. Thus owing to duplicity of text, the article is being retracted. Reference: 1. Xiang-wu Yang, Peng-zhou Li, Li-yong Zhu, Shaihong Zhu Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 1350-1357 DOI: 10.12659/MSM.893553. PMID:27215479

  10. [A Case of Lateral Lymph Node Recurrence Five-Years after Curative Surgery for Rectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Kiyotaka; Miyake, Masakazu; Uemura, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Michihiko; Ikeda, Masataka; Maeda, Sakae; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Hama, Naoki; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Omiya, Hideyasu; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Hirao, Motohiro; Takami, Koji; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2015-11-01

    A 62-year-old woman had undergone laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer in February 2008. The pathological diagnosis was pT2, pN0, M0, pStageⅠ. At her request, she took UFT for 5 years as adjuvant chemotherapy. A CT examination revealed lateral lymph node swelling in January 2014. She was referred to our hospital after a diagnosis of lateral lymph node recurrence. She was administered 6 courses of FOLFIRI plus Cmab as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, after which the tumor size reduced by 62%. The treatment effect was rated as a PR. Laparoscopic right intrapelvic lymph node dissection was performed in July 2014, and the pathological diagnosis was recurrence of rectal cancer in the lateral lymph nodes. We report a case of dissection of lymph node recurrence 5 years after curative surgery for rectal cancer, along with a literature review. PMID:26805111

  11. Surgery for Liver Metastases From Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Martella, Luca; Bertozzi, Serena; Londero, Ambrogio P; Steffan, Agostino; De Paoli, Paolo; Bertola, Giulio

    2015-08-01

    The role of surgical therapy in patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the results obtained with local treatment of hepatic metastases in patients with gastric cancer, by performing a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1990 and 2014. These works included multiple studies that evaluated the different survival rate among patients who underwent local treatment, such as hepatectomy or radiofrequency ablation, for hepatic metastases derived from primary gastric cancer. The collected studies were evaluated for heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality, and a pooled hazard ratio (HR) was calculated with a confidence interval estimated at 95% (95% CI).After conducting a thorough research among all published works, 2337 studies were found and after the review process 11 observational studies were included in the analysis. The total amount of patients considered in the survival analysis was 1010. An accurate analysis of all included studies reported a significantly higher survival rate in the group of patients who underwent the most aggressive local treatment for hepatic metastases (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.46-0.95) as opposed to patients who underwent only palliation or systemic treatment. Furthermore, palliative local treatment of hepatic metastases had a higher survival rate if compared to surgical (without liver surgery) and systemic palliation (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.96). Considering the only 3 studies where data from multivariate analyses was available, we found a higher survival rate in the local treatment groups, but the difference was not significant (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.22-1.15).Curative and also palliative surgery of liver metastases from gastric cancer may improve patients' survival. However, further trials are needed in order to better understand the role of surgery in this group of patients. PMID:26252272

  12. Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology.

    PubMed

    Rajadhyaksha, M; Menaker, G; Flotte, T; Dwyer, P J; González, S

    2001-11-01

    Precise removal of nonmelanoma cancers with minimum damage to the surrounding normal skin is guided by the histopathologic examination of each excision during Mohs micrographic surgery. The preparation of frozen histopathology sections typically requires 20-45 min per excision. Real-time confocal reflectance microscopy offers an imaging method potentially to avoid frozen histopathology and prepare noninvasive (optical) sections within 5 min. Skin excisions ( approximately 1 mm thick) from Mohs surgeries were washed with 5% acetic acid and imaged with a confocal cross-polarized microscope. The confocal images were compared with the corresponding histopathology. Acetic acid causes compaction of chromatin that increases light back-scatter and makes the nuclei bright and easily detectable. Crossed-polarization strongly enhances the contrast of the nuclei because the compacted chromatin depolarizes the illumination light whereas the surrounding cytoplasm and normal dermis does not. Fast low-resolution examination of cancer lobules in wide fields of view followed by high-resolution inspection of nuclear morphology in small fields of view is possible; this is similar to the procedure for examining histopathology sections. Both the Mohs surgeon and the patient will potentially save several hours per day in the operating room. Fast confocal reflectance microscopic examination of excisions (of any thickness) may improve the management of surgical pathology and guide microsurgery of any human tissue. PMID:11710924

  13. Influence of Shorter Duration of Prophylactic Antibiotic Use on the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youn Young; Kim, Chang Woo; Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Lee, Jung Joo; Lee, Hye Ok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery and to determine whether significantly different SSI rates existed between the short prophylactic antibiotic use group (within 24 hours) and the long prophylactic antibiotic use group (beyond 24 hours). Methods The medical records of 327 patients who underwent colorectal resection due to colorectal cancer from January 2010 to May 2014 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed, and their characteristics as well as the surgical factors known to be risk factors for SSIs, were identified. Results Among the 327 patients, 45 patients (13.8%) developed SSIs. The patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of antibiotic use: group S (within 24 hours) and group L (beyond 24 hours). Of the 327 patients, 114 (34.9%) were in group S, and 213 (65.1%) were in group L. Twelve patients (10.5%) in group S developed SSIs while 33 patients (15.5%) in group L developed SSIs (P = 0.242). History of diabetes mellitus and lung disease, long operation time, and perioperative transfusion were independent risk factors for SSIs. Conclusion This study shows that discontinuation of prophylactic antibiotics within 24 hours after colorectal surgery has no significant influence on the incidence of SSIs. This study also showed that history of diabetes mellitus and lung disease, long operation time, and perioperative transfusion were associated with increased SSI rates. PMID:26817019

  14. Impact of the Preoperative Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score on the Survival after Curative Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sugano, Kenji; Ikeya, Tetsuro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the preoperative immune-nutritional status has been reported to correlate with the survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there have been no reports on the relationship between the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and the clinical outcome after curative surgery for CRC. We herein evaluated the prognostic significance of the CONUT score in patients with CRC, and then compared the accuracy of the CONUT score and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) as a predictor of survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of 204 patients who underwent curative surgery for Stage II/III CRC. Patients were divided into two groups according to the CONUT score and the PNI. Results The five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was significantly higher at 92.7% in the low CONUT group, compared to a rate of 81.0% in the high CONUT group (p=0.0016). The five-year CSS was 71.2% in the low PNI group and 92.3% in the high PNI group, which showed a significant difference (p=0.0155). A multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and the CONUT score were independent risk factors for CSS. Conclusion This study suggested that the CONUT score is a strong independent predictor of the survival among CRC patients. PMID:26147805

  15. Cataract surgery and methods of wound closure: a review

    PubMed Central

    Matossian, Cynthia; Makari, Sarah; Potvin, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Clear corneal incisions are routinely used in cataract surgery, but watertight wound closure may not always be achieved, which can increase the risk for anterior chamber fluid egress or ocular surface fluid ingress. A new US Food and Drug Administration-approved ocular sealant appears to have good efficacy in sealing clear corneal incisions; its use may be indicated when wound integrity is in question. PMID:26045656

  16. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique in the field of breast cancer. PMID:26950469

  17. Robotic Compartment-Based Radical Surgery in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toptas, Tayfun; Uysal, Aysel; Ureyen, Isin; Erol, Onur; Simsek, Tayup

    2016-01-01

    A radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the recommended treatment option in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Although various classifications were developed in order to define the resection margins of this operation, no clear standardization could be achieved both in the nomenclature and in the extent of the surgery. Total mesometrial resection (TMMR) is a novel procedure which aims to remove all components of the compartment formed by Müllerian duct in which female reproductive organs develop. TMMR differs from the conventional radical hysterectomy techniques in that its surgical philosophy, terminology, and partly resection borders are different. In this paper, a TMMR with therapeutic pelvic lymphadenectomy operation that we performed for the first time with robot-assisted laparoscopic (robotic) approach in an early-stage cervical cancer patient was presented. This procedure has already been described in open surgery by Michael Höckel and translated to the robotic surgery by Rainer Kimmig. Our report is the second paper, to our knowledge, to present the initial experience regarding robotic TMMR in the English literature. PMID:27195167

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer Focusing on Short-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Woo; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Roh, Yun Ho; Kang, Jeonghyun; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the total cost of robotic surgery (RS) is known to be higher than that of laparoscopic surgery (LS), the cost-effectiveness of RS has not yet been verified. The aim of the study is to clarify the cost-effectiveness of RS compared with LS for rectal cancer. From January 2007 through December 2011, 311 and 560 patients underwent totally RS and conventional LS for rectal cancer, respectively. A propensity score-matching analysis was performed with a ratio of 1:1 to reduce the possibility of selection bias. Costs and perioperative short-term outcomes in both the groups were compared. Additional costs due to readmission were also analyzed. The characteristics of the patients were not different between the 2 groups. Most perioperative outcomes were not different between the groups except for the operation time. Complications within 30 days of surgery were not significantly different. Total hospital charges and patients’ bill were higher in RS than in LS. The total hospital charges for patients who recovered with or without complications were higher in RS than in LS, although their short-term outcomes were similar. In patients with complications, the postoperative course after RS appeared to be milder than that of LS. Total hospital charges for patients who were readmitted due to complications were similar between the groups. RS showed similar short-term outcomes with higher costs than LS. Therefore, cost-effectiveness focusing on short-term perioperative outcomes of RS was not demonstrated. PMID:26039115

  19. Factors influencing time between surgery and radiotherapy: A population based study of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katik, S; Gort, M; Jobsen, J J; Maduro, J H; Struikmans, H; Siesling, S

    2015-08-01

    This study describes variation in the time interval between surgery and radiotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients and assesses factors at patient, hospital and radiotherapy centre (RTC) level influencing this variation. To do so, the factors were investigated in BC patients using multilevel logistic regression. The study sample consisted of 15,961 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Registry at 79 hospitals and 19 (RTCs) with breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy directly followed by radiotherapy. The percentage of patients starting radiotherapy ≤42 days varied from 14% to 94%. Early year of incidence, higher age, higher stage, mastectomy, higher ASA category and no availability of radiotherapy facilities were significantly associated with a longer time interval between radiotherapy and surgery. More patients received radiotherapy ≤42 days in hospitals with on-site radiotherapy facilities (OR 1.36, p = 0.024). Among the remainder, significant variation was found at the RTC level (11.1%, σ(2) = 0.254, SE 0.054), and at the hospital level (6.4% σ2 = 0.443, SE 0.163) (ICC 0.064). The significant delay and unexplained variance remaining at the RCT and hospital level suggests delays caused by the patient referral pathway from hospital to RCT, and indicates potential for improvement at both levels. PMID:25933729

  20. Video-assisted mediastinoscopic resection compared with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in patients with esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian-Yun; Tan, Li-Jie; Feng, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Nan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the indications of radical vedio-assisted mediastinoscopic resection for esophageal cancer. Methods The data of 109 patients with T1 esophageal cancer who underwent video-assisted mediastinoscopic resection (VAMS group) in Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Hospital from December 2005 to December 2011 were collected in the study for comparison with the 58 patients with T1 esophageal cancer who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS group) in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. The perioperative safety and survival were compared between the two groups. Results All operations were successful in both groups. One perioperative death was noted in the VATS group. The incidences of post-operative complications were not significantly different between these two groups, whereas the VAMS group was favorable in terms of operative time (P<0.001) and blood loss (P<0.001), and a significantly larger number of chest lymph nodes were dissected in the VATS group compared with the VAMS group (P<0.001). Long-term follow-up showed that the overall survival was not significantly different between these two groups (P=0.876). Conclusions T1N0M0 esophageal cancer can be as the indication of VAMS radical resection. VAMS radical resection can be considered as the preferred option for patients with poor pulmonary and cardiac function or a history of pleural disease. PMID:24976988

  1. Trial of early detection of breast cancer: description of method.

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    A large-scale trial has been started in the United Kingdom with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different methods for the early detection of breast cancer. Two populations, each of 25,000 women aged 45-64 are invited for annual screening by mammography and/or clinical examination. Two further populations, one of 25,000 and one of 40,000 women in the same age range, are invited for education sessions in breast self-examination, and 4 control populations, totalling 120,000 women, are offered no additional services beyond conventional diagnostic facilities. All breast histology, both benign and malignant, in all women in the study is recorded, as are the findings, management and follow-up of all breast cancers. Changes in the populations, and deaths from all causes, are also recorded. This is essentially a non-randomized trial, though in one of the screening centres, where an education programme about breast cancer is provided for the whole population, only women registered with certain randomly selected general practices are invited to be screened. The principal means of evaluation will be the comparison of the mortality rates from breast cancer in each of the study populations. Costs, in terms of use of health resources, unnecessary surgery and radiation hazard, will be assessed. Additional aspects of the trial include studies of women's attitudes to early detection, and of the aetiology of breast cancer. PMID:7032568

  2. Current Reconstructive Techniques Following Head and Neck Cancer Resection Using Microvascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Sarukawa, Shunji; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Takeoda, Shoji; Kusaka, Gen; Ichimura, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques have been developed to reconstruct head and neck defects following surgery to restore function and cosmetics. Free tissue transfer using microvascular anastomosis has transformed surgical outcomes and the quality of life for head and neck cancer patients because this technique has made it possible for surgeons to perform more aggressive ablative surgery, but there is room for improvement to achieve a satisfactory survival rate. Reconstruction using the free tissue transfer technique is closely related to cardiovascular surgery because the anastomosis techniques used by head and neck surgeons are based on those of cardiovascular surgeons; thus, suggestions from cardiovascular surgeons might lead to further development of this field. The aim of this article is to present the recent general concepts of reconstruction procedures and our experiences of reconstructive surgeries of the oral cavity, mandible, maxilla, oropharynx and hypopharynx to help cardiovascular surgeons understand the reconstructions and share knowledge among themselves and with neck surgeons to develop future directions in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:23555452

  3. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy for lung cancer versus thoracotomy: a less decrease in sVEGFR2 level after surgery

    PubMed Central

    An, Su; Wang, Hui-Ping; Chen, Xin-Long; Ning, Xian-Gu; Liu, Jun; Yu, Xu-Ya; Mao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors play an important role in tumor biology and tumor recurrence after surgical resection. Antiangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) and sVEGFR2, two soluble form receptor proteins of VEGF, are critical for angiogenesis. VEGF can be sequestered by soluble forms of these receptors, which result in decreasing VEGF amount available to bind to its receptor on vascular endothelial cell surface. This study aimed to investigate the influences of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy and open by thoracotomy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on postoperative circulating sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 levels. Methods Forty-eight lung cancer patients underwent lobectomy through either VATS (n=26) or thoracotomy (n=22). Blood samples were collected from all patients preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 3 and 7. ELISA analysis was used to determine the plasma levels of sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2. Data are reported as means and standard deviations, and were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-Rank test (P<0.05). Results For all patients undergoing lobectomy, postoperative sVEGFR1 levels on days 1 and 3 were markedly increased, while postoperative sVEGFR2 levels on days 1 and 3 were significantly decreased. Moreover, VATS group had significantly higher plasma level of sVEGFR2 postoperative in comparison with open thoracotomy (OT) on day 1 (VATS 6,953±1,535 pg/mL; OT 5,874±1,328 pg/mL, P<0.05). Conclusions Major pulmonary resection for early stage NSCLC resulted in the increased sVEGFR1 and decreased sVEGFR2 productions. VATS is associated with enhanced anti-angiogenic response with higher circulating sVEGFR2 levels compared with that with OT. Such differences in anti-angiogenic response may have an important effect on cancer biology and recurrence after surgery. PMID:27076926

  4. Short-term Outcomes of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery vs. Open Surgery on Right Colon Cancer: A Case-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Jung, Eun-Joo; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Paik, Jin Hee; Kim, Gangmi; Kim, Su Ran

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes by comparing hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery with open surgery for right colon cancer. Methods Sixteen patients who underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (HAL-RHC group) and 33 patients who underwent a conventional open right hemicolectomy (open group) during the same period were enrolled in this study with a case-controlled design. Results The operation time was 217 minutes in the HAL-RHC group and 213 minutes in the open group (P = 0.389). The numbers of retrieved lymph nodes were similar between the two groups (31 in the HAL-RHC group and 36 in the open group, P = 0.737). Also, there were no significant difference in the incidence of immediate postoperative leukocytosis, the administration of additional pain killers, and the postoperative recovery parameters. First flatus was shown on postoperative days 3.5 in the HAL-RHC group and 3.4 in the open group (P = 0.486). Drinking water and soft diet were started on postoperative days 4.8 and 5.9, respectively, in the HAL-RHC group and similarly 4.6 and 5.6 in the open group (P = 0.402 and P = 0.551). The duration of hospital stay was shorter in the HAL-RHC group than in the open group (10.3 days vs. 13.5 days, P = 0.048). No significant difference in the complication rates was shown between the two groups, and no postoperative mortality was encountered in either group. Conclusion The patients with right colon cancer in the HAL-RHC group had similar pathologic and postoperative recovery parameters to those of the patients in the open group. The patients in the HAL-RHC group had shorter hospital stays than those in the open group. Therefore, hand-assisted laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for right-sided colon cancer is feasible. PMID:23700574

  5. The effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on outcomes after lung cancer surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Page, Richard; Hasler, Elise

    2013-03-01

    The preferred treatment for lung cancer is surgery if the disease is considered resectable and the patient is considered surgically fit. Preoperative smoking cessation and/or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation might improve postoperative outcomes after lung cancer surgery. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine the effectiveness of (1) preoperative smoking cessation and (2) preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on peri- and postoperative outcomes in patients who undergo resection for lung cancer. We searched MEDLINE, PreMedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, BNI, Psychinfo, Amed, Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), and Biomed Central. Original studies published in English investigating the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative and longer-term outcomes in ≥ 50 patients who received surgery with curative intent for lung cancer were included. Of the 7 included studies that examined the effect of preoperative smoking cessation (n = 6) and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (n = 1) on outcomes after lung cancer surgery, none were randomized controlled trials and only 1 was prospective. The studies used different smoking classifications, the baseline characteristics differed between the study groups in some of the studies, and most had small sample sizes. No formal data synthesis was therefore possible. The included studies were marked by methodological limitations. On the basis of the reported bodies of evidence, it is not possible to make any firm conclusions about the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer. PMID:23017983

  6. Sentinel node navigation surgery with indocyanine green fluorescence-guided method for metachronous early gastric carcinoma arising from reconstructed gastric tube after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Junya; Ozawa, Soji; Kazuno, Akihito; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Ninomiya, Yamato; Yoshida, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    A 67-year-old man who had undergone a thoracoscopic esophagectomy and posterior mediastinal gastric tube reconstruction for thoracic esophageal cancer 9 years previously was endoscopically diagnosed as having gastric carcinoma arising from the reconstructed gastric tube. No evidence of metastasis was seen in imaging examinations, and the depth of tumor invasion was suspected to be the submucosal layer. Based on these results, we decided that surgery, rather than endoscopic resection, was indicated. The tumor was located in the upper abdomen. Therefore, we performed a partial resection of the gastric tube. Sentinel nodes (SN) were identified using the Hyper Eye Medical System II. Metastasis was not observed in any of the selected SN. While the treatment strategy for gastric tube cancer after an esophagectomy remains controversial, minimally invasive surgery with sentinel node navigation surgery appears to be clinically useful. However, the method of SN dissection should be investigated with due consideration given to arterial preservation. PMID:26910343

  7. Repeat hepatic surgery for colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Pinson, C W; Wright, J K; Chapman, W C; Garrard, C L; Blair, T K; Sawyers, J L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors addressed whether a repeat hepatic operation is warranted in patients with recurrent isolated hepatic metastases. Are the results as good after second operation as after first hepatic operation? SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Five-year survival after initial hepatic operation for colorectal metastases is approximately 33%. Because available alternative methods of treatment provide inferior results, hepatic resection for isolated colorectal metastasis currently is well accepted as the best treatment option. However, the main cause of death after liver resection for colorectal metastasis is tumor recurrence. METHODS: Records of 95 patients undergoing initial hepatic operation and 10 patients undergoing repeat operation for isolated hepatic metastases were reviewed for operative morbidity and mortality, survival, disease-free survival, and pattern of failure. The literature on repeat hepatic resection for colorectal metastases was reviewed. RESULTS: The mean interval between the initial colon operation and first hepatic resection was 14 months. The mean interval between the first and second hepatic operation was 17 months. Operative mortality was 0%. At a mean follow-up of 33 +/- 27 months, survival in these ten patients was 100% at 1 year and 88% +/- 12% at 2 years. Disease-free survival at 1 and 3 years was 60% +/- 16% and 45% +/- 17%, respectively. After second hepatic operation, recurrence has been identified in 60% of patients at a mean of 24 +/- 30 months (median 9 months). Two of these ten patients had a third hepatic resection. Survival and disease-free survival for the 10 patients compared favorably with the 95 patients who underwent initial hepatic resection. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat hepatic operation for recurrent colorectal metastasis to the liver yields comparable results to first hepatic operations in terms of operative mortality and morbidity, survival, disease-free survival, and pattern of recurrence. This work helps to establish that repeat hepatic operation is the most successful form of treatment for isolated recurrent colorectal metastases. PMID:8645050

  8. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Kang; Chen, Nan-Zheng; Zheng, Jian-Bao; He, Sai; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the main malignant tumors threatening human health. Surgery plays a pivotal role in treating colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to compare the clinical effect in patients with rectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic versus open surgery by meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 20 years. The data showed that 14 RCTs comparing laparoscopic surgery with conventional open surgery for rectal cancer matched the selection criteria and reported on 2,114 subjects, of whom 1,111 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 1,003 underwent open surgery for rectal cancer. Blood loss (P<0.00001), days to passage of flatus (P=0.0003), first bowel movement (P=0.0006), fluids intake (P<0.00001), walking independently (P<0.00001), length of hospital duration (P=0.003) and the rate of wound infection (P=0.04) were all significantly reduced following laparoscopic surgery. The incidence of complications, such as ureteric injury (P=0.33), urinary retention (P=0.43), ileus (P=0.05), anastomotic leakage (P=0.09) and incisional hernia (P=0.88), were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in lymph nodes harvested (P=0.88), length of specimen (P=0.60), circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P=0.86), regional recurrence ((P=0.08), port site or wound metastasis (P=0.67), distant metastasis (P=0.12), 3-year overall survival (OS) (P=0.42), 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.44), 5-year OS (P=0.60) and 5-year DFS (P=0.70). Therefore, laparoscopy for the treatment of patients with rectal cancer has the advantage of recovery and the same complications and prognosis as laparotomy, which indicates that laparoscopy may provide a potential survival benefit for patients with rectal cancer. PMID:25279204

  9. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical efficacy

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, JUN-KANG; CHEN, NAN-ZHENG; ZHENG, JIAN-BAO; HE, SAI; SUN, XUE-JUN

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the main malignant tumors threatening human health. Surgery plays a pivotal role in treating colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to compare the clinical effect in patients with rectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic versus open surgery by meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 20 years. The data showed that 14 RCTs comparing laparoscopic surgery with conventional open surgery for rectal cancer matched the selection criteria and reported on 2,114 subjects, of whom 1,111 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 1,003 underwent open surgery for rectal cancer. Blood loss (P<0.00001), days to passage of flatus (P=0.0003), first bowel movement (P=0.0006), fluids intake (P<0.00001), walking independently (P<0.00001), length of hospital duration (P=0.003) and the rate of wound infection (P=0.04) were all significantly reduced following laparoscopic surgery. The incidence of complications, such as ureteric injury (P=0.33), urinary retention (P=0.43), ileus (P=0.05), anastomotic leakage (P=0.09) and incisional hernia (P=0.88), were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in lymph nodes harvested (P=0.88), length of specimen (P=0.60), circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P=0.86), regional recurrence ((P=0.08), port site or wound metastasis (P=0.67), distant metastasis (P=0.12), 3-year overall survival (OS) (P=0.42), 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.44), 5-year OS (P=0.60) and 5-year DFS (P=0.70). Therefore, laparoscopy for the treatment of patients with rectal cancer has the advantage of recovery and the same complications and prognosis as laparotomy, which indicates that laparoscopy may provide a potential survival benefit for patients with rectal cancer. PMID:25279204

  10. A cross-specialty survey to assess the application of risk stratified surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, CR; Fielding, S; Krukowski, ZH

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study describes variability of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer among thyroid surgeons, in the context of changing patterns of thyroid surgery in the UK. Methods Hospital Episodes Statistics on thyroid operations between 1997 and 2012 were obtained for England. A survey comprising six scenarios of varying ‘risk’ was developed. Patient/tumour information was provided, with five risk stratified or non-risk stratified treatment options. The survey was distributed to UK surgical associations. Respondent demographics were categorised and responses analysed by assigned risk stratified preference. Results From 1997 to 2012, the Hospital Episode Statistics data indicated there was a 55% increase in the annual number of thyroidectomies with a fivefold increase in otolaryngology procedures and a tripling of cancer operations. Of the surgical association members surveyed, 264 respondents reported a thyroid surgery practice. Management varied across and within the six scenarios, and was not related consistently to the level of risk. Associations were demonstrated between overall risk stratified preference and higher volume practice (>25 thyroidectomies per year) (p=0.011), fewer years of consultant practice (p=0.017) and multidisciplinary team participation (p=0.037). Logistic regression revealed fewer years of consultant practice (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96/year in practice, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.922–0.997, p=0.036) and caseload of >25/year (OR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.044–3.522, p=0.036) as independent predictors of risk stratified preference. Conclusions There is a substantial contribution to thyroid surgery in the UK by otolaryngology surgeons. Adjusting management according to established case-based risk stratification is not widely applied. Higher caseload was associated with a preference for management tailored to individual risk. PMID:25198981

  11. The Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Intractable Lymphedema after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Cho, Soo Young; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-01

    Lymphedema of the upper limb after breast cancer surgery is a disease that carries a life-long risk and is difficult to cure once it occurs despite the various treatments which have been developed. Two patients were referred from general surgery department for intractable lymphedema. They were treated with stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs), and the circumferences of the mid-point of their each upper and lower arms were measured on every visit to the pain clinic. A decrease of the circumference in each patient was observed starting after the second injection. A series of blocks were established to maintain a prolonged effect. Both patients were satisfied with less swelling and pain. This case demonstrates the benefits of an SGB for intractable upper limb lymphedema. PMID:25589949

  12. The effect of stellate ganglion block on intractable lymphedema after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Park, Hahck Soo; Cho, Soo Young; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-01

    Lymphedema of the upper limb after breast cancer surgery is a disease that carries a life-long risk and is difficult to cure once it occurs despite the various treatments which have been developed. Two patients were referred from general surgery department for intractable lymphedema. They were treated with stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs), and the circumferences of the mid-point of their each upper and lower arms were measured on every visit to the pain clinic. A decrease of the circumference in each patient was observed starting after the second injection. A series of blocks were established to maintain a prolonged effect. Both patients were satisfied with less swelling and pain. This case demonstrates the benefits of an SGB for intractable upper limb lymphedema. PMID:25589949

  13. Efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary incontinence following prostate cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska-Labon, Elżbieta; Bakuła, Stanisław; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sliwiński, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  14. Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bakuła, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  15. Side Effects Seen with One Method of Weight-Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156557.html Side Effects Seen With One Method of Weight-Loss Surgery: ... well-being has improved, high rates of side effects and hospitalization are also reported, a new study ...

  16. [Modified posterior exenteration (radical oophorectomy type II) as a part of an extensive surgery of ovarian cancer--case report].

    PubMed

    Knapp, Paweł; Łukaszewicz, Jerzy; Knapp, Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains to be the most deadly gynecologic cancer among the female population. Carcinogenesis and abdomen extension are the reasons why ovarian cancer is still examined in advances stages. Ovarian cancer frequent metastasizes to the uterus, rectosigmoid colon, and other pelvic structures by intraperitoneal seeding of tumor deposits, as well as direct extension. Multiple modalities of therapy are utilized in the management of the disease. Numerous medical trials and research programs have demonstrated the most important role of surgery in the treatment of this disease. A vast majority of authors are of the opinion that the surgical interventions have a major influence on the overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in ovarian cancer cases. The paper presents a case of a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer who underwent modified posterior exenteration as a part of extensive cytoreductive surgery PMID:24032266

  17. Influence of yoga on mood states, distress, quality of life and immune outcomes in early stage breast cancer patients undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra M; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Vinay, C; Chandrashekara, S; Gopinath, K S; Srinath, B S

    2008-01-01

    Context: Breast cancer patients awaiting surgery experience heightened distress that could affect postoperative outcomes. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, quality of life and immune outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Settings and Design: Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited for a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy plus exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes following surgery. Materials and Methods: Subjects were assessed prior to surgery and four weeks thereafter. Psychometric instruments were used to assess self-reported anxiety, depression, treatment-related distress and quality of life. Blood samples were collected for enumeration of T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 %, CD8 % and natural killer (NK) cell % counts) and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM). Statistical Analysis Used: We used analysis of covariance to compare interventions postoperatively. Results: Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga n = 33, control n = 36). The results suggest a significant decrease in the state (P = 0.04) and trait (P = 0.004) of anxiety, depression (P = 0.01), symptom severity (P = 0.01), distress (P < 0.01) and improvement in quality of life (P = 0.01) in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significantly lesser decrease in CD 56% (P = 0.02) and lower levels of serum IgA (P = 0.001) in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery. Conclusions: The results suggest possible benefits for yoga in reducing postoperative distress and preventing immune suppression following surgery. PMID:21829279

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Versus Surgery for Medically Operable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Markov Model-Based Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, Alexander V.; Rodrigues, George; Palma, David A.; Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Yaremko, Brian P.; Malthaner, Richard; Mocanu, Joseph D.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy and overall survival in patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with either stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) or surgery. Methods and Materials: We constructed a Markov model to describe health states after either SBRT or lobectomy for Stage I NSCLC for a 5-year time frame. We report various treatment strategy survival outcomes stratified by age, sex, and pack-year history of smoking, and compared these with an external outcome prediction tool (Adjuvant{exclamation_point} Online). Results: Overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and other causes of death as predicted by our model correlated closely with those predicted by the external prediction tool. Overall survival at 5 years as predicted by baseline analysis of our model is in favor of surgery, with a benefit ranging from 2.2% to 3.0% for all cohorts. Mean quality-adjusted life expectancy ranged from 3.28 to 3.78 years after surgery and from 3.35 to 3.87 years for SBRT. The utility threshold for preferring SBRT over surgery was 0.90. Outcomes were sensitive to quality of life, the proportion of local and regional recurrences treated with standard vs. palliative treatments, and the surgery- and SBRT-related mortalities. Conclusions: The role of SBRT in the medically operable patient is yet to be defined. Our model indicates that SBRT may offer comparable overall survival and quality-adjusted life expectancy as compared with surgical resection. Well-powered prospective studies comparing surgery vs. SBRT in early-stage lung cancer are warranted to further investigate the relative survival, quality of life, and cost characteristics of both treatment paradigms.

  19. Clinical benefits of combined chemotherapy with S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel in advanced gastric cancer patients with palliative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Feng, Ye; Gao, Yongjian; Hou, Ruizhi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Advanced gastric cancer accounts for a substantial portion of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Surgical intervention is the curative therapeutic approach, but patients with advanced gastric cancer are not eligible for the radical resection. The present work aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of palliative surgery combined with S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Method A total of 20 patients who underwent palliative resection of gastric cancer in China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated. Days 20–30 postoperative, these patients started to receive chemotherapy of S-1 (40 mg/m2, oral intake twice a day) and intravenous infusion of oxaliplatin (135 mg/m2) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2). After three cycles of chemotherapy (21 days/cycle), patients were evaluated, and only those who responded toward the treatment continued to receive six to eight cycles of the treatment and were included in end point evaluation. Patients’ survival time and adverse reactions observed along the treatment were compared with those treated with FOLFOX. Results Out of 20 patients evaluated, there was one case of complete response, nine cases of partial response, six cases of stable disease, and four cases of progressive disease. The total efficacy (complete response + partial response) and clinical benefit rates were 50% and 80%, respectively. Of importance, the treatment achieved a significantly longer survival time compared to FOLFOX, despite the fact that both regimens shared common adverse reactions. The adverse reactions were gastrointestinal reaction, reduction in white blood cells, and peripheral neurotoxicity. All of them were mild, having no impact on the treatment. Conclusion Combination therapy of S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel improves the survival of gastric cancer patients treated with palliative resection, with adverse reactions being tolerated. The clinical application of the chemotherapy warrants further investigation. PMID:27095004

  20. Breast Cancer Preoperative Staging: Does Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Mammography Modify Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Perono Biacchiardi, Chiara; Brizzi, Davide; Genta, Franco; Zanon, Eugenio; Camanni, Marco; Deltetto, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer may have lesions undetected by conventional imaging. Recently contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (CE-MRM) showed higher sensitivity in breast lesions detection. The present analysis was aimed at evaluating the benefit of preoperative CE-MRM in the surgical planning. From 2005 to 2009, 525 consecutive women (25–75 years) with breast cancer, newly diagnosed by mammography, ultrasound, and needle-biopsy, underwent CE-MRM. The median invasive tumour size was 19 mm. In 144 patients, CE-MRM identified additional lesions. After secondlook, 119 patients underwent additional biopsy. CE-MRM altered surgery in 118 patients: 57 received double lumpectomy or wider excision (41 beneficial), 41 required mastectomy (40 beneficial), and 20 underwent contra lateral surgery (18 beneficial). The overall false-positive rate was 27.1% (39/144). CE-MRM contributed significantly to the management of breast cancer, suggesting more extensive disease in 144/525 (27.4%) patients and changing the surgical plan in 118/525 (22.5%) patients (99/525, 18.8% beneficial). PMID:22295233

  1. Present state of the Mini-Invasive Surgery (MIS) in esophageal and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Azagra, J S; Goergen, M; Lens, V; Ibáñez-Aguirre, J F; Schiltz, M; Siciliano, I

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to stress the role of the Mini-Invasive Surgery (MIS) in the treatment of the esophagogastric malignant illnesses, supporting ourselves on the most relevant publications of the literature as well as on our own experience in this subject. In short, although no randomised prospective study has proven the MIS advantages in relation to the traditional surgery in the esophagectomy due to cancer, some authors preferently indicate this approach to selected and informed enough patients, who present the following: - High grade dysplasia, preferently choosing from laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (LTE). - Carcinoma in situ, preferently choosing the LTE vs thoracoscopy. - Esophageal tumour locally advanced, in resectable patients with contraindication for a thoracotomy or, in initially non-resectable patients with tumoral reduction after neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. The arguments given by the authors are the postoperative spectacular improvement in relation to the comfort and quality of life and, the absence of oncological negative effects in the long-term followup. Concerning gastric cancer, the MIS, as exeresis surgical tool in the so-called gastric forms, is such a definite and oncological approach as the traditional approach, and superior to this as far as quality of life is concerned. When the MIS is used for treating locally advanced forms of gastric cancer, it is as safe as the laparotomic way and it seems to obtain the same oncological outcomes in the long-term. PMID:16648116

  2. Minimally invasive (robotic assisted thoracic surgery and video-assisted thoracic surgery) lobectomy for the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao-Xian; Woo, Kaitlin M.; Sima, Camelia S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on the results of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) traditionally approached by thoracotomy. The use of telerobotic surgical systems may allow for greater utilization of MIS approaches to locally advanced disease. We will review the existing literature on MIS for locally advanced disease and briefly report on the results of a recent study conducted at our institution. Methods We performed a retrospective review of a prospective single institution database to identify patients with clinical stage II and IIIA NSCLC who underwent lobectomy following induction chemotherapy. The patients were classified into two groups (MIS and thoracotomy) and were compared for differences in outcomes and survival. Results From January 2002 to December 2013, 428 patients {397 thoracotomy, 31 MIS [17 robotic and 14 video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)]} underwent induction chemotherapy followed by lobectomy. The conversion rate in the MIS group was 26% (8/31) The R0 resection rate was similar between the groups (97% for MIS vs. 94% for thoracotomy; P=0.71), as was postoperative morbidity (32% for MIS vs. 33% for thoracotomy; P=0.99). The median length of hospital stay was shorter in the MIS group (4 vs. 5 days; P<0.001). The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 48.3% in the MIS group and 56.6% in the thoracotomy group (P=0.84); the corresponding 3-year DFS were 49.0% and 42.1% (P=0.19). Conclusions In appropriately selected patients with NSCLC, MIS approaches to lobectomy following induction therapy are feasible and associated with similar disease-free and OS to those following thoracotomy. PMID:27195138

  3. The influence of methods of bariatric surgery for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bužga, Marek; Maresova, Petra; Seidlerova, Adela; Zonča, Pavel; Holéczy, Pavol; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The constantly growing incidence of obesity represents a risk of health complications for individuals, and is a growing economic burden for health care systems and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bariatric surgery, specifically laparoscopic greater curve plication, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of bariatric surgery on the changes in blood pressure before, and 12 months after, surgery and in pharmacotherapy in the 12 months after surgery was analyzed. For achieving this purpose, 74 patients from the Obesity and Surgery Department of Vitkovice Hospital in Ostrava in the Czech Republic, were monitored. They were operated in 2011 and 2012. The Bonferroni method was used to test hypotheses about the impact of surgery on blood pressure and pharmacotherapy. One year after the surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased, both with no statistically significant difference between surgery types. Improvement was observed in 68% of cases, with 25% of patients discontinuing pharmacotherapy entirely. PMID:27143901

  4. Effects of breast cancer surgery and surgical side effects on body image over time.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karen Kadela; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Aft, Rebecca; Yan, Yan; Dean, Grace; Eilers, Mark; Jeffe, Donna B

    2011-02-01

    We examined the impact of surgical treatments (breast-conserving surgery [BCS], mastectomy alone, mastectomy with reconstruction) and surgical side-effects severity on early stage (0-IIA) breast cancer patients' body image over time. We interviewed patients at 4-6 weeks (T1), six (T2), 12 (T3), and 24 months (T4) following definitive surgical treatment. We examined longitudinal relationships among body image problems, surgery type, and surgical side-effects severity using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach, controlling for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. We compared regression coefficients of surgery type from two models, one with and one without surgical side-effects severity. Of 549 patients enrolled (mean age 58; 75% White; 65% BCS, 12% mastectomy, 23% mastectomy with reconstruction), 514 (94%) completed all four interviews. In the model without surgical side-effects severity, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction reported poorer body image than patients who underwent BCS at T1-T3 (each P < 0.02), but not at T4. At T2, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction also reported poorer body image than patients who underwent mastectomy alone (P = 0.0106). Adjusting for surgical side-effects severity, body image scores did not differ significantly between patients with BCS and mastectomy with reconstruction at any interview; however, patients who underwent mastectomy alone had better body image at T2 than patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction (P = 0.011). The impact of surgery type on body image within the first year of definitive surgical treatment was explained by surgical side-effects severity. After 2 years, body image problems did not differ significantly by surgery type. PMID:20686836

  5. Single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer: State of art

    PubMed Central

    Cianchi, Fabio; Staderini, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer resection provides the same oncologic results as open surgery along with all clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery. During the last years, a great effort has been made to research for minimizing parietal trauma, yet for cosmetic reasons and in order to further reduce surgery-related pain and morbidity. New techniques, such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) have been developed in order to reach the goal of “scarless” surgery. Although NOTES may seem not fully suitable or safe for advanced procedures, such as colectomies, SIL is currently regarded as the next major advance in the progress of minimally invasive surgical approaches to colorectal disease that is more feasible in generalized use. The small incision through the umbilicus allows surgeons to use familiar standard laparoscopic instruments and thus, perform even complex procedures which require extraction of large surgical specimens or intestinal anastomosis. The cosmetic result from SIL is also better because the only incision is made through the umbilicus which can hide the wound effectively after operation. However, SIL raises a number of specific new challenges compared with the laparoscopic conventional approach. A reduced capacity for triangulation, the repeated conflicts between the shafts of the instruments and the difficulties to achieve a correct exposure of the operative field are the most claimed issues. The use therefore of this new approach for complex colorectal procedures might understandingly be viewed as difficult to implement, especially for oncologic cases. PMID:24876729

  6. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

  7. Prognostic features of 51 colorectal and 130 appendiceal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, P H; Jablonski, K A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A treatment plan to be used in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis was devised and tested as a Phase II study. BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis from appendical or colorectal cancer has been regarded as a fatal clinical entity. Treatment protocols have not been reported previously. METHODS: The authors used cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat 181 consecutive patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. There were 51 patients with colorectal cancer and 130 patients with appendiceal cancer. Mean follow-up is 24 months, with a range of 0 to 149 months. RESULTS: Clinical features that showed prognostic significance included appendiceal versus colorectal primary tumors (p = 0.0001), grade 1 versus grades 2 and 3 histopathology (p = 0.0003), complete versus incomplete cytoreductions (p = 0.0001), lymph node-negative versus lymph node-positive primary tumors (p = 0.0001), and volume of peritoneal carcinomatosis present preoperatively for colon cancer (p = 0.0006). Features with no statistical prognostic significance included preoperative tumor volume for appendiceal cancer, age, sex, number of cycles of chemotherapy, operative time, complications, blood loss, and institution providing treatment. From these prognostic features, four prognostic groups were identified, and 3-year survival was estimated by the product-limit survival method. Group I patients (n = 76) were those with grade 1 histology, no lymph node metastases, and complete cytoreductions (survival at 3 years = 99%). Group II patients (n = 23) were those with grade 2 or 3 histology, no lymph node metastases, and complete cytoreductions (65%). Group III patients (n = 24) had any histology, lymph node metastases, and complete cytoreductions (66%). Group IV patients (n = 58) had incomplete cytoreductions (20%). PMID:7857141

  8. Clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Toshio; Iitsuka, Chiaki; Nomura, Hidetaka; Abe, Akiko; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Takizawa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery (IDS) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 124 advanced EOC patients and analyzed the details of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), IDS, postoperative treatment, and prognoses. Results Following IDS, 98 patients had no gross residual disease (NGRD), 15 had residual disease sized <1 cm (optimal), and 11 had residual disease sized ≥1 cm (suboptimal). Two-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 88.8% and 39.8% in the NGRD group, 40.0% and 13.3% in the optimal group (p<0.001 vs. NGRD for both), and 36.3% and 0% in the suboptimal group, respectively. Five-year OS and 2-year PFS rates were 62% and 56.1% in the lymph node-negative (LN-) group and 26.2% and 24.5% in the lymph node-positive (LN+) group (p=0.0033 and p=0.0024 vs. LN-, respectively). Furthermore, survival in the LN+ group, despite surgical removal of positive nodes, was the same as that in the unknown LN status group, in which lymphadenectomy was not performed (p=0.616 and p=0.895, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified gross residual tumor during IDS (hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 10.33 vs. NGRD) as the only independent predictor of poor OS. Conclusion NGRD after IDS improved prognosis in advanced EOC patients treated with NACT-IDS. However, while systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during IDS may predict outcome, it does not confer therapeutic benefits. PMID:26197771

  9. The role of surgery for pancreatic cancer: a 12-year review of patient outcome

    PubMed Central

    Badger, SA; Brant, JL; Jones, C; McClements, J; Loughrey, MB; Taylor, MA; Diamond, T; McKie, LD

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis with <5% alive at 5 years, despite active surgical treatment. The study aim was to review patients undergoing pancreatic resection and assess the effect of clinical and pathological parameters on survival. Patients and methods All patients who had undergone radical pancreatic surgery, January 1996 to December 2008, were identified from the unit database. Additional information was retrieved from the patient records. The demographic, clinical, and pathological records were recorded using Microsoft Excel. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and predictors of survival determined by multinominal logistic regression and log rank test. Results 126 patients were identified from the database. The majority (106) had a Whipple's procedure, 14 had a distal pancreatectomy and 6 had local periampullary excision. The average age of the Whipple's group of patients was 61.7 years (± 11.7) with most procedures performed for malignancy (n=100). Survival was worse with adenocarcinoma compared to all other pathologies (p=0.013), while periampullary tumours had a better prognosis compared to other locations (p=0.019). Survival decreased with poorer differentiation (p=0.001), increasing pT (p<0.001) and pN stage (p<0.001). Survival was worse with perineural (p=0.04) or lymphovascular invasion (p=0.05). A microscopic postive resection margin (R1) was associated with a worse survival (p=0.007). Tumour differentiation (p=0.001) and positive nodal status (p<0.001) were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion Tumour differentiation and nodal status are important predictors of outcome. A positive resection margin is associated with a poorer survival. PMID:21116422

  10. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah; Mousa, WF

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB), which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients) or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients) for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection. PMID:26955304

  11. Minimally invasive surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: Our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Koichi; Nakauchi, Masaya; Inaba, Kazuki; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, characterized by minimal access, has been increasingly performed worldwide. It not only results in better cosmetic outcomes, but also reduces intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, leading to faster recovery; however, endoscopically enhanced anatomy and improved hemostasis via positive intracorporeal pressure generated by CO2 insufflation have not contributed to reduction in early postoperative complications or improvement in long-term outcomes. Since 1995, we have been actively using MIS for operable patients with resectable upper GI cancer and have developed stable and robust methodology in conducting totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer and prone thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer using novel technology including da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). We have recently demonstrated that use of DVSS might reduce postoperative local complications including pancreatic fistula after gastrectomy and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after esophagectomy. In this article, we present the current status and future perspectives on MIS for gastric and esophageal cancer based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:27217695

  12. Breast Cancer Surgery Decision-Making and African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Schubart, Jane R; Farnan, Michelle A; Kass, Rena B

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has used focus group methodology to investigate cultural factors impacting the breast cancer experience of women of various ethnicities including African-Americans; however, this work has not specifically addressed treatment decision-making. This study identifies key issues faced by African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding treatment decisions. We used an interpretive-descriptive study design based on qualitative data from three focus groups (n?=?14) representing a population of African-American women in central Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to think back to when they were diagnosed with breast cancer and their visit with the breast surgeon. Questions were asked about the actual visit, treatment choices offered, sources of information, and whether the women felt prepared for the surgery and subsequent treatments. The prompts triggered memories and encouraged open discussion. The most important themes identified were fear across the breast cancer disease trajectory, a preference for visual information for understanding the diagnosis and surgical treatment, and support systems relying on family and friends, rather than the formal health-care system. Our results have implications for practice strategies and development of educational interventions that will help breast cancer patients better understand their diagnosis and treatment options, encourage their participation in treatment decision-making, and provide psychosocial support for those at high risk for emotional distress. PMID:25200948

  13. Minimally invasive surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: Our experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi; Nakauchi, Masaya; Inaba, Kazuki; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-05-21

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, characterized by minimal access, has been increasingly performed worldwide. It not only results in better cosmetic outcomes, but also reduces intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, leading to faster recovery; however, endoscopically enhanced anatomy and improved hemostasis via positive intracorporeal pressure generated by CO2 insufflation have not contributed to reduction in early postoperative complications or improvement in long-term outcomes. Since 1995, we have been actively using MIS for operable patients with resectable upper GI cancer and have developed stable and robust methodology in conducting totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer and prone thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer using novel technology including da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). We have recently demonstrated that use of DVSS might reduce postoperative local complications including pancreatic fistula after gastrectomy and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after esophagectomy. In this article, we present the current status and future perspectives on MIS for gastric and esophageal cancer based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:27217695

  14. [Perioperative Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Lung Cancer Surgeries in Patients with Poor Pulmonary Function].

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To properly perform preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation is important for lung cancer surgeries in patients with poor pulmonary function such as severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) to prevent postoperative complications. Those programs include exercise training, pursed-lip breathing technique, activities of dairy living training and facilitating physical activities, all which are almost same as those for patients with stable COPD. Pedometer is a useful tool to lead patient's physical activities. Postoperative therapeutic programs are also important, which includes early mobilization, nutritional support, and so on. PMID:26975642

  15. Is surgery still the optimal treatment for stage I non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Moghanaki, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is debate about what is the optimal treatment for operable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although surgery has been the standard of care for centuries, recent retrospective and prospective randomized studies indicated that stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) could be an option for this group of patients with similar survival and less toxicities. However, to change the standard of care, more studies are needed and participating ongoing larger randomized studies is the best approach to resolve this controversy. PMID:27183993

  16. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p < 0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<40 years), large tumor size (>20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the local recurrences after BCS in our study were true recurrences, which resulted in a poorer outcome as compared to new primary tumors. Moreover, younger age (<40), large tumor size (>2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy strategies should be explored further in young patients with large and high-risk tumors to reduce the risk of TR.

  17. Is adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for patients with microinvasive breast cancer after surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hai-Fei; Wei, Li-Juan; Yu, Jin-Pu; Lian, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Zi-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Survival and treatment of patients with microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) remain controversial. In this paper, we evaluated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for patients with MIBC to identify risk factors influencing its prognosis and decide the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, 108 patients with MIBC were recruited according to seventh edition of the staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). The subjects were divided into chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups. We compared the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between groups. Furthermore, we analyzed the factors related to prognosis for patients with MIBC using univariate and multivariate analyses. We also evaluated the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the prognostic factors by subgroup analysis after median follow-up time of 33 months (13-104 months). Results: The 5-year DFS and OS rates for the chemotherapy group were 93.7% and 97.5%, whereas those for the non-chemotherapy group were 89.7% and 100%. Results indicate that 5-year DFS was superior, but OS was inferior, in the former group compared with the latter group. However, no statistical significance was observed in the 5-year DFS (P=0.223) or OS (P=0.530) rate of the two groups. Most relevant poor-prognostic factors were Ki-67 overexpression and negative hormonal receptors. Cumulative survival was 98.2% vs. 86.5% between low Ki-67 (≤20%) and high Ki-67 (>20%). The hazard ratio of patients with high Ki-67 was 16.585 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.969-139.724; P=0.010]. Meanwhile, ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC had cumulative survival of 79.3% compared with 97.5% for ER(+) or PR(+) patients with MIBC. The hazard ratio for ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC was 19.149 (95% CI, 3.702-99.057; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chemotherapy could improve the outcomes of ER(-)/PR(-) patients (P=0.014), but not those who overexpress Ki-67 (P=0.105). Conclusions: Patients with MIBC who overexpress Ki-67 and with negative hormonal receptors have relatively substantial risk of relapse within the first five years after surgery. However, adjuvant chemotherapy can only improve the outcomes of ER(-)/PR(-) patients, but not those who overexpress Ki-67. Further studies with prolonged follow-up of large cohorts are recommended to assess the prognostic significance and treatment of this lesion. PMID:27144069

  18. Development of new devices for detection of gastric cancer on laparoscopic surgery using near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Fuchi, Shingo; Mori, Kensaku; Hasegawa, Junichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Nakanishi, Hayao

    2015-03-01

    In recent year, for the treatment of gastric cancer the laparoscopic surgery is performed, which has good benefits, such as low-burden, low-invasive and the efficacy is equivalent to the open surgery. For identify location of the tumor intraperitoneally for extirpation of the gastric cancer, several points of charcoal ink is injected around the primary tumor. However, in the time of laparoscopic operation, it is difficult to estimate specific site of primary tumor, because the injected charcoal ink diffusely spread to the area distant from the tumor in the stomach. Therefore, a broad area should be resected which results in a great stress for the patients. To overcome this problem, we focused in the near-infrared wavelength of 1000nm band which have high biological transmission. In this study, we developed a fluorescent clip which was realized with glass phosphor (Yb3+, Nd3+ doped to Bi2O3-B2O3 based glasses. λp: 976 nm, FWHM: 100 nm, size: 2x1x3 mm) and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system for clip-derived near-infrared light. To evaluate clinical performance of a fluorescent clip and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system, we used resected stomach (thickness: 13 mm) from the patients. Fluorescent clip was fixed on the gastric mucosa, and an excitation light (λ: 808 nm) was irradiated from outside of stomach for detection of fluorescence through stomach wall. As a result, fluorescence emission from the clip was successfully detected. Furthermore, we confirmed that detection sensitivity of the emission of fluorescence from the clip depends on the output power of the excitation light. We conformed that the fluorescent clip in combination with laparoscopic fluorescent detection system is very useful method to identify the exact location of the primary gastric cancer.

  19. Young Cervical Cancer Patients May Be More Responsive than Older Patients to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kecheng; Jia, Yao; Tang, Fangxu; Sun, Haiying; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qinghua; Ma, Ding; Li, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of age and the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with cervical cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery. Methods A total of 1,014 patients with advanced cervical cancer who received NACT followed by radical surgery were retrospectively selected. Patients were divided into young (aged ?35 years, n = 177) and older (aged >35 years, n = 837) groups. We compared the short-term responses and survival rates between the groups. The five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were stratified by age, NACT response, and FIGO stage. Results The overall response rate was 86.8% in the young group and 80.9% in the older group. The young patients had an earlier FIGO stage (P<0.001), a higher rate of adenocarcinoma (P = 0.022), and more lymph node metastasis (P = 0.033) than the older patients. The presence of adenocarcinoma as the histological type (P = 0.024) and positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for survival. When stratified by age and clinical response, young patients with no response to NACT had a worse clinicopathological condition compared with the other subgroups. Compared with non-responders, responders to NACT had a higher five-year DFS rate (80.1% versus 71.8%; P = 0.019) and OS rate (82.6% versus 71.8%; P = 0.003) among the young patients but not among the older patients. Conclusions Responders to NACT aged 35 years or younger benefitted the most from NACT, while the young non-responders benefitted the least. Age might represent an important factor to consider when performing NACT in patients with cervical cancer. PMID:26901776

  20. Effect of a 10-week yoga programme on the quality of life of women after breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Merecz, Dorota; Wójcik, Aleksandra; Świątkowska, Beata; Sierocka, Kamilla; Najder, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study The following research is aimed at determining the effect of yoga on the quality of life of women after breast cancer surgery. Material and methods A 10-week yoga programme included 90-minute yoga lessons once a week. To estimate the quality of life, questionnaires developed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23) were used. An experimental group consisted of 12 women who practised yoga, a control group – of 16 women who did not. Between groups there were no differences in age, time from operation and characteristics associated with disease, treatment and participation in rehabilitation. Results Our results revealed an improvement of general health and quality of life, physical and social functioning as well as a reduction of difficulties in daily activities among exercising women. Also their future prospects enhanced – they worried less about their health than they used to before participating in the programme. As compared to baseline, among exercising women, fatigue, dyspnoea and discomfort (pain, swelling, sensitivity) in the arm and breast on the operated side decreased. Conclusions Participation in the exercising programme resulted in an improvement of physical functioning, reduction of fatigue, dyspnoea, and discomfort in the area of the breast and arm on the operated side. Based on our results and those obtained in foreign studies, we conclude that rehabilitation with the use of yoga practice improves the quality of life of the patients after breast cancer surgery. However, we recommend further research on this issue in Poland. PMID:26327853

  1. Image guided surgery in the management of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hassan; Pan, Quintin

    2016-06-01

    Complete resection of head and neck tumors relies on palpation and visual inspection. Achieving a negative margin in remote locations in the head and neck region, especially in close proximity to critical structures, is often difficult to achieve. Positive resection margins in head and neck cancer are at high risk to develop recurrent disease and associated with poor prognosis. Near-infrared fluorescence-guided optical imaging is an emerging technology with the potential to move the surgical field forward and facilitate surgeons to visualize tumors in real-time intra-operatively. In this review, our focus is to discuss the recent advances and the potential application of near infrared (NIR) fluorescent-guided surgery in the management of head and neck cancer. PMID:27208842

  2. Prognostic factors associated with locally recurrent rectal cancer following primary surgery (Review)

    PubMed Central

    CAI, YANTAO; LI, ZHENYANG; GU, XIAODONG; FANG, YANTIAN; XIANG, JIANBIN; CHEN, ZONGYOU

    2014-01-01

    Locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) is defined as an intrapelvic recurrence following a primary rectal cancer resection, with or without distal metastasis. The treatment of LRRC remains a clinical challenge. LRRC has been regarded as an incurable disease state leading to a poor quality of life and a limited survival time. However, curative reoperations have proved beneficial for treating LRRC. A complete resection of recurrent tumors (R0 resection) allows the treatment to be curative rather than palliative, which is a milestone in medicine. In LRRC cases, the difficulty of achieving an R0 resection is associated with the post-operative prognosis and is affected by several clinical factors, including the staging of the local recurrence (LR), accompanying symptoms, patterns of tumors and combined therapy. The risk factors following primary surgery that lead to an increased rate of LR are summarized in this study, including the surgical, pathological and therapeutic factors. PMID:24348812

  3. Survival Outcome After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Surgery for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiangpeng; Schipper, Matthew; Kidwell, Kelley; Lin, Jules; Reddy, Rishindra; Ren, Yanping; Chang, Andrew; Lv, Fanzhen; Orringer, Mark; Spring Kong, Feng-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: This study compared treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with those of surgery in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Eligible studies of SBRT and surgery were retrieved through extensive searches of the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library databases from 2000 to 2012. Original English publications of stage I NSCLC with adequate sample sizes and adequate SBRT doses were included. A multivariate random effects model was used to perform a meta-analysis to compare survival between treatments while adjusting for differences in patient characteristics. Results: Forty SBRT studies (4850 patients) and 23 surgery studies (7071 patients) published in the same period were eligible. The median age and follow-up duration were 74 years and 28.0 months for SBRT patients and 66 years and 37 months for surgery patients, respectively. The mean unadjusted overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years with SBRT were 83.4%, 56.6%, and 41.2% compared to 92.5%, 77.9%, and 66.1% with lobectomy and 93.2%, 80.7%, and 71.7% with limited lung resections. In SBRT studies, overall survival improved with increasing proportion of operable patients. After we adjusted for proportion of operable patients and age, SBRT and surgery had similar estimated overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions: Patients treated with SBRT differ substantially from patients treated with surgery in age and operability. After adjustment for these differences, OS and DFS do not differ significantly between SBRT and surgery in patients with operable stage I NSCLC. A randomized prospective trial is warranted to compare the efficacy of SBRT and surgery.

  4. GRP78 Protein Expression as Prognostic Values in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Laparoscopic Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Yeon; Jung, Ji-Han; Cho, Hyun-Min; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jong Hoon; Shim, Byoung Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the relationships between biomarkers related to endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins (glucose-regulated protein of molecular mass 78 [GRP78] and Cripto-1 [teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 protein]), pathologic response, and prognosis in locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods All clinical stage II and III rectal cancer patients received 50.4 Gy over 5.5 weeks, plus 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m2/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m2/day) bolus on days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33, and surgery was performed at 7 to 10 weeks after completion of all therapies. Expression of GRP78 and Cripto-1 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry and was assessed in 101 patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Results High expression of GRP78 and Cripto-1 proteins was observed in 86 patients (85.1%) and 49 patients (48.5%), respectively. Low expression of GRP78 protein was associated with a significantly high rate of down staging (80.0% vs. 52.3%, respectively; p=0.046) and a significantly low rate of recurrence (0% vs. 33.7%, respectively; p=0.008) compared with high expression of GRP78 protein. Mean recurrence-free survival according to GRP78 expression could not be estimated because the low expression group did not develop recurrence events but showed a significant correlation with time to recurrence, based on the log rank method (p=0.007). GRP78 also showed correlation with overall survival, based on the log rank method (p=0.045). Conclusion GRP78 expression is a predictive and prognostic factor for down staging, recurrence, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin neoadjuvant CRT. PMID:25687871

  5. SSO-ASTRO Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery with Whole Breast Irradiation in Stage I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meena S.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Giuliano, Armando E.; Harris, Jay R.; Khan, Seema A.; Horton, Janet; Klimberg, Suzanne; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Freedman, Gary; Houssami, Nehmat; Johnson, Peggy L.; Morrow, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Changes in the management of breast cancer over time have led to decreased rates of IBTR. The 2013 SSO/ASTRO guidelines on margins in breast-conserving surgery for invasive cancer are summarized in this document. PMID:24521674

  6. Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Senthi, Sashendra; Link, Emma; Chua, Boon H.; University of Melbourne, Melbourne

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

  7. Knowledge, Understanding and Utilization of Preventive Strategies against Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Healthy and Immunosuppressed Mohs Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Alina; Nguyen, Bichchau Thi; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite various national recommendations advising individuals to reduce their exposure to UV radiation, many people still do not utilize these skin cancer prevention strategies. Objective The study assesses patients’ sources of medical information, knowledge of sun protection strategies, and barriers to implement these strategies. The study also compares the overall rate of utilization of skin cancer prevention strategies between healthy and immunocompromised patients. Materials and Methods Survey-based study was conducted on 140 Mohs surgery patients. Results Seventy-three percent of healthy and 74% of immunosuppressed participants identified sunscreen use as a form of protective strategy; only 36% and 27%, respectively, use sunscreen daily. Participants cite physician and internet as equal sources of medical information. Knowing two or more strategies correlated to a higher self-rating of daily utilization of any protective strategy. Conclusions The results of our study show that general knowledge regarding sun protection strategies is still limited, but awareness of multiple strategies correlated with an increase in sun protective behavior. Surprisingly, despite having a much higher incidence of skin cancers, the immunosuppressed group did not show more awareness of prevention strategies or higher utilization compared to healthy participants. PMID:24354730

  8. Primary treatment of early breast cancer with conservation surgery and radiation therapy. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Levitt, S H

    1985-05-01

    The combination of radiation therapy (RT) and conservation surgery is appropriate treatment for Stage I and II breast cancer patients, and is equivalent to radical mastectomy in overall survival and recurrence free survival. Moreover, RT and conservation surgery has the advantage over radical surgery of breast preservation (and subsequent psychological advantage). Inherent in the preservation of the breast is the concept of cosmesis. This implies that the treated breast is not retracted or deformed by the surgery and radiation. Current studies indicate that there is an increase in complications and less satisfactory cosmetic effect on patients receiving chemotherapy in conjunction with conservation surgery and RT, but no effect on survival. This raises the question of which patients should receive chemotherapy and what type of chemotherapy should be used. It also raises the question of the initiation timing and dosage of chemotherapy. PMID:3884136

  9. [Laparoscopic Surgery for Adult Intussusception Due to Rectal Cancer--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Higuchi, Ichiro; Akiyama, Yosuke; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Hasuike, Yasunori

    2015-11-01

    An 87-year-old woman with the chief complaint of bloody stool was referred to our hospital from an institution for the aged. The abdomen was soft and flat, and a tumor was not palpable on digital rectal examination. Tumor markers were within normal ranges. Abdominal enhanced CT scan showed a multiple concentric ring sign at the rectum. Colonoscopic and barium examination led to a diagnosis of rectal intussusception due to rectal cancer. We first tried to reposition it preoperatively, but it was impossible. She fortunately had no symptoms of ileus; therefore, we chose to perform laparoscopic surgery. We achieved the reposition intraoperatively and performed Hartmann's operation with D2 lymph node dissection because she was a very elderly patient with high-risk comorbidities. The pathological diagnosis was as follows: RS, 40×40 mm, type 2, tub2, pT3 (SS), pN0, ly0, v0, pStageⅡ, R0, Cur A. Adult intussusception due to rectal cancer is extremely rare. We report that in this case that laparoscopic surgery was possible, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26805342

  10. Role of Surgery in the Elderly Patients Affected from Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caf, E. V.; Pecorino, B.; Scibilia, G.; Scollo, P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare morbidity, surgical treatment and post-operative complications in elderly patients underwent surgery for advanced stage ovarian cancer, comparing to younger patients. Data of patients underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gyne-cology of Cannizzaro Hospital (Catania) for advanced stage (IIIC-IV) ovarian cancer were collected from January 2000 to December 2013. Patients were stratified by age in two groups (I > 65 years and II < 65 years old). Following variables were collected: stage of the tumor, associated diseases, previous chemotherapy, the type of surgical procedures, blood transfusions, intraoperative and postoperative morbidity, mortality, and hospital stay. Median values between the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney test and frequency data using ?2. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. A total of 179 patients were identified, they were divided into 2 groups: 64 patients were age 65 years or older (group I) and 115 patients were younger than age 65 (group II). In the whole series, 157 patients (87%) did not experience any complication. Overall, postoperative complications occurred in 10 (15%) patients in the group I and in 12 (10%) in the group II (p = NS). In conclusion, elderly patients may tolerate well surgical procedures within acceptable postoperative morbidity, a length of hospital stay and a need for intensive care quite similar to that of younger patients.

  11. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  12. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Willigen, Danny M.; Stammes, Marieke A.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M.; Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Beekman, Freek J.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Frangioni, John V.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  13. Dealing with robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Roberto; Luca, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Cenciarelli, Sabina; Petz, Wanda; Monsellato, Igor; Valvo, Manuela; Cossu, Maria Laura; Ghezzi, Tiago Leal; Shmaissany, Kassem

    2016-01-14

    The laparoscopic approach for treatment of rectal cancer has been proven feasible and oncologically safe, and is able to offer better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures, mainly in terms of reduced length of hospital stay and time to return to working activity. In spite of this, the laparoscopic technique is usually practised only in high-volume experienced centres, mainly because it requires a prolonged and demanding learning curve. It has been estimated that over 50 operations are required for an experienced colorectal surgeon to achieve proficiency with this technique. Robotic surgery enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, thus promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. It has high-definition three-dimensional vision, it translates the surgeon's hand movements into precise movements of the instruments inside the patient, the camera is held and moved by the first surgeon, and a fourth robotic arm is available as a fixed retractor. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on short- and long-term results, and providing original data from the authors' centre. PMID:26811606

  14. New tumor regression grade for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy and radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liu, Hao; Hu, Junjie; Liu, Sai; Yin, Jie; Du, Feng; Yuan, Jiatian; Lv, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we defined a new tumor regression grade (NTRG), which we used to evaluate the prognosis of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant therapy and then underwent radical surgery between June 2004 and October 2011. Calculated as the TRG plus a lymph node score, the NTRG was determined for 347 patients: NTRG 0, 46 patients (13.3%); NTRG 1, 63 (18.2%); NTRG 2, 183 (52.7%); NTRG 3, 30 (8.6%); NTRG 4, 25 (7.2%). Among this group, 45 (97.8%) NTRG 0, 56 (88.9%) NTRG 1, 148 (80.9%) NTRG 2, 24 (66.7%) NTRG 3, and 10 (40.0%) NTRG 4 patients experienced 5-year disease-free survival. We also found that NTRG is significantly associated with 5-year local recurrence, distant metastasis and disease-free survival (P = 0.004, 0.007 and 0.039, respectively). The NTRG may thus be an independent prognostic factor for oncologic outcomes in rectal cancer patients after neoadjuvant therapy and radical surgery, but this conclusion must be validated in randomized trials. PMID:26540466

  15. Non-small cell lung cancer after surgery and chemoradiotherapy: follow-up and response assessment.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Davide; Di Lauro, Elisa; Silva, Mario; Manna, Carmelinda; Rossi, Cristina; De Filippo, Massimo; Zompatori, Maurizio; Ruffini, Livia; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The imaging techniques in patients treated for lung cancer may be challenging to interpret. Radiologists are often asked to evaluate computed tomography (CT) scans after surgery, and this interpretation requires an understanding of both the timing and type of the surgical procedure. However, follow-up strategies are still not well defined. The assessment of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy relies on a tight integration of CT and clinical findings. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with fluorodeoxyglucose may help to exclude tumor recurrence when the sole CT scan is equivocal. More efforts are needed to validate the tools for volumetric tumor measurement in routine practice and to demonstrate their superiority compared to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Familiarity with the assessment of lung cancer perfusion is also important because of the increasing use of cytostatic therapy. In this review, we outlined the imaging assessment of tumor recurrence after surgery and the role of CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and PET-CT in the follow-up after chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation. PMID:23996838

  16. Dealing with robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer: Current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Roberto; Luca, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Cenciarelli, Sabina; Petz, Wanda; Monsellato, Igor; Valvo, Manuela; Cossu, Maria Laura; Ghezzi, Tiago Leal; Shmaissany, Kassem

    2016-01-01

    The laparoscopic approach for treatment of rectal cancer has been proven feasible and oncologically safe, and is able to offer better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures, mainly in terms of reduced length of hospital stay and time to return to working activity. In spite of this, the laparoscopic technique is usually practised only in high-volume experienced centres, mainly because it requires a prolonged and demanding learning curve. It has been estimated that over 50 operations are required for an experienced colorectal surgeon to achieve proficiency with this technique. Robotic surgery enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, thus promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. It has high-definition three-dimensional vision, it translates the surgeon’s hand movements into precise movements of the instruments inside the patient, the camera is held and moved by the first surgeon, and a fourth robotic arm is available as a fixed retractor. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on short- and long-term results, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:26811606

  17. Long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis in lung cancer surgery: correlation between microbiological findings and empyema development.

    PubMed

    Ratto, G B; Fantino, G; Tassara, E; Angelini, M; Spessa, E; Parodi, A

    1994-12-01

    This study was planned in order to determine the value of antimicrobial prophylaxis in preventing post-operative empyema in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. Two-hundred consecutive subjects operated upon for lung cancer received teicoplanin and aztreonam, starting at the induction of anesthesia and lasting until removal of the pleural drains. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were taken from: (1) the bronchus at the time of surgical division; (2) the pleural space before closure of the chest; (3) the pleural fluid during the post-operative period; and (4) the tips of chest drains at the time of their removal. In the 200 patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis, the number of post-operative empyemas (1%) was lower than that (7.5%) found in 53 comparable patients who were previously treated with placebo. In the 'placebo group', empyema was due to gram-positive bacteria, while in the 'prophylaxis group', it was caused by Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A significant (P < 0.05) correlation between infected bronchial secretions, pleural space contamination at surgery, contamination of chest fluid and drains during the post-operative period, and empyema development was demonstrated. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis, while being effective in preventing post-operative empyema, may induce the colonization of the respiratory tract with highly resistant gram-negative bacteria. PMID:7704492

  18. Therapeutic effects of cytoprotective agent on breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wei; Yu, Zhuang; Wang, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Most patients will choose breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery, while radiotherapy will damage skin and soft tissue so that will have adverse effect on reconstruction. In this study, we assume that the usage of Amifostine can reduce the incidence of complications after breast reconstruction so that provides more choices of reconstruction operation. Dividing SD rats into surgical placement expansion material group (include 15 ml normal saline) and simple operation group. Then further divide the former into non intervention group , radiation group and Radiation therapy combined with Amie amifostine treatment group. The decubation is 45 days after operation. Macroscopic evaluate the complications of skin and soft tissue by ImageJ. There is no obvious complications of skin and soft tissue for control group, radiotherapy alone group and radiotherapy with application of Amifostine group by macroscopic evaluation. The animals that are in expanded object group, damage probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is lower than that of radiotherapy alone group (30% vs. 69%, P=0.041). ImageJ shows the necrosis probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is obvious lower than radiotherapy alone group (6.96% vs. 12.94%, P=0.019). In conclusion, prevention and treatment of Amifostine can significantly reduce the complications of skin and soft tissue which is helpful to breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery. PMID:26885163

  19. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus open resection of lung metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zhiliang; Zhang, Haoliang; Gui, Linyan; Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Song

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the short and long-term survival outcomes between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and open resection of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Between January 2006 and January 2013, 57 patients underwent VATS of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. These patients were compared with a consecutive matched group of 57 patients who underwent open resection within the same period. The two groups were similar in terms of age, gender, tumor size, number of tumors, tumor laterality and type of pulmonary resections. The operative time was longer in the VATS group, but the estimated blood loss was less in the VATS group than in the open group. Postoperative 30-day mortality, 30-day complications were similar between the groups. More complications were classified as major in patients underwent open resection, though the difference was not significant (P = 0.297). The 5-year overall survival rate was 50% for VATS and 46% for open resection (P = 0.251). The 5-year overall disease-free survival time was similar in two groups (P = 0.457). The findings suggest that VATS is associated with less blood loss than open resection for lung metastases of colorectal cancer. According to our results, VATS for lung metastases from colorectal cancer is equivalent to open resection in terms of long-term survival outcomes. PMID:26550296

  20. New trends in breast cancer surgery: a therapeutic approach increasingly efficacy and respectful of the patient

    PubMed Central

    FRANCESCHINI, G.; SANCHEZ, A. MARTIN; DI LEONE, A.; MAGNO, S.; MOSCHELLA, F.; ACCETTA, C.; MASETTI, R.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of breast cancer has undergone continuous and profound changes over the last 40 years. The evolution from aggressive and mutilating treatment to conservative approach has been long, but constant, despite the controversies that appeared every time a new procedure came to light. Today, the aesthetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients coupled with the oncological safety is the goal of the modern breast surgeon. Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the gold standard approach for patients with early stage breast cancer and the recent introduction of “oncoplastic techniques” has furtherly increased the use of breast-conserving procedures. Mastectomy remains a valid surgical alternative in selected cases and is usually associated with immediate reconstructive procedures. New surgical procedures called “conservative mastectomies” are emerging as techniques that combine oncological safety and cosmesis by entirely removing the breast parenchyma sparing the breast skin and nipple-areola complex. Staging of the axilla has also gradually evolved toward less aggressive approaches with the adoption of sentinel node biopsy and new therapeutic strategies are emerging in patients with a pathological positivity in sentinel lymph node biopsy. The present work will highlight the new surgical treatment options increasingly efficacy and respectful of breast cancer patients. PMID:26712068

  1. Update on the management of pancreatic cancer: surgery is not enough.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Daniel; Gustafsson, Adam; Andersson, Roland

    2015-03-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of death in cancer and has a 5-year survival of < 5%. Only about 15% of the patients present with a resectable PDAC with potential to undergo "curative" surgery. After surgery, local and systemic recurrence, is though very common. The median survival of resected patients with adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery is only 20-23 mo. This underscores the significant need to improve PDAC management strategies. Increased survival rate is dependent on new breakthroughs in our understanding of not at least tumor biology. The aim of this review is to update and comment on recent knowledge concerning PDAC biology and new diagnostics and treatment modalities. One fundamental approach to improve survival rates is by earlier and improved diagnosis of the disease. In recent years, novel blood-based biomarkers have emerged based on genetic, epigenetic and protein changes in PDAC with very promising results. For biomarkers to enter clinical practice they need to have been developed using adequate control groups and provide high sensitivity and specificity and by this identify patients at risk already in a pre-symptomatic stage. Another way to improve outcomes, is by employing neoadjuvant treatments thereby increasing the number of resectable cases. Novel systemic treatment regimes like FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel have demonstrated improvements in prolonging survival in advanced cases, but long-term survival is still scarce. The future improved understanding of PDAC biology will inevitably render new treatment options directed against both the cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:25805920

  2. Update on the management of pancreatic cancer: Surgery is not enough

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Daniel; Gustafsson, Adam; Andersson, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of death in cancer and has a 5-year survival of < 5%. Only about 15% of the patients present with a resectable PDAC with potential to undergo “curative” surgery. After surgery, local and systemic recurrence, is though very common. The median survival of resected patients with adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery is only 20-23 mo. This underscores the significant need to improve PDAC management strategies. Increased survival rate is dependent on new breakthroughs in our understanding of not at least tumor biology. The aim of this review is to update and comment on recent knowledge concerning PDAC biology and new diagnostics and treatment modalities. One fundamental approach to improve survival rates is by earlier and improved diagnosis of the disease. In recent years, novel blood-based biomarkers have emerged based on genetic, epigenetic and protein changes in PDAC with very promising results. For biomarkers to enter clinical practice they need to have been developed using adequate control groups and provide high sensitivity and specificity and by this identify patients at risk already in a pre-symptomatic stage. Another way to improve outcomes, is by employing neoadjuvant treatments thereby increasing the number of resectable cases. Novel systemic treatment regimes like FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel have demonstrated improvements in prolonging survival in advanced cases, but long-term survival is still scarce. The future improved understanding of PDAC biology will inevitably render new treatment options directed against both the cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:25805920

  3. Combinations of gene ontology and pathway characterize and predict prognosis genes for recurrence of gastric cancer after surgery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haiyan; Guo, Zhanjun; Wang, Cuijv

    2015-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of death from cancer globally. The most common cause of GC is the infection of Helicobacter pylori, but ∼11% of cases are caused by genetic factors. However, recurrences occur in approximately one-third of stage II GC patients, even if they are treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. This is potentially due to expression variation of genes; some candidate prognostic genes were identified in patients with high-risk recurrences. The objective of this study was to develop an effective computational method for meaningfully interpreting these GC-related genes and accurately predicting novel prognostic genes for high-risk recurrence patients. We employed properties of genes (gene ontology [GO] and KEGG pathway information) as features to characterize GC-related genes. We obtained an optimal set of features for interpreting these genes. By applying the minimum redundancy maximum relevance algorithm, we predicted the GC-related genes. With the same approach, we further predicted the genes for the prognostic of high-risk recurrence. We obtained 1104 GO terms and KEGG pathways and 530 GO terms and KEGG pathways, respectively, that characterized GC-related genes and recurrence-related genes well. Finally, three novel prognostic genes were predicted to help supplement genetic markers of high-risk GC patients for recurrence after surgery. An in-depth text mining indicated that the results are quite consistent with previous knowledge. Survival analysis of patients confirmed the novel prognostic genes as markers. By analyzing the related genes, we developed a systematic method to interpret the possible underlying mechanism of GC. The novel prognostic genes facilitate the understanding and therapy of GC recurrences after surgery. PMID:26154702

  4. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-radioguided surgery for metastatic lymph nodes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Tobias; Weirich, Gregor; Schottelius, Margret; Weineisen, Martina; Frisch, Benjamin; Okur, Asli; Kübler, Hubert; Thalgott, Mark; Navab, Nassir; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Eiber, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of (68)Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen-N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid ((68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging in prostate cancer (PCa), even small metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) can be visualized. However, intraoperative detection of such LNs may not be easy owing to their inconspicuous morphology and/or atypical localization. The aim of our feasibility study was to evaluate PSMA-radioguided surgery for detection of metastatic LNs. One patient with primary PCa and evidence of LN metastases and four PCa patients with evidence of recurrent disease to regional LNs on (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET hybrid imaging received an intravenous injection of an (111)In-PSMA investigation and therapy agent 24h before surgery. Metastatic LNs were tracked intraoperatively using a gamma probe with acoustic and visual feedback. All radioactive-positive LN specimens detected in vivo were confirmed by ex vivo measurements and corresponded to PSMA-avid metastatic disease according to histopathology analysis. Intraoperative use of the gamma probe detected all PSMA-positive lesions identified on preoperative (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. Detection of small subcentimeter metastatic LNs was facilitated, and PSMA-radioguided surgery in two patients revealed additional lesions close to known tumor deposits that were not detected by preoperative (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. However, greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed to determine the future role of PSMA-radioguided surgery. PMID:25957851

  5. Facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuwu; Liu, Fei

    2013-09-01

    It is one of the hot research problems nowadays to find a quick and accurate method of acquiring the facial plastic surgery area to provide sufficient but irredundant autologous or in vitro skin source for covering extensive wound, trauma, and burnt area. At present, the acquisition of facial plastic surgery area mainly includes model laser scanning, point cloud data acquisition, pretreatment of point cloud data, three-dimensional model reconstruction, and computation of area. By using this method, the area can be computed accurately, but it is hard to control the random error, and it requires a comparatively longer computation period. In this article, a facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution is proposed. This method applies symmetric treatment to the point cloud based on the pretreatment of point cloud data, through which the comparison diagram color difference map of point cloud error before and after symmetry is obtained. The slicing mathematical model of facial plastic area is got through color difference map diagram. By solving the point cloud data in this area directly, the facial plastic area is acquired. The point cloud data are directly operated in this method, which can accurately and efficiently complete the surgery area computation. The result of the comparative analysis shows the method is effective in facial plastic surgery area. PMID:24036743

  6. Growth hormone, alone and in combination with insulin, increases whole body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics in cancer patients after surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, R S; Harrison, L E; Pearlstone, D B; Burt, M; Brennan, M F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of growth hormone, alone and in combination with insulin, on the protein kinetics of patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer who have undergone surgery and are receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with malignancies of the upper GI tract are at increased risk for malnutrition and perioperative death and complications. Standard nutritional support has not significantly altered outcome. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin have been shown to have some benefit in patients with cancer; however, their action in patients undergoing resection has not previously been studied. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing surgery for upper GI tract malignancies were prospectively randomized into one of three nutritional support groups after surgery: 10 patients received standard TPN, 10 received TPN plus daily injections of GH, and 10 received daily GH, systemic insulin, and TPN. The patients underwent a protein kinetic radiotracer study on the fifth day after surgery to determine whole body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics. RESULTS: Patients who received standard TPN only were in a state of negative skeletal muscle protein net balance. Those who received GH and insulin had improved skeletal muscle protein net balance compared with the TPN only group. Whole body protein net balance was improved in the GH and the GH and insulin groups compared with the TPN only group. GH and insulin combined did not improve whole body net balance more than GH alone. GH administration significantly increased serum IGF-1 and GH levels. Insulin infusion significantly increased serum insulin levels and the insulin/glucagon ratio. CONCLUSION: Growth hormone and GH plus insulin regimens improve protein kinetic parameters in patients with upper GI tract cancer who are receiving TPN after undergoing surgery. PMID:9923794

  7. Evaluation of 30-Day Hospital Readmission After Surgery for Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer in a Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Ramez N.; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bristow, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze rate, risk factors, and costs associated with 30-day readmission after ovarian cancer surgery. Patients and Methods The SEER-Medicare linked database (1992 to 2010) was used to evaluate readmission rates within 30 days of index surgery in patients with stage IIIC/IV ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with readmission. Results Of 5,152 eligible patients, 1,003 (19.5%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Mean patient age was 75 years. Diagnoses associated with readmission included infection (34.7%), dehydration (34.3%), ileus/obstruction (26.2%), metabolic/electrolyte derangements (23.1%), and anemia (12.3%). In multivariable analysis, year of discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission (1996 to 2000: odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.71; 2001 to 2005: OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.0; 2006 to 2010: OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.21; referent years 1992 to 1995), as were length of index hospital stay more than 8 days (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.64) and discharge to a skilled nursing facility (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.63). Patients readmitted within 30 days had a significantly greater 1-year mortality rate compared with patients not readmitted (41.1% v 25.1%, respectively; P < .001). The median cost of readmission hospital stay was $9,220 in year 2010 dollars, with a total cost of $9.3 million over the study period. Conclusion Early readmission after surgery for ovarian cancer is common. There is a significant association between 30-day readmission and 1-year mortality. These findings may catalyze development of targeted interventions to decrease early readmission, improve patient outcomes, and control health care costs. PMID:25385738

  8. Endoscopy vs surgery in the treatment of early gastric cancer: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, André; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; de Moura, Diogo Turiani Hourneaux; de Moura, Eduardo Turiani Hourneaux; Bravo, José Gonçalves Pereira; Yamazaki, Kendi; Sakai, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report a systematic review, establishing the available data to an unpublished 2a strength of evidence, better handling clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, LILACS, Scopus and CINAHL databases. Information of the selected studies was extracted on characteristics of trial participants, inclusion and exclusion criteria, interventions (mainly, mucosal resection and submucosal dissection vs surgical approach) and outcomes (adverse events, different survival rates, mortality, recurrence and complete resection rates). To ascertain the validity of eligible studies, the risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The analysis of the absolute risk of the outcomes was performed using the software RevMan, by computing risk differences (RD) of dichotomous variables. Data on RD and 95%CIs for each outcome were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel test and inconsistency was qualified and reported in χ2 and the Higgins method (I2). Sensitivity analysis was performed when heterogeneity was higher than 50%, a subsequent assay was done and other findings were compiled. RESULTS: Eleven retrospective cohort studies were selected. The included records involved 2654 patients with early gastric cancer that filled the absolute or expanded indications for endoscopic resection. Three-year survival data were available for six studies (n = 1197). There were no risk differences (RD) after endoscopic and surgical treatment (RD = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.02-0.05, P = 0.51). Five-year survival data (n = 2310) showed no difference between the two groups (RD = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.01-0.03, P = 0.46). Recurrence data were analized in five studies (1331 patients) and there was no difference between the approaches (RD = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.00-0.02, P = 0.09). Adverse event data were identified in eight studies (n = 2439). A significant difference was detected (RD = -0.08, 95%CI: -0.10--0.05, P < 0.05), demonstrating better results with endoscopy. Mortality data were obtained in four studies (n = 1107). There was no difference between the groups (RD = -0.01, 95%CI: -0.02-0.00, P = 0.22). CONCLUSION: Three-, 5-year survival, recurrence and mortality are similar for both groups. Considering complication, endoscopy is better and, analyzing complete resection data, it is worse than surgery. PMID:26675093

  9. The Long-Term Outcomes of Induction Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Hidetaka; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Nakajima, Yuki; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Takuya; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Nishimura, Yu; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the concept of induction therapy followed by surgical resection for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) has found general acceptance, the appropriate indications and the strategy for this treatment are still controversial. Methods From 2000 through 2008, 36 patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. We retrospectively reviewed these cases, analyzed the outcomes and examined the prognosis. Results The median radiation dose given was 60 Gy. Chemotherapy included a platinum agent in all cases; cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 9 cases, and a carboplatin-based chemotherapy regimen was administered to 27. A complete resection was performed in 94% of the patients. Seventeen (47.2%) patients exhibited a complete pathological response, and downstaging was induced in 26 (72%) cases. The morbidity and 30-day mortality rates were 11.1 and 0%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rate in the patients with complete resection (n = 33) was 83.3%. Conclusions Induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for LA-NSCLC provided a favorable prognosis for selected patients. A complete pathological response was found in about half of cases. This strategy is feasible and was associated with low morbidity and high resectability rates, suggesting that it contributed to improving the treatment results. PMID:25493083

  10. Easy method of centralized fixation of endotracheal tube in cleft lip and palate surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, S. P.; Chavan, Navdeep; Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    As we all know that fixation of endotracheal tube is very important aspect in cleft palate and maxillofacial surgery. During cleft palate and oral surgery various methods of fixation and modified tubes are deviced to make surgery safer and ergonomically better. Our method consist of 3 point fixation of tube (RAE) with dynaplast, which is freely available, cheap and good Adhesive quality. Dynaplast divided into 3 phalanges (one central and two lateral) and one portion undivided as central limb. This undivided central limb is fixed in centre of chin and other 3 phalanges wrap around tube on either side. This fixation totally takes away any lateral movements of tube. This method can be used with any tube (RAE/ Oxford/Flexometallic). Our method is described for its simplicity, ease and convinence and result which impart universally similar results with all different members of our anesthetist team. PMID:22754171

  11. Effect of Interval between Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery on Oncological Outcome for Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Zheng, Zheng-Rong; Chi, Pan; Lin, Hui-Ming; Lu, Xing-Rong; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the influence of interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and surgery on oncological outcome. Methods. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for publications reporting oncological outcomes of patients following rectal cancer surgery performed at different NCRT-surgery intervals. Relative risk (RR) of pathological complete response (pCR) among different intervals was pooled. Results. Fifteen retrospective cohort studies representing 4431 patients met the inclusion criteria. There was a significantly increased rate of pCR in patients treated with surgery followed 7 or 8 weeks later (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18–1.78; and P < 0.01 and RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15–1.92; and P = 0.002, resp.). There is no consistent evidence of improved local control or overall survival with longer or shorter intervals. Conclusion. Performing surgery 7-8 weeks after the end of NCRT results in the highest chance of achieving pCR. For candidates of abdominoperineal resection before NCRT, these data support implementation of prolonging the interval after NCRT to optimize the chances of pCR and perhaps add to the possibility of ultimate organ preservation.

  12. Differences between Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Inhalation Anesthesia in Free Flap Surgery of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Wu, Chih-Chen; Tang, Tsung-Yung; Lu, Chun-Te; Lai, Chih-Sheng; Shen, Ching-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have evaluated risk factors associated with complications after free flap surgery, but these studies did not evaluate the impact of anesthesia management. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the differences between patients who received inhalation and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) in free flap surgery. Methods One hundred and fifty-six patients who underwent free flap surgery for head and neck cancer were retrospectively divided into the TIVA (96 patients) and the inhalation group (87 patients). Perioperative hemodynamic data and postoperative medical complications were determined by documented medical records. Results Ninety-six patients in the TIVA group were compared with 87 patients who received inhalation anesthesia. There were no differences in gender, age, classification of physical status based on American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and cormobidities between the two groups. Patients in the TIVA group required less perioperative crystalloid (4172.46 ± 1534.95 vs. 5183.91 ± 1416.40 ml, p < 0.0001) and colloid (572.46 ± 335.14 vs. 994.25 ± 434.65 ml, p < 0.0001) to maintain hemodynamic stability. Although the mean anesthesia duration was shorter in the TIVA group (11.02 ± 2.84 vs. 11.70± 1.96 hours, p = 0.017), the blood loss was similar between groups (p = 0.71). There was no difference in surgical complication rate, but patients in the TIVA group developed fewer pulmonary complications (18 vs. 47, p = 0.0008). After multivariate regression, patients in the TIVA group had a significantly reduced risk of pulmonary complication compared with the inhalation group (Odds ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.18–0.92). Conclusions Total intravenous anesthesia was associated with significantly fewer pulmonary complications in patients who received free flap reconstruction. PMID:26849439

  13. The Process of Deciding About Prophylactic Surgery for Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Patient Questions, Uncertainties, and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Chung, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Many women who have, or are at risk for, BRCA 1/2 mutations or breast cancer decline prophylactic surgery, but questions remain as to how they make and experience these decisions. Our methods consisted of interviewing 32 women for 2 hr each; 19 were tested, 20 were symptomatic. Our results showed that these surgical options forced women to confront questions, involving stresses and uncertainties, regarding: implications of test results, prognoses with and without surgery, and effects of surgery (e.g., on self-image). Given these dilemmas, many women turned to doctors who then ranged in what and how they communicated about these issues, and how strongly they offered input. Some patients felt disappointed at provider non-directiveness, while others found providers too directive. Patients turned to family members and friends, who also ranged in how and what they communicated, and whether they agreed with the patient and/or each other. Many women turned to patient communities, but then had to decide how involved to be, and what information to provide or accept. These data suggest that providers and others may need to be more aware of the series of questions, involving stresses and uncertainties, that these women face, and the complex roles providers themselves may play. These data highlight needs for physicians to be able to address these issues flexibly, gauging patient preferences for information and paternalism (vs. autonomy). These data suggest areas for future research: for example, on how providers decide whether, what and how to communicate about these issues, and how these choices shape treatment decisions. PMID:20014126

  14. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Octreotide as Palliative Therapy for Cancer-Related Bowel Obstruction That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Colorectal Cancer; Constipation, Impaction, and Bowel Obstruction; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  16. Case report of two patients having successful surgery for lung cancer after treatment for Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuki; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Atari, Maiko; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgery for locally advanced lung cancer is carried out following chemoradiotherapy. However, there are no reports clarifying what the effects on the subsequent prognosis are when surgery is carried out in cases with radiation pneumonitis. In this paper, we report on 2 cases of non-small cell lung cancer with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis after induction chemoradiotherapy, in which we were able to safely perform radical surgery subsequent to the treatment for pneumonia. Presentation of cases Case 1 was a 68-year-old male with a diagnosis of squamous cell lung cancer cT2aN2M0, Stage IIIA. Sixty days after completion of the radiotherapy, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed. After administration of predonine, and upon checking that the radiation pneumonitis had improved, radical surgery was performed. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male. He was diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer cT2bN1M0, Stage IIB. One hundred and twenty days after completion of the radiotherapy, he was diagnosed with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. After administration of predonine, the symptoms disappeared, and radical surgery was performed. In both cases, the postoperative course was favorable, without complications, and the patients were discharged. Conclusion Surgery for lung cancer on patients with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis should be deferred until the patients complete steroid therapy, and the clinical pneumonitis is cured. Moreover, it is believed that it is important to remove the resolved radiation pneumonitis without leaving any residual areas and not to cut into any areas of active radiation pneumonitis as much as possible. PMID:26793310

  17. Postoperative complications and clinical outcomes among patients undergoing thoracic and gastrointestinal cancer surgery: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Benítez, Frank Daniel; Gutiérrez-Noyola, Anarelys; Echevarría-Víctores, Adisbel

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the influence of postoperative complications on the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent thoracic and gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted regarding 179 consecutive patients who received thorax or digestive tract surgery due to cancer and were admitted to an oncological intensive care unit. The Postoperative Morbidity Survey was used to evaluate the incidence of postoperative complications. The influence of postoperative complications on both mortality and length of hospital stay were also assessed. Results Postoperative complications were found for 54 patients (30.2%); the most common complications were respiratory problems (14.5%), pain (12.9%), cardiovascular problems (11.7%), infectious disease (11.2%), and surgical wounds (10.1%). A multivariate logistic regression found that respiratory complications (OR = 18.68; 95%CI = 5.59 - 62.39; p < 0.0001), cardiovascular problems (OR = 5.06, 95%CI = 1.49 - 17.13; p = 0.009), gastrointestinal problems (OR = 26.09; 95%CI = 6.80 - 100.16; p < 0.0001), infectious diseases (OR = 20.55; 95%CI = 5.99 - 70.56; p < 0.0001) and renal complications (OR = 18.27; 95%CI = 3.88 - 83.35; p < 0.0001) were independently associated with hospital mortality. The occurrence of at least one complication increased the likelihood of remaining hospitalized (log-rank test, p = 0.002). Conclusions Postoperative complications are frequent disorders that are associated with poor clinical outcomes; thus, structural and procedural changes should be implemented to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  18. Determining Which Patients Require Irradiation of the Supraclavicular Nodal Area After Surgery for N1 Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Doo Ho; Lim, Young Hyuk; Ahn, Jin Suk; Yang, Jung Hyun; Nam, Suk Jin

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: We designed this study to determine which patients have a high risk of supraclavicular node recurrence in N1 breast cancer previously treated with surgery but not having received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT) and to identify which patients needed SCRT. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 448 pathologic N1 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy or breast-conserving treatment, but without SCRT, between 1994 and 2003. Mastectomy was performed in 302 patients (67.4%). The median number of axillary nodes dissected was 17 (range, 5-53). Systemic chemotherapy was administered in 443 patients (98.9%), and 144 patients received radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The median follow-up was 88 months (range, 15-170 months). Results: At follow-up, the treatment failed in 101 patients (22.5%), and 39 patients (8.7%) had supraclavicular node recurrence. Prognostic factors in supraclavicular node recurrence included lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.0001), extracapsular extension (p < 0.0001), the number of involved axillary nodes (p = 0.0003), and the level of involved axillary nodes (p = 0.012) in univariate and multivariate analyses. The total number of prognostic factors correlated well with supraclavicular node recurrence. In the analysis of 5-year supraclavicular node recurrence-free survival, patients with two or more factors showed a significantly higher recurrence rate than did patients with fewer than two factors (96.8% and 72.9%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The prognostic factors associated with supraclavicular node recurrence were lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular extension, and the number and level of involved axillary nodes. Patients with two or more prognostic factors might benefit from SCRT.

  19. A cohort investigation of anaemia, treatment and the use of allogeneic blood transfusion in colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Barrie D.; Mishra, Amitabh; Stavrou, Christiana L.; Beeby, Sophia; Simpson, J. Alastair; Acheson, Austin G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preoperative identification and treatment of anaemia is advocated as part of Patient Blood Management due to the association of adverse outcome with the perioperative use of blood transfusion. This study aimed to establish the rate of anaemia identification, treatment and implications of this preoperative anaemia on ARBT use. Methods All patients who underwent elective surgery for colorectal cancer over 18monthsat a single Tertiary Centre were reviewed. Electronic databases and patient casenotes were reviewed to yield required data. Results Complete data was available on 201 patients. 67% (n=135) had haemoglobin tested at presentation. There was an inverse correlation between tumour size and initial haemoglobin (P<0.01, Rs=?0.3). Initial haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in patients with right colonic tumours (P<0.01). Patients who were anaemic preoperatively received a mean 0.91 units (95%CI 00.7) per patient which was significantly higher than non-anaemic patients (0.3 units [95%CI 01.3], P<0.01). For every 1g/dl preoperative haemoglobin increase, the likelihood of transfusion was reduced by approximately 40% (OR 0.57 [95%CI 0.4580.708], P<0.01). Laparoscopic surgery was associated with fewer anaemic patients transfused (P<0.01). Conclusion Haemoglobin levels should be routinely checked at diagnosis of colorectal cancer, particularly those with large or right sided lesions. Early identification of anaemia allows initiation of treatment which may reduce transfusion risk even with modest haemoglobin rises. The correct treatment of this anaemia needs to be established. PMID:26909150

  20. Preliminary study of transoral robotic surgery for pharyngeal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya; Fujii, Taihei; Koyama, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Aigo; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-03-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with the da Vinci Surgical System has been used for the removal of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening survival. While TORS has been approved in many countries, Japan's FDA has not yet done so. Our hospital started using TORS with the approval of the Ethical Review Board and the Minimum Invasive Surgical Center Committee at Tottori University. No surgical outcomes of TORS for Japanese patients with head and neck cancer have been reported in Japan. This paper deals with the outcomes and feasibility of TORS for Japanese patients with pharyngeal cancer at our institution. TORS was performed for 10 patients with T1, T2, T3 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2013 and 2014. This is a single-institutional study. TORS could be completed for all cases, except one patient that was not candidate, and no intraoperative conversion to an open surgical procedure was required. Five patients underwent neck dissection, two of them concurrent and three staged. Of all patients, positive surgical margins were detected in two. The average blood loss including neck dissection was 21.5 ± 33.4 ml, the operation time was 183 ± 36 min and the console time was 103 ± 22 min. No tracheostomy had been performed either pre- or postoperatively, and there was no difference between preoperative and postoperative swallowing functions. In this single-institutional preliminary study, we demonstrated that TORS is a feasible and safe treatment. A clinical multi-institutional study of TORS for laryngopharyngeal cancer has been approved as an advanced medical system study and is under way. In the near future, it is expected that the efficacy and safety of TORS for laryngopharyngeal cancer will be confirmed as the result of this multiple-institutional clinical study in Japan. PMID:26645072

  1. Changes in specialists' perspectives on cancer genetic testing, prophylactic surgery and insurance discrimination: then and now.

    PubMed

    Matloff, Ellen T; Bonadies, Danielle C; Moyer, Anne; Brierley, Karina L

    2014-04-01

    We surveyed cancer genetics specialists in 1998 to learn what they would do if at 50% risk to carry a BRCA or Lynch syndrome mutation. We chose to repeat our study 14 years later, to examine how perspectives have changed with the extensive data now available. In July 2012 we surveyed the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Cancer Special Interest Group via an internet based survey. We found statistically significant increases in the percentage of specialists who: would undergo BRCA testing (p = 0.0006), opt for prophylactic bilateral mastectomy (p =0.0001), opt for prophylactic removal of their uterus and ovaries for Lynch syndrome (p =0.0057 and P = 0.0090, respectively), and bill testing to insurance (p >0.0001). There were also statistically significant decreases in the percentage of participants who would have their colon removed for Lynch syndrome (p = 0.0002) and use an alias when pursuing testing (p > 0.0001). Over the past 14 years there has been a major change in perspective amongst cancer genetic specialists regarding genetic testing, prophylactic surgery and insurance discrimination. PMID:23852268

  2. Intraoperative Targeted Optical Imaging: A Guide towards Tumor-Free Margins in Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Orbay, Hakan; Bean, Jero; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, development of various imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography greatly facilitated the early detection of cancer. Another important aspect that is closely related to the survival of cancer patients is complete tumor removal during surgical resection. The major obstacle in achieving this goal is to distinguish between tumor tissue and normal tissue during surgery. Currently, tumor margins are typically assessed by visual assessment and palpation of the tumor intraoperatively. However, the possibility of microinvasion to the surrounding tissues makes it difficult to determine an adequate tumor-free excision margin, often forcing the surgeons to perform wide excisions including the healthy tissue that may contain vital structures. It would be ideal to remove the tumor completely, with minimal safety margins, if surgeons could see precise tumor margins during the operation. Molecular imaging with optical techniques can visualize the tumors via fluorophore conjugated probes targeting tumor markers such as proteins and enzymes that are upregulated during malignant transformation. Intraoperative use of this technique may facilitate complete excision of the tumor and tumor micromasses located beyond the visual capacity of the naked eye, ultimately improving the clinical outcome and survival rates of cancer patients. PMID:24372232

  3. Emotional and sexual concerns in women undergoing pelvic surgery and associated treatment for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Cara; Gunn, Abigail; Sonoda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of gynecologic cancer can cause short- and long-term effects on sexuality, emotional well being, reproductive function, and overall quality of life (QoL). Fortunately, innovative approaches developed over the past several decades have improved oncologic outcomes and reduced treatment sequelae; however, these side effects of treatment are still prevalent. In this article, we provide an overview of the various standard-of-care pelvic surgeries and multimodality cancer treatments (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) by anatomic site and highlight the potential emotional and sexual consequences that can influence cancer survivorship and QoL. Potential screening tools that can be used in clinical practice to identify some of these concerns and treatment side effects and possible solutions are also provided. These screening tools include brief assessments that can be used in the clinical care setting to assist in the identification of problematic issues throughout the continuum of care. This optimizes quality of care, and ultimately, QoL in these women. Prospective clinical trials with gynecologic oncology populations should include patient-reported outcomes to identify subgroups at risk for difficulties during and following treatment for early intervention. PMID:26816823

  4. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. Of the 438 articles accessed, 20 qualified for inclusion, of which 16 and 4 were quantitative and qualitative articles, respectively, and mainly quality-of-life assessments. Time of measurement ranged from time of diagnosis to 9 years after the surgical procedure. The total number of patients included in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, with both early and late interrelated effects, and by the side effects of adjuvant therapy. PMID:26948021

  5. Development and feasibility of a set of quality indicators relative to the timeliness and organisation of care for new breast cancer patients undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because breast cancer is a major public health issue, it is particularly important to measure the quality of the care provided to patients. Survival rates are affected by the timeliness of care, and waiting times constitute key quality criteria. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a set of quality indicators (QIs) relative to the timeliness and organisation of care in new patients with infiltrating, non-inflammatory and metastasis-free breast cancer undergoing surgery. The ultimate aim was to use these QIs to compare hospitals. Methods The method of QI construction and testing was developed by COMPAQ-HPST. We first derived a set of 8 QIs from consensus guidelines with the aid of experts and professional associations and then tested their metrological properties in a panel of 60 volunteer hospitals. We assessed feasibility using a grid exploring 5 dimensions, discriminatory power using the Gini coefficient as a measure of dispersion, and inter-observer reliability using the Kappa coefficient. Results Overall, 3728 records were included in the analyses. All 8 QIs showed acceptable feasibility (but one QI was subject to misinterpretation), fairly strong agreement between observers (Kappa = 0.66), and wide variations in implementation among hospitals (Gini coefficient < 0.45 except for QI 6 (patient information)). They are thus suitable for use to compare hospitals and measure quality improvement. Conclusions Of the 8 QIs, 3 are ready for nationwide implementation (time to surgery, time to postoperative multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM), conformity of MDTM). Four are suitable for use only in hospitals offering surgery with on-site postoperative treatment (waiting time to first appointment after surgery, patient information, time to first postoperative treatment, and traceability of information relating to prognosis). Currently, in the French healthcare system, a patient receives cancer care from different institutions whose databases cannot as yet be easily merged. Nationwide implementation of QIs covering the entire care pathway will thus be a challenge. PMID:22721001

  6. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer: a literature review and recommendations from the Comité de l’évolution des pratiques en oncologie

    PubMed Central

    Morneau, Mélanie; Boulanger, Jim; Charlebois, Patrick; Latulippe, Jean-François; Lougnarath, Rasmy; Thibault, Claude; Gervais, Normand

    2013-01-01

    Background Adoption of the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer treatment has been slow owing to initial case study results suggesting high recurrence rates at port sites. The use of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer still raises a number of concerns, particularly with the technique’s complexity, learning curve and longer duration. After exploring the scientific literature comparing open and laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer with respect to oncologic efficacy and short-term outcomes, the Comité de l’évolution des pratiques en oncologie (CEPO) made recommendations for surgical practice in Quebec. Methods Scientific literature published from January 1995 to April 2012 was reviewed. Phase III clinical trials and meta-analyses were included. Results Sixteen randomized trials and 10 meta-analyses were retrieved. Analysis of the literature confirmed that for curative treatment of colorectal cancer, laparoscopy is not inferior to open surgery with respect to survival and recurrence rates. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery provides short-term advantages, including a shorter hospital stay, reduced analgesic use and faster recovery of intestinal function. However, this approach does require a longer operative time. Conclusion Considering the evidence, the CEPO recommends that laparoscopic resection be considered an option for the curative treatment of colon and rectal cancer; that decisions regarding surgical approach take into consideration surgeon experience, tumour stage, potential contraindications and patient expectations; and that laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer be performed only by appropriately trained surgeons who perform a sufficient volume annually to maintain competence. PMID:24067514

  7. Predictors of mortality within 1 year after primary ovarian cancer surgery: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ørskov, Mette; Iachina, Maria; Guldberg, Rikke; Mogensen, Ole; Mertz Nørgård, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify predictors of mortality within 1 year after primary surgery for ovarian cancer. Design Prospective nationwide cohort study from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2012. Setting Evaluation of data from the Danish Gynaecology Cancer Database and the Danish Civil Registration System. Participants 2654 women who underwent surgery due to a diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer. Outcome measures Overall survival and predictors of mortality within 0–180 and 181–360 days after the primary surgery. Examined predictors were age, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index (BMI), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumour tissue after surgery, perioperative blood transfusion and calendar year of surgery. Results The overall 1-year survival was 84%. Within 0–180 days after surgery, the 3 most important predictors of mortality from the multivariable model were residual tumour tissue >2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=4.58 (95% CI 3.20 to 6.59)), residual tumour tissue ≤2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=2.50 (95% CI 1.63 to 3.82)) and age >64 years versus age ≤64 years (HR=2.33 (95% CI 1.69 to 3.21)). Within 181–360 days after surgery, FIGO stages III–IV versus I–II (HR=2.81 (95% CI 1.75 to 4.50)), BMI<18.5 vs 18.5–25 kg/m2 (HR=2.08 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.66)) and residual tumour tissue >2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=1.84 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.70)) were the 3 most important predictors. Conclusions The most important predictors of mortality within 1 year after surgery were residual tumour tissue (0–180 days after surgery) and advanced FIGO stage (181–360 days after surgery). However, our results suggest that the surgeon should not just aim at radical surgery, but also pay special attention to comorbidity, nutritional state, age >64 years and the need for perioperative blood transfusion. PMID:27103625

  8. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy and surgery: two gold standards for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanbo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing clinical equipoise between surgery and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in the management of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC). Increasing evidence suggest similar outcomes between these modalities. Through the guidance of a multidisciplinary team, a shared decision making approach in this setting in favoured. PMID:26207241

  9. Pain on the first postoperative day after head and neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Inhestern, Johanna; Schuerer, Jenny; Illge, Christina; Thanos, Ira; Meissner, Winfried; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2015-11-01

    Postoperative pain within the first 24 h after head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery was assessed. Factors influencing postoperative pain were identified. In a prospective cohort single center study 145 HNC patients rated their pain on the first postoperative day using questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment (QUIPS) including numeric rating scales (NRS, 0-10) for the determination of patient's pain on ambulation, his maximal and minimal pain. QUIPS allowed a standardized assessment of patients' characteristics and pain-related parameters. The influence of these parameters on the patients' postoperative pain was estimated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. One-third had already pain prior to the surgical intervention. Overall, the mean pain on ambulation, maximal pain and minimal pain were 2.55 ± 2.36, 3.18 ± 2.86, and 1.38 ± 2.86 (NRS), respectively. 53 % of the patients had maximal pain scores >3. Multivariate analysis revealed independent predictors for more postoperative pain on ambulation: intensity of chronic preoperative pain, usage of non-opioids on ward, and existence of pain documentation on ward. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain and usage of non-opioids on ward were independent risk factors for more maximal pain. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain was independently associated to more minimal pain. Concerning pain management side effects, the risk for drowsiness increased with longer time of surgery. Postoperative pain after HNC surgery is highly variable and seems often to be unnecessarily high. Many patients seem to receive less analgesia than needed or ineffective analgesic drug regimes. PMID:25261106

  10. Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome Following Surgery for Lung Cancer: Symptoms and Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Kathleen G.; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Dabbs, Annette De Vito; Ferson, Peter F.; King, Linda; Dudjak, Linda A.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q.

    2015-01-01

    Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is a common complication following thoracic surgery. Most studies examining the influence of PTPS on patient-reported symptoms include few patients managed using a minimally invasive approach. Associated sensory changes, potentially neuropathic in origin, are not well described. We therefore examined the symptoms and quality of life (QOL) of patients with and without PTPS who underwent a standard thoracotomy (n = 43) or minimally invasive surgery (n = 54). Patients in this prospective, cross-sectional study completed questionnaires to assess pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), neuropathic symptoms (Neuropathic Symptom Questionnaire), symptom distress (Symptom Distress Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and QOL (Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–Lung). Excepting younger age (p = .009), no demographic or surgical characteristic differentiated patients with and without PTPS. Patients with PTPS described discomfort as pain only (15.1%), neuropathic symptoms only (30.2%) or pain and neuropathic symptoms (54.7%). Scores differed between patients with and without PTPS for symptom distress (p < .001), anxiety and depression (p < .001), and QOL (p = .009), with higher distress associated with PTPS. Despite new surgical techniques, PTPS remains common and results in considerable distress. A focused assessment is needed to identify all experiencing this condition, with referral to pain management specialists if symptoms persist. PMID:26649245

  11. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery in head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, V.A.; Pajak, T.F.

    1985-05-01

    Radiation therapy alone, surgery alone, or the combination of these two modalities, remain the accepted treatments in the management of epidermoid carcinomas of the mucosa of the head and neck. These modalities of therapy produce comparable results; but, radiotherapy alone has the advantage that it can conserve anatomy and function. Irradiation with teletherapy techniques, at times supplemented by interstitial brachytherapy, with doses ranging from 6600 to 8000 cGy, results in satisfactory tumor response (CR). The CR of T1N0 and T2N0 lesions will be 99% and 90% respectively, but only 29% in T4N3 tumors treated with radiation only. To improve on the limited CR rate achieved in the advanced stages, surgery is combined pre or post-irradiation, or reserved for the salvage of failures. In the oral cavity and oropharynx, these possible options give comparable tumor control and survival, but in the supraglottic larynx post-operative irradiation is superior to pre- operative radiotherapy. Tumor recurrence rates in the head and neck range from 15 to 34% depending on initial site, stage and type of therapy. Cancer control activities that emphasize prevention and early diagnosis should present a better future for these patients.

  12. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-07

    Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  13. Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  14. Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay to Predict Recurrence for Gastric Cancer Patients after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Choi, Min Gew; Lim, Do Hoon; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J.; Choi, Dong Il; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Das, Kakoli; Tan, Patrick; Jung, Sin Ho; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N = 432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N = 186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N = 216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N = 300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N = 216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence = 3.16, p = 0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio = 1.77, p = 0.0053). PMID:24598828

  15. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  16. A comprehensive multi-institutional study on postoperative adjuvant immunotherapy with oral streptococcal preparation OK-432 for patients after gastric cancer surgery. Kyoto Research Group for Digestive Organ Surgery.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The current study was designed to compare the effects of oral administration of the streptococcal preparation, OK-432, as an adjuvant immunotherapy versus those of intradermal administration of OK-432 on the survival of patients after surgery for gastric cancer. The patients were stratified into two groups after surgery: a curative surgery stratum and a palliative surgery stratum. Then the patients in each stratum were randomly assigned into three groups: an oral placebo group, an oral OK-432 group, and an intradermal OK-432 group. All of the patients were given fluoropyrimidines orally in combination with OK-432 or placebo for 2 years after surgery. A total of 1011 patients were registered between 1982 and 1985, and 970 patients were eligible for statistical analysis. The survival rate of the oral OK-432 group was significantly higher than those of the other two groups after curative surgery. There were no significant difference in the survival rates between the three groups after palliative surgery, however. The effect of oral OK-432 was quite pronounced in patients after curative surgery for stage II to IV gastric cancer, especially in those patients with regional node involvement. Furthermore, it was found that the spleen is necessary for effective immunotherapy with oral OK-432, because the survival rate of the oral OK-432 group was significantly improved in patients whose spleens were preserved, when compared with splenectomized patients. These results demonstrate that oral adjuvant immunotherapy with OK-432 is beneficial after curative surgery for gastric cancer. PMID:1632701

  17. Outcomes of Positron Emission Tomography-Staged Clinical N3 Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hae Jin; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Kwan Ho; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kang, Han-Sung; Chie, Eui Kyu; Ha, Sung Whan

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcome and efficacy of regional lymph node irradiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and surgery in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive clinical N3 (cN3) breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 55 patients with ipsilateral infraclavicular (ICL), internal mammary (IMN), or supraclavicular (SCL) lymph node involvement in the absence of distant metastases, as revealed by an initial PET scan, were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical nodal stage at diagnosis (2002 AJCC) was cN3a in 14 patients (26%), cN3b in 12 patients (22%), and cN3c in 29 patients (53%). All patients were treated with NCT, followed by mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery and subsequent radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent. Results: At the median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-80 months), 20 patients (36%) had developed treatment failures, including distant metastases either alone or combined with locoregional recurrences that included one ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), six regional failures (RF), and one case of combined IBR and RF. Only 3 patients (5.5%) exhibited treatment failure at the initial PET-positive clinical N3 lymph node. The 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 80%, 60%, and 79%, respectively. RT delivered to PET-positive IMN regions in cN3b patients and at higher doses ({>=}55 Gy) to SCL regions in cN3c patients was not associated with improved 5-year IMN/SCL relapse-free survival or DFS. Conclusion: NCT followed by surgery and RT, including the regional lymph nodes, resulted in excellent locoregional control for patients with PET-positive cN3 breast cancer. The primary treatment failure in this group was due to distant metastasis rather than RF. Neither higher-dose RT directed at PET-positive SCL nodes nor coverage of PET-positive IMN nodes was associated with additional gains in locoregional control or DFS.

  18. Comparing the postoperative outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy using a multi-port technique versus a single-port technique for primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chih-Shiun; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Liu, Zhen-Ying; Pennarun, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has attracted much attention recently; however, it is still very challenging to perform especially on more technically demanding sublobar anatomic resection procedures such as segmentectomy. Therefore we conducted a retrospective study on the perioperative results of single-port segmentectomy using a propensity-matched method for comparison with multi-port segmentectomy in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods For procedures of anatomic segmentectomy performed between May 2006 and March 2014, we retrieved data on patients’ demographic information, medical history, cancer information, and postoperative outcomes from our surgical database of thoracoscopic lung cancer surgery. Outcome variables included the number of lymph nodes retrieved during the surgery, the amount of blood loss, the duration of hospitalization, the length of the wound, the operation duration in minutes, and incidence and types of complication. The t-test and Chi-squared test were used to compare demographic and clinical variables between single- and multi-port approaches. Results A total of 98 consecutive patients who underwent VATS segmentectomy for lung cancer treatment were identified in our database: 52 (53.1%) underwent a single-port segmentectomy and 46 (46.9%) had a multi-port segmentectomy. After propensity score matching, the differences in patients’ age, pulmonary function tests, tumor size, and operating surgeons were no longer significant between the two sample groups. The length of the wound was the only surgical outcome for which single-port segmentectomy had a significantly better outcome than multi-port segmentectomy (P value <0.001). Conclusions This study showed that single-port VATS segmentectomy yielded comparable surgical outcomes to multi-port segmentectomy despite technique difficulties and smaller wound in our setting. PMID:27014476

  19. Fertility Preservation Methods in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peccatori, Fedro A.; Pup, Lino Del; Salvagno, Francesca; Guido, Maurizio; Sarno, Maria A.; Revelli, Alberto; Piane, Luisa Delle; Dolfin, Elisabetta; Franchi, Dorella; Molinari, Emanuela; Immediata, Valentina; Chiavari, Leonora; Vucetich, Alessandra; Borini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the recent advances in reproductive medicine, more and more young women with breast cancer may be offered the possibility of preserving their fertility. Fertility can be endangered by chemotherapy, by treatment duration and by patient's age at diagnosis. The currently available means to preserve a young woman's fertility are pharmacological protection with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues during chemotherapy, and ovarian tissue or oocyte/embryo freezing before treatment. New future venues, including in vitro maturation, will improve the feasibility and efficacy of the fertility preservation methods in breast cancer patients. PMID:22872792

  20. Dosimetric Evaluation of Different Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques for Breast Cancer After Conservative Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Wang, Yadi; Xu, Weidong; Jiang, Huayong; Liu, Qingzhi; Gao, Junmao; Yao, Bo; Hou, Jun; He, Heliang

    2015-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) potentially leads to a more favorite dose distribution compared to 3-dimensional or conventional tangential radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer after conservative surgery or mastectomy. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) among helical tomotherapy (HT), inverse-planned IMRT (IP-IMRT), and forward-planned field in field (FP-FIF) IMRT techniques after breast-conserving surgery. Computed tomography scans from 20 patients (12 left sided and 8 right sided) previously treated with T1N0 carcinoma were selected for this dosimetric planning study. We designed HT, IP-IMRT, and FP-FIF plans for each patient. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as OARs dose and volume parameters. Both HI and CI of the PTV showed statistically significant difference among IP-IMRT, FP-FIF, and HT with those of HT were best (P < .05). Compared to FP-FIF, IP-IMRT showed smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and breast, while HT indicated smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung but larger exposed volumes of contralateral lung and breast as well as heart. In addition, HT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of ipsilateral lung (except for fraction of lung volume receiving >30 Gy and 20 Gy), heart, contralateral lung, and breast compared with IP-IMRT. For breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, HT provides better dose homogeneity and conformity of PTV compared to IP-IMRT and FP-FIF techniques, especially for patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes involved. Meanwhile, HT decreases the OAR volumes receiving higher doses with an increase in the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Hence, composite factors including dosimetric advantage, clinical effect, and economic burden should be taken into comprehensive consideration when choosing an RT technique in clinical practice. PMID:25311257

  1. Preoperative Short-Course Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy Followed by Delayed Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Phase 2 Multicenter Study (KROG 10-01)

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan ; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Min Ju; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Jong Hoon; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Jun-Gi; Lee, Myung Ah; Nam, Taek-Keun

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase 2 multicenter trial was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative short-course concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer were enrolled. Radiation therapy of 25 Gy in 5 fractions was delivered over 5 consecutive days using helical tomotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered on the same 5 days with intravenous bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day). After 4 to 8 weeks, total mesorectal excision was performed. The primary endpoint was the pathologic downstaging (ypStage 0-I) rate, and secondary endpoints included tumor regression grade, tumor volume reduction rate, and toxicity. Results: Seventy-one patients completed the planned preoperative CRT and surgery. Downstaging occurred in 20 (28.2%) patients, including 1 (1.4%) with a pathologic complete response. Favorable tumor regression (grade 4-3) was observed in 4 (5.6%) patients, and the mean tumor volume reduction rate was 62.5 ± 21.3%. Severe (grade ≥3) treatment toxicities were reported in 27 (38%) patients from CRT until 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative short-course concurrent CRT followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer demonstrated poor pathologic responses compared with conventional long-course CRT, and it yielded considerable toxicities despite the use of an advanced radiation therapy technique.

  2. Transoperative refusion: a simple and safe method in emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Valoes, Sérgio Henrique Chagas; Leitão Neto, José da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to reinforce the importance of blood reinfusion as a cheap, safe and simple method, which can be used in small hospitals, especially those in which there is no blood bank. Moreover, even with the use of devices that perform the collection and filtration of blood, more recent studies show that the cost-benefit ratio is much better when autologous transfusion is compared with blood transfusions, even when there is injury to hollow viscera and blood contamination. It is known that the allogeneic blood transfusion carries a number of risks to patients, among them are the coagulation disorders mediated by excess enzymes in the conserved blood, and deficiency in clotting factors, mainly the Factor V, the proacelerin. Another factor would be the risk of contamination with still unknown pathogens or that are not investigated during screening for selection of donors, such as the West Nile Fever and Creutzfeldt-Jacob, better known as "Mad Cow" disease. Comparing both methods, we conclude that blood autotransfusion has numerous advantages over heterologous transfusion, even in large hospitals. We are not against blood transfusions, just do not agree that the patient's own blood is discarded without making sure there will be enough blood in stock to get him out of the hemorrhagic shock. PMID:25295992

  3. Outcome Disparities Between Medical Personnel and Nonmedical Personnel Patients Receiving Definitive Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disparities in quality of care have always been a major challenge in health care. Providing information to patients may help to narrow such disparities. However, the relationship between level of patient information and outcomes remains to be explored. More importantly, would better-informed patients have better outcomes through their choice of higher quality providers? We hypothesize that medical professionals may have better outcomes than nonmedical professionals following definitive surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC), and their choice of provider may mediate this relationship. We identified 61,728 patients with CRC receiving definitive surgery between 2005 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical professionals were identified via the registry for medical personnel. Indicators for surgical outcome such as emergency room (ER) visits within 30 days, medical expenses, length of hospital stay (LOS), and 5-year mortality were analyzed by using fixed and random effects multivariate regression models. Compared with nonmedical personnel CRC patients, a greater proportion of medical personnel received definitive surgery from higher volume surgeons (median 390 vs 311 within the study period) and/or in higher volume hospitals (median 1527 vs 1312 within the study period). CRC patients who are medical personnel had a shorter median LOS (12 vs 14 days), lower median medical expenses (112,687 vs 121,332 New Taiwan dollars), a lower ER visit rate within 30 days (11.3% vs 13.0%), and lower 5-year mortality. After adjusting for patient characteristics, medical personnel had a significantly lower hazard of 5-year mortality, and were significantly more likely to have a LOS shorter than 14 days than their nonmedical personnel counterparts. However, after adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, while medical personnel were significantly less likely to have a long LOS, no significant difference was observed in 5-year mortality between the 2 groups. Medical personnel did have a significantly better survival outcome and a shorter length of stay following definitive surgery than nonmedical personnel patients. The outcome disparities can be partially explained by characteristics of their treatment providers. The findings may serve as an important reference for better understanding how information may narrow gaps in quality of care through better choice of providers. PMID:25634168

  4. Thoracic spinal anesthesia is safe for patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ellakany, Mohamed Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blinded randomized controlled study to compare discharge time and patient satisfaction between two groups of patients submitted to open surgeries for abdominal malignancies using segmental thoracic spinal or general anesthesia. Background: Open surgeries for abdominal malignancy are usually done under general anesthesia, but many patients with major medical problems sometimes can’t tolerate such anesthesia. Regional anesthesia namely segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia may be beneficial in such patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients classified according to American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) as class II or III undergoing surgeries for abdominal malignancy, like colonic or gastric carcinoma, divided into two groups, 30 patients each. Group G, received general anesthesia, Group S received a segmental (T9-T10 injection) thoracic spinal anesthesia with intrathecal injection of 2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg) and 20 ug fentanyl citrate. Intraoperative monitoring, postoperative pain, complications, recovery time, and patient satisfaction at follow-up were compared between the two groups. Results: Spinal anesthesia was performed easily in all 30 patients, although two patients complained of paraesthesiae, which responded to slight needle withdrawal. No patient required conversion to general anesthesia, six patients required midazolam for anxiety and six patients required phenylephrine and atropine for hypotension and bradycardia, recovery was uneventful and without sequelae. The two groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, ASA classification, preoperative oxygen saturation and preoperative respiratory rate and operative time. Conclusion: This preliminary study has shown that segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia can be used successfully and effectively for open surgeries for abdominal malignancies by experienced anesthetists. It showed shorter postanesthesia care unit stay, better postoperative pain relief and patient satisfaction than general anesthesia. PMID:25886230

  5. Systematic review of enhanced recovery after gastro-oesophageal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Humes, DJ; Catton, JA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fast track methodology or enhanced recovery schemes have gained increasing popularity in perioperative care. While evidence is strong for colorectal surgery, its importance in gastric and oesophageal surgery has yet to be established. This article reviews the evidence of enhanced recovery schemes on outcome for this type of surgery. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted up to March 2014. Studies were retrieved and analysed using predetermined criteria. Results From 34 articles reviewed, 18 eligible studies were identified: 7 on gastric and 11 on oesophageal resection. Three randomised controlled trials, five case-controlled studies and ten case series were identified. The reported protocols included changes to each stage of the patient journey from pre to postoperative care. The specific focus following oesophageal resections was on early mobilisation, a reduction in intensive care unit stay, early drain removal and early (or no) contrast swallow studies. Following gastric resections, the emphasis was on reducing epidural anaesthesia along with re-establishing oral intake in the first three postoperative days and early removal of nasogastric tubes. In the papers reviewed, mortality rates following fast track surgery were 0.8% (9/1,075) for oesophageal resection and 0% (0/329) for gastric resection. The reported morbidity rate was 16.5% (54/329) following gastric resection and 38.6% (396/1,075) following oesophageal resection. Length of stay was reduced in both groups compared with conventional recovery groups in comparative studies. Conclusions The evidence for enhanced recovery schemes following gastric and oesophageal resection is weak, with only three (low volume) published randomised controlled trials. However, the enhanced recovery approach appears safe and may be associated with a reduction in length of stay. PMID:26263799

  6. Hospital and Geographic Variability in Thirty-Day All-Cause Mortality Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Lian, Min; Pruitt, Sandi L; Deshpande, Anjali D; Hendren, Samantha; Mutch, Matthew; Jeffe, Donna B; Davidson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess hospital and geographic variability in 30-day mortality after surgery for CRC and examine the extent to which sociodemographic, area-level, clinical, tumor, treatment, and hospital characteristics were associated with increased likelihood of 30-day mortality in a population-based sample of older CRC patients. Data Sources/Study Setting Linked Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) and Medicare data from 47,459 CRC patients aged 66 years or older who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2005, resided in 13,182 census tracts, and were treated in 1,447 hospitals. Study Design An observational study using multilevel logistic regression to identify hospital- and patient-level predictors of and variability in 30-day mortality. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We extracted sociodemographic, clinical, tumor, treatment, hospital, and geographic characteristics from Medicare claims, SEER, and census data. Principal Findings Of 47,459 CRC patients, 6.6 percent died within 30 days following surgery. Adjusted variability in 30-day mortality existed across residential census tracts (predicted mortality range: 2.7–12.3 percent) and hospitals (predicted mortality range: 2.5–10.5 percent). Higher risk of death within 30 days was observed for CRC patients age 85+ (12.7 percent), census-tract poverty rate >20 percent (8.0 percent), two or more comorbid conditions (8.8 percent), stage IV at diagnosis (15.1 percent), undifferentiated tumors (11.6 percent), and emergency surgery (12.8 percent). Conclusions Substantial, but similar variability was observed across census tracts and hospitals in 30-day mortality following surgery for CRC in patients 66 years and older. Risk of 30-day mortality is driven not only by patient and hospital characteristics but also by larger social and economic factors that characterize geographic areas. PMID:24673560

  7. Radioimmunoguided surgery in recurrent colorectal cancer: The role of carcinoembryonic antigen, computerized tomography, and physical examination

    SciTech Connect

    Sardi, A.; Agnone, C.M.; Nieroda, C.A.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Ferrara, P.; Farrar, W.B.; Bolton, J.; Thurston, M.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr. )

    1989-10-01

    From January 1986 to December 1987, 32 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer had second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). All patients had pathologic confirmation of recurrence. The RIGS system identified 81% of recurrences, and in six patients recurrent tumor was identified only by RIGS. All patients had physical examination, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay, and computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. Detection of recurrence was based on symptoms in six, elevated CEA value in 25, and physical examination in one. The CEA was elevated preoperatively in 30 patients; two false-negative results occurred in symptomatic patients who had pelvic recurrence. The median CEA value in those with liver recurrence was 30 ng/ml (range 5.2 to 298) and for pelvic recurrence 13 ng/ml (range 1.9 to 31) (P less than .05). The overall sensitivity of CT was 41% (abdomen other than liver 37%, liver 56%, and pelvis 22%). The combination of elevated CEA, symptoms, and physical findings identified 100% of recurrences. We conclude that a rising CEA remains the most accurate indicator of recurrence. CT should not be done routinely to detect recurrent colorectal cancer unless CEA is elevated or the patient is symptomatic. In our study the intraoperative use of the RIGS system aided the surgeon in identifying occult tumors.

  8. The influence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells on angiogenesis and tumor growth after cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Su, Xiaosan; Yang, Liu; Qiao, Fei; Fang, Yu; Yu, Lu; Yang, Qian; Wang, Yiyin; Yin, Yanfeng; Chen, Rui; Hong, Zhipeng

    2016-06-01

    While myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been reported to participate in the promotion of angiogenesis and tumor growth, little is known about their presence and function during perioperative period. Here, we demonstrated that human MDSCs expressing CD11b(+) , CD33(+) and HLA-DR(-) significantly increased in lung cancer patients after thoracotomy. CD11b(+) CD33(+) HLA-DR(-) MDSCs isolated 24 hr after surgery from lung cancer patients were more efficient in promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth than MDSCs isolated before surgical operation in allograft tumor model. In addition, CD11b(+) CD33(+) HLA-DR(-) MDSCs produced high levels of MMP-9. Using an experimental lung metastasis mouse model, we demonstrated that the numbers of metastases on lung surface and Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs at postoperative period were enhanced in proportion to the degree of surgical manipulation. We also examined that syngeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) significantly inhibited the induction and proliferation of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and further prevented lung metastasis formation in the mice undergoing laparotomy. Taken together, our results suggest that postoperatively induced MDSCs were qualified with potent proangiogenic and tumor-promotive ability and this cell population should be considered as a target for preventing postoperative tumor metastasis. PMID:26756887

  9. Unproven methods in cancer: a worldwide problem.

    PubMed

    Schraub, S

    2000-01-01

    Questionable or unproven methods are used by cancer patients throughout the world. Treatments include drugs, vitamins, herbs, diets, healing, "psychological" treatments, folk medicines, and homeopathy. The exact frequency of questionable methods in cancer is difficult to evaluate because of the variety of methods, some being used as complementary treatments to conventional ones (and often not mentioned by patients) and others, as curative treatment (alternative treatment). In Europe, data are available for the Nordic countries, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France and Italy. High frequencies of use are observed in German-speaking countries (52-65%). In North America, many publications give frequencies of between 7% and 54%. In Mexico, the frequency is 50%, higher than in Argentina (17%). In Australia, 22% have used complementary medicines. In Asia, some data are available from India, Taiwan and Japan. In Tunisia (northern Africa), the results of 59 interviews also show the use of questionable methods among Arabic patients. There is a lack of data from countries in Africa and in Asia. While some products are used all over the world (e.g. mistletoe, vitamins), others are country specific (Moerman diet in The Netherlands). Some traditional medicines are also country specific (e.g., Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine in India). Both alternative and complementary unproven methods are prescribed either according to classical concepts of cancer treatment or according to a new concept of the world and of life. PMID:10650891

  10. Simulation-Based Optimization for Surgery Scheduling in Operation Theatre Management Using Response Surface Method.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fung, Richard Y K

    2015-11-01

    Operation theatre is one of the most significant assets in a hospital as the greatest source of revenue as well as the largest cost unit. This paper focuses on surgery scheduling optimization, which is one of the most crucial tasks in operation theatre management. A combined scheduling policy composed of three simple scheduling rules is proposed to optimize the performance of scheduling operation theatre. Based on the real-life scenarios, a simulation-based model about surgery scheduling system is built. With two optimization objectives, the response surface method is adopted to search for the optimal weight of simple rules in a combined scheduling policy in the model. Moreover, the weights configuration can be revised to cope with dispatching dynamics according to real-time change at the operation theatre. Finally, performance comparison between the proposed combined scheduling policy and tabu search algorithm indicates that the combined scheduling policy is capable of sequencing surgery appointments more efficiently. PMID:26385551

  11. Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Patients after Surgery with an Intermediate Event: Application of Illness-Death Model

    PubMed Central

    HAJIHOSSEINI, Morteza; FARADMAL, Javad; SADIGHI-PASHAKI, Abdolazim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer after lung cancer. Survival of BC patients is affected by intermediate events. This study was aimed to investigate the disease course of primary nonmetastatic BC patients with first recurrence of the tumor (FRT) as the intermediate event using the illness- death model. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 529 Iranian females with BC underwent surgery, from 1995 to 2013. Patients, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected from medical records of the patients. The illness-death model were used to investigate the relationship between these factors and survival time. Data were analyzed using version 3.1.1 of R software. Results: The risk of FRT in patients who had tumors size in the range of 2–5 cm and >5 cm was 1.3 and 3.5 times higher than that of patients with tumor size ≤2 cm, respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, risk of death in patients aged ≥50 years was 1.6 times higher compared to patients aged less than 50 years (P =0.012). Risk of death after metastasis in patients with tumor size >5 cm was 2.1 times higher than patients with tumor size ≤2 cm (P =0.019). Conclusions: The stage of the disease and tumor size have statistically significant effects on patients’ survival before occurrence of the FRT. Furthermore, illness-death model was found to be a useful tool in modeling the disease course of BC patients. PMID:26811819

  12. Radiation Pneumonitis in Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Radiotherapy Using the Partially Wide Tangent Technique after Breast Conserving Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoonsun; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Yong Bae; Ahn, Seung Kwon; Keum, Ki Chang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in terms of dosimetric parameters in breast cancer patients, who received radiotherapy using the partially wide tangent technique (PWT), following breast conservation surgery (BCS). Methods We analyzed the data from 100 breast cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy using PWT. The entire breast, supraclavicular lymph node, and internal mammary lymph node (IMN) were irradiated with 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. RP was scored on a scale of 0 to 5, based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. The dosimetric parameters, used in analysis for the ipsilateral lung, were the mean lung dose (MLD), V5 (percentage of lung volume that received a dose of 5 Gy or more)-V50, and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results Of the 100 patients, three suffered from symptomatic RP (symptom grade ≥2), but were relieved by supportive care. The risk of RP