These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Estimation Methods in a Magnetic Marking System for Cancer Surgery  

E-print Network

Estimation Methods in a Magnetic Marking System for Cancer Surgery Maia Werbos Introduction Current and convenience. To combat these, a device is being developed to use magnetic marking in surgery. In this system, a small permanent magnet is inserted into the affected region before surgery; during surgery, a device

Anlage, Steven


Pancreatic Cancer: Surgery  


... Topic Ablation or embolization treatments for pancreatic cancer Surgery for pancreatic cancer There are 2 general types ... and risks of such surgery carefully. Potentially curative surgery Fewer than 1 in 5 pancreatic cancers appear ...


Surgery for thyroid cancer.  


The incidence of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid cancer, is rising at an epidemic rate. The mainstay of treatment of most patients with thyroid cancer is surgery. Considerable controversy exists about the extent of thyroid surgery and lymph node resection in patients with thyroid cancer. Surgical experience in judgment and technique is required to achieve optimal patient outcomes. PMID:24891171

Callender, Glenda G; Carling, Tobias; Christison-Lagay, Emily; Udelsman, Robert



Methods to improve rehabilitation of patients following breast cancer surgery: a review of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Context Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer amongst women but it has the highest survival rates amongst all cancer. Rehabilitation therapy of post-treatment effects from cancer and its treatment is needed to improve functioning and quality of life. This review investigated the range of methods for improving physical, psychosocial, occupational, and social wellbeing in women with breast cancer after receiving breast cancer surgery. Method A search for articles published in English between the years 2009 and 2014 was carried out using The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Search terms included: ‘breast cancer’, ‘breast carcinoma’, ‘surgery’, ‘mastectomy’, ‘lumpectomy’, ‘breast conservation’, ‘axillary lymph node dissection’, ‘rehabilitation’, ‘therapy’, ‘physiotherapy’, ‘occupational therapy’, ‘psychological’, ‘psychosocial’, ‘psychotherapy’, ‘exercise’, ‘physical activity’, ‘cognitive’, ‘occupational’, ‘alternative’, ‘complementary’, and ‘systematic review’. Study selection Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of rehabilitation methods in improving post-operative physical, and psychological outcomes for breast cancer were selected. Sixteen articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Data extraction Included review year, study aim, total number of participants included, and results. Data synthesis Evidence for exercise rehabilitation is predominantly in the improvement of shoulder mobility and limb strength. Inconclusive results exist for a range of rehabilitation methods (physical, psycho-education, nutritional, alternative-complementary methods) for addressing the domains of psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes. Conclusion There is good evidence for narrowly-focused exercise rehabilitation in improving physical outcome particularly for shoulder mobility and lymphedema. There were inconclusive results for methods to improve psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes. There were no reviews on broader performance areas and lifestyle factors to enable effective living after treatment. The review suggests that comprehensiveness and effectiveness of post-operative breast cancer rehabilitation should consider patients’ self-management approaches towards lifestyle redesign, and incorporate health promotion aspects, in light of the fact that breast cancer is now taking the form of a chronic illness with longer survivorship years.

Loh, Siew Yim; Musa, Aisya Nadia



Surgery for Breast Cancer  


... as swelling of the arm and chest ( lymphedema ). Lymph node surgery To find out if the breast cancer ... nodes are checked in 2 major ways. Axillary lymph node dissection: In this operation, about 10 to 40 ( ...


Breast Cancer Surgery  


... Prosthesis • Chemotherapy and Side Effects • Radiation Therapy and Side Effects ©2013 Susan G. Komen ® Item No. KOMEED024000 12/13 You are not alone If you need breast cancer surgery, remember there are many women who have ...


Long-term survival rates of laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiation and surgery, radiation alone, and surgery alone : studied by lognormal and Kaplan-Meier survival methods  

PubMed Central

Background Validation of the use of the lognormal model for predicting long-term survival rates using short-term follow-up data. Methods 907 cases of laryngeal cancer were treated from 1973–1977 by radiation and surgery (248), radiation alone (345), and surgery alone (314), in registries of Connecticut and Metropolitan Detroit of the SEER database, with known survival status up to 1999. Phase 1 of this study used the minimum chi-square test to assess the goodness of fit of the survival times of those who died with disease to a lognormal distribution. Phase 2 used the maximum likelihood method to estimate long-term survival rates using short-term follow-up data. In order to validate the lognormal model, the estimated long-term cancer-specific survival rates (CSSR) were compared with the values calculated by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method using long-term data. Results The 25-year CSSR were predicted to be 72%, 68% and 65% for treatments by radiation and surgery, by radiation alone, and by surgery alone respectively, using short-term follow-up data by the lognormal model. Corresponding results calculated by the KM method were: 72+/-3%, 68+/-3% and 66+/-4% respectively. Conclusions The lognormal model was validated for the prediction of the long-term survival rates of laryngeal cancer patients treated by these different methods. The lognormal model may become a useful tool in research on outcomes. PMID:15683543

Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Shiels, Ross; Tonita, Jon



[Breast cancer surgery].  


The surgery for breast cancer is frequently the first step in a multi-disciplinary care. It allows for local control, but also to establish crucial prognostic factor indicating potential adjuvant therapy. The current trend s towards de-escalation of surgical treatment for reducing the functional and aesthetic morbidity. At the local level, this de-escalation has been made possible by performing most often breast conservative surgery because of the development of oncoplastic techniques, but also because of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. At the axillary level, the reduction of morbidity has been made possible by the advent of the sentinel node biopsy which is more and more indicated year after year. PMID:24579336

Delpech, Yann; Barranger, Emmanuel



Surgery insight: radical vaginal trachelectomy as a method of fertility preservation for cervical cancer.  


Over the past decade, the treatment of cervical cancer has evolved with an increased emphasis on preservation of fertility. There has been a gradual abandonment of radical surgical procedures in favor of more conservative techniques in an effort to decrease morbidity and preserve fertility without compromising overall survival. Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) with laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy is a fertility-preserving procedure that has recently gained worldwide acceptance as a method of surgically treating small invasive cancers of the cervix. Since the original description of RVT by Daniel Dargent in 1994, over 500 cases of utilization of this technique have been reported in the literature, with over 100 live births reported following this procedure. The morbidity associated with RVT is low, with a tumor recurrence rate of 5% and a mortality rate of 3%. The current literature indicates no difference in the rate of recurrence with this technique compared with radical hysterectomy when proper selection criteria are used. Combining RVT with laparoscopic sentinel lymph-node biopsy can further reduce the duration, extent, and complications of surgery. PMID:17534391

Beiner, Mario E; Covens, Allan



Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer  


... Next Topic Radiation therapy for bile duct cancer Surgery for bile duct cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...


Surgery for Testicular Cancer  


... this surgery, even those that have spread. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) Depending on the type and stage ... it has been like for them. Effects of lymph node dissection: Surgery to remove retroperitoneal lymph nodes is ...


[Robotic surgery for cancer treatment].  


Surgical operation is still one of the important options for treatment of many types of cancer. In the present-day treatment of cancer, patients' quality of life is focused on and surgeons need to provide minimally invasive surgery without decreasing the curability of disease. Endoscopic surgery contributed to the prevalence of minimally -invasive surgery. However it has also raised a problem regarding differences in surgical techniques among individual surgeons. Robot-assisted surgery provides some resolutions with 3D vision and increases the freedom of forceps manipulation. Furthermore, 3D visual magnification, scaling function, and the filtering function of surgical robots may make it possible for surgeons to perform microsurgery more delicate than open surgery. Here, we report the present status and the future of the representative surgical robot, and the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:22241345

Oouchida, Kenoki; Ieiri, Satoshi; Kenmotsu, Hajime; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Hashizume, Makoto



Hallmarks in colorectal cancer surgery.  


Starting from the first attempts of artificial anus creation to the successful excision of the rectum for cancer, the lumbar colostomy and the creation of caecostomy and ileostomy, we present the major hallmarks in the history of colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:21229654

Karamanou, M; Matsaggas, A; Skarpas, G; Gkeneralis, G; Androutsos, G



Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain. PMID:25320507

Tegels, Juul JW; De Maat, Michiel FG; Hulsewé, Karel WE; Hoofwijk, Anton GM; Stoot, Jan HMB



Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Cancer Surgery: From Current Fluorescence Molecular Imaging Methods to Future Multi-Modality Imaging Technology  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a major threat to human health. Diagnosis and treatment using precision medicine is expected to be an effective method for preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Although anatomical and functional imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role for accurate preoperative diagnostics, for the most part these techniques cannot be applied intraoperatively. Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique that provides a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in tumor margin detection. Furthermore, existing clinical applications have proven that optical molecular imaging is a powerful intraoperative tool for guiding surgeons performing precision procedures, thus enabling radical resection and improved survival rates. However, detection depth limitation exists in optical molecular imaging methods and further breakthroughs from optical to multi-modality intraoperative imaging methods are needed to develop more extensive and comprehensive intraoperative applications. Here, we review the current intraoperative optical molecular imaging technologies, focusing on contrast agents and surgical navigation systems, and then discuss the future prospects of multi-modality imaging technology for intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery. PMID:25250092

Chi, Chongwei; Du, Yang; Ye, Jinzuo; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan



Present status of endoscopic surgery in Japan: laparoscopic surgery and laparoscopic assisted surgery for gastric cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, I would like to explain the latest data from the 7th National Survey 2004, by the Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery (1). Next, I will explain you the comment on laparoscopic gastric cancer operation, in particular. We perform the following 3 surgical procedures. (1) Intragastric method (2) Laparoscopic lesion lifting method (3) Laparoscopic assisted gastric resection Mastery of basic techniques and thorough understanding of topographic anatomy are the most important (2). Furthermore, it is necessary for a surgeon with experience of at least 50 cases of laparoscopic surgery to be involved in surgery as an assistant.

Hiki, Yoshiki; Kitano, Seigo



Stomach Cancer: Surgery  


... stomach, even if it does not cure the cancer. Gastric bypass (gastrojejunostomy): Tumors in the lower part of the stomach may grow large enough to block food from leaving the stomach. For people ... Some people with stomach cancer are not able to eat or drink enough ...


Nanorobots for Laparoscopic Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative hardware architecture for medical nanorobots, using nanobioelectronics, clinical data, and wireless technologies, as embedded integrated system devices for molecular machine data transmission and control upload, and show how to use it in cancer surgery. The integration of medical nanorobotics and surgical teleoperation has the use of robotic laparoscopy concepts. To illustrate the proposed approach, we

Adriano Cavalcanti; Bijan Shirinzadeh; Declan Murphy; Julian A. Smith



Radical surgery in ovarian cancer.  


While there is an ongoing debate regarding the timing of the maximal surgical effort in epithelial ovarian cancer, it is well established that patients with suboptimal tumor debulking derive no benefit from the surgical procedure. The amount of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery has been repeatedly identified as a strong predictor of survival, and accordingly, the surgical effort to achieve the goal of complete gross tumor resection has been constantly evolving. Centers that have adopted the concept of radical surgery in patients with advanced ovarian cancer have reported improvements in their patients' survival. In addition to the expected improvements in the pharmacologic treatment of this disease, some of the next challenges in the surgical management of ovarian cancer include the preoperative prediction of suboptimal debulking, improving the drug delivery to the tumor, and increasing access to centers of excellence in ovarian cancer regardless of geographical, financial, or other social barriers. This review will discuss an update on the role of surgery in the treatment of primary epithelial ovarian cancer as it has evolved since the emergence of the concept of surgical cytoreduction. PMID:25708800

Narasimhulu, Deepa Maheswari; Khoury-Collado, Fady; Chi, Dennis S



Curative Surgery for Local Pelvic Recurrence of Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Local pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer after radical resection has been associated with morbidity and cancer-related death. This study retrospectively evaluated outcome following curative resection for rectal cancer recurring after surgery on the basis of prognosis, type of procedure and perioperative morbidity. Methods: A total of 85 consecutive patients with local pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer were evaluated. Of

Norio Saito; Keiji Koda; Nobuhiro Takiguchi; Kenji Oda; Masato Ono; Masanori Sugito; Kiyotaka Kawashima; Masaaki Ito



Advances in rectal cancer surgery in Japan.  


A review of advancement of rectal cancer surgery in Japan is presented. The standard operation for rectal cancer was altered in the 1960s from abdominoperineal resection to the pull-through technique and the handsewn anterior resection in the 1970s, and it became the stapled anterior resection in the 1980s. Today, more than 75 percent of rectal cancers are treated with sphincter-preserving anterior resections, and the remaining 20 percent by abdominoperineal resections. Colonic J-pouch is used with anastomoses involving very low anterior rectal resection for cancers. In the late 1970s, a method of dissecting extended pelvic nodes was adopted to decrease local recurrence. However, extended dissection has been applied to only T3 and T4 cancers of the lower rectum because of postoperative dysfunction of pelvic organs. This was caused by injury to the pelvic nerve plexus, thus lowering the quality of life of the patients. Since the middle of the 1980s, the autonomic nerve-preserving operation attracted surgeons' attention because it prevented these dysfunctions from occurring as a result of the treatment of cancer in the upper rectum and for T1 or T2 cancers in the lower rectum. In this article, recent advances in rectal cancer surgery in Japan are reviewed. PMID:9378017

Yasutomi, M



Surgery for Pre-Cancers and Cancers of the Cervix  


... but it is not used for invasive cancer. Laser surgery A laser beam is used to burn off cells or ... remove a small piece of tissue for study. Laser surgery is used for stage 0 cancers (carcinoma ...


Minimally invasive surgery in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer has rapidly gained popularity due to the early detection of early gastric cancer. As advances in instruments and the accumulation of laparoscopic experience increase, laparoscopic techniques are being used for less invasive but highly technical procedures. Recent evidence suggests that the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer are comparable to those of conventional open surgery. However, these results should be confirmed by large-scale multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25339802

Son, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Ho



Surgery beats chemotherapy for tongue cancer

Patients with tongue cancer who started their treatment with a course of chemotherapy fared significantly worse than patients who received surgery first, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. This is contrary to protocols for larynx cancer, in which a single dose of chemotherapy helps determine which patients fare better with chemotherapy and radiation and which patients should elect for surgery. In larynx cancer, this approach, which was pioneered and extensively researched at U-M, has led to better patient survival and functional outcomes. But this new study, which appears in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, describes a clear failure.


Mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic techniques have been extensively used for the surgical management of colorectal cancer during the last two decades. Accumulating data have demonstrated that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncologic outcomes when compared with open surgery. However, some controversies regarding the oncologic quality of mini-invasive surgery for rectal cancer exist. Meanwhile, some progresses in colorectal surgery, such as robotic technology, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice specimen extraction, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, have been made in recent years. In this article, we review the published data and mainly focus on the current status and latest advances of mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID:24589210

Zeng, Wei-Gen; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang



Progress in gastric cancer surgery in Japan and its limits of radicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical surgery of gastric cancer has become more widely utilized in Japan. Topics explored in gastric cancer surgery include the extended lymph node dissection guided by the node staining method with India ink, left upper abdominal organs exenteration for advanced cancer of the upper stomach, and pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced cancer of the lower stomach. Through the progress of surgical treatment

Keiichi Maruyama; Kenzo Okabayashi; Taira Kinoshita



Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men  


... seroma (buildup of clear fluid in the wound). Lymph node surgery To determine if the breast cancer has ... bloodstream to other parts of the body. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) In this procedure, anywhere from about ...


Anesthetic Techniques and Cancer Recurrence after Surgery  

PubMed Central

Many of the most common anesthetics are used in surgical oncology, yet effects on cancer cells are still not known. Anesthesia technique could differentially affect cancer recurrence in oncologic patients undergoing surgery, due to immunosuppression, stimulation of angiogenesis, and dissemination of residual cancer cells. Data support the use of intravenous anesthetics, such as propofol anesthesia, thanks to antitumoral protective effects inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins E2 in cancer cells, and stimulation of immunity response; a restriction in the use of volatile anesthetics; restriction in the use of opioids as they suppress humoral and cellular immunity, and their chronic use favors angiogenesis and development of metastases; use of locoregional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia, as locoregional appears to reduce cancer recurrence after surgery. However, these findings must be interpreted cautiously as there is no evidence that simple changes in the practice of anesthesia can have a positive impact on postsurgical survival of cancer patients. PMID:24683330

D'Arrigo, Maria G.; Triolo, Stefania; Mondello, Stefania; La Torre, Domenico



Sentinel node navigation surgery for gastric cancer: Overview and perspective  

PubMed Central

The sentinel node (SN) technique has been established for the treatment of some types of solid cancers to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomy. If node disease were diagnosed before surgery, minimal surgery with omission of lymph node dissection would be an option for patients with early gastric cancer. Although SN biopsy has been well ascertained in the treatment of breast cancer and melanoma, SN navigation surgery (SNNS) in gastric cancer has not been yet universal due to the complicated lymphatic flow from the stomach. Satisfactory establishment of SNNS will result in the possible indication of minimally invasive surgery of gastric cancer. However, the results reported in the literature on SN biopsy in gastric cancer are widely divergent and many issues are still to be resolved, such as the collection method of SN, detection of micrometastasis in SN, and clinical benefit. The difference in the procedural technique and learning phase of surgeons is also varied the accuracy of SN mapping. In this review, we outline the current status of application for SNNS in gastric cancer. PMID:25625004

Yashiro, Masakazu; Matsuoka, Tasuku



Lung cancer surgery: an up to date  

PubMed Central

According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GLOBOCAN World Cancer Report, lung cancer affects more than 1 million people a year worldwide. In Greece according to the 2008 GLOBOCAN report, there were 6,667 cases recorded, 18% of the total incidence of all cancers in the population. Furthermore, there were 6,402 deaths due to lung cancer, 23.5% of all deaths due to cancer. Therefore, in our country, lung cancer is the most common and deadly form of cancer for the male population. The most important prognostic indicator in lung cancer is the extent of disease. The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging (AJCC) developed the tumour, node, and metastases (TNM) staging system which attempts to define those patients who might be suitable for radical surgery or radical radiotherapy, from the majority, who will only be suitable for palliative measures. Surgery has an important part for the therapy of patients with lung cancer. “Lobectomy is the gold standard treatment”. This statement may be challenged in cases of stage Ia cancer or in patients with limited pulmonary function. In these cases an anatomical segmentectomy with lymph node dissection is an acceptable alternative. Chest wall invasion is not a contraindication to resection. En-bloc rib resection and reconstruction is the treatment of choice. N2 disease represents both a spectrum of disease and the interface between surgical and non-surgical treatment of lung cancer Evidence from trials suggests that multizone or unresectable N2 disease should be treated primarily by chemoradiotherapy. There may be a role for surgery if N2 is downstaged to N0 and lobectomy is possible, but pneumonectomy is avoidable. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a systemic disease at diagnosis, because the potential for hematogenous and lymphogenic metastases is very high. The efficacy of surgical intervention for SCLC is not clear. Lung cancer resection can be performed using several surgical techniques. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a safe, efficient, well accepted and widespread technique among thoracic surgeons. The 5-year survival rate following complete resection of lung cancer is stage dependent. Incomplete resection rarely is useful and cures the patient. PMID:24102017

Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Chandrinos, Michail; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos



New Technologies in Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Since breast-conserving surgery has become the gold standard for early breast cancer, the development of less radical or less burdensome technologies has been pressed for in order to preserve the patient from unnecessary harm through the operative procedure. Different technical approaches are under evaluation, and some of them are already being used in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to present a perspective on future breast cancer surgery by shedding light on the current innovative and new techniques. PMID:24647775

Thill, Marc; Baumann, Kristin



[Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].  


Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:23611356

Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián



Transoral robot- assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer.  


Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for the resection of laryngopharyngeal cancers with promising outcomes. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. The aim of this study was to illustrate transoral robot- assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery (TORS-L) for hypopharyngeal cancers. Methods: A 59 year-old patient with a T1N0M0 cancer at the lateral hypopharyngeal wall was selected for TORS-L. Results: Tumor was excised in one piece with adequate surgical margins. There was no perioperative complication. The patient was extubated immediately after surgery. Oral diet was initiated within the first 24 hours. No gastrostomy or tracheostomy tube placement was required. A video demonstration of TORS-L is included. Conclusions: TORS-L hypopharyngectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for the resection of selected hypopharyngeal tumors. Head Neck, 2014. PMID:25224300

Kucur, Cuneyt; Durmus, Kasim; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver



Skipping Surgery May Work for Some Rectal Cancer Patients  


... Skipping Surgery May Work for Some Rectal Cancer Patients: Study Researchers found just chemo/radiation was as ... 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For many rectal cancer patients, the prospect of surgery is a worrisome reality, ...


Sexual Function After Surgery for Prostate or Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Compromised sexual function is often a side effect for patients following radical surgical procedures for bladder or prostate cancer. Methods: The authors review the classification and physiology of sexual function and dysfunction. Moreover, they explain the possible pathophysiology directly resulting from surgery, and they discuss several approaches available to address these problems. Results: Options for male sexual dysfunction, primarily

Alejandro J. Miranda-Sous; Hugo H. Davila; Jorge L. Lockhart; Raul C. Ordorica; Rafael E. Carrion



Perioperative Chemotherapy versus Surgery Alone for Resectable Gastroesophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A regimen of epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (ECF) improves sur- vival among patients with incurable locally advanced or metastatic gastric adeno- carcinoma. We assessed whether the addition of a perioperative regimen of ECF to surgery improves outcomes among patients with potentially curable gastric cancer. Methods We randomly assigned patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, esophagogastric junction, or

David Cunningham; William H. Allum; Sally P. Stenning; Jeremy N. Thompson; Marianne Nicolson; J. Howard Scarffe; Fiona J. Lofts; Stephen J. Falk; Timothy J. Iveson; David B. Smith; Ruth E. Langley; Monica Verma; Simon Weeden; Yu Jo Chua



Effect of lung cancer surgery on quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) after surgery is important, although very limited data are available on the QOL after lung cancer surgery. Methods: The effect of surgery on HRQOL was assessed in a prospective study of 110 patients undergoing potentially curative lung cancer surgery at Papworth Hospital, 30% of whom had borderline lung function as judged by forced expiratory volume in 1 second. All patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 lung cancer module before surgery and again at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: On average, patients had high levels of functioning and low levels of symptoms. Global QOL had deteriorated significantly 1 month after surgery (p = 0.001) but had returned to preoperative levels by 3 months (p = 0.93). Symptoms had worsened significantly at 1 month after surgery but had returned to baseline levels by 6 months. Low values on the preoperative HRQOL scales were not significantly associated with poor surgical outcome. However, patients with low preoperative HRQOL functioning scales and high preoperative symptom scores were more likely to have poor postoperative (6 months) QOL. The only lung function measurement to show a marginally statistically significant association with quality of life at 6 months after surgery was percentage predicted carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO). Conclusion: Although surgery had short term negative effects on quality of life, by 6 months HRQOL had returned to preoperative values. Patients with low HRQOL functioning scales, high preoperative symptom scores, and preoperative percentage predicted TLCO may be associated with worse postoperative HRQOL. PMID:15741442

Win, T; Sharples, L; Wells, F; Ritchie, A; Munday, H; Laroche, C



Minimal Invasive Surgery for Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is only established in some centers and affords a cervical anastomosis because intrathoracic anastomosis as a routine is technically too difficult. Laparoscopic mobilisation of the stomach (gastrolysis) is an important contribution for minimal invasive surgery of esophageal cancer. This procedure reduces the stress of the two cavity operation for the patient and allows the construction of a comparable

A. H. Hölscher; Ch. Gutschow



Cancer stem cells in surgery  

PubMed Central

The Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) hypothesis is based on three fundamental ideas: 1) the similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells and cancer cells; 2) the possibility that tumour cells might arise from normal stem cells; 3) the notion that tumours might contain ‘cancer stem cells’ - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours. The roles for cancer stem cells have been demonstrated for some cancers, such as cancers of the hematopoietic system, breast, brain, prostate, pancreas and liver. The attractive idea about cancer stem cell hypothesis is that it could partially explain the concept of minimal residual disease. After surgical macroscopically zero residual (R0) resections, even the persistence of one single cell nestling in one of the so called “CSCs niches” could give rise to distant relapse. Furthermore the metastatic cells can remain in a “dormant status” and give rise to disease after long period of apparent disease free. These cells in many cases have acquired resistance traits to chemo and radiotherapy making adjuvant treatment vain. Clarifying the role of the cancer stem cells and their implications in the oncogenesis will play an important role in the management of cancer patient by identifying new prospective for drugs and specific markers to prevent and monitoring relapse and metastasis. The identification of the niche where the CSCs reside in a dormant status might represent a valid instrument to follow-up patients also after having obtained a R0 surgical resection. What we believe is that if new diagnostic instruments were developed specifically to identify the localization and status of activity of the CSCs during tumor dormancy, this would lead to impressive improvement in the early detection and management of relapse and metastasis. PMID:25644725




Cancer stem cells in surgery.  


The Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) hypothesis is based on three fundamental ideas: 1) the similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells and cancer cells; 2) the possibility that tumour cells might arise from normal stem cells; 3) the notion that tumours might contain 'cancer stem cells' - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours. The roles for cancer stem cells have been demonstrated for some cancers, such as cancers of the hematopoietic system, breast, brain, prostate, pancreas and liver. The attractive idea about cancer stem cell hypothesis is that it could partially explain the concept of minimal residual disease. After surgical macroscopically zero residual (R0) resections, even the persistence of one single cell nestling in one of the so called "CSCs niches" could give rise to distant relapse. Furthermore the metastatic cells can remain in a "dormant status" and give rise to disease after long period of apparent disease free. These cells in many cases have acquired resistance traits to chemo and radiotherapy making adjuvant treatment vain. Clarifying the role of the cancer stem cells and their implications in the oncogenesis will play an important role in the management of cancer patient by identifying new prospective for drugs and specific markers to prevent and monitoring relapse and metastasis. The identification of the niche where the CSCs reside in a dormant status might represent a valid instrument to follow-up patients also after having obtained a R0 surgical resection. What we believe is that if new diagnostic instruments were developed specifically to identify the localization and status of activity of the CSCs during tumor dormancy, this would lead to impressive improvement in the early detection and management of relapse and metastasis. PMID:25644725

D'Andrea, V; Guarino, S; Di Matteo, F M; Maugeri Saccà, M; De Maria, R



Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco



Combined surgery and photodynamic therapy of cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the recent guidelines, the gold standard is resecting an extra 0.5-3 cm beyond the lesion margins that are visually detected and/or biopsy confirmed depending on type of malignancy and its localisation to avoid missing the residuals of the tumour. Often, such a large resection leads to dysfunctions of the organ or tissues, which underwent the surgery. In some cases, an extra tumour-free margin cannot be achieved because of tumour proximity to vital sites such as major vascular or nerve structures. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging clinical modality to locally destroy cancer lesions selectively. The limitation of photodynamic therapy is the curable depth of an order of one centimetre or less. A combination of cancer surgery following by PDT can bring a benefit to reduce the resection and minimise the impact on the organ or tissue functionality. Combination of cancer surgery and photodynamic therapy provides another opportunity-fluorescence image guidance of cancer removal. Most of the photosensitizers intensively fluoresce and hence facilitate a strong fluorescence contrast versus healthy adjacent tissues.

Douplik, Alexandre


Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

During the last decade the role of minimally invasive surgery has been increased, especially with the introduction of the robotic system in the surgical field. The most important advantages of robotic system are represented by the wristed instrumentation and the depth perception, which can overcome the limitation of traditional thoracoscopy. However, some data still exist in literature with regard to robotic lobectomy. The majority of papers are focused on its safety and feasibility, but further studies with long follow-ups are necessary in order to assess the oncologic outcomes. We reviewed the literature on robotic lobectomy, with the main aim to better define the role of robotic system in the clinical practice. PMID:25207216

Ambrogi, Marcello C; Fanucchi, Olivia; Melfi, Franco; Mussi, Alfredo



Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer  

PubMed Central

The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon



Chemotherapy Before Surgery May Increase Survival in Stomach Cancer

Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.


High Rate of Sexual Dysfunction Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although rectal cancer is a very common malignancy and has an improved cure rate in response to oncological treatment, research on rectal-cancer survivors' sexual function remains limited. Sexual dysfunction (SD) after rectal cancer treatment was measured, and possible predisposing factors that may have an impact on the development of this disorder were identified. Methods Patients undergoing curative rectal cancer surgery from January 2012 to September 2013 were surveyed using questionnaires. The female sexual function index or the International Index of Erectile Function was recorded. A multiple logistic regression was used to test associations of clinical factors with outcomes. Results Fifty-six men (56%) and 28 women (44%) who completed the questionnaire were included in the study. A total of 76 patients of the 86 patients (90.5%) with the diagnosis of rectal cancer who were included in this study reported different levels of SD after radical surgery. A total of 64 patients (76%) from the whole cohort reported moderate to severe SD after treatment of rectal cancer. Gender (P = 0.011) was independently associated with SD. Female patients reported significantly higher rates of moderate to severe SD than male patients. Patients were rarely treated for dysfunction. Conclusion Sexual problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, but patients are rarely treated for SD. Female patients reported higher rates of SD than males. These results point out the importance of sexual (dys)function in survivors of rectal cancer. More attention should be drawn to this topic for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25360427

Ertekin, Caglar; Tinay, Ilker; Yegen, Cumhur



Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in China: an overview  

PubMed Central

Since its introduction into China in 2001, laparoscopic techniques have been extensively used for the surgical management of colorectal cancer during the last two decades in China. Like all the pioneers of the technique, Chinese gastrointestinal surgeons claim that laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer led to faster recovery, shorter hospital stay and more rapid return to daily activities respect to open surgery while offering the same functional and oncological results. There has been booming interest in laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer since 2006 in China. The last decade has witnessed national growth in the application of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer and yielded a significant amount of scientific data to support its clinical merits and advantages. However, few prospective randomized controlled trials have investigated the benefits of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in China. In this article, we make an overview of the current data and state of the art of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in China. PMID:25663960

Jin, Ketao; Wang, Jun; Lan, Huanrong; Zhang, Ruili



Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present. PMID:25206260

Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador



Perioperative immune responses in cancer patients undergoing digestive surgeries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Th1\\/Th2 cell balance is thought to be shifted toward a Th2-type immune response not only by malignancy but also by surgical stress. The aim of this study was to estimate perioperative immune responses with respect to the Th1\\/Th2 balance in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: Ninety-four patients who underwent abdominal surgeries were divided into three groups: gastric resection (n

Masashi Ishikawa; Masanori Nishioka; Norikazu Hanaki; Takayuki Miyauchi; Yutaka Kashiwagi; Hiromi Ioki; Akihiro Kagawa; Yoichi Nakamura



Fewer Patients with Advanced Colon Cancer Getting Surgery, Report Finds  


... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fewer Patients With Advanced Colon Cancer Getting Surgery, Report Finds ... 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fewer U.S. colon cancer patients who are diagnosed in the final stages of ...


Income May Affect Survival After Lung Cancer Surgery  


... Preidt Monday, April 20, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Disparities Lung Cancer Surgery MONDAY, April 20, 2015 (HealthDay ... HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News on: Health Disparities Lung Cancer Surgery Recent Health News Page last ...


Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa



Surgical and pathological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several multi-institutional prospective randomized trials have demonstrated short-term benefits using laparoscopy. Now the laparoscopic approach is accepted as an alternative to open surgery for colon cancer. However, in prior trials, the transverse colon was excluded. Therefore, it has not been determined whether laparoscopy can be used in the setting of transverse colon cancer. This study evaluated the peri-operative clinical outcomes and oncological quality by pathologic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer. Materials and methods Analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection from August 2004 to November 2007 was made. Computed tomography, barium enema, and colonoscopy were performed to localize the tumor preoperatively. Extended right hemicolectomy, transverse colectomy, and extended left hemicolectomy were performed for transverse colon cancer. Surgical outcomes and pathologic outcomes were compared between transverse colon cancer (TCC) and other site colon cancer (OSCC). Results Of the 312 colorectal cancer patients, 94 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for OSCC, and 34 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for TCC. Patients with TCC were similar to patients with OSCC in age, gender, body mass index, operating time, blood loss, time to pass flatus, start of diet, hospital stay, tumor size, distal resection margin, proximal resection margin, number of lymph nodes, and radial margin. One case in TCC and three cases in OSCC were converted to open surgery. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer and OSCC had similar peri-operative clinical and acceptable pathological outcomes. PMID:18379794

Lee, I. K.; Kang, W. K.; Cho, H. M.; Park, J. K.; Oh, S. T.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, Y. H.



[Pelvic exenteration in surgery for colorectal cancer].  


A total of 1436 patients with colorectal cancer underwent resective surgery: 244 (15.6%) received combined interventions, 94 (41.9%) pelvic exenteration (PE), 38 (40.4%) complete PE, 9 (9.6%) of which were infralevator and 29 (30.8%) supralevator. In 56 (59.6%) patients posterior PE was performed, supralevator was performed in 17 (18.1%) cases and infralevator in 39 (41.5%) cases. In 47 (69.1%) of 68 supralevator PE recipients colonic anastomosis was formed. In 21 (38.9%) patients a terminal colostoma was formed, in 29 (76.3%) of 38 patients incontinent urinary diversion was formed. Continent urinary diversion was performed in 9 (23.7%) patients. Twenty six (27.6%) patients had 43 post-operative complications which were lethal in 7 (26.9%) cases. PMID:22888652

Roman, L D; Kostiuk, I P; Shostka, K G; Pavlenko, A N; Krest'ianinov, S S; Vasil'ev, L A



Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland



Outcomes of endometrial cancer patients undergoing surgery with gynecologic oncology involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:This study was undertaken to compare the outcomes of patients with endometrial cancer who had primary surgery with gynecologic oncology involvement at university or community hospitals.METHODS:The study population consisted of all patients who had primary surgery for endometrial cancer with involvement of the attending physicians of the Division of Gynecologic Oncology. The patients were divided into two groups based on

Michael L Pearl; Jeannine A Villella; Fidel A Valea; Paul A DiSilvestro; Eva Chalas



Factors Associated With Fatigue After Surgery in Women With Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with cancer. However, the precise determinants of fatigue are still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate factors correlated with cancer-related fatigue before surgery and just before subsequent adjuvant therapy. Methods. Patients completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item quality-of-life questionnaire before and after surgery, the Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Life Orientation Test before surgery, and the State Anxiety Inventory before the start of adjuvant therapy. Multiple regression analysis of determinants of change in MFI-20 total score after surgery was conducted. Results. A series of 466 eligible patients with stage I–III breast cancer with planned surgery were recruited. An increase in MFI-20 total score after surgery was significantly correlated with higher preoperative fatigue and lower role functioning before surgery; a decrease in role functioning, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning after surgery; an increase in insomnia after surgery; and a higher state anxiety after surgery. Disease stage, lymph node metastases, surgical procedure, and demographic characteristics (e.g., age, marital status, having children, educational level) were not correlated with fatigue in multivariate analysis. Conclusion. These results suggest that worsening fatigue after surgery for breast cancer is associated with a decrease in physical functioning and an increase in psychological distress rather than with the cancer characteristics. Therefore, screening measures should be implemented at the time of diagnosis—before starting treatment—to identify psychologically vulnerable patients and to offer them professional support. PMID:23404818

Guillemin, Francis; Bonnetain, Franck; Velten, Michel; Conroy, Thierry



Laparoscopic versus Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of 163 Patients in a Single Institution  

PubMed Central

Background. The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancers. Materials and Methods. The medical records from a total of 163 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancers were retrospectively analyzed. Patient's demographic data, operative details and postoperative early outcomes, outpatient follow-up, pathologic results, and stages of the cancer were reviewed from the database. Results. The patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery showed significant advantages due to the minimally invasive nature of the surgery compared with those who underwent open surgery, namely, less blood loss, faster postoperative recovery, and shorter postoperative hospital stay (P < 0.05). However, laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer resulted in a longer operative time compared with open surgery (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for medical complications (P > 0.05). Open surgery resulted in more incisional infections and postoperative ileus compared with laparoscopic surgery (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the pathologic parameters between two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions. These findings indicated that laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer had the clear advantages of a minimally invasive surgery and relative disadvantage with longer surgery time and exhibited similar pathologic parameters compared with open surgery. PMID:25506425

Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Salman, Bulent; Yuksel, Osman



Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer.  


Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro



Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro



Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko



Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Incisional Surgical Site Infection Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery: An Analysis of 330 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the rate of incisional surgical site infection (SSI) following colorectal cancer surgery in a university hospital and to determine whether duration of prophylactic antibiotic administration can affect the development of this complication. Material and Method: The medical records of 330 patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective oncological resection between 2003 and 2006 at Siriraj Hospital were reviewed.

Varut Lohsiriwat; Darin Lohsiriwat



Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Benefits, Challenges, and Solutions for Underutilization  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. Methods: We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. Results: We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Conclusions: Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future. PMID:25489209

Gusani, Niraj J.; Kimchi, Eric T.; Kavic, Stephen M.



Oncoplastic surgery: a creative approach to breast cancer management.  


Oncoplastic surgery combines the principles of surgical oncology with those of plastic and reconstructive surgery. The intent is to use established techniques from each field in order to provide adequate tumor resection without compromise while optimizing aesthetic outcomes. This patient-centered approach requires a multidisciplinary preoperative evaluation in order to devise a comprehensive surgical plan and coordinate adjuvant treatment as needed. This article provides a historical perspective as well as insight into various creative techniques for breast cancer surgery. PMID:20620928

Lebovic, Gail S



[Use of preventive colostomas in surgery for rectal cancer].  


The study included 482 patients with rectal cancer. Colostoma was formed in 179 for prophylaxis of anastomotic leakage complication. Such measures are indicated in sphincter-sparing surgery on rectum. Preference should be given to transversostomy. PMID:17969417

Em, A E; Vasil'ev, S V; Grigorian, V V; Popov, D E



Intraoperative lymph scintigraphy during radical surgery for cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraoperative lymph scintigraphy during radical surgery for cervical cancer was developed in the course of a program covering three periods. During the last period technetium-99m antimony sulfide has been used to visualize pelvic lymph nodes. Surgery is done with a modified gamma camera serving as an operating table. This ensures intraoperative monitoring and greater thoroughness of lymphadenectomy. The introduction of

E. Gitsch; K. Philipp; N. Pateisky



Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25685338

Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.



Surgical process improvement tools: defining quality gaps and priority areas in gastrointestinal cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, but significant differences in the quality of surgery have been reported. Surgical process improvement tools (spits) modify the processes of care as a means to quality improvement (qi). We were interested in developing spits in the area of gastrointestinal (gi) cancer surgery. We report the recommendations of an expert panel held to define quality gaps and establish priority areas that would benefit from spits. Methods The present study used the knowledge-to-action cycle was as a framework. Canadian experts in qi and in gi cancer surgery were assembled in a nominal group workshop. Participants evaluated the merits of spits, described gaps in current knowledge, and identified and ranked processes of care that would benefit from qi. A qualitative analysis of the workshop deliberations using modified grounded theory methods identified major themes. Results The expert panel consisted of 22 participants. Experts confirmed that spits were an important strategy for qi. The top-rated spits included clinical pathways, electronic information technology, and patient safety tools. The preferred settings for use of spits included preoperative and intraoperative settings and multidisciplinary contexts. Outcomes of interest were cancer-related outcomes, process, and the technical quality of surgery measures. Conclusions Surgical process improvement tools were confirmed as an important strategy. Expert panel recommendations will be used to guide future research efforts for spits in gi cancer surgery. PMID:24764704

Wei, A.C.; Devitt, K.S.; Wiebe, M.; Bathe, O.F.; McLeod, R.S.; Urbach, D.R.



The quality of research synthesis in surgery: the case of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses populate the literature on the effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. The utility of this body of work is unclear. The objective of this study was to synthesize all such systematic reviews in terms of clinical effectiveness, to appraise their quality, and to determine whether areas of duplication exist across reviews. Methods Systematic reviews comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer were identified using a comprehensive search protocol (1991 to 2008). The primary outcome was overall survival. The methodological quality of reviews was appraised using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) instrument. Abstraction and quality appraisal was carried out by two independent reviewers. Reviews were synthesized, and outcomes were compared qualitatively. A citation analysis was carried out using simple matrices to assess the comprehensiveness of each review. Results In total, 27 reviews were included; 13 reviews included only randomized controlled trials. Rectal cancer was addressed exclusively by four reviews. There was significant overlap between review purposes, populations and, outcomes. The mean AMSTAR score (out of 11) was 5.8 (95% CI: 4.6 to 7.0). Overall survival was evaluated by ten reviews, none of which found a significant difference. Three reviews provided a selective meta-analysis of time-to-event data. Previously published systematic reviews were poorly and highly selectively referenced (mean citation ratio 0.16, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.22). Previously published trials were not comprehensively identified and cited (mean citation ratio 0.56, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.65). Conclusions Numerous overlapping systematic reviews of laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer exist in the literature. Despite variable methods and quality, survival outcomes are congruent across reviews. A duplication of research efforts appears to exist in the literature. Further systematic reviews or meta-analyses are unlikely to be justified without specifying a significantly different research objective. This works lends support to the registration and updating of systematic reviews. PMID:22588035



Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.



Breast Cancer Surgery Now Often Involves Fewer Lymph Nodes  


... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast Cancer Surgery Now Often Involves Fewer Lymph Nodes 2010 ... Preidt Friday, April 3, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breast Cancer Mastectomy FRIDAY, April 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Compared ...


Chronic preoperative pain and psychological robustness predict acute postoperative pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated preoperative and surgical risk factors for acute postoperative pain after surgery for breast cancer. We investigated demographic, psychological, pain-related and surgical risk factors in women undergoing resectional surgery for breast cancer. Methods: Primary outcomes were pain severity, at rest (PAR) and movement-evoked pain (MEP), in the first postoperative week. Results: In 338 women undergoing surgery, those with chronic preoperative pain were three times more likely to report moderate to severe MEP after breast cancer surgery (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.45–6.99). Increased psychological ‘robustness', a composite variable representing positive affect and dispositional optimism, was associated with lower intensity acute postoperative PAR (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48–0.82) and MEP (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54–0.93). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and intraoperative nerve division were associated with reduced postoperative pain. No relationship was found between preoperative neuropathic pain and acute pain outcomes; altered sensations and numbness postoperatively were more common after axillary sample or clearance compared with SLNB. Conclusion: Chronic preoperative pain, axillary surgery and psychological robustness significantly predicted acute pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer. Preoperative identification and targeted intervention of subgroups at risk could enhance the recovery trajectory in cancer survivors. PMID:22850552

Bruce, J; Thornton, A J; Scott, N W; Marfizo, S; Powell, R; Johnston, M; Wells, M; Heys, S D; Thompson, A M



Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancers: Surgery Alone Versus Surgery Plus Postoperative Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the role of radiotherapy after curative-intent surgery in the management of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1997 through 2005, 78 patients with EHBD cancer were surgically staged. These patients were stratified by the absence of adjuvant radiation (n = 47, group I) versus radiation (n = 31, group II) after resection. Pathology examination showed 27 cases in group I and 20 cases in group II had microscopically positive resection margins. The patients in group II received 45 to 54 Gy of external beam radiotherapy. The primary endpoints of this study were overall survival, disease-free survival, and prognostic factors. Results: There were no differences between the 5-year overall survival rates for the two groups (11.6% in group I vs. 21% in group II). However, the patients with microscopically positive resection margins who received adjuvant radiation therapy had higher median disease-free survival rates than those who underwent surgery alone (21 months vs. 10 months, respectively, p = 0.042). Decreasing local failure was found in patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (61.7% in group I and 35.6% in group II, p = 0.02). Outcomes of the patients with a positive resection margin and lymph node metastasis who received postoperative radiation therapy were doubled compared to those of patients without adjuvant radiotherapy. Resection margin status, lymph node metastasis, and pathology differentiation were significant prognostic factors in disease-free survival. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy might be useful in patients with EHBD cancer, especially for those patients with microscopic residual tumors and positive lymph nodes after resection for increasing local control.

Gwak, Hee Keun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)



Avoiding inappropriate surgery for secondary rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Secondary rectal carcinoma occurs by invasion of the rectum by local primaries or by metastatic spread from a distant primary. The principle management of primary rectal carcinoma is surgery, but this is not usually the case for secondary carcinoma. This study investigates how these two may be differentiated and inappropriate surgery, in particular inappropriate abdominoperineal excision, can be avoided.

C. M. H. Bailey; J. M. Gilbert



Radioimmunoguided surgery in primary colon cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS), the intraoperative use of a hand-held gamma detecting probe (GDP) to identify tissue containing radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb), was performed upon 30 patients with primary colon carcinoma. Each patient received an intravenous injection of MAb B72.3 (1.0 to 0.25 mg) radiolabeled with {sup 125}I (5.0 to 1.0 mCi) 8 to 34 days before exploration. The GDP was used to measure radioactivity in colon tissue, tumor bed, nodal drainage areas, and areas of suspected metastases. Antibody localized to histologically documented tumor in 23 of 30 patients (77%). Tumor margins were more clearly defined in 20 of 30 patients (67%). GDP counts led to major alterations in surgical resection in five patients (17%) and changes in adjuvant therapy in four (14%). GDP counts identified occult liver metastases in two patients (7%) and correctly indicated the benign nature of liver masses in three (10%). In four patients (13%), occult nodal metastases were identified. RIGS can precisely delineate tumor margins, define the extent of nodal involvement, and localize occult tumor, providing a method of immediate intraoperative staging that may lessen recurrences and produce higher survival rates.

Nieroda, C.A.; Mojzisik, C.; Sardi, A.; Ferrara, P.J.; Hinkle, G.; Thurston, M.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))



The Role of Palliative Surgery in Gynecologic Cancer Cases  

PubMed Central

The decision to undergo major palliative surgery in end-stage gynecologic cancer is made when severe disease symptoms significantly hinder quality of life. Malignant bowel obstruction, unremitting pelvic pain, fistula formation, tumor necrosis, pelvic sepsis, and chronic hemorrhage are among the reasons patients undergo palliative surgeries. This review discusses and summarizes the literature on surgical management of malignant bowel obstruction and palliative pelvic exenteration in gynecologic oncology. PMID:23299775

Hope, Joanie Mayer



Detection of micrometastases in sentinel node navigation surgery for gastric cancer.  


Although lymph node metastasis is one of the important prognostic factors for patients with gastric cancer, the clinical significance of micrometastasis remains controversial. In the 6th edition of the TMN classification, micrometastases were classified as micrometastasis (MM) and isolated tumor cells (ITC) according to its greatest dimension. The accurate diagnosis of micrometastases is required when considering less invasive surgery, especially in early stage of gastric cancer. Since generating useful information about micrometastases by conventional RT-PCR is time-consuming, this procedure is not useful for rapid diagnosis during surgery. Recently some new methods of genetic diagnosis have reduced the amount of time required to obtain information about micrometastases in lymph nodes to 30-40 min. Such methodology can be clinically applied during less invasive surgery. The sentinel node (SN) concept has recently been applied to gastric cancer and SN navigation surgery (SNNS) is ideal for reduction of lymphadenectomy in patients with early gastric cancer. However, we should think about some conditions to establish SN concept for gastric cancer: the particle size of radioisotope, relationship between metastatic area and RI uptake, and the diagnosis of micrometastases by various method such as histological examination, immunostaining and RT-PCR. Here, we described the current status of MM and ITC in the lymph nodes and the SN concept in gastric cancer. PMID:18539025

Yanagita, Shigehiro; Natsugoe, Shoji; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Arigami, Takaaki; Arima, Hideo; Kozono, Tsutomu; Funasako, Yawara; Ehi, Katsuhiko; Nakajo, Akihiro; Ishigami, Sumiya; Aikou, Takashi



Intracorporeal Anastomosis in Laparoscopic Gastric Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic gastrectomy has become widely used as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of gastric cancer. When it was first introduced, most surgeons preferred a laparoscopic-assisted approach with a minilaparotomy rather than a totally laparoscopic procedure because of the technical challenges of achieving an intracorporeal anastomosis. Recently, with improved skills and instruments, several surgeons have reported the safety and feasibility of a totally laparoscopic gastrectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis. This review describes the recent technical advances in intracorporeal anastomoses using circular and linear staplers that allow for totally laparoscopic distal, total, and proximal gastrectomies. Data that demonstrate advantages in early surgical outcomes of a total laparoscopic method compared to laparoscopic-assisted operations are also discussed. PMID:23094224

Hosogi, Hisahiro



The evolution of cancer surgery and future perspectives.  


Surgery is the oldest oncological discipline, dating back thousands of years. Prior to the advent of anaesthesia and antisepsis 150 years ago, only the brave, desperate, or ill-advised patient underwent surgery because cure rates were low, and morbidity and mortality high. However, since then, cancer surgery has flourished, driven by relentless technical innovation and research. Historically, the mantra of the cancer surgeon was that increasingly radical surgery would enhance cure rates. The past 50 years have seen a paradigm shift, with the realization that multimodal therapy, technological advances, and minimally invasive techniques can reduce the need for, or the detrimental effects of, radical surgery. Preservation of form, function, and quality of life, without compromising survival, is the new mantra. Today's surgeons, no longer the uneducated technicians of history, are highly trained medical professionals and together with oncologists, radiologists, scientists, anaesthetists and nurses, have made cancer surgeries routine, safe, and highly effective. This article will review the major advances that have underpinned this evolution. PMID:25384943

Wyld, Lynda; Audisio, Riccardo A; Poston, Graeme J



Feasibility of non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery with sentinel node basin dissection as a new surgical method for early gastric cancer: a porcine survival study.  


Non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery (NEWS) has been developed as an endoscopic full-thickness resection technique without translumenal communication to avoid intraabdominal infection or tumor seeding. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of NEWS with sentinel node basin dissection (SNBD), which can minimize the area of lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer (EGC), in 10 porcine survival models. After placing laparoscopic ports and making markings on both the mucosal and serosal sides of a simulated lesion, indocyanine green fluid was endoscopically injected into the submucosa at 4 quadrants around the lesion. An SN basin including the stained SNs was dissected, and a circumferential sero-muscular incision around the lesion and sero-muscular suturing were performed laparoscopically, with the lesion inverted toward the inside of the stomach. Finally, circumferential mucosal incision and transoral retrieval were made endoscopically. In all cases, the lesion was resected in an en bloc fashion, and all pigs survived without adverse events. After 1 week of observation, pigs were sacrificed for macroscopic investigation. The average procedural duration was 170 min (range 130-253 min). Intraoperative perforation occurred in 1 case, which could be safely treated by laparoscopic suturing. The number of dissected SN basins was 1 in 9 cases and 2 in 1 case. Necropsy revealed no signs of severe complication. This animal survival study demonstrated that NEWS with SNBD was safe and feasible. It may provide patients with possibly node-positive EGC a minimally-sized local resection and minimally-ranged lymphadenectomy without the risk of tumor dissemination. PMID:24619187

Goto, Osamu; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Matsuda, Satoru; Kato, Fumihiko; Sasaki, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Horii, Joichiro; Uraoka, Toshio; Kitagawa, Yuko; Yahagi, Naohisa



Long-term survival after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach: comparison with radical surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic resection (ER) has recently become standard treatment, even for early gastric cancer (EGC) in the remnant stomach. We aimed to compare long-term survival after ER versus radical surgery for EGC in the remnant stomach. Methods We retrospectively compared overall and cause-specific survival of patients who had undergone ER or radical surgery for EGC in the remnant stomach from 1998 to 2012. Results During the study period, 32 patients with intramucosal (M), two with shallow submucosal (SM1) and eight with deep submucosal (SM2) cancers had undergone ER (ER group) whereas six with M and seven with SM2 cancers had undergone surgery (surgery group). All patients were followed up for a median of 60 months; during follow up, 15 patients died, including three in the ER group with SM2 cancer who died of gastric cancer. The overall 5-year survival rates of M-SM1 and SM2 cancer patients in the ER and surgery groups were 89%, 48%, 80%, and 67%, respectively (P=0.079). The disease-specific 5-year survival rates of M-SM1 and SM2 cancer patients in the ER and surgery groups were 100%, 48%, 100%, and 100%, respectively (P=0.000). Operation time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the ER than the surgery group (P<0.001). Grade 2 perforation occurred in two patients in the ER group and Grade 3 anastomotic leakage in two patients in the surgery group. Conclusion ER provides excellent outcomes, comparable with those of radical surgery, in patients with M-SM1 gastric cancer in the remnant stomach; however, patients with SM2 cancer require radical surgery. PMID:25608929

Yamashina, Takeshi; Uedo, Noriya; Dainaka, Katsuyuki; Aoi, Kenji; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Ishihara, Ryu; Kishi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Iishi, Hiroyasu



Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: oncological results and clinical outcome of 225 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The efficacy and feasibility of laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer has been proved, but the results of prospective,\\u000a randomized studies are not yet available. Here we present a prospective observational study evaluating oncological and clinical\\u000a outcome after laparoscopic surgery in patients with rectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  Between January 1998 and March 2005, 225 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent laparoscopic surgery

Ayman Agha; Alois Fürst; Johanna Hierl; Igors Iesalnieks; Gabriel Glockzin; Matthias Anthuber; Karl-Walter Jauch; Hans J. Schlitt



Laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer: Where do we stand?  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer poses a significant public health problem, especially in the Far East, due to its high incidence in these areas. Surgical treatment and guidelines have been markedly different in the West, but nowadays this debate is apparently coming to an end. Laparoscopic surgery has been employed in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer for two decades now, but with controversies about the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Despite these difficulties, the apparent advantages of the laparoscopic approach helped its implementation in early stage and distal gastric cancer, with an increase on the uptake for distal gastrectomy for more advanced disease and total gastrectomy. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence about the laparoscopic approach yet. In this review article we present and analyse the current status of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:25339815

Antonakis, Pantelis T; Ashrafian, Hutan; Isla, Alberto Martinez



The role of guidelines in quality improvement for cancer surgery.  


In February 2008, Cancer Surgery Alberta hosted a conference on surgical outcomes and quality. The objective here is to review the interactions between quality/outcomes and guidelines, highlighting surgeons' roles. Potential interactions between quality measurement and guidelines are discussed. We analyzed data from practitioner surveys about guidelines to determine surgeons' participation compared with other specialists. The response rate of surgeons in both community-based and academic practices to guideline development surveys was equivalent to other cancer disciplines. PMID:19466734

Browman, George P; Brouwers, Melissa



Pancreatic cancer surgery: the state of the art.  


Pancreatic cancer patients have an extremely poor survival prognosis, and surgical resection remains the only curative treatment. Greater experience in pancreatic surgery and developments in surgical techniques have reduced surgical mortality and morbidity rates. It has been suggested that experienced pancreaticoduodenectomy centers should have mortality rates of less than 5% and major complication rates of less than 40%. Surgical resection followed by combined adjuvant therapy is currently the standard treatment for resectable pancreas cancer. Patients with borderline or marginal resectable tumors are beginning to have favorable outcomes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation. A number of prospective randomized trials have concluded that "extended" pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head cancer, involving radical dissection of lymph nodes and peripancreatic soft tissue, does not appear to provide any survival benefits compared with "standard" pancreaticoduodenectomy. Conversely, extensive surgery for pancreatic tail or body cancer (i.e., radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy) can result in favorable R0 resection rates and survival outcomes. However, more prospective randomized trial data are required before these conclusions can be considered established. Laparoscopic approaches are being increasingly used in the field of pancreatic tumor surgery. Moreover, robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery has also been tried in some expert centers. Again, at present a lack of outcome data prevent any definitive conclusion at this stage on the usefulness of those approaches compared to standard open approaches. Finally, a major problem hindering efforts to identify optimal surgical treatment modalities for pancreas cancer is the lack of a clear definition and standardization of surgical procedures and pathologic descriptions. The American Hepato- PancreatoBiliary Association/Society of Surgical Oncology/Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract conference on pancreatic cancer held in 2008 resulted in a consensus statement as an important first step in overcoming this fundamental hurdle. PMID:22458522

Kim, Song Cheol; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Kwang Min; Lee, Young Ju



Rates of breast cancer surgery in Canada from 2007/08 to 2009/10: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery is a common and important component of breast cancer treatment. We assessed the rates of breast cancer surgery across Canada from 2007/08 to 2009/10. Methods We used hospital and day surgery data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information to assemble a cohort of women who had undergone breast cancer surgery. We identified the index surgical procedure and subsequent surgical procedures performed within 1 year for each woman included in the analysis. We calculated the crude mastectomy rate for each province, and we calculated the adjusted mastectomy rate for select jurisdictions using a logistic regression model fitted using age, neighbourhood income quintile and travel time. Results In total, 57 840 women underwent breast cancer surgery during the study period. Among women with unilateral invasive breast cancer, the crude mastectomy rate was 39%. Adjusted rates for mastectomy varied widely by province (26%–69%). The rate of re-excision within 1 year for women who had breast-conserving surgery as their index procedure was 23% and varied by province in terms of frequency and type (mastectomy or repeat breast-conserving surgery). Among women who underwent mastectomy for unilateral invasive breast cancer, 6% also underwent contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, and 7% had immediate breast reconstruction following surgery. Of mastectomy procedures, 20% were performed as day surgery; for breast-conserving surgery, 70% were performed as day surgery. Interpretation There is substantial interprovincial variation in surgical care for breast cancer in Canada. Further research is needed to better understand such variation, and continued monitoring should be the focus of quality initiatives. PMID:25077125

Wagar, Brandon; Bryant, Heather; Hewitt, Maria; Wai, Elaine; Dabbs, Kelly; McFarlane, Anne; Rahal, Rami



Survival benefit in patients after palliative resection vs non-resection colon cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate survival in patients undergoing palliative resection versus non-resection surgery for primary colorectal cancer in a retrospective analysis. METHODS: Demographics, TNM status, operating details and survival were reviewed for 67 patients undergoing surgery for incurable colorectal cancer. Palliative resection of the primary tumor was performed in 46 cases in contrast to 21 patients with non-resection of the primary tumor and bypass surgery. Risk factors for postoperative mortality and poor survival were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, preoperative presence of ileus and tumor stage. Multivariate analysis showed that median survival was significantly higher in patients with palliative resection surgery (544 vs 233 d). Differentiation of the tumor and tumor size were additional independent factors that were associated with a significantly poorer survival rate. CONCLUSION: Palliative resection surgery for primary colorectal cancer is associated with a higher median survival rate. Also, the presence of liver metastasis and tumor size are associated with poor survival. Therefore, resection of the primary tumor should be considered in patients with non-curable colon cancer. PMID:17075976

Beham, A; Rentsch, M; Püllmann, K; Mantouvalou, L; Spatz, H; Schlitt, HJ; Obed, A



Colonic Stent as Bridge to Surgery in Patients with Obstructive Left-Sided Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: We assessed the optimal time interval between endoscopic stenting and subsequent surgery in patients with obstructive left-sided colon cancer. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent endoscopic colonic stenting for obstructive left-sided colon cancer between January 2009 and January 2012. Patients who had successful endoscopic intervention as a bridge to surgery were included in the study. Other variables studied were the duration between endoscopic stenting and surgery, the reobstruction rate, the stoma creation rate, the anastomotic leak rate, and the in-hospital mortality rate. Results: The medical records of 53 patients who underwent endoscopic stenting for obstructive left-sided colon cancer were reviewed, and 43 were included in the study. The median duration between endoscopic stenting and surgery was 7 days (range, 5–33). Conclusion: A median duration of 7 to 9 days after endoscopic stenting in patients with obstructive left-sided colon cancer is enough time to subsequently perform a safe surgical procedure. Extending this duration may expose the patient to the risk of reobstruction and emergency surgery. PMID:25408602

Gonenc, Murat; Kapan, Selin; Kocatas?, Ali; Temizgönül, Baha; Alis, Halil



For Women with BRCA Mutations, Prophylactic Surgery Reduces Cancer Risk

Prophylactic surgery to remove the breasts and ovaries is an effective way to reduce the risk of breast and ovarian cancer among women with inherited mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, according to one of the largest prospective studies on the subject to date.


Some Older Women Can Forgo Radiation after Breast Cancer Surgery

Women 70 years of age or older with early-stage breast cancer did not benefit from the addition of radiation therapy to breast-conserving surgery and tamoxifen, according to results of a phase III randomized study presented in advance of the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting.


Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer

A fact sheet that describes mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, two prophylactic surgeries that may be performed to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at very high risk; the situations in which they may be considered; and nonsurgical options.


Surgery Choices for Women With DCIS or Breast Cancer

Once you are diagnosed, treatment will usually not begin right away. There should be enough time for you to meet with breast cancer surgeons, learn the facts about your surgery choices, and think about what is important to you. Learning all you can will help you make a choice you can feel good about.


A Comparison of Open Surgery, Robotic-Assisted Surgery and Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery in the Treatment of Morbidly Obese Endometrial Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The intent of this retrospective study was to assess the operative outcomes of morbidly obese endometrial cancer patients who were treated with either open surgery (OS) or a minimally invasive procedure. Methods: Morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m2) patients with endometrial cancer who underwent OS, robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RS), or conventional laparoscopic surgery (LS) were eligible. We sought to discern any outcome differences with regard to operative time, perioperative complications, and hospital stay. Results: Sixteen patients were treated with LS (BMI = 47.9 kg/m2), 13 were managed via RS (BMI = 51.2 kg/m2), and 24 underwent OS (BMI = 53.7 kg/m2). The OS (1.35 hours) patients had a significantly shorter operative duration than the LS (1.82 hours) and RS (2.78 hours) patients (P < .001); blood loss was greater in the OS (250 mL) group in comparison with the RS (100 mL) and LS (175 mL) patients (P = .002). Moreover, the OS (4 days) subjects had a significantly longer hospital stay than the LS (2 days) and RS (2 days) patients (P = .002). Conclusion: In the present study, we ascertained that minimally invasive surgery was associated with longer operative times but lower rates of blood loss and shorter hospital stay duration compared with treatment comprising an open procedure.

Mendivil, Alberto A.; Rettenmaier, Mark A.; Abaid, Lisa N.; Brown, John V.; Micha, John P.; Lopez, Katrina L.



History of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer in Korea.  


Laparoscopic gastrectomy was begun in 1995 in Korea. But, there was 4 years gap to reactivate in 1999. High incidence of gastric cancer and increasing proportion of early cancer through national screening program along with huge effort and enthusiasm of laparoscopic gastric surgeon, and active academic exchange with Japanese doctors contributed development of laparoscopic gastrectomy in Korea. Study group activity of Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study (KLASS) group and Collaborative Action for Gastric Cancer (COACT) group were paramount to evoke large scale multicenter clinical study and various well performed clinical studies. This review encompasses mainly international publications about this area so far in Korea. PMID:22500259

Kim, Young-Woo; Yoon, Hong Man; Eom, Bang Wool; Park, Ji Yeon



The history of lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer and the future prospects for esophageal cancer surgery.  


I would herein like to look back upon surgery for esophageal cancer, particularly on lymphadenectomy, and to speculate a little on the future prospects for esophageal surgery. There are two schools of thought on lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer: one believes in en bloc esophagectomy, which is commonly performed in Western countries; the other believes in three-field lymphadenectomy, which is commonly performed in Japan. We esophageal surgeons at Kurume University have contributed to some advances in three-field lymphadenectomy. For example, we initiated functional mediastinal dissection to ensure patient safety, and we proposed the lymph node compartment theory to assess the clinical importance of regional nodes. Oncological surgery has progressed in terms of its safety, radicality and functional preservation, leading to improved quality-of-life for patients after surgery. This then evolved to the current development of multimodal and individualized tailor-made treatments. I believe that surgery for esophageal cancer will become bipolarized in the future. One strand will evolve as salvage surgery for residual or recurrent tumors, which non-surgical therapies have failed to cure, and the other strand will evolve as less invasive surgery, adjuvant surgery, for cancers at the relatively early stage, for which micro-metastasis can be cured by non-surgical therapies. PMID:24519395

Fujita, Hiromasa



Is laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery equal to open surgery? An evidence based perspective  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) is an evolving subject. Recent studies show that LCS can not only offer safe surgery but evidence is growing that this new technique can be superior to classical open procedures. Fewer perioperative complications and faster postoperative recovery are regularly mentioned when studies of LCS are presented. Even though the learning curve of LCS is frequently debated when limitations of laparoscopic surgeries are reviewed, studies show that in experienced hands LCS can be a safe procedure for colorectal cancer treatment. The learning curve however, is associated with high conversion rates and economical aspects such as higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. Nevertheless, laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery (LCCR) offers several advantages such as less co-morbidity and less postoperative pain in comparison with open procedures. Furthermore, the good exposure of the pelvic cavity by laparoscopy and the magnification of anatomical structures seem to facilitate pelvic dissection laparoscopically. Moreover, recent studies describe no difference in safety and oncological radicalness in LCCR compared to the open total mesorectal excision (TME). The oncological adequacy of LCCR still remains unproven today, because long-term results do not yet exist. To date, only a few studies have described the results of laparoscopic TME combined with preoperative adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer. The aim of this review is to examine the various areas of development and controversy of LCCR in comparison to the conventional open approach. PMID:21160858

Künzli, Beat M; Friess, Helmut; Shrikhande, Shailesh V



Sentinel node navigation surgery in early-stage esophageal cancer.  


The sentinel node (SN) concept has revolutionized the surgical staging of both melanoma and breast cancer over the past two decades. However, the validity of the SN hypothesis has been controversial for esophageal cancer, because SN mapping for esophageal cancer is technically complicated, and the number of early-stage esophageal cancer is very limited. Nevertheless previous studies nicely demonstrated that SN mapping may be feasible in patients with early-stage esophageal cancer. Transthoracic extended esophagectomy with three-field radical lymph node dissection has been recognized as a curative procedure for thoracic esophageal cancer in Japan. However, uniform application of this highly invasive procedure might increase the morbidity and markedly reduce the quality of life (QOL) after surgery. Although further accumulation of evidence based on multicenter clinical trials using a standard protocol is needed, SN mapping and SN navigation surgery would provide significant information to perform individualized selective lymphadenectomy which might reduce the morbidity and retain the patients' QOL. In addition, technical innovation including the development of new tracers is expected to confirm the accuracy and reliability of SN mapping in esophageal cancer. PMID:22673610

Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Takeda, Flavio; Omori, Tai; Kitagawa, Yuko



Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer. Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons. Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15), the lower lateral quadrant (n=2), and the central lateral area (n=3). Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer. PMID:23898433

Ryu, Dong Wan; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Park, Ho Yong; Byun, Jin Suk



Intraoperative lymph scintigraphy during radical surgery for cervical cancer  

SciTech Connect

Intraoperative lymph scintigraphy during radical surgery for cervical cancer was developed in the course of a program covering three periods. During the last period technetium-99m antimony sulfide has been used to visualize pelvic lymph nodes. Surgery is done with a modified gamma camera serving as an operating table. This ensures intraoperative monitoring and greater thoroughness of lymphadenectomy. The introduction of the technique has improved the rate of total lymphadenectomies and has increased both the yields of involved nodes and the 3-yr survival rates.

Gitsch, E.; Philipp, K.; Pateisky, N.



Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer patients.  


Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy is a standard therapy for early-stage breast cancer patients. In addition, recent developments in oncoplastic surgery have improved cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. Therefore, a breast surgeon's current role in BCS is not only to perform a curative resection of cancerous lesions with adequate surgical margins, but also to preserve the shape and appearance of the treated breast. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery (EBCS), which has the advantage of a less noticeable scar, was developed more than ten years ago. Recently, some clinical studies have reported the feasibility, oncological outcomes, aesthetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction of EBCS. Herein, we will review the EBCS clinical studies that have been conducted so far and discuss current issues regarding this operative method. PMID:25083503

Ozaki, Shinji; Ohara, Masahiro



Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy is a standard therapy for early-stage breast cancer patients. In addition, recent developments in oncoplastic surgery have improved cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. Therefore, a breast surgeon’s current role in BCS is not only to perform a curative resection of cancerous lesions with adequate surgical margins, but also to preserve the shape and appearance of the treated breast. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery (EBCS), which has the advantage of a less noticeable scar, was developed more than ten years ago. Recently, some clinical studies have reported the feasibility, oncological outcomes, aesthetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction of EBCS. Herein, we will review the EBCS clinical studies that have been conducted so far and discuss current issues regarding this operative method. PMID:25083503

Ohara, Masahiro



The Feasibility of Short Term Prophylactic Antibiotics in Gastric Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Most surgeons administer prophylactic antibiotics for 3 to 5 days postoperatively. However, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) guideline recommends antibiotic therapy for 24 hours or less in clean/uncontaminated surgery. Thus, we prospectively studied the use of short term prophylactic antibiotic therapy after gastric cancer surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 103 patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery between October 2007 and June 2008 were prospectively enrolled in a short term prophylactic antibiotics program. One gram of cefoxitin was administered 30 minutes before the incision, and one additional gram was administered intraoperatively for cases with an operation time over 3 hours. Postoperatively, one gram was administered 3 times, every 8 hours. Patients were checked routinely for fever. All cases received open surgery, and the surgical wounds were dressed and checked for Surgical Site Infection (SSI) daily. Results Of the 103 patients, 15 were dropped based on exclusion criteria (severe organ dysfunction, combined resection of the colon, etc). The remaining 88 patients were included in the short-term program of prophylactic antibiotic use. Of these patients, SSIs were detected in 8 (9.1%) and fever after 2 postoperative days was detected in 11 (12.5%). The incidence of SSIs increased with patient age, and postoperative fever correlated with operation time. Conclusions Short term prophylactic antibiotic usage is feasible in patients who undergo gastric cancer surgery, and where there are no grave comorbidities or combined resection. PMID:22076187

Lee, Jun Suh; Lee, Han Hong; Song, Kyo Young; Park, Cho Hyun



Optimal surgery for gastric cancer: is more always better?  


The extent of surgical resection for carcinoma of the stomach has been debated for many years. The aims of surgery are to obtain complete histopathological clearance of all possible sites of disease based on oncological principles. This has included radical resection of the primary site with combined organ resection as required and resection of associated lymph nodes. Detailed understanding of the natural history of gastric cancer has resulted in the Pichlmayr total gastrectomy "en principe" approach being super-ceded by a tailored approach according to tumour and patient characteristics. Careful tumour staging is fundamental to the selection of surgical intervention. Endoscopic therapy is recommended for well differentiated, mucosal cancers less than 2 cm in size as the risk of nodal disease is 0-3 %. Recently, these criteria have been extended to include some larger and ulcerated cancers. Although extended lymphadenectomy has formed the basis of radical surgery, Japanese experience has also confirmed that for early gastric cancer involving the submucosa limited nodal resection can achieve the same outcome as standardised D2 lymphadenectomy. The approach to locally advanced T2, T3 and some T4 cancers has been defined by the Japanese rules specifying proximal and distal margins as well as extent of lymph node resection. Translation of Japanese results to Western patients has not been straightforward. Two randomised controlled trials have shown limited or no benefit over conventional limited nodal dissection. However, these studies have not been without criticism and individual specialist practice in the West now preferentially includes D2 lymphadenectomy in suitable patients. Extending conventional D2 lymphadenectomy has been evaluated but the results are not conclusive. Japanese RCTs have not shown an advantage but in selected cases several groups have reported a benefit. Historically, radical gastric surgery in the West was associated with significant morbidity and mortality reflecting the comorbidity of the patient groups. Perioperative approaches have shown that outcome approaching that of radical surgery can be achieved with multimodal therapies for high-risk patient groups for whom radical surgery would be contraindicated. Surgery for gastric cancer needs to be determined by a multidisciplinary team to ensure appropriate procedure selection for an individual patient. This allows all relevant information to be considered and to provide the best chance for high-quality patient outcome. PMID:23129377

Allum, William H



Increasing Thyroid Cancer Rate and the Extent of Thyroid Surgery in Korea  

PubMed Central

Background It is evident that the rate of thyroid cancer is increasing throughout the world. One reason is increased detection of preclinical small cancers. However, it is not clear whether the increase in thyroid cancer rate is reducing the extent of thyroid surgeries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thyroid cancer rate and analyze recent changes in the extent of thyroid cancer surgeries in Korea. Methods An observational study was conducted using data from Korea’s Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRAS) for thyroidectomy with/without neck dissection, with 228,051 registered patients between 2007 and 2011. Data were categorized by the extent of surgery: unilateral thyroidectomy without neck dissection (UT), bilateral thyroidectomy or radical thyroidectomy without neck dissection (TT), any thyroidectomy with unilateral selective neck dissection (SND), any thyroidectomy with unilateral modified radical neck dissection (MRND), any thyroidectomy with unilateral radical neck dissection (RND), and any thyroidectomy with bilateral neck dissection (BND). Annual rate difference for each surgery was analyzed with a linear by linear association. Results The absolute numbers of total thyroid surgeries (UT+TT+SND+MRND+RND+BND) were increased from 28539 to 61481. The proportion of patients who underwent only thyroidectomy without neck dissection (UT+TT) decreased from 67.30% to 60.50%, whereas the proportion of patients who underwent neck dissection (SND+MRND+RND+BND) increased from 32.70% to 39.50% during the 5-year study period. Conclusion Despite the increase in rate of thyroid cancer due to earlier detection, increased rate of neck dissection was noted. PMID:25470609

Sung, Myung-Whun; Park, Bumjung; An, Soo-Youn; Hah, J. Hun; Jung, Young Ho; Choi, Hyo Geun



Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer.  


Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) has remained virtually unchanged since the 1980s. By contrast, the demographics of SCCA are evolving, with the emergence of a high-risk group of patients: HIV-positive male homosexuals are prone to develop anal intra-epithelial neoplasia and rapidly progress towards invasive SCCA. By many aspects, anal cancer is similar to uterine cervix cancer - a sexually transmitted disease driven by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Thus, for many patients, SCCA results from the combination of two preventable diseases, HPV and HIV infection. This article reviews current evidence suggesting that a new, more preventive approach is needed in order to improve the clinical outcome of SCCA in HIV-positive patients. PMID:19374601

Buchs, Nicolas C; Allal, Abdelkarim S; Morel, Philippe; Gervaz, Pascal



Impact of Body Mass Index on Perioperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Major Intra-abdominal Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obesity is an increasingly common serious chronic health condition. We sought to determine the impact of body mass index (BMI)\\u000a on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal cancer surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective, multi-institutional, risk-adjusted cohort study of patients undergoing major intra-abdominal cancer surgery\\u000a was performed from the 14 university hospitals participating in the Patient Safety in Surgery Study of the

John T. Mullen; Daniel L. Davenport; Matthew M. Hutter; Patrick W. Hosokawa; William G. Henderson; Shukri F. Khuri; Donald W. Moorman



Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A systematic review of current practice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: “robotic surgery”, “surgical robotics”, “laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery”, “colectomy” and “rectal resection”. RESULTS: After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m2 were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmann’s operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery. CONCLUSION: Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost. PMID:24936229

Mak, Tony Wing Chung; Lee, Janet Fung Yee; Futaba, Kaori; Hon, Sophie Sok Fei; Ngo, Dennis Kwok Yu; Ng, Simon Siu Man



[Progress in sentinel node navigation surgery for gastric cancer].  


Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are identified by injecting lymphatic tracer dye or radioisotope-labeled particles, or both, around a gastric tumor into the submucosa endoscopically or into the subserosa from the exterior of the stomach. Many reports have suggested the feasibility of the SLN concept in T1 gastric cancer. We consider it reasonable to convert from D1+alpha/beta dissection to D2 dissection when an SLN biopsy is positive and have used this strategy since 2000. Although false-negative SLN biopsy results cannot be avoided, previous studies suggested that the dissection of lymph node stations where SLNs occur (SLN stations) may minimize the possibility of leaving metastases, even micrometastases, behind in cases of a negative SLN biopsy. Since 2003, we have performed limited gastrectomy with dissection of SLN stations when the SLN biopsy was negative. A sleeve gastrectomy was sometimes needed due to the distribution of SLN stations or the location of the tumor. It is preferable to conclude the surgery with endoscopic submucosal dissection in cases of negative SLN biopsy, which is performed laparoscopically. For this final goal, it is mandatory to standardize the method of SLN identification and to increase the sensitivity of intraoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastases. PMID:19348196

Ichikura, Takashi



Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury after Gastric Surgery for Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline. Results Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4%) developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2%) were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl); use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments. Conclusions AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality. PMID:24349249

Kim, Chang Seong; Oak, Chan Young; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kang, Yong Un; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Kim, Soo Wan



Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use Among Veterans With Colon Cancer: Insights From a California Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ? 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed for 6 months after diagnosis. Results Among 601 veterans with colon cancer, 72% were initially diagnosed and treated in non-VA facilities. Among veterans with stage I to III cancer, those diagnosed and initially treated in VA facilities experienced similar colectomy rates as those at non-VA facilities. Stage III patients diagnosed and initially treated in VA versus non-VA facilities had similar odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In both settings, older patients had lower odds of receiving chemotherapy than their younger counterparts even when race and comorbidity were considered (age 76 to 85 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.46; age ? 86 years: OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73). Conclusion In California, older veterans with colon cancer used both VA and non-VA facilities for cancer treatment, and odds of receiving cancer-directed surgery and chemotherapy were similar in both systems. Among stage III patients, older age lowered odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both systems. Further studies should continue to explore potential health system effects on quality of colon cancer care across the United States. PMID:20406940

Hynes, Denise M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Perrin, Ruth; Zhang, Qiuying; Weichle, Thomas; Ferreira, M. Rosario; Lee, Todd; Benson, Al B.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Bennett, Charles L.



The Association of Deep Vein Thrombosis With Cancer Treatment Modality: Chemotherapy or Surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a well-recognized complication in patients with cancer. Chemotherapy and cancer surgery increase the risk of DVT in these patients. There are a few reports about the prevalence of DVT in patients with cancer regarding different managing modalities. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DVT in patients with cancer, who were hospitalized in teaching hospitals, according to their treatment intervention. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 602 patients with cancer in Kerman, Iran, during years 2006-2007. Among the subjects, 301 had been operated and the rest had received chemotherapy. The prevalence of DVT was determined based on patients’ variables, cancer factors, and therapeutic modalities. Results: Totally, 349 subjects (58%) were male. DVT incidence was 19.9%, most of the cases were over 40 years of age (82.2%), and 21.2% of males and 18.2% of females had developed DVT. The prevalence of DVT in chemotherapy group was higher than that in surgery group (21.9% and 17.9%, respectively); however, this difference was statistically insignificant. DVT developed more frequently in lung cancer (42%) with small cell carcinoma being the most common pathologic finding (42.9%) in those with lung cancer (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: DVT occurs frequently in patients with malignancies. In this study, there was no association between DVT prevalence and age as well as sex; nonetheless, the prevalence was significantly higher in some sites and in patients with certain pathologies. Although DVT prevalence was higher in chemotherapy than in surgery, the difference was insignificant. Informing patients with cancer about symptoms of DVT and prophylactic interventions are warranted. PMID:25593718

Samare Fekri, Mitra; Khalily Zade, Mahdie; Fatehi, Shima



Stent or surgery for incurable obstructive colorectal cancer: an individualized decisión  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In the setting of stage-IV obstructive colorectal cancer, self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) placement and palliative surgery\\u000a may be appropriate options. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the long-term results of surgery compared with stent\\u000a implantation and to identify patients in whom one of these options can provide more benefit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  From November 2000 to November 2008,

Javier Súarez; Javier Jiménez; Ruth Vera; Antonio Tarifa; Enrique Balén; Virginia Arrazubi; Juan Vila; Jose M. Lera



Association Between Serotonin Transport Polymorphisms and Postdischarge Nausea and Vomiting in Women Following Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives To examine the association of the serotonin transport gene and postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) in women following breast cancer surgery. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A comprehensive cancer center in Pittsburgh, PA. Sample 80 post-menopausal women treated surgically for early-stage breast cancer. Methods Data were collected using standardized instruments after surgery but before the initiation of chemotherapy. Blood or saliva were used for DNA extraction and analyzed following standardized protocols. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Main Research Variables Serotonin transport gene (SLC6A4), nausea, vomiting, pain, and anxiety. Findings Women who inherited the LA/LA genotypes were at greater risk for nausea and vomiting when compared to women who carried any other combination of genotypes. Twenty-one percent of women reported nausea and vomiting an average of one month following surgery and prior to initiation of adjuvant therapy. Those women who experienced PDNV reported significantly higher anxiety and pain scores. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that variability in the genotypes of the serotonin transport gene may help to explain the variability in PDNV in women following breast cancer surgery and why 20%–30% of patients do not respond to antiemetic medications. Implications for Nursing Nurses need to be aware that women who do not experience postoperative nausea and vomiting following surgery for breast cancer continue to be at risk for PDNV long after they have been discharged from the hospital, and this frequently is accompanied by pain and anxiety. PMID:24578078

Wesmiller, Susan W.; Bender, Catherine M.; Sereika, Susan M.; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Conley, Yvette



Experts reviews of the multidisciplinary consensus conference colon and rectal cancer 2012: science, opinions and experiences from the experts of surgery.  


The first multidisciplinary consensus conference on colon and rectal cancer was held in December 2012, achieving a majority of consensus for diagnostic and treatment decisions using the Delphi Method. This article will give a critical appraisal of the topics discussed during the meeting and in the consensus document by well-known leaders in surgery that were involved in this multidisciplinary consensus process. Scientific evidence, experience and opinions are collected to support multidisciplinary teams (MDT) with arguments for medical decision-making in diagnosis, staging and treatment strategies for patients with colon or rectal cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of curative treatment for colon and rectal cancer. Standardizing treatment is an effective instrument to improve outcome of multidisciplinary cancer care for patients with colon and rectal cancer. In this article, a review of the following focuses; Perioperative care, age and colorectal surgery, obstructive colorectal cancer, stenting, surgical anatomical considerations, total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery and training, surgical considerations for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC), surgery in stage IV colorectal cancer, definitions of quality of surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery, preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, and how about functional outcome after surgery? PMID:24268926

van de Velde, C J H; Boelens, P G; Tanis, P J; Espin, E; Mroczkowski, P; Naredi, P; Pahlman, L; Ortiz, H; Rutten, H J; Breugom, A J; Smith, J J; Wibe, A; Wiggers, T; Valentini, V



[Results of chemotherapy and salvage surgery for advanced testicular cancer].  


Since 1980, 73 patients with advanced testicular cancer have been treated with chemotherapy and 43 patients received post-chemotherapy (salvage) surgery. The median age of all patients was 31 years old, ranging from 17 to 63 years. The histology of the primary testicular tumor was pure seminoma in 23 patients and non-seminoma in 50 patients. According to the Japan Urological Association classification, 38 patients were classified as stage II and 35 patients as stage III. As first-line chamotherapy, 52 patients were treated with PVB regimen (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin), 16 patients with PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) and 5 patients with VAB-6 (vinblastine, actinomycin-D, bleomycin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide). Thirty (41%) of the 73 patients achieved a complete response (CR) with chemotherapy alone and 63 (86%) achieved no evidence of disease (NED) with salvage treatment. As second-line chemotherapy, 16 patients were treated with PE (cisplatin, etoposide), or VIP (etoposide, ifosfamide, cisplatin) or VeIP (vinblastine, ifosfamide, cisplatin). One of the 16 patients achieved CR and 11 (69%) patients achieved NED. As salvage surgery, retroperitoneal lymphnode dissection (RPLND) was performed in 22 patients, RPLND with thoracotomy in 7 cases and thoracotomy alone in 4 cases. Necrosis was found in surgical specimens of 24 (56%) patients, mature teratoma in 6 (14%) and residual cancer in 13 (30%). Ninety-six percent and 100% of the patients with necrosis and mature teratoma survived with NED, respectively, but only 54% of the patients with residual carcinoma survived despite further treatment. Residual cancer was still found in 8 of the 32 (25%) marker normalized cases. Residual cancer could not reliably be predicted or discriminated from necrosis or mature teratoma by the prognostic criteria. Therefore, salvage surgery remains essential in the treatment of advanced testicular cancer. PMID:10637743

Saiki, S; Meguro, N; Maeda, O; Kinouchi, T; Kuroda, M; Usami, M; Kotake, T; Miki, T



Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation  

E-print Network

Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation with long, Nottingham, UK Background: As age advances breast cancer appears to change its biological characteristics breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic. In all, 813 underwent primary surgery and 575 good

Aickelin, Uwe


Prevalence of acute neuropathic pain after cancer surgery: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Acute neuropathic pain (ANP) is an under-recognised and under-diagnosed condition and often difficult to treat. If left untreated, it may further transform into persistent post-operative chronic pain leading to a disability. Aims: This prospective study was undertaken on 300 patients to identify the prevalence of ANP in the post-operative period by using a neuropathic pain detection questionnaire tool. Methods: This is an open-label study in which patients with six different types of cancer surgeries (Thoracic, gastro-intestinal, gynae/urology, bone/soft-tissue, head and neck and breast subgroups-50 each) were included for painDETECT questionnaire tool on the 2nd and 7th day surgery. Results: This study found a 10% point prevalence of ANP. Analysis showed that 25 patients had ‘possible’ ANP, the maximum from urological cancer surgery (6) followed by thoracic surgery (5). Five patients were found to have ‘positive’ ANP including 2 groin node dissection, 2 hemipelvectomy and 1 oesophagectomy. Conclusion: Significant relationship between severity of post-operative pain was found with the occurrence of ANP in the post-operative period requiring a special attention to neuropathic pain assessment. Larger studies are required with longer follow-up to identify accurately the true prevalence and causative factors of ANP after surgery. PMID:24700897

Jain, PN; Padole, Durgesh; Bakshi, Sumitra



Single-site robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To discuss the feasibility of single-site robotic surgery for benign gynecologic tumors and early stage gynecologic cancers. Methods In this single institution, prospective analysis, we analyzed six patients who had undergone single-site robotic surgery between December 2013 and August 2014. Surgery was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results Single-site robotic surgery was performed successfully in all six cases. The median patient age was 48 years, and the median body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 (range, 22 to 33 kg/m2). The median total operative time was 211 minutes, and the median duration of intracorporeal vaginal cuff suturing was 32 minutes (range, 22 to 47 minutes). The median duration of pelvic lymph node dissection was 31 minutes on one side and 27 minutes on the other side. Patients' postoperative courses were uneventful. The median postoperative hospital stay was 4 days. No postoperative complications occurred. Conclusion When used to treat benign gynecologic tumors and early stage gynecologic cancers, the single-site da Vinci robotic surgery is feasible, safe, and produces favorable surgical outcomes. PMID:25609162

Yoo, Ha-Na; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie



The current state of surgery for pancreatic cancer.  


Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States, with a dismal 5-year survival of only 6% for all stages. Surgical resection offers the best opportunity for prolonged survival at this time, but is limited to patients with locally resectable tumors and no distant metastases. Although only 10-20% of patients present with early stage disease are amenable to surgical resection, remarkable advancements have been made over the past several decades leading to improved morbidity and mortality after pancreatic resection. This article will review the current state of pancreatic surgery including its role in the multidisciplinary approach to pancreatic cancer treatment, advances and controversies in surgical technique, and the limitations of surgical therapy that will need to be addressed in the future to improve survival for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25651834

Poruk, K E; Weiss, M J



Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer



Prospective study of the quality of life of cancer patients after intraoral tumor surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the quality of life of patients with oral cancer after intraoral ablative surgery.Patients and Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth were enrolled in the study. Reconstruction of intraoral soft tissues was accomplished by local tissue (67.8%), jejunal grafts (16.9%), and cutaneous and

Henning Schliephake; Karsten Rüffert; Thomas Schneller



Comparison of Compliance of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Between Laparoscopic and Open Surgery in Patients With Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Many studies have shown that the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy improves the survival rate. Recently, laparoscopic surgery has been used to treat patients with colon cancer. We analyzed the relationship between the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy and the operation method. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 147 patients diagnosed with colon cancer from January 1, 2009, to May 31, 2012. The numbers of patients who underwent laparoscopic and open surgery were 91 and 56, respectively. We analyzed the relationship between the operation method and various factors such as the completion rate of chemotherapy, the patient's age, gender, and physical activity, the postoperative hospital stay, the start time of chemotherapy, and the patient's body mass index (BMI), TNM stage, and type of health insurance. Results In the laparoscopic surgery group, the postoperative hospital stay (13.5 ± 14.82 days vs. 19.6 ± 11.38 days, P = 0.001) and start time of chemotherapy (17.7 ± 17.48 days vs. 23.0 ± 15.00 days, P = 0.044) were shorter, but the percent complete of chemotherapy (71/91 [78.0%] vs. 38/56 [67.8%], P = 0.121), and survival rate (88/91 [96.7%], 47/56 [83.9%], P = 0.007) were higher than they were in the open surgery group. Patients who were elderly, had a low BMI, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologists score were less likely to complete adjuvant chemotherapy than other patients were. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery shows a shorter postoperative hospital stay, a shorter start time of chemotherapy, and a higher survival rate. Laparoscopic surgery may be expected to increase compliance of chemotherapy and to improve survival rate. PMID:25580414

Chun, Kan Ho; An, Hoon; Jeong, Hyeonseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keun Ho; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hong Ju; Kim, Young Duk



Safety and feasibility of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for stage IIIA lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study was prospectively designed to explore the application of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) radical treatment for patients with stage IIIA lung cancer, with the primary endpoints being the safety and feasibility of this operation and the second endpoints being the survival and complications after the surgery. Methods A total of 51 patients with radiologically or mediastinoscopically confirmed stage IIIA lung cancer underwent VATS radical treatment, during which the standard pulmonary lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection were performed after pre-operative assessment. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss/complications, postoperative recovery, postoperative complications, and lymph node dissection were recorded and analyzed. This study was regarded as successful if the surgical success rate reached 90% or higher. Results A total of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enrolled in this study from March 2009 to February 2010. The median post-operative follow-up duration was 50.5 months. Of these 51 patients, 41 (80.4%) had N2 lymph node metastases. All patients underwent the thoracoscopic surgeries, among whom 50 (98%) received pulmonary lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection completely under the thoracoscope, 6 had their incisions extended to about 6 cm due to larger tumor sizes, and 1 had his surgery performed using a 12 cm small incision for handling the adhesions between lymph nodes and blood vessels. No patient was converted to conventional open thoracotomy. No perioperative death was noted. One patient received a second surgery on the second post-operative day due to large drainage (>1,000 mL), and the postoperative recovery was satisfactory. Up to 45 patients (88.2%) did not suffer from any perioperative complication, and 6 (11.8%) experienced one or more complications. Conclusions VATS radical treatment is a safe and feasible treatment for stage IIIA lung cancer. PMID:25232214

Shao, Wenlong; Liu, Jun; Liang, Wehua; Chen, Hanzhang; Li, Shuben; Yin, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xin



Psychosocial Adaptationand Cellular Immunity in Breast Cancer Patients in the Weeks After Surgery: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Background The period just after surgery for breast cancer requires psychosocial adaptation and is associated with elevated distress. Distress states have been associated with decreased cellular immune functioning in this population, which could have negative effects on physical recovery. However little is known about relations between psychological status (negative and positive mood states and overall quality of life) and cellular signaling cytokines that could account for these associations in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Methods The present study examined associations between psychological adaptation indicators (mood, quality of life) and T-helper cell-type 1 (Th1) cytokine production from stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells in women who had recently undergone surgery for early-stage breast cancer but had not yet begun adjuvant therapy. These associations were evaluated while controlling for relevant disease/treatment, sociodemographic and health behavior covariates. Results Lower anxiety related to greater production of the Th1 cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) while greater positive mood (affection) related to greater production of the Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-?). Better quality of life (QOL) related to greater production of the Th1 cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Conclusion Individual differences in psychosocial adaptation in women with breast cancer during the period after surgery relate to biological parameters that may be relevant for health and well-being as they move through treatment. PMID:19837199

Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Alvarez, Juan P.; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria G.; Lechner, Suzanne; Carver, Charles S.; Holly, Heather; Antoni, Michael H.



Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gastric Cancer Treatment: Current Status and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery, which has been extensively used to treat gastric adenocarcinoma, is now regarded as one of the standard treatments for early gastric cancer, and its suitability for advanced gastric cancer is being investigated. The use of cutting-edge techniques for minimally invasive surgery enables surgeons to deliver various treatment options to minimize a patient's distress and to maintain oncologic safety. Ongoing multicenter prospective studies aim to validate the efficacy of these surgical techniques and to expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status and issues regarding minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:24827617

Son, Taeil; Kwon, In Gyu



Treatment of ovarian cancer with paclitaxel- or carboplatin-based intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy during secondary surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of treating advanced ovarian cancer with paclitaxel or carboplatin in intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (IPHC) during secondary surgery.

Jeong Hoon Bae; Joon Mo Lee; Ki Sung Ryu; Yong Seok Lee; Yong Gyu Park; Soo Young Hur; Woong Shik Ahn; Seong Eun Namkoong



Comparison of Robotic Surgery with Laparoscopy and Laparotomy for Treatment of Endometrial Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the relative merits among robotic surgery, laparoscopy, and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods The MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Studies clearly documenting a comparison between robotic surgery and laparoscopy or between robotic surgery and laparotomy for endometrial cancer were selected. The outcome measures included operating time (OT), number of complications, length of hospital stay (LOHS), estimated blood loss (EBL), number of transfusions, total lymph nodes harvested (TLNH), and number of conversions. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results Twenty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved a total of 4420 patients, 3403 of whom underwent both robotic surgery and laparoscopy and 1017 of whom underwent both robotic surgery and laparotomy. The EBL (p?=?0.01) and number of conversions (p?=?0.0008) were significantly lower and the number of complications (p<0.0001) was significantly higher in robotic surgery than in laparoscopy. The OT, LOHS, number of transfusions, and TLNH showed no significant differences between robotic surgery and laparoscopy. The number of complications (p<0.00001), LOHS (p<0.00001), EBL (p<0.00001), and number of transfusions (p?=?0.03) were significantly lower and the OT (p<0.00001) was significantly longer in robotic surgery than in laparotomy. The TLNH showed no significant difference between robotic surgery and laparotomy. Conclusions Robotic surgery is generally safer and more reliable than laparoscopy and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer. Robotic surgery is associated with significantly lower EBL than both laparoscopy and laparotomy; fewer conversions but more complications than laparoscopy; and shorter LOHS, fewer complications, and fewer transfusions but a longer OT than laparoscopy. Further studies are required. PMID:25259856

Ran, Longke; Jin, Jing; Xu, Yan; Bu, Youquan; Song, Fangzhou



Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

Lee, Heon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gong Yong, E-mail:; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Interstitial and Autoimmune Lung Disease Program, Department of Radiology (United States)





... Cancer Vulvar Cancer Other Cancer Information Foundation for Women’s Cancer Information Bookshelf Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Complementary Therapies Coping and Empowerment Gynecologic Cancer Nutrition and Cancer Other Ovarian Cancer ...


Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: surgery, surveillance and unanswered questions.  


Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by autosomal dominance and high penetrance. In 30-50% of cases, a causative germline mutation in CDH1, the E-cadherin gene, may be identified. Female carriers of CDH1 mutations also have an increased (20-40%) risk of lobular breast cancer. Endoscopic surveillance of patients with CDH1 mutations is ineffective because early foci of HDGC are typically small and underlie normal mucosa. CDH1 mutation carriers are therefore offered the option of prophylactic gastrectomy, which commonly reveals early foci of invasive signet-ring cell cancer. We review recommendations for genetic testing, surveillance and prophylactic surgery in HDGC. Areas for future research are discussed, including development of new screening modalities, optimal timing of prophylactic gastrectomy, identification of additional causative mutations in HDGC, management of patients with CDH1 missense mutations and prevention/early detection of lobular breast cancer in CDH1 mutation carriers. PMID:18684065

Cisco, Robin M; Norton, Jeffrey A



Results of surgery for gastric cancer and effect of adjuvant mitomycin C on cancer recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved 1628 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer between 1964 and 1973. No gastric resection was performed in 330 patients because of extensive cancer, and all died within 2.5 years. A noncurative resection was performed in 286 patients and most of these died within 3 years, although 12.2% survived for 5 years and 9.7% survived for 8

Hajime Imanaga; Hiroaki Nakazato



Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nowadays cervical cancer is diagnosed in many women who still want to have children. This led to the need to provide fertility-sparing treatments. The main goal is to maintain reproductive ability without decreasing overall and recurrence-free survival. In this article, we review data on procedures for fertility preservation, namely, vaginal and abdominal trachelectomy, less invasive surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For each one, oncological and obstetrical outcomes are analyzed. Comparing to traditionally offered radical hysterectomy, the overall oncologic safety is good, with promising obstetrical outcomes. PMID:22830004

Ribeiro Cubal, Adelaide Fernanda; Ferreira Carvalho, Joana Isabel; Costa, Maria Fernanda Martins; Branco, Ana Paula Tavares



Risk of Cancer After Lumbar Fusion Surgery With Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 (rh-BMP-2)  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Retrospective cohort study among Medicare beneficiaries with lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Objective. To determine the risk of subsequent cancer among patients who received recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP) at surgery compared with those who did not. Summary of Background Data. rhBMP is commonly used to promote bone union after spinal surgery. BMP receptors are present on multiple cancer types, but the risk of cancer after receiving rhBMP has not been well studied. Methods. We identified 146,278 subjects aged 67 years and older who underwent surgery in 2003 to 2008 and were followed through 2010 for a new diagnosis of 1 of 26 cancers. Proportional hazards models were used to determine cancer risk associated with rhBMP use. Results. rhBMP was administered in 15.1% of the cohort. After an overall average follow-up of 4.7 years, 15.4% of rhBMP-treated and 17.0% of untreated patients had a new cancer diagnosis, with most commonly recorded types as prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal. In a multivariate proportional hazards model, there was no association of rhBMP with cancer risk (hazard ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.95–1.02). There was also no association of rhBMP with the risk of any individual cancer types. The results were consistent in analyses using 2 secondary definitions of incident cancer. Conclusion. In this large population-based analysis of Medicare beneficiaries, we found no evidence that administration of rhBMP at the time of lumbar fusion surgery was associated with cancer risk. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:23883824

Cooper, Gregory S.; Kou, Tzuyung Doug



Sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer.  


We report the first case of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. The patient is a 75-year-old man who presented with the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer 2 years before presentation. CT scan showed a distended sigmoid colon with a mesenteric twist, or "whirl sign." Colonoscopy showed a mucosal spiral and luminal stenosis with dilated sigmoid colon distally and ischemic mucosa. The diagnosis of ischemic colonic necrosis due to sigmoid volvulus was established. Resection of the necrotic sigmoid colon was performed and a descending colon stoma was created. A long remnant sigmoid colon and chronic constipation may contribute to the development of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Prompt diagnosis is essential for adequate treatment, and colonoscopy aids in the diagnosis of ischemic changes in patients without definitive findings of a gangrenous colon. PMID:23879414

Sadatomo, Ai; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Zuiki, Toru; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu



[Functional preservation in cancer surgery of the large intestine].  


Distal Surgical margin, required in the sphincter preserving operation for rectal cancer was studied histologically on the 78 resected specimens. The extramural cancer spread, examined by clearing method, was found in 20.5%, and was more frequent and expansive compared to intramural spread of cancer. No distal spread was found in cancer limited to the rectal wall. Length of the spread by 3 cm in lower rectal cancer and 4 cm in the upper rectal cancer. Postoperative anal function showed a good or fair in patients with internal sphincteric function preserved. Postoperative dysuria and male sexual disturbance showed a close relation to the pelvic nodes dissection. Ro-dissection was followed by 20% of dysuria, while RI and R 2 46.7%, R 3 1.8%. PMID:6471413

Yasutomi, M; Izumoto, G; Nishiyama, S; Hatta, M; Mastuda, T; Ko, K; Fukuhara, T; Iwasa, Z



Robotic surgery of locally advanced gastric cancer: a single-surgeon experience of 41 cases.  


The mainstay of curative gastric cancer treatment is open gastric resection with regional lymph node dissection. Minimally invasive surgery is yet to become an established technique with a well defined role. Robotic surgery has by-passed some of the limitations of conventional laparoscopy and has proven both safe and feasible. We present our initial experience with robotic surgery based on 41 gastric cancer patients. We especially wish to underline the advantages of the robotic system when performing the digestive tract anastomoses. We present the techniques of end-to-side eso-jejunoanastomoses (using a circular stapler or manual suture) and side-to-side eso-jejunoanastomoses. In our hands, the results with circular stapled anastomoses were good and we advocate against manual suturing when performing anastomoses in robotic surgery. Moreover, we recommend performing totally intracorporeal anastomoses which have a better post-operative outcome, especially in obese patients. We present three methods of realising the total intracorporeal eso-jejuno-anastomosis with a circular stapler: manual purse-string suture, using the OrVil and the double stapling technique. The eso-jejunoanastomosis is one of the most difficult steps in performing the total gastrectomy, but these techniques allow the surgeon to choose the best option for each case. We consider that surgeons who undertake total gastrectomies must have a special training in performing these anastomoses. PMID:23025119

Vasilescu, C; Procopiuc, L



Nanoshell-mediated laser surgery simulation for prostate cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Laser surgery, or laser-induced thermal therapy, is a minimally invasive alternative or adjuvant to surgical resection in treating tumors embedded in vital organs with poorly defined boundaries. Its use, however, is limited due to the lack of precise control of heating and slow rate of thermal diffusion in the tissue. Nanoparticles, such as nanoshells, can act as intense heat absorbers when they are injected into tumors. These nanoshells can enhance thermal energy deposition into target regions to improve the ability for destroying larger cancerous tissue volumes with lower thermal doses. The goal of this paper is to present an integrated computer model using a so-called nested-block optimization algorithm to simulate laser surgery and provide transient temperature field predictions. In particular, this algorithm aims to capture changes in optical and thermal properties due to nanoshell inclusion and tissue property variation during laser surgery. Numerical results show that this model is able to characterize variation of tissue properties for laser surgical procedures and predict transient temperature fields comparable to those measured by in vivo magnetic resonance temperature imaging techniques. Note that the computational approach presented in the study is quite general and can be applied to other types of nanoparticle inclusions. PMID:20648233

Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Elliott, Andrew; Shetty, Anil; Stafford, R. Jason; Oden, J. Tinsley



Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail:; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)



The Result of Conversion Surgery in Gastric Cancer Patients with Peritoneal Seeding  

PubMed Central

Purpose Palliative gastrectomy and chemotherapy are important options for peritoneal seeding of gastric cancer. The treatment stage IV gastric cancer patient who respond to induction chemotherapy, is converted to gastrectomy (conversion therapy or conversion surgery). This study explored the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding who had undergone conversion therapy. Materials and Methods Between 2003 and 2012, gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding, as determined by preoperative or intraoperative diagnosis were reviewed retrospectively. Clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with peritoneal seeding were analyzed. Results Forty-three patients were enrolled. Eighteen patients had undergone conversion surgery and 25 patients continued conventional chemotherapy. Among the 18 conversion patients, 10 received clinically curative resection. The median follow-up period was 28.5 months (range 8 to 60 months) and the total 3-year survival rate was 16.3%. The median survival time of the patients who received clinically curative conversion therapy was 37 months, and the 3-year survival rate was 50%. The median follow-up for non-curative gastrectomy patients was 18 months. No patient treated using chemotherapy survived to 3 years; the median survival time was 8 months. The differences in survival time between the groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusions In terms of survival benefits for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding, clinically curative conversion therapy resulted in better clinical outcomes. PMID:25580359



Page 2 Advancement of Individualized, Personalized Surgery and Local Therapy for Breast Cancer to Minimize Treatment  

E-print Network

the need for more aggressive surgery. The benefits are two-fold: · Minimal Surgery. If the patient responds trial, patients with triple-negative breast cancer are treated with standard chemotherapy or new chemotherapy regimens. This trial, led by Cancer and Leukemia Group B, will run through 2012. For more

Liu, Xiaole Shirley


Cytoreductive Surgery and Intraperitoneal Chemohyperthermia for Chemoresistant and Recurrent Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Prospective Study of 81 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  There is no standardized treatment for patients with chemoresistant or recurrent advanced ovarian cancer. Locoregional treatments\\u000a combining cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia (HIPEC) may improve survival for locoregional disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  A prospective single center study of 81 patients with recurrent or chemoresistant peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer\\u000a was performed. Patients were treated by maximal cytoreductive surgery combined with HIPEC

Eddy Cotte; Olivier Glehen; Faheez Mohamed; Franck Lamy; Claire Falandry; François Golfier; Francois Noel Gilly



Endoscopy-assisted Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Breast-conserving surgery is now accepted as one of the standard therapeutic options for stages I and II breast cancers. Although\\u000a breast-conserving surgery can help retain a good breast shape, a long marked scar would be a disadvantage. Endoscopic surgery\\u000a can be performed via a small and remote incision that becomes inconspicuous after surgery. To improve the cosmetic outcome,\\u000a endoscopic breast-conserving

Eun-Kyu Lee; Shin-Ho Kook; Yong-Lai Park; Won-Gil Bae



Factors related to the implementation and use of an innovation in cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective Nationally, efforts to implement an innovation in cancer surgery—a Web-based synoptic reporting tool—are ongoing in five provinces. The objective of the present study was to identify the key multilevel factors influencing implementation and early use of this innovation for breast and colorectal cancer surgery at two academic hospitals in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods We used case-study methodology to examine the implementation of surgical synoptic reporting. Methods included semi-structured interviews with key informants (surgeons, implementation team members, and report end users; n = 9), nonparticipant observation, and document analysis. A thematic analysis was conducted separately for each method, followed by explanation-building to integrate the evidence and to identify the key multilevel factors influencing implementation. An audit was performed to determine use. Results Key factors influencing implementation were these: Innovation–values fit Flexibility with the innovation and implementation The innovation is not flawless Strengthening the climate for implementation Resource needs and availability Partner engagement Surgeon champions and involvement In a 6-month period after implementation, 91.2% and 58.0% respectively of eligible breast and colorectal cancer surgeries were reported using the new tool. Conclusions An improved understanding of the multilevel factors influencing the implementation of innovations is critical to planning effective change interventions in health care. Further study is needed to explore differences in the use of the innovation between breast and colorectal cancer surgeons. Findings will inform the study of additional cases of synoptic reporting implementation, enabling cross-case analyses and identification of higher-level themes that may be applied in similar settings or contexts. PMID:22184488

Urquhart, R.; Sargeant, J.; Porterm, G.A.



Association of shared decision-making with type of breast cancer surgery: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although some studies examined the association between shared decision-making (SDM) and type of breast cancer surgery received, it is little known how treatment decisions might be shaped by the information provided by physicians. The purpose of this study was to identify the associations between shared decision making (SDM) and surgical treatment received. METHODS: Questionnaires on SDM were administered to

Myung Kyung Lee; Dong Young Noh; Seok Jin Nam; Se Hyun Ahn; Byeong Woo Park; Eun Sook Lee; Young Ho Yun



Salvage cytoreductive surgery for patients with recurrent endometrial cancer: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Salvage cytoreductive surgery (SCR) has been shown to improve the survival of cancer patients. This study aimed to determine the survival benefits of SCR for recurrent endometrial cancer in Chinese population. Methods Between January 1995 and May 2012, 75 Chinese patients with recurrent endometrial cancer undergoing SCR were retrospectively analyzed. Results 43 patients (57.3%) had R0 (no visible disease), 15 patients (20.0%) had R1 (residual disease ?1 cm), and 17 (22.7%) had R2 (residual disease >1 cm) Resection. 35 patients (46.7%) had single, and 40 (53.3%) had multiple sites of recurrence. The median survival time was 18 months, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate were 42.0%. Multivariate analysis showed that residual disease ?1 cm and high histology grade were significantly associated with a better OS. The size of the largest recurrent tumors (?6 cm), solitary recurrent tumor, and age at recurrence (?56 years old) were associated with optimal SCR. Conclusion Optimal SCR and high histology grade are associated with prolonged overall survival for patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. Patients with young age, tumor size?surgery. PMID:24571733





... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > COPD > Treating COPD Surgery Some COPD patients with very severe symptoms may ... lung surgery. Are You a Candidate for Lung Surgery? Some people with COPD have improved lung function ...


Indications for and limits of conservative surgery in breast cancer.  


Improvements in diagnostic techniques and, above all, breast cancer screening campaigns - essential for early diagnosis - have enabled the objectives of conservative surgery to be pursued: disease control, no or low incidence of recurrences and an excellent esthetic result. However, to reach these objectives, it is essential to ensure a careful evaluation of the medical history of every patient, a detailed clinical examination and the correct interpretation of imaging. Particular attention should be paid to all factors influencing the choice of treatment and/or possible local recurrence: age, site, tumor volume, genetic predisposition, pregnancy, previous radiotherapy, pathological features, and surgical margins. The decision to undertake conservative treatment thus requires a multidisciplinary approach involving pathologists, surgeons and oncological radiologists, as well, of course, as the patient herself. PMID:23578414

Barbuscia, M A; Cingari, E A; Torchia, U; Querci, A; Lemma, G; Ilacqua, A; Caizzone, A; Sanò, A; Fabiano, V



Computer assisted intervention surgery planning and navigation for percutaneous microwave ablation of lung cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave ablation is a promising option in lung cancer therapy. However, it's rarely used in percutaneous lung cancer therapy compared to liver cancer, because the presence of a large amount of air within the lung creates significant back shadowing artifacts that preclude adequate delineation of anatomic details on sonography. To utilize microwave ablation in malignant lung tumor therapy, we developed a novel percutaneous intervention surgery navigation system (CAINS-I), which capitalizes on using computer assisted technology to help lung cancer patients whose condition are not amenable to surgical resection, sonographic guidance and intraoperative CT surgery. In these surgeries, preoperative CT images with patient respiration state are first acquired, which are then visualized using GPU-accelerated volume rendering. The optimal surgery trajectories are then planned based on 3D thermal field computation and surgery simulation in the surgery planning software. During the surgery, the patient breath is control by a portable volume ventilator system which could limit the movement and displacement of the tumor. Then the microwave probe is punctured into the tumor according to the dynamic respiratory state and the tumor is ablated by microwave energy. After the surgery, postoperative CT are acquired and compared to the preoperative CT, and the surgery is evaluated by compare preoperative and postoperative CT images. The development of this technique represented an advance from the traditional ways for lung cancer therapy and significantly extends the indications of microwave ablation.

Zhai, Weiming; Sheng, Lin; Song, Yixu; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Yannan; Jia, Peifa



Complex permittivities of breast tumor tissues obtained from cancer surgeries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability in measurements of complex permittivities of tumor tissues between multiple samples could be attributed to the volume fraction of cancer cells in the excised tumor tissue. By the use of a digital photomicrograph image and hematoxylin-eosin staining, it was found that the malignant tumor tissue was not fully occupied by the cancer cells, but the cells were distributed locally in the stroma cells depending on the growth of cancer. The results showed that the volume fraction of cancer cells in the tumor tissue had a correlation to the measured conductivity and dielectric constant in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 6 GHz. It introduces a method to understand and gauge variability in measurements between different tumors.

Sugitani, Takumi; Kubota, Shin-ichi; Kuroki, Shin-ichiro; Sogo, Kenta; Arihiro, Koji; Okada, Morihito; Kadoya, Takayuki; Hide, Michihiro; Oda, Miyo; Kikkawa, Takamaro



Is lack of surgery for older breast cancer patients in the UK explained by patient choice or poor health? A prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: Older women have lower breast cancer surgery rates than younger women. UK policy states that differences in cancer treatment by age can only be justified by patient choice or poor health. Methods: We investigate whether lack of surgery for older patients is explained by patient choice/poor health in a prospective cohort study of 800 women aged ?70 years diagnosed with operable (stage 1–3a) breast cancer at 22 English breast cancer units in 2010–2013. Data collection: interviews and case note review. Outcome measure: surgery for operable (stage 1–3a) breast cancer <90 days of diagnosis. Logistic regression adjusts for age, health measures, tumour characteristics, socio-demographics and patient's/surgeon's perceived responsibility for treatment decisions. Results: In the univariable analyses, increasing age predicts not undergoing surgery from the age of 75 years, compared with 70–74-year-olds. Adjusting for health measures and choice, only women aged ?85 years have reduced odds of surgery (OR 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07–0.44). Each point increase in Activities of Daily Living score (worsening functional status) reduced the odds of surgery by over a fifth (OR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15–0.35). Patient's role in the treatment decisions made no difference to whether they received surgery or not; those who were active/collaborative were as likely to get surgery as those who were passive, that is, left the decision up to the surgeon. Conclusion: Lower surgery rates, among older women with breast cancer, are unlikely to be due to patients actively opting out of having this treatment. However, poorer health explains the difference in surgery between 75–84-year-olds and younger women. Lack of surgery for women aged ?85 years persists even when health and patient choice are adjusted for. PMID:24292450

Lavelle, K; Sowerbutts, A M; Bundred, N; Pilling, M; Degner, L; Stockton, C; Todd, C



Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer after optimized surgery  

PubMed Central

Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after optimized surgery requires a full understanding of the disease, especially as it has changed in the last 15 years, what comprises optimized surgery, and the different types and implications of disease relapse that can be encountered. PTC has evolved to tumors that are much smaller than previously seen, largely due to various high quality imaging studies obtained for different reasons, but serendipitously identifying thyroid nodules that prove to be papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). With rare exception, these cancers are cured by conservative surgery without additional therapy, and seldom result in recurrent disease. PTC is highly curable in 85% of cases because of its rather innocent biologic behavior. Therefore, the shift in emphasis from disease survival to recurrence is appropriate. As a result of three technologic advances—high-resolution ultrasound (US), recombinant TSH, and highly sensitive thyroglobulin (Tg)—disease relapse can be discovered when it is subclinical. Endocrinologists who largely control administration of radioactive iodine have used it to ablate barely detectable or even biochemically apparent disease, hoping to reduce recurrence and perhaps improve survival. Surgeons, in response to this new intense postoperative surveillance that has uncovered very small volume disease, have responded by utilizing US preoperatively to image this disease, and incorporated varying degrees of lymphadenectomy into their initial treatment algorithm. Bilateral thyroid resection—either total or near-total thyroidectomy—remains the standard for PTC >1 cm, although recent data has re-emphasized the value of unilateral lobectomy in treating even some PTC measuring 1-4 cm. Therapeutic lymphadenectomy has universal approval, but when lymph nodes in the central neck are not worrisome to the surgeon’s intraoperative assessment, although that judgment in incorrect up to 50%, whether they should be excised has reached a central point of controversy. Disease relapse can occur individually or in combination of three different forms: lymph node metastasis (LNM), true soft tissue local recurrence, and distant disease. The latter two are worrisome for potentially life-threatening consequences whereas nodal metastases are often persistent from the initial operation, and mostly comprise a biologic nuisance rather than virulent disease. A moderate surgical approach of bilateral thyroid resection, with usual central neck nodal clearance, and lateral internal jugular lymphadenectomy for node-positive disease can be performed safely, and with about a 5% recurrence rate. PMID:25713780



Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer after optimized surgery.  


Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after optimized surgery requires a full understanding of the disease, especially as it has changed in the last 15 years, what comprises optimized surgery, and the different types and implications of disease relapse that can be encountered. PTC has evolved to tumors that are much smaller than previously seen, largely due to various high quality imaging studies obtained for different reasons, but serendipitously identifying thyroid nodules that prove to be papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). With rare exception, these cancers are cured by conservative surgery without additional therapy, and seldom result in recurrent disease. PTC is highly curable in 85% of cases because of its rather innocent biologic behavior. Therefore, the shift in emphasis from disease survival to recurrence is appropriate. As a result of three technologic advances-high-resolution ultrasound (US), recombinant TSH, and highly sensitive thyroglobulin (Tg)-disease relapse can be discovered when it is subclinical. Endocrinologists who largely control administration of radioactive iodine have used it to ablate barely detectable or even biochemically apparent disease, hoping to reduce recurrence and perhaps improve survival. Surgeons, in response to this new intense postoperative surveillance that has uncovered very small volume disease, have responded by utilizing US preoperatively to image this disease, and incorporated varying degrees of lymphadenectomy into their initial treatment algorithm. Bilateral thyroid resection-either total or near-total thyroidectomy-remains the standard for PTC >1 cm, although recent data has re-emphasized the value of unilateral lobectomy in treating even some PTC measuring 1-4 cm. Therapeutic lymphadenectomy has universal approval, but when lymph nodes in the central neck are not worrisome to the surgeon's intraoperative assessment, although that judgment in incorrect up to 50%, whether they should be excised has reached a central point of controversy. Disease relapse can occur individually or in combination of three different forms: lymph node metastasis (LNM), true soft tissue local recurrence, and distant disease. The latter two are worrisome for potentially life-threatening consequences whereas nodal metastases are often persistent from the initial operation, and mostly comprise a biologic nuisance rather than virulent disease. A moderate surgical approach of bilateral thyroid resection, with usual central neck nodal clearance, and lateral internal jugular lymphadenectomy for node-positive disease can be performed safely, and with about a 5% recurrence rate. PMID:25713780

Grant, Clive S



Breast Cancer Stage, Surgery, and Survival Statistics for Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2004–2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women’s Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whether disparities existed in cause-specific survival (a net survival measure representing survival of a specified cause of death in the absence of other causes of death) between women screened by WHC and outside WHC and to determine how type of surgery or survival varies with stage at diagnosis. Methods WHC data were linked to Idaho’s central cancer registry to compare stage distribution, type of surgery, and cause-specific survival between women with WHC-linked breast cancer and a comparison group of women whose records did not link to the WHC database (nonlinked breast cancer). Results WHC-linked breast cancer was significantly more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage of disease than nonlinked breast cancer. Because of differences in stage distribution between WHC-linked and nonlinked breast cancers, overall age-standardized, cause-specific breast cancer survival proportions diverged over time, with a 5.1 percentage-point deficit in survival among WHC-linked cases at 5 years of follow-up (83.9% vs 89.0%). Differences in type of surgery and cause-specific survival were attenuated when controlling for stage. Conclusion This study suggests that disparities may exist for Idaho WHC enrollees in the timely diagnosis of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study to publish comparisons of cause-specific breast cancer survival between NBCCEDP-linked and nonlinked cases. PMID:25789497

Graff, Robert; Moran, Patti; Cariou, Charlene; Bordeaux, Susan



Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Surgery or Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy?  

PubMed Central

The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients.

Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Abac?o?lu, Ufuk



Optimal Time Intervals between Pre-Operative Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery in Rectal Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background: In rectal cancer therapy, radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (RT/CRT) is extensively used pre-operatively to (i) decrease local recurrence risks, (ii) allow radical surgery in non-resectable tumors, and (iii) increase the chances of sphincter-saving surgery or (iv) organ-preservation. There is a growing interest among clinicians and scientists to prolong the interval from the RT/CRT to surgery to achieve maximal tumor regression and to diminish complications during surgery. Methods: The pros and cons of delaying surgery depending upon the aim of the pre-operative RT/CRT are critically evaluated. Results: Depending upon the clinical situation, the need for a time interval prior to surgery to allow tumor regression varies. In the first and most common situation (i), no regression is needed and any delay beyond what is needed for the acute radiation reaction in surrounding tissues to wash out can potentially only be deleterious. After short-course RT (5Gyx5) with immediate surgery, the ideal time between the last radiation fraction is 2–5?days, since a slightly longer interval appears to increase surgical complications. A delay beyond 4?weeks appears safe; it results in tumor regression including pathologic complete responses, but is not yet fully evaluated concerning oncologic outcome. Surgical complications do not appear to be influenced by the CRT-surgery interval within reasonable limits (about 4–12?weeks), but this has not been sufficiently explored. Maximum tumor regression may not be seen in rectal adenocarcinomas until after several months; thus, a longer than usual delay may be of benefit in well responding tumors if limited or no surgery is planned, as in (iii) or (iv), otherwise not. Conclusion: A longer time interval after CRT is undoubtedly of benefit in some clinical situations but may be counterproductive in most situations. After short-course RT, long-term results from the clinical trials are not yet available to routinely recommend an interval longer than 2–5 days, unless the tumor is non-resectable at diagnosis. PMID:24778990

Glimelius, Bengt



Quality of life in rectal cancer patients after radical surgery: a survey of Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in disease-free survivors after radical surgery for rectal cancer in a Chinese mainland population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey from August 2002 to February 2011 by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires of 438 patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer. Patients who were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, had no relevant major comorbidities and whose disease had not recurred were asked to complete both questionnaires. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL were compared by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results In total, 285 patients responded to the survey (response rate, 65.1%). Psychological-related HRQoL variables such as emotional function (P?=?0.021) and future perspectives (P?=?0.044) were poorer for younger patients than for older patients; and physiological-related HRQoL was reflected by physical function (P?=?0.039), which was poorer for older patients than for younger patients. In terms of physiologic function and symptoms concerning HRQoL, such as pain (P?=?0.002) and insomnia (P?=?0.018), females had lower values than males. Low education and unemployment were associated with a worse HRQoL. HRQoL was worse for patients with stomas compared to those without, especially in psychosocial areas such as role function (P?=?0.025), social function (P <0.001) and body image (P?=?0.004). Financial HRQoL was worse for younger patients and patients with stoma. Conclusions HRQoL aspects and degrees to which they were impaired after curative surgery for rectal cancer were different when compared by many sociodemographic and clinical factors in Chinese mainland patients. PMID:24886668



Improving quality through process change: a scoping review of process improvement tools in cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery is a cornerstone of treatment for malignancy. However, significant variation has been reported in patterns and quality of cancer care for important health outcomes, including perioperative mortality. Surgical process improvement tools (SPITs) have been developed that focus on enhancing the processes of care at the point of care, as a means of quality improvement. This study describes SPITs and develops a conceptual framework by synthesizing the available literature on these novel quality improvement tools. Methods A scoping review was conducted based on instruments developed for quality improvement in surgery. The search was executed on electronically indexed sources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library) from January 1990 to March 2011. Data were extracted, tabulated and reported thematically using a narrative synthesis approach. These results were used to develop a conceptual framework that describes and classifies SPITs. Results 232 articles were reviewed for data extraction and analysis. SPITs identified were classified into 3 groups: clinical mapping tools, structure communication tools and error reduction instruments. The dominant instrument reported were clinical mapping tools, including: clinical pathways (113, 48%), fast track (46, 20%) and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols (36, 15%). Outcomes reported included: length of stay (174, 75%), readmission rates (116, 50%), morbidity (116, 50%), mortality (104, 45%), and economic (60, 26%). Many gaps in the literature were recognized. Conclusion We have developed a conceptual framework of SPITs and identified gaps in current knowledge. These results will guide the design and development of new quality instruments in surgery. PMID:25038587



Can intravenous patient-controlled analgesia be omitted in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) is a popular method of postoperative analgesia, but many patients suffer from PCA-related complications. We hypothesized that PCA was not essential in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery by minimal invasive approach. Methods Between February 2013 and August 2013, 297 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer were included in this retrospective comparative study. The PCA group received conventional opioid-based PCA postoperatively, and the non-PCA group received intravenous anti-inflammatory drugs (Tramadol) as necessary. Patients reported their postoperative pain using a subjective visual analogue scale (VAS). The PCA-related adverse effects and frequency of rescue analgesia were evaluated, and the recovery rates were measured. Results Patients in the PCA group experienced less postoperative pain on days 4 and 5 after surgery than those in the non-PCA group (mean [SD] VAS: day 4, 6.2 [0.3] vs. 7.0 [0.3], P = 0.010; and day 5, 5.1 [0.2] vs. 5.5 [0.2], P = 0.030, respectively). Fewer patients in the non-PCA group required additional parenteral analgesia (41 of 93 patients vs. 53 of 75 patients, respectively), and none in the non-PCA group required rescue PCA postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the non-PCA group than in the PCA group (P < 0.001). The mean (range) length of hospital stay was shorter in the non-PCA group (7.9 [6-10] days vs. 8.7 [7-16] days, respectively, P = 0.03). Conclusion Our Results suggest that IV-PCA may not be necessary in selected patients those who underwent minimal invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID:25692119

Choi, Young Yeon; Park, Jun Seok; Park, Soo Yeun; Kim, Hye Jin; Yeo, Jinseok; Kim, Jong-Chan; Park, Sungsik



Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery.

Nijhuis, Esther R. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hout, Bertha A. in 't [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boomgaard, Jantine J. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hullu, Joanne A. de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hollema, Harry [Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Aalders, Jan G. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Nijman, Hans W. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mourits, Marian J.E. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail:



Surgery and stress promote cancer metastasis: new outlooks on perioperative mediating mechanisms and immune involvement.  


Surgery for the removal of a primary tumor presents an opportunity to eradicate cancer or arrest its progression, but is also believed to promote the outbreak of pre-existing micrometastases and the initiation of new metastases. These deleterious effects of surgery are mediated through various mechanisms, including psychological and physiological neuroendocrine and paracrine stress responses elicited by surgery. In this review we (i) describe the many risk factors that arise during the perioperative period, acting synergistically to make this short timeframe critical for determining long-term cancer recurrence, (ii) present newly identified potent immunocyte populations that can destroy autologous tumor cells that were traditionally considered immune-resistant, thus invigorating the notion of immune-surveillance against cancer metastasis, (iii) describe in vivo evidence in cancer patients that support a role for anti-cancer immunity, (iv) indicate neuroendocrine and paracrine mediating mechanisms of stress- and surgery-induced promotion of cancer progression, focusing on the prominent role of catecholamines and prostaglandins through their impact on anti-cancer immunity, and through direct effects on the malignant tissue and its surrounding, (v) discuss the impact of different anesthetic approaches and other intra-operative procedures on immunity and cancer progression, and (vi) suggest prophylactic measures against the immunosuppressive and cancer promoting effects of surgery. PMID:22504092

Neeman, Elad; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar



Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer  


... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...


Protocol for the OUTREACH trial: a randomised trial comparing delivery of cancer systemic therapy in three different settings -patient's home, GP surgery and hospital day unit  

E-print Network

) surgeries. Methods/design Patients due to receive a minimum 12 week course of standard intravenous cancer treatment at two hospitals in the Anglia Cancer Network are randomised on a 1:1:1 basis to receive treatment in the hospital day unit (control arm...

Corrie, Pippa G; Moody, Margaret; Wood, Victoria; Bavister, Linda; Prevost, Toby; Parker, Richard A; Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Balsdon, Helen; McKinnon, Karen; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Tan, Ray S; Barclay, Steven IG



Mayo Clinic study finds less invasive surgery detects residual breast cancer in lymph nodes after chemotherapy

Most patients whose breast cancer has spread to their lymph nodes have most of the lymph nodes in their armpit area removed after chemotherapy to see if any cancer remains. A study conducted through the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group and led by the Mayo Clinic shows that a less invasive procedure known as sentinel lymph node surgery successfully identified whether cancer remained in lymph nodes in 91 percent of patients with node-positive breast cancer who received chemotherapy before their surgery. In sentinel lymph node surgery, only a few lymph nodes, the ones most likely to contain cancer, are removed. The findings are being presented at the 2012 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.


Comparison of long-term oncologic outcomes of stage III colorectal cancer following laparoscopic versus open surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose The oncologic outcomes after performing laparoscopic surgery (LS) compared to open surgery (OS) are still under debate and a concern when treating patients with colon cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of LS and OS as treatment for stage III colorectal cancer patients. Methods From January 2001 to December 2007, 230 patients with stage III colorectal cancer who had undergone LS or OS in this single center were assessed. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat. The primary endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. Results A total of 230 patients were entered into the study (114 patients had colon cancer-33 underwent LS and 81 underwent OS; 116 patients had rectal cancer-44 underwent LS and 72 underwent OS). The median follow-up periods for the colon and rectal cancer groups were 54 and 53 months, respectively. The overall conversion rate was 12.1% (n = 4) for colon cancer, and 4.5% (n = 2) for rectal cancer. Disease-free 5-year survival of colon cancer was 84.3% and 90% in LS group (LG) and OS group (OG), respectively, and that of rectal cancer was 83% and 74.6%, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall 5-year survival for colon cancer was 72.2% and 71.3% for LG and OG, respectively, and that for rectal cancer was 67.6% and 59.2%, respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion The long-term analyses for oncologic aspects of our study may confirm the safety of LS compared to OS in stage III colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25553319

Lee, Gil-Jae; Lee, Won-Suk



Improving outcomes for pancreatic cancer: radical surgery with patient-tailored, surgery-specific advanced haemodynamic monitoring.  


Pancreatic cancer has poor prognoses, with a median survival after diagnosis of less than 6 months. For some patients radical surgery remains the only chance of long-term cure. We report the successful outcome of a patient with pancreatic cancer and portal vein encasement that underwent a biliary bypass procedure and chemoradiotherapy. He was reassessed 8 months later where a complete resection of the pancreatic cancer was undertaken. The patient required a total pancreatectomy, splenectomy, subtotal gastrectomy and partial colectomy. Portal and superior mesenteric vein resection was performed, with reconstitution using the splenic vein as conduit with its draining inferior mesenteric vein. We report novel aspects of the surgical technique and describe our institution's patient-tailored, surgery-specific goal-directed strategy that was considered paramount for the successful perioperative outcome in this case. PMID:23632611

Weinberg, Laurence; Houli, Nezor; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad



Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS)  

PubMed Central

Background Radical surgery is the cornerstone in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. The Intergroup 0116 and MAGIC trials have shown benefit of postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy, respectively. Since these trials cannot be compared directly, both regimens are evaluated prospectively in the CRITICS trial. This study aims to obtain an improved overall survival for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and surgery by incorporating radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy postoperatively. Methods/design In this phase III multicentre study, patients with resectable gastric cancer are treated with three cycles of preoperative ECC (epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine), followed by surgery with adequate lymph node dissection, and then either another three cycles of ECC or concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy, cisplatin and capecitabine). Surgical, pathological, and radiotherapeutic quality control is performed. The primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), prediction of response, and recurrence risk assessed by genomic and expression profiling. Accrual for the CRITICS trial is from the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and more countries are invited to participate. Conclusion Results of this study will demonstrate whether the combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy will improve the clinical outcome of the current European standard of perioperative chemotherapy, and will therefore play a key role in the future management of patients with resectable gastric cancer. Trial registration NCT00407186 PMID:21810227



Observation as Good as Surgery for Some Men with Prostate Cancer

Results from the PIVOT trial showed that some men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer who forego radical prostatectomy may live as long as men who have immediate surgery. This article explores how the findings may affect clinical practice.



The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.



Resection or palliation: Priority of surgery in the treatment of hilar cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 25 years, 213 patients with hilar cancer have been treated in this unit. One hundred seventy-eight patients had some form of surgical intervention and 35 were unfit for any surgery. The preoperative and peroperative assessment of the 178 patients having surgery was directed toward identifying tumors which might be suitable for potentially curative resection. On this basis,

Henri Bismuth; Denis Castaing; Oscar Traynor



A prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic versus conventional techniques in colorectal cancer surgery: a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Uncontrolled studies using laparoscopic techniques in colorectal surgery have not demonstrated clear advantages to these procedures compared with conventional ones, and surgeons are concerned about unusual early recurrences reported after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.Study Design: We conducted a prospective, randomized trial in one surgical department comparing laparoscopic (LAP) and conventional (CON) techniques in 109 patients undergoing bowel resection for

Jeffrey W Milsom; Bartholomäus Böhm; Katherine A Hammerhofer; Victor Fazio; Ezra Steiger; Paul Elson



Radiation treatment after surgery improves survival for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer

Elderly women with early-stage breast cancer live longer with radiation therapy and surgery compared with surgery alone, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have found. The researchers, who collected data on almost 30,000 women, ages 70 to 84, with early, highly treatable breast cancer enrolled in a nationwide cancer registry, are reporting their findings at the 54th annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). The University of Maryland is home to the Greenebaum Cancer Center.


[Condition of patients who require heart surgery during treatment for advanced digestive cancer and early recurrence after surgery- an assessment from the viewpoint of digestive surgeons].  


The need for cardiac surgery among patients undergoing treatment for advanced digestive cancer is limited to the following situations:(i) heart diseases that can be life threatening if left untreated and that cannot be cured by medicinal treatment alone (e.g., cardiac tumors) and (ii) heart diseases (e.g., infectious endocarditis and pulmonary thromboembolism) occurring after digestive cancer surgery that need emergency treatment and that are resistant to medicinal treatment. We encountered 2 cases that required cardiac surgery.( Case 1) A 68-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma accompanied by pyloric stenosis and left atrial myxoma underwent radical surgery for gastric cancer( Stage IIIA). Subsequently, the left atrial myxoma was resected before adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer was administered. One month after the surgery, multiple liver metastases appeared. However, they disappeared after chemotherapy was completed, and the patient survived for more than 3 years with complete response. (Case 2) A 67-year-old woman who underwent a Hartmann operation for obstructive rectal cancer (Stage II) experienced infectious endocarditis after the surgery. Because the endocarditis was resistant to medicinal treatment and acute heart failure was anticipated, cardiac surgery was performed. Approximately 2 months after the surgery, the bacilli( methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]) were not found in blood culture. However, multiple liver metastases appeared immediately after the disappearance of the bacilli, and the patient died 3 months after the surgery. In both cases, cancer recurrence occurred early after cardiac surgery. Excessive surgical stress due to cardiac surgery may have promoted cancer recurrence. A decision pertaining to the timing of cardiac surgery is difficult in cases of patients with advanced digestive cancer and co-existing heart disease, which cannot be cured by medicinal treatment. PMID:24394139

Fujisaki, Shigeru; Takashina, Motoi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Tomita, Ryouichi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tomonori



Patient-reported genitourinary dysfunction after laparoscopic and open rectal cancer surgery in a randomized trial (COLOR II)  

PubMed Central

Background This article reports on patient-reported sexual dysfunction and micturition symptoms following a randomized trial of laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer. Methods Patients in the COLOR II randomized trial, comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer, completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-CR38 questionnaire before surgery, and after 4?weeks, 6, 12 and 24?months. Adjusted mean differences on a 100-point scale were calculated using changes from baseline value at the various time points in the domains of sexual functioning, sexual enjoyment, male and female sexual problems, and micturition symptoms. Results Of 617 randomized patients, 385 completed this phase of the trial. Their mean age was 67·1?years. Surgery caused an anticipated reduction in genitourinary function after 4?weeks, with no significant differences between laparoscopic and open approaches. An improvement in sexual dysfunction was seen in the first year, but some male sexual problems persisted. Before operation 64·5 per cent of men in the laparoscopic group and 55·6 per cent in the open group reported some degree of erectile dysfunction. This increased to 81·1 and 80·5 per cent respectively 4?weeks after surgery, and 76·3 versus 75·5 per cent at 12?months, with no significant differences between groups. Micturition symptoms were less affected than sexual function and gradually improved to preoperative levels by 6?months. Adjusting for confounders, including radiotherapy, did not change these results. Conclusion Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with rectal cancer, and treatment (including surgery) increases the proportion of patients affected. A laparoscopic approach does not change this. Registration number: NCT0029779 ( PMID:24924798

Andersson, J; Abis, G; Gellerstedt, M; Angenete, E; Angerås, U; Cuesta, M A; Jess, P; Rosenberg, J; Bonjer, H J; Haglind, E



Costing Hospital Surgery Services: The Method Matters  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate hospital costs are required for policy-makers, hospital managers and clinicians to improve efficiency and transparency. However, different methods are used to allocate direct costs, and their agreement is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between bottom-up and top-down unit costs of a large sample of surgical operations in a French tertiary centre. Methods Two thousand one hundred and thirty consecutive procedures performed between January and October 2010 were analysed. Top-down costs were based on pre-determined weights, while bottom-up costs were calculated through an activity-based costing (ABC) model. The agreement was assessed using correlation coefficients and the Bland and Altman method. Variables associated with the difference between methods were identified with bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. Results The correlation coefficient amounted to 0.73 (95%CI: 0.72; 0.76). The overall agreement between methods was poor. In a multivariate analysis, the cost difference was independently associated with age (Beta?=??2.4; p?=?0.02), ASA score (Beta?=?76.3; p<0.001), RCI (Beta?=?5.5; p<0.001), staffing level (Beta?=?437.0; p<0.001) and intervention duration (Beta?=??10.5; p<0.001). Conclusions The ability of the current method to provide relevant information to managers, clinicians and payers is questionable. As in other European countries, a shift towards time-driven activity-based costing should be advocated. PMID:24817167

Mercier, Gregoire; Naro, Gerald



Hematogenous umbilical metastasis from colon cancer treated by palliative single-incision laparoscopic surgery  

PubMed Central

Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule (SMJN) is a rare umbilical nodule that develops secondary to metastatic cancer. Primary malignancies are located in the abdomen or pelvis. Patients with SMJN have a poor prognosis. An 83-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of a rapidly enlarging umbilical mass. Endoscopic findings revealed advanced transverse colon cancer. computer tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography revealed tumors of the transverse colon, umbilicus, right inguinal lymph nodes, and left lung. The feeding arteries and drainage veins for the SMJN were the inferior epigastric vessels. Imaging findings of the left lung tumor allowed for identification of the primary lung cancer, and a diagnosis of advanced transverse colon cancer with SMJN and primary lung cancer was made. The patient underwent local resection of the SMNJ and subsequent single-site laparoscopic surgery involving right hemicolectomy and paracolic lymph node dissection. Intra-abdominal dissemination to the mesocolon was confirmed during surgery. Histopathologically, the transverse colon cancer was confirmed to be moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. We suspect that SMJN may occur via a hematogenous pathway. Although chemotherapy for colon cancer and thoracoscopic surgery for the primary lung cancer were scheduled, the patient and her family desired home hospice. Seven months after surgery, she died of rapidly growing lung cancer. PMID:24179626

Hori, Tomohide; Okada, Noriyuki; Nakauchi, Masaya; Hiramoto, Shuji; Kikuchi-Mizota, Ayako; Kyogoku, Masahisa; Oike, Fumitaka; Sugimoto, Hidemitsu; Tanaka, Junya; Morikami, Yoshiki; Shigemoto, Kaori; Ota, Toyotsugu; Kaneko, Masanobu; Nakatsuji, Masato; Okae, Shunji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Yoshioka, Akira



Comorbidities Predict Poor Prognosis for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Major Surgery.  


Background: The impact of comorbidities on patients with advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with major surgery has not been reported before. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical charts between 2004 and 2011 at our institution and identified 189 patients with clinical stage III-IV HNC treated with major surgery. Comorbidities were scored using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) index manual. Results: Patients with ACE-27 ? 2 had significantly worse overall and disease-specific survival than those with ACE-27 ? 1 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0047). Multivariate analyses revealed that ACE-27 ? 2 and extracapsular spread were independently significant adverse prognostic factors for overall and disease-specific survival. Also, patients with ACE-27 ? 2 had a higher incidence of distant metastases (P = 0.0057). Conclusion: The current study suggests that comorbidities may predict poor prognosis and development of distant metastases for patients with advanced HNC treated with major surgery. Head Neck, 2014. PMID:25331962

Omura, Go; Ando, Mizuo; Saito, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kenya; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Asakage, Takahiro



The nutritional risk is a independent factor for postoperative morbidity in surgery for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition and its effect on the postoperative morbidity of patients after surgery for colorectal cancer. Methods Three hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled prospectively. Nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002) score was calculated through interview with patient on admission. Clinical characteristics, tumor status and surgical procedure were recorded. Results The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk was 28.1 per cent according to the NRS 2002. The rate of postoperative complication was 27%. There was a significant difference in postoperative complication rates between patients at nutritional risk and those not at risk (37.4% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.006). Nutritional risk was identified as an independent predictor of postoperative complications (odds ratio, 3.05; P = 0.045). Nutritional risk increased the rate of anastomotic leakage (P = 0.027) and wound infection (P = 0.01). Conclusion NRS may be a prognostic factor for postoperative complication after surgery for colorectal cancer. A large scaled prospective study is needed to confirm whether supplementing nutritional deficits reduces postoperative complication rates. PMID:24783180

Kwag, Seung-Jin; Kim, Jun-Gi; Kang, Won-Kyung; Lee, Jin-Kwon



Effect of triclosan-coated sutures on surgical site infection after gastric cancer surgery via midline laparotomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Surgical site infection (SSI) after open abdominal surgery is still a frequently reported nosocomial infection. To reduce the incidence of SSI, triclosan-coated sutures with antiseptic activity (Vicryl Plus) were developed. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Vicryl Plus on SSI after gastric cancer surgery via midline laparotomy. Methods A total of 916 patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery at Samsung Medical Center between December 2009 and September 2011 were prospectively collected. We examined the occurrence of SSI (primary endpoint), assessments of wound healing (secondary endpoint). They were evaluated postoperatively on days 3, 7, and 30. Results Of the 916 patients, 122 were excluded postoperatively by screening (out of the study protocol, adverse events, etc.). The remaining 794 patients were enrolled and monitored postoperatively. The cumulative SSI incidence was 11 cases (1.39%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-2.50) on day 30. Seromas were most frequently detected in wound healing assessments, with a cumulative incidence of 147 cases (18.51%; 95% CI, 15.98-21.39) on day 30. Conclusion The use of triclosan-coated sutures (Vicryl Plus) for abdominal wall closure can reduce the number of SSIs in gastric cancer surgery. PMID:25485239

Jung, Kuk Hyun; Oh, Seung Jong; Choi, Kang Kook; Kim, Su Mi; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon



Surgery Should Complement Endocrine Therapy for Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Endocrine therapy (ET) is an integral part of breast cancer (BC) treatment with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of curative treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the survival of elderly postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage BC treated with ET alone, without radiation or chemotherapy, versus ET plus surgery. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study based on a prospective database. The medical records of postmenopausal BC patients referred to the surgical oncology service of two hospitals during an 8-year period were reviewed. All patients were to receive ET for a minimum of four months before undergoing any surgery. Results. Fifty-one patients were included and divided in two groups, ET alone and ET plus surgery. At last follow-up in exclusive ET patients (n = 28), 39% had stable disease or complete response, 22% had progressive disease, of which 18% died of breast cancer, and 39% died of other causes. In surgical patients (n = 23), 78% were disease-free, 9% died of recurrent breast cancer, and 13% died of other causes. Conclusions. These results suggest that surgical resection is beneficial in this group and should be considered, even for patients previously deemed ineligible for surgery. PMID:22970358

Nguyen, Olivier; Sideris, Lucas; Drolet, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Claude; Leblanc, Guy; Leclerc, Yves E.; Mitchell, Andrew; Dubé, Pierre



Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment. PMID:19533817

Caricato, Marco; Ausania, Fabio; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Cipollone, Ilaria; Flammia, Gerardo; Persichetti, Paolo; Trodella, Lucio; Coppola, Roberto



Shoulder Movement After Breast Cancer Surgery: Results of a Randomised Controlled Study of Postoperative Physiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast screening programmes have facilitated more conservative approaches to the surgical and radiotherapy management of women diagnosed with breast cancer. This study investigated changes in shoulder movement after surgery for primary, operable breast cancer to determine the effect of elective physiotherapy intervention. Sixty-five women were randomly assigned to either the treatment (TG) or control group (CG) and assessments were completed

Robyn C. Box; Hildegard M. Reul-Hirche; Joanne E. Bullock-Saxton; Colin M. Furnival



Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.


Role of extended surgery for pancreatic cancer: critical review of the four major RCTs comparing standard and extended surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is one of the most dismal malignancies in the gastrointestinal system. Despite the development\\u000a of several adjuvant therapeutic options, surgical treatment is still the only procedure that can completely cure this disease.\\u000a Since pancreatic cancer easily extends to the adjacent tissues or develops distant metastasis, there has been argument as\\u000a to whether we should perform extended surgery

Yukihiro Yokoyama; Masato Nagino


Conventional versus nerve-sparing radical surgery for cervical cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Although nerve-sparing radical surgery (NSRS) is an emerging technique for reducing surgery-related dysfunctions, its efficacy is controversial in patients with cervical cancer. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to compare clinical outcomes, and urinary, anorectal, and sexual dysfunctions between conventional radical surgery (CRS) and NSRS. Methods After searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, two randomized controlled trials, seven prospective and eleven retrospective cohort studies were included with 2,253 patients from January 2000 to February 2014. We performed crude analyses and then conducted subgroup analyses according to study design, quality of study, surgical approach, radicality, and adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Crude analyses showed decreases in blood loss, hospital stay, frequency of intraoperative complications, length of the resected vagina, duration of postoperative catheterization (DPC), urinary frequency, and abnormal sensation in NSRS, whereas there were no significant differences in other clinical parameters and dysfunctions between CRS and NSRS. In subgroup analyses, operative time was longer (standardized difference in means, 0.948; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.642 to 1.253), while intraoperative complications were less common (odds ratio, 0.147; 95% CI, 0.035 to 0.621) in NSRS. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that DPC was shorter, urinary incontinence or frequency, and constipation were less frequent in NSRS without adverse effects on survival and sexual functions. Conclusion NSRS may not affect prognosis and sexual dysfunctions in patients with cervical cancer, whereas it may decrease intraoperative complications, and urinary and anorectal dysfunctions despite long operative time and short length of the resected vagina when compared with CRS. PMID:25872891

Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Keewon; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Seo, Joung Hwa; Kim, Sang Youn; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Min A; Hong, Kyoung Sup; Jeong, Chang Wook



Monitor cancer progression without surgery, meet the technique's inventor.  


Mohammad Haris speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Mohammad Haris joined Sidra Medical and Research Center in October 2013 as a Principal Investigator within the division of Clinical Translational Research, where he leads the planning and execution of the metabolic and biomedical imaging research program. Originally a biochemist, he obtained his PhD in Biomedical Imaging in 2007 from Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, India. His thesis focused on quantification of perfusion and hemodynamic indices in neoplastic and infective intracranial mass lesions using MRI. In 2008, Dr Haris joined the University of Pennsylvania (PA, USA) where he focused on developing metabolic imaging techniques. During his tenure at the University of Pennsylvania, he developed various novel MRI methods to image metabolites in in vivo with potential application to study cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, energetics of the myocardium and skeletal muscles. He was first to image creatine at high spatial resolution separately from phosphocreatine using MRI. Prior to coming to Sidra, Dr Haris was an associate scientist in the Department of Radiology at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr Haris has published 50 peer-reviewed research articles and presented more than 100 research abstracts in international conferences, and filed several patents from his new imaging methods. Dr Haris serves as a reviewer for a number of peer-reviewed imaging and neuroimaging journals. Dr Haris is also a member of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Dr Haris' present research focuses on developing novel MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques to study function and physiology of human organs including brain and heart. A more recent interest is to decipher metabolic pathways in cancerous cells and develop imaging techniques to detect cancerous cells in the early stage. Other interests are developing MR methods to track down the cells migration and genes expression in vivo. The ultimate goal is to transfer these techniques on a clinical MRI setting to improve diagnosis and monitor therapeutic responses at the molecular level. PMID:25832871

Haris, Mohammad



Morbidity and mortality after radical and palliative pancreatic cancer surgery. Risk factors influencing the short-term results.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the morbidity and mortality after radical and palliative pancreatic cancer surgery in Norway, especially the risk factors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A prospective multicenter study between 1984-1987 including only histologically or cytologically verified adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (N = 442) or the papilla of Vater (N = 30); 84 patients (19%) with pancreatic carcinoma and 24 patients (80%) with papilla carcinoma underwent radical operations. A palliative procedure was performed in 252 patients (53%). METHODS: Clinical data, surgical procedures and the following morbidity and mortality were recorded on standardized forms. The risk factors were analyzed by a logistic multiple regression model. RESULTS: The morbidity, reoperation, and mortality rates were 43, 18, and 11% after radical surgery and 23, 4, and 14% after palliative surgery. Karnofsky's index was the sole independent risk factor for death after radical surgery. Splenectomy, age, and TNM stage influenced morbidity. Diabetes, Karnofsky's index, and liver metastases were risk factors in palliative surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity and mortality risks were comparable between total pancreatectomy and a Whipple's procedure and between biliary and a double bypass. Preoperative biliary drainage had no impact on the risks and may be abandoned. High age is a relative and a low Karnofsky's index an absolute contraindication for radical surgery. Nonsurgical palliation of jaundice should be considered according to the presence of independent risk factors. PMID:7682052

Bakkevold, K E; Kambestad, B



Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ?66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Søren M., E-mail: [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)



Methods for cancer epigenome analysis.  


Accurate detection of epimutations in tumor cells is crucial for -understanding the molecular pathogenesis of cancer. Alterations in DNA methylation in cancer are functionally important and clinically relevant, but even this well-studied area is continually re-evaluated in light of unanticipated results, such as the strong association between aberrant DNA methylation in adult tumors and polycomb group profiles in embryonic stem cells, cancer-associated genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators such as DNMT3A and TET family genes, and the discovery of altered 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a product of TET proteins acting on 5-methylcytosine, in human tumors with TET mutations. The abundance and distribution of covalent histone modifications in primary cancer tissues relative to normal cells is an important but largely uncharted area, although there is good evidence for a mechanistic role of cancer-specific alterations in histone modifications in tumor etiology, drug response, and tumor progression. Meanwhile, the discovery of new epigenetic marks continues, and there are many useful methods for epigenome analysis applicable to primary tumor samples, in addition to cancer cell lines. For DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, next-generation sequencing allows increasingly inexpensive and quantitative whole-genome profiling. Similarly, the refinement and maturation of chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has made possible genome-wide mapping of histone modifications, open chromatin, and transcription factor binding sites. Computational tools have been developed apace with these epigenome methods to better enable accurate interpretation of the profiling data. PMID:22956508

Nagarajan, Raman P; Fouse, Shaun D; Bell, Robert J A; Costello, Joseph F



Fox Chase study finds breast cancer patients face increasing number of imaging visits before surgery:

Breast cancer patients frequently undergo imaging like mammograms or ultrasounds between their first breast cancer-related doctor visit and surgery to remove the tumor. In recent years, however, imaging has increased in dramatic and significant ways, say researchers from Fox Chase Cancer Center. More patients have repeat visits for imaging than they did 20 years ago, and single imaging appointments increasingly include multiple types of imaging.


Flow cytometry as a diagnostic method for colorectal cancer.  


Intraoperative histopathological investigation plays an important role during surgery. Since the pathologist performs a diagnosis with a limited level of specimen, it may sometimes be difficult to reach a correct diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, quantitative data from the whole specimen are helpful. It said that the detection capability for DNA aneuploidy (aneuploidy) is low for solid cancer compared with hematopoietic organ cancer. A new method that includes fresh tissue is introduced, the histogram from cancer tissue (cancer) and normal tissue (normal) is compared, new classification criteria are introduced, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) pattern (FFT pattern) obtained from FFT on the histogram is analyzed, and the area under the FFT pattern of the histogram (AUC) is compared. This method, named the "FFT-AUC method", which includes comparisons of AUC and the FFT pattern, shows good results. PMID:23366064

Takeda, S; Hinata, N; Kanda, H; Suzuki, A; Shioyama, T; Ishikawa, Y; Ymaguch, T; Kato, Y



A randomized trial of exercise on well-being and function following breast cancer surgery: the RESTORE trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to determine the effect of a moderate, tailored exercise program on health-related quality of life, physical function, and arm volume in women receiving treatment for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods Women who were within 4–12 weeks of surgery for stage I–III breast cancer were randomized to center-based exercise and lymphedema education intervention or patient education. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Breast Cancer (FACT-B), 6-min walk, and arm volume were performed at 3-month intervals through 18 months. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to model the total meters walked over time, FACT-B scores, and arm volume. Models were adjusted for baseline measurement, baseline affected arm volume, number of nodes removed, age, self-reported symptoms, baseline SF-12 mental and physical component scores, visit, and treatment group. Results Of the recruited 104 women, 82 completed all 18 months. Mean age (range) was 53.6 (32–82) years; 88% were Caucasian; 45% were employed full time; 44% were overweight; and 28% obese. Approximately, 46% had breast-conserving surgery; 79% had axillary node dissection; 59% received chemotherapy; and 64% received radiation. The intervention resulted in an average increase of 34.3 ml (SD=12.8) versus patient education (p=0.01). Changes in FACT-B scores and arm volumes were not significantly different. Conclusions With this early exercise intervention after breast cancer diagnosis, a significant improvement was achieved in physical function, with no decline in health-related quality of life or detrimental effect on arm volume. Implications for cancer survivors Starting a supervised exercise regimen that is tailored to an individual’s strength and stamina within 3 months following breast cancer surgery appears safe and may hasten improvements in physical functioning. PMID:22160629

Kimmick, Gretchen G.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hopkins, Judith; Levine, Edward; Miller, Gary; Ribisl, Paul; Mihalko, Shannon L.



Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the significance of final microscopic resection margin status on treatment outcomes in women with early breast cancer who are treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation.Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 1021 consecutive women with clinical Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Complete

Michael E Peterson; Delray J Schultz; Carol Reynolds; Lawrence J Solin



Associations Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Epidural Ropivacaine Consumption in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Up to date, few published studies indicated the associations between genetic polymorphisms and epidural local anesthetics consumption. In this study, we investigated the associations between seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidural ropivacaine consumption during breast cancer surgery in women from northeastern China. These seven SNPs (rs3803662 and rs12443621 in TNCR9, rs889312 in MAP3K1, rs3817198 in LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35, rs13281615 at 8q24, and rs2046210 at 6q25.1) were identified by recent genome-wide association studies associated with tumor susceptibility. A total of 418 breast cancer women received thoracic epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine for elective mastectomy with axillary clearance. Their blood samples were genotyped for the seven SNPs using the SNaPshot method. For SNP rs13281615, the subjects with genotype AG and GG consumed a greater amount of the total epidural ropivacaine and the mean ropivacaine dose than the subjects with genotype AA (p=0.047 and p=0.003, respectively). Furthermore, no statistical differences were found in the total dose of ropivacaine, the mean consumption of ropivacaine, the onset of ropivacaine, or the initial dose of lidocaine among the three genotypic groups for the other six SNPs studied. Our study indicated that SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was associated with the consumption of epidural ropivacaine during breast cancer surgery in northeastern Chinese women. It might provide new insights into the mechanisms of ropivacaine action and metabolism and facilitate the development of personalized medicine. PMID:23577780

Liu, Jing; Jiang, Yongdong; Pang, Da; Xi, Hongjie; Liu, Yan



Pancreatic cancer circulating tumour cells express a cell motility gene signature that predicts survival after surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Most cancer deaths are caused by metastases, resulting from circulating tumor cells (CTC) that detach from the primary cancer and survive in distant organs. The aim of the present study was to develop a CTC gene signature and to assess its prognostic relevance after surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods Negative depletion fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was developed and validated with spiking experiments using cancer cell lines in whole human blood samples. This FACS-based method was used to enrich for CTC from the blood of 10 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC. Total RNA was isolated from 4 subgroup samples, i.e. CTC, haematological cells (G), original tumour (T), and non-tumoural pancreatic control tissue (P). After RNA quality control, samples of 6 patients were eligible for further analysis. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed after double linear amplification of RNA. ‘Ingenuity Pathway Analysis’ software and AmiGO were used for functional data analyses. A CTC gene signature was developed and validated with the nCounter system on expression data of 78 primary PDAC using Cox regression analysis for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Using stringent statistical analysis, we retained 8,152 genes to compare expression profiles of CTC vs. other subgroups, and found 1,059 genes to be differentially expressed. The pathway with the highest expression ratio in CTC was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling, known to be involved in cancer cell migration. In the p38 MAPK pathway, TGF-?1, cPLA2, and MAX were significantly upregulated. In addition, 9 other genes associated with both p38 MAPK signaling and cell motility were overexpressed in CTC. High co-expression of TGF-?1 and our cell motility panel (? 4 out of 9 genes for DFS and ? 6 out of 9 genes for OS) in primary PDAC was identified as an independent predictor of DFS (p=0.041, HR (95% CI) = 1.885 (1.025 – 3.559)) and OS (p=0.047, HR (95% CI) = 1.366 (1.004 – 1.861)). Conclusions Pancreatic CTC isolated from blood samples using FACS-based negative depletion, express a cell motility gene signature. Expression of this newly defined cell motility gene signature in the primary tumour can predict survival of patients undergoing surgical resection for pancreatic cancer. Trial Registration Clinical NCT00495924 PMID:23157946



Comparison of cleansing methods in preparation for colonic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golytely®, an oral gut lavage solution, was compared with a standard bowel cleansing preparation in patients undergoing elective colonic\\u000a surgery. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to either a one-day preparation with Golytely and bisacodyl or a standard method\\u000a using a three-day clear liquid diet, cathartics, and enemas. Colon cleansing was better with Golytely (100 percent optimal\\u000a cleansing vs. 64 percent,P<0.05).

David E. Beck; Francis J. Harford; JACK A. DIPALMA



Factors affecting health related quality of life of rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery.  


Maintaining quality of life (QOL) is one of the important aims of cancer treatment. Quality of life of a cancer patient is affected by various factors, which may be disease related, patient related, or treatment related. To study changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) brought about by treatment of rectal cancer and factors affecting the changes using Malayalam translation of FACT-C (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal) Questionnaire. Also to detect the minimally important clinical changes (MICC) in health-related quality of life of patients with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone surgery. Forty-five patients diagnosed with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone curative surgery, were studied. HRQOL was assessed at baseline 2 weeks after surgery and 3 months after surgery. The changes in scores were correlated with various demographic factors like age, sex, marital status, number of children, number of married children, and education and occupation of the patient and spouse. Also the treatment-related factors like presence of stoma, presence of morbidity, previous treatment, stage of disease, and administration of chemotherapy before and after surgery were correlated. All the subscales of FACT-C tool, except emotional well-being, were significantly reduced 2 weeks after surgery and increased slightly above pre-treatment level 3 months after surgery. The Chronbach ? values were 0.88, 0.89 and 0.86 on three occasions, respectively, establishing internal validity of the test. Baseline HRQOL scores were better in males compared to females. Among the various subscales, the drops in SWB, FWB, FACT-G, total Score and TOI were significant (P?surgery and minimally invasive surgery or patients who had permanent colostomy versus no colostomy. The HRQOL scores after surgery reduced 2 weeks after surgery and improved above pre-surgical levels 3 months after surgery. The approach of surgery (minimally invasive versus open) or presence or absence of permanent colostomy didn't make any significant change in HRQOL. But since the sample size of the study was small, we need further larger studies to arrive at definite conclusions. PMID:25767337

Nair, C Krishnan; George, P S; Rethnamma, K S; Bhargavan, R; Abdul Rahman, S; Mathew, A P; Muralee, M; Cherian, K; Augustine, P; Ahamed, M I



Cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (SOCceR trial): a multicenter randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement in treatment for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer is needed. Standard therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer consists of platinum-based chemotherapy. Median overall survival is reported between 18 and 35 months. Currently, the role of surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer is not clear. In selective patients a survival benefit up to 62 months is reported for patients undergoing complete secondary cytoreductive surgery. Whether cytoreductive surgery in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer is beneficial remains questionable due to the lack of level I-II evidence. Methods/Design Multicentre randomized controlled trial, including all nine gynecologic oncologic centres in the Netherlands and their affiliated hospitals. Eligible patients are women, with first recurrence of FIGO stage Ic-IV platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer or fallopian tube cancer, who meet the inclusion criteria. Participants are randomized between the standard treatment consisting of at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy and the experimental treatment which consists of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy. Primary outcome measure is progression free survival. In total 230 patients will be randomized. Data will be analysed according to intention to treat. Discussion Where the role of cytoreductive surgery is widely accepted in the initial treatment of ovarian cancer, its value in recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer has not been established so far. A better understanding of the benefits and patients selection criteria for secondary cytoreductive surgery has to be obtained. Therefore the 4th ovarian cancer consensus conference in 2010 stated that randomized controlled phase 3 trials evaluating the role of surgery in platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer are urgently needed. We present a recently started multicentre randomized controlled trial that will investigate the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy will improve progression free survival in selected patients with first recurrence of platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register number: NTR3337. PMID:24422892



Multi-institute study finds many men with prostate cancer can avoid early surgery

New research suggests that many men with prostate cancer do not need immediate treatment, especially if they have low PSA scores or low-risk tumors that are unlikely to grow and spread. The multi-center study, published July 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine, compared prostate cancer surgery soon after diagnosis to observation in men with early-stage prostate tumors detected by PSA screening. Overall, most men did not benefit from surgery – it did not reduce the likelihood they would die from prostate cancer or other causes. The study included researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine (home to the Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center), the Siteman Cancer Center at Washington University School of Medicine, and the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Health Care System.


Neoadjuvant Treatment Does Not Influence Perioperative Outcome in Rectal Cancer Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify the risk factors for perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing resection of primary rectal cancer, with a specific focus on the effect of neoadjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: This exploratory analysis of prospectively collected data included all patients who underwent anterior resection/low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary rectal cancer between October 2001 and October 2006. The study endpoints were perioperative surgical and medical morbidity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of potential risk factors were performed. Results: A total of 485 patients were included in this study; 425 patients (88%) underwent a sphincter-saving anterior resection/low anterior resection, 47 (10%) abdominoperineal resection, and 13 (2%) multivisceral resection. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 100 patients (21%), and 168 (35%) underwent neoadjuvant short-term radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy). Patient age and operative time were independently associated with perioperative morbidity, and operative time, body mass index >27 kg/m{sup 2} (overweight), and resection type were associated with surgical morbidity. Age and a history of smoking were confirmed as independent prognostic risk factors for medical complications. Neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with a worse outcome. Conclusion: The results of this prospective study have identified several risk factors associated with an adverse perioperative outcome after rectal cancer surgery. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with increased perioperative complications.

Ulrich, Alexis [Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Weitz, Juergen [Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail:; Slodczyk, Matthias; Koch, Moritz [Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaeger, Dirk [Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Muenter, Marc [Department of Clinical Radiology, Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Buechler, Markus W. [Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)



Postoperative Irradiation for Rectal Cancer Increases the Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction After Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the risk of small bowel obstruction (SBO) after irradiation (RT) for rectal cancer Background: SBO is a frequent complication after standard resection of rectal cancer. Although the use of RT is increasing, the effect of RT on risk of SBO is unknown. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry data linked to Medicare claims data to determine the effect of RT on risk of SBO. Patients 65 years of age and older diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive rectal cancer treated with standard resection from 1986 through 1999 were included. We determined whether patients had undergone RT and evaluated the effect of RT and timing of RT on the incidence of admission to hospital for SBO, adjusting for potential confounders using a proportional hazards model. Results: We identified a total of 5606 patients who met our selection criteria: 1994 (36%) underwent RT, 74% postoperatively. Patients were followed for a mean of 3.8 years. A total of 614 patients were admitted for SBO over the study period; 15% of patients in the RT group and 9% of patients in the nonirradiated group (P < 0.001). After controlling for age, sex, race, diagnosis year, type of surgery, and stage, we found that patients who underwent postoperative RT were at higher risk of SBO, hazard ratio 1.69 (95% CI, 1.3–2.1). However, the long-term risk associated with preoperative irradiation was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.55–1.46). Conclusions: Postoperative but not preoperative RT after standard resection of rectal cancer results in an increased risk of SBO over time. PMID:17414603

Baxter, Nancy N.; Hartman, Lacey K.; Tepper, Joel E.; Ricciardi, Rocco; Durham, Sara B.; Virnig, Beth A.



Patients’ perceived health status following primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

How oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients view their ‘quality of life’ is of fundamental importance. Any differences seen in their health state compared with normative data and with other disease conditions allows a wider perspective on their outcome after surgery.A cross-sectional postal survey was undertaken of patients treated for oral\\/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma by primary surgery using the University of

S. N. Rogers; R. D. Miller; K. Ali; A. B. Minhas; H. F. Williams; D. Lowe



Study Supports Use of Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer  


... Dr. John Daly is a surgical oncologist at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. He said that ... The Netherlands; John Daly M.D., surgical oncologist, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia; April 2, 2015, New ...


Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer  


... care providers use several types of tools, called risk assessment models, to estimate the risk of breast cancer ... One widely used tool is the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BRCAT), a computer model that takes a ...


Oncoplastic breast surgery for centrally located breast cancer: a case series  

PubMed Central

Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), which combines the concepts of oncologic and plastic surgery, is becoming more common worldwide. We herein report the results of OBS in Japanese patients with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) and Paget’s disease. We performed OBS combining partial mastectomy and immediate volume replacement on patients with non-ptotic and/or small breasts, and volume reduction surgery for patients with ptotic breasts, as reported in Western countries. Japanese encounters are described in this report as a case series. PMID:25083497

Yoshinaka, Heiji; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Munetsugu; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Okumura, Hiroshi; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji



Oncoplastic breast surgery for centrally located breast cancer: a case series.  


Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), which combines the concepts of oncologic and plastic surgery, is becoming more common worldwide. We herein report the results of OBS in Japanese patients with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) and Paget's disease. We performed OBS combining partial mastectomy and immediate volume replacement on patients with non-ptotic and/or small breasts, and volume reduction surgery for patients with ptotic breasts, as reported in Western countries. Japanese encounters are described in this report as a case series. PMID:25083497

Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Munetsugu; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Okumura, Hiroshi; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji



Laparoscopic radical gastrectomy versus traditional open surgery in elderly patients with gastric cancer: Benefits and complications.  


This study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effect and complications of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy (LRG) with those of traditional open surgery in elderly patients with gastric cancer (GC). We conducted a retrospective comparison of therapeutic efficacy and complications between elderly patients with GC (defined as those aged ?70 years) who received laparoscopic gastrectomy and those who underwent gastrectomy by open surgery. A total of 108 patients who either underwent laparoscopic surgery (n=54) or traditional open surgery (n=54) at the General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region between June, 2008 and March, 2009 were analyzed. Compared to traditional open surgery, LRG exhibited several advantages, such as being less invasive, with less intraoperative blood loss, shorter bedbound time, less intubation time, low frequency of fever, less time to normal diet, shorter hospital stay and a low overall incidence of complications. No significant difference was observed between laparoscopic and open surgery in terms of operative time and number of lymph nodes dissected. The 3-year cancer recurrence and mortality rates were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, LRG is a safe and effective procedure for the management of GC in elderly patients and was found to be superior to traditional open surgery regarding the short-term curative effect. Therefore, LRG represents a feasible and safe surgical approach for elderly patients with GC. PMID:24940489

Li, Hongtao; Han, Xiaopeng; Su, Lin; Zhu, Wankun; Xu, Wei; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Yang, Hua; Liu, Hongbin



Predicting, preventing and managing persistent pain after breast cancer surgery: the importance of psychosocial factors.  


Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) is increasingly recognized as a potential problem facing a sizeable subset of the millions of women who undergo surgery as part of their treatment of breast cancer. Importantly, an increasing number of studies suggest that individual variation in psychosocial factors such as catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, somatization and sleep quality play an important role in shaping an individual's risk of developing PPBCS. This review presents evidence for the importance of these factors and puts them within the context of other surgical, medical, psychophysical and demographic factors, which may also influence PPBCS risk, as well as discusses potential perioperative therapies to prevent PPBCS. PMID:25494696

Schreiber, Kristin L; Kehlet, Henrik; Belfer, Inna; Edwards, Robert R



The Place of Extensive Surgery in Locoregional Recurrence and Limited Metastatic Disease of Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were first to clearly define two different entities: locoregional recurrences and limited metastatic disease and secondly to evaluate the place of extensive surgery in these two types of recurrence. Material and Methods. Twenty-four patients were followed from June 2004 until May 2014. All patients underwent surgery but for 1 patient this surgery was stopped because the tumour was unresectable. Results. The median interval between surgery for the primary tumour and the locoregional recurrence or metastatic evolution was 129 months. Eight patients had pure nodal recurrences, 4 had nodal and muscular recurrences, 5 had muscular + skin recurrences, and 8 had metastatic evolution. Currently, all patients are still alive but 2 have liver metastases. Disease free survival was measured at 2 years and extrapolated at 5 years and was 92% at these two time points. No difference was observed for young or older women; limited metastatic evolution and locoregional recurrence exhibited the same disease free survival. Conclusion. Extensive surgery has a place in locoregional and limited metastatic breast cancer recurrences but this option must absolutely be integrated in the multidisciplinary strategy of therapeutic options and needs to be planned with a curative intent.

Berlière, M.; Duhoux, F. P.; Taburiaux, L.; Lacroix, V.; Galant, C.; Leconte, I.; Fellah, L.; Lecouvet, F.; Bouziane, D.; Piette, Ph.; Lengele, B.



Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

In 2004, novel results using pulmonary wedge resection executed through single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was first described. Since that time, single-port VATS has been advocated for the treatment of a spectrum of thoracic diseases, especially lung cancer. Lung cancer remains one of the top three cancer-related deaths in Taiwan, and surgical resection remains the “gold standard” for early-stage lung cancer. Anatomical resections (including pneumonectomy, lobectomy, and segmentectomy) remain the primary types of lung cancer surgery, regardless of whether conventional open thoracotomy, or 4/3/2-ports VATS are used. In the past three years, several pioneers have reported their early experiences with single-port VATS lobectomy, segmentectomy, and pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Our goal was to appraise their findings and review the role of single-port VATS in the treatment of lung cancer. In addition, the current concept of mini-invasive surgery involves not only smaller resections (requiring only a few incisions), but also sub-lobar resection as segmentectomy. Therefore, our review will also address these issues. PMID:24455171

Liu, Chao-Yu; Lin, Chen-Sung; Shih, Chih-Hsun



Infl uence of yoga on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

After surgery, breast cancer patients experience particularly high levels of distress(1-4) manifested as anxiety, depression and anger due to the effects of surgery and the disease itself on life expectancy, physical appearance and sexual identity.(5) Furthermore, concerns regarding one's physical condition, postoperative recovery, hospital admissions, anticipating painful procedures, image problems, confronting cancer diagnosis and worries about survival and recovery can

Raghavendra M Rao; Nagendra H R; Nagarathna Raghuram; Vinay C; Chandrashekara S


The role of surgery for HPV-associated head and neck cancer.  


The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer continues to increase in contrast to other head and neck cancer sites. There is a growing role for upfront surgery to treat these cancers in the era of organ preservation treatment strategies. This is becoming especially important in younger, healthier patients with HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma. Surgery for oropharyngeal cancer has evolved from large, open transcervical and transmandibular approaches to minimally-invasive transoral endoscopic techniques. Advances in transoral endoscopic surgery (TES) have led to renewed interest in upfront surgical treatment for oropharyngeal carcinoma. Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) are two techniques that allow for complete oncologic resection through the mouth in select patients, with minimal cosmetic deformity and optimal speech and swallow function after completion of therapy. In this article we will review transoral approaches to oropharyngeal carcinoma: its oncologic and functional outcomes, and its role in the multi-disciplinary treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25456011

Mydlarz, Wojciech K; Chan, Jason Y K; Richmon, Jeremy D



Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients with previous breast augmentation surgery.  


The number of breast augmentation surgeries (BAS) has increased. Therefore, the number of breast cancer patients with history of BAS has also increased. In this paper, we present two cases of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with previous BAS who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The patients were augmented using different approach; the first case was augmented through transaxillary incision, whereas the second case was augmented through periareolar incision. Lymphoscintigraphy (LPG) was performed on the patients 1 day prior to operation, enabling confirmation of lymphatic flow and SLN in both patients. SLNB was successfully performed in both cases. In one patient, SLNB was performed using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and the Photodynamic Eye (PDE) system. Regardless of history of BAS, ICG and PDE system showed lymphatic flow and SLN in real time. LPG and ICG fluorescence were useful methods for SLN detection in patients with previous BAS, being able to confirm lymph flow before operation. Biopsy methods using LPG and PDE system were considered useful for difficult confirmation of lymph flow after breast augmentation. This is the first report of SLNB using ICG and PDE system for patients with previous BAS. PMID:21671037

Nagao, Tomoya; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Tanaka-Akashi, Sadako; Kinoshita, Takayuki



Acquired lymphangiectasis following surgery and radiotherapy of breast cancer.  


Acquired lymphangiectasia (AL) is a significant and rare complication of surgery and radiotherapy. We report lymphangiectasia in a 40-year-old woman who had undergone radical mastectomy and radiotherapy. After 4 years of combined therapy, she developed multiple vesicles and bullae. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. The case is unique as it is not associated with lymphedema, which is a usual accompaniment of lymphangiectasia following surgery and radiotherapy. AL is usually asymptomatic, but trauma may cause recurrent cellulitis. Treatment modalities include electrodessication, surgical excision, sclerotherapy and carbon dioxide laser ablation. PMID:25657438

Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar



Liver parenchymal sparing surgery for locally advanced gallbladder cancer with extracapsular lymph node invasion  

PubMed Central

A complete R0 resection is the standard treatment in patients with gallbladder cancer and the only potentially definitive curative therapy. Major hepatectomy, including right or extended right hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, would be an option in patients with locally advanced gallbladder cancer, while morbidity and mortality rate are still high. Herein, we report a case of a locally advanced gallbladder cancer invading the right hepatic artery (RHA), common hepatic duct, and transverse colon. This patient was successfully treated with parenchymal sparing surgery without major hepatectomy and achieved R0 resection by means of extended cholecystectomy combined with resection of the transverse colon, extrahepatic bile duct, and RHA. Intrahepatic arterial flow was preserved without reconstruction of the RHA, and the postoperative course was favorable. Liver parenchymal sparing surgery might be an alternative procedure in patients with gallbladder cancer, to minimize the risk of severe morbidity, if R0 resection is possible. PMID:24912578



Post-surgery radiation in early breast cancer: survival analysis of registry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgroundandpurpose: Overviews of randomized trials have shown a small survival advantage with post-surgery radiation in early breast cancer. The present study attempts to extend this observation through a systematic analysis of population data.Materialsandmethods: This retrospective cohort study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data on 83,776 women with breast cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1997, stage T1–T2, node

Vincent Vinh-Hung; Tomasz Burzykowski; Jan Van de Steene; Guy Storme; Guy Soete



Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colorectal cancer and the effect of tumor surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic cytokine involved in the progression of solid tumors. In this study we evaluated the clinical usefulness of preoperative serum VEGF concentrations in patients with colorectal cancer. The changes in serum VEGF levels after tumor surgery were also evaluated. Methods. Serum VEGF levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the

Anastasios J Karayiannakis; Konstantinos N Syrigos; Andrew Zbar; Nicolaos Baibas; Alexandros Polychronidis; Constantinos Simopoulos; Gabriel Karatzas



NCI study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the participants.


NCI study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

A new study of women at high risk of ovarian cancer but with no clinical signs of the disease, who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) found cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the participants. RRSO is a surgical procedure in which a woman’s ovaries and fallopian tubes are preventively removed.


Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney



Intrusive thoughts and quality of life among men with prostate cancer before and three months after surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden, unwelcome and repetitive thoughts about a traumatic event – intrusive thoughts – could relate to how men assess their quality of life after prostate-cancer diagnosis. We aimed to study the prevalence of intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer and their association with quality-of-life outcomes before and after radical prostatectomy. Methods During the first year of the LAPPRO-trial, 971 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively included from 14 urological centers in Sweden. Of those, 833 men responded to two consecutive study-specific questionnaires before and three months after surgery (participation rate 86%). The association of intrusive thoughts with three quality-of-life outcomes, i.e. self-assessed quality of life, depressive mood and waking up with anxiety was estimated by prevalence ratios that were calculated, together with a 95% confidence interval, at the same time-point as well as over time. Fisher’s exact-test was used to analyze differences between respondents and non-respondents. Wilcoxon signed-ranks and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used for analysis of change over time. To validate new questions on intrusive thoughts, written answers to open-ended questions were read and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results Before surgery, 603 men (73%) reported negative intrusive thoughts about their cancer at some time in the past month and 593 men (59%) reported such thoughts three months after surgery. Comparing those reporting intrusive thoughts at least weekly or once a week before surgery with those who did not, the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval), three months after surgery, for waking up in the middle of the night with anxiety was 3.9 (2.7 to 5.5), for depressed mood 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1) and for impaired self-assessed quality of life 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5). Conclusion The prevalence of negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer at the time of surgery associates with studied quality-of-life outcomes three months later. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN06393679 PMID:24025241



Associations between cytokine gene variations and severe persistent breast pain in women following breast cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is a significant clinical problem. While immune mechanisms may play a role in the development and maintenance of persistent pain, few studies have evaluated for associations between persistent breast pain following breast cancer surgery and variations in cytokine genes. In this study, associations between previously identified extreme persistent breast pain phenotypes (i.e., no pain versus severe pain) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 15 cytokine genes were evaluated. In unadjusted analyses, the frequency of 13 SNPs and 3 haplotypes in 7 genes differed significantly between the no pain and severe pain classes. After adjustment for preoperative breast pain and the severity of average postoperative pain, one SNPs (i.e., interleukin (IL) 1 receptor 2 rs11674595) and one haplotype (i.e., IL10 haplotype A8) were associated with pain group membership. These findings suggest a role for cytokine gene polymorphisms in the development of persistent breast pain following breast cancer surgery. Perspective This study evaluated for associations between cytokine gene variations and the severity of persistent breast pain in women following breast cancer surgery. Variations in two cytokine genes were associated with severe breast pain. The results suggest that cytokines play a role in the development of persistent postsurgical pain. PMID:24411993

Stephens, Kimberly; Cooper, Bruce A.; West, Claudia; Paul, Steven M.; Baggott, Christina R.; Merriman, John D.; Dhruva, Anand; Kober, Kord M.; Langford, Dale J.; Leutwyler, Heather; Luce, Judith A.; Schmidt, Brian L.; Abrams, Gary M.; Elboim, Charles; Hamolsky, Deborah; Levine, Jon D.; Miaskowski, Christine; Aouizerat, Bradley E.



Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likelihood of radiation pneumonitis and factors associated with its development in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy have not been well established. To assess these, the authors retrospectively reviewed 1624 patients treated between 1968 and 1985. Median follow-up for patients without local or distant failure was 77 months. Patients were treated with either tangential fields

Tatiana I. Lingos; Abram Recht; Frank Vicini; Anthony Abner; Barbara Silver; Jay R. Harris



Oncoplastic technique in breast conservative surgery for locally advanced breast cancer.  


Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) should be taken into decision making when planning breast conservative surgery, but this procedure should be done on the principle of oncologic safety in order to achieve negative surgical margin and maintain aesthetic result. This procedure should be offered as the choice of treatment in selected patients. PMID:25083490

Chirappapha, Prakasit; Kongdan, Youwanush; Vassanasiri, Wichai; Ratchaworapong, Kampol; Sukarayothin, Thongchai; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Klaiklern, Phatarachate; Leesombatpaiboon, Monchai; Hamza, Alaa; Zurrida, Stefano



Oncoplastic technique in breast conservative surgery for locally advanced breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) should be taken into decision making when planning breast conservative surgery, but this procedure should be done on the principle of oncologic safety in order to achieve negative surgical margin and maintain aesthetic result. This procedure should be offered as the choice of treatment in selected patients. PMID:25083490

Kongdan, Youwanush; Vassanasiri, Wichai; Ratchaworapong, Kampol; Sukarayothin, Thongchai; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Klaiklern, Phatarachate; Leesombatpaiboon, Monchai; Hamza, Alaa; Zurrida, Stefano



Observation as Good as Surgery for Some Men with Prostate Cancer

Many men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer could forego radical prostatectomy and live as long as men who have immediate surgery, according to long-awaited results from a clinical trial published July 19, 2012, in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).


Malnutrition at the Time of Surgery Affects Negatively the Clinical Outcome of Critically Ill Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Malnutrition is a frequent concomitant of surgical illness, especially in gastrointestinal cancer surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in the GI cancer patients and its relation with clinical outcome. We also examined associations between the energy balance and clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods: Prospective study on 694 surgical patients treated in the ICU of the UHC of Tirana. Patients were divided into well-nourished and malnourished groups according to their nutritional status. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of malnutrition and cumulated energy balance on clinical outcome. Results: The prevalence of pre-operative malnutrition was 65.3% for all surgical patients and 84.9% for gastrointestinal cancer patients. Malnutrition, as analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model, is an independent risk factor for higher complications, infections, and mortality, longer stay in the ventilator and ICU. Also this model showed that cumulated energy balance correlated with infections, and mortality and was independently associated with the length ventilator and ICU stay. Conclusion: This study shows that malnutrition is a significant problem in surgical patients, especially in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Malnutrition and cumulated energy deficit in gastro-intestinal surgery patients with malignancy is an independent risk factor on increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568549

Shpata, Vjollca; Prendushi, Xhensila; Kreka, Manika; Kola, Irena; Kurti, Floreta; Ohri, Ilir



Risk Factors for Major Adverse Events of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Lobectomy for Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for major adverse events of VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: 1806 Patients (1032 males, 57.1%) planned to undergo VATS lobectomy for stage IA-IIIA lung cancer from July 2007 to June 2012. The Thoracic Morbidity and Mortality Classification TM&M system was used to evaluate the presence and severity of complications. Postoperative complications were observed during a 30-day follow up. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze the independent risk factors for major adverse events. Results: Successful rate of VATS lobectomy was 97.6% (1763/1806). Major complications occurred in 129 patients (7.3%), with a mortality of 0.3% (5/1763). Pulmonary complications contribute up to 90.7% of the major complications and 80% of mortality. Logistic regression indicated that comorbidities, elder age ?70y, operative time ?240min and hybrid VATS were predictors for major adverse events (P<0.05). Hybrid and converted VATS lobectomy result in higher major adverse events compared with complete VATS, 15.1%, 20.9% and 7.4% respectively (P=0.013). Conclusions: The overall complication rate and mortality of VATS lobectomy are low, while major complications sometimes occur. Pulmonary complications are the most common major complications and cause of mortality. Age ?70y, comorbidities, operative time ?240min and Hybrid VATS are predictors of major adverse events. PMID:25013365

Yang, Jie; Xia, Yan; Yang, Yang; Ni, Zheng-zheng; He, Wen-xin; Wang, Hai-feng; Xu, Xiao-xiong; Yang, Yu-ling; Fei, Ke; Jiang, Ge-ning



Prognostic Factors of Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer following Cytoreductive Surgery and Perioperative Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background. Prolonged survival of patients affected by peritoneal metastasis (PM) of colorectal origin treated with complete cytoreduction followed by intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been reported. However, two-thirds of the patients after complete cytoreduction and perioperative chemotherapy (POC) develop recurrence. This study is to analyze the prognostic factors of PM from colorectal cancer following the treatment with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) + POC. Patients and Methods. During the last 8 years, 142 patients with PM of colorectal origin have been treated with CRS and perioperative chemotherapy. The surgical resections consisted of a combination of peritonectomy procedures. Results. Complete cytoreduction (CCR-0) was achieved at a higher rate in patients with peritoneal cancer index (PCI) score less than 10 (94.7%, 71/75) than those of PCI score above 11 (40.2%, 37/67). Regarding the PCI of small bowel (SB-PCI), 89 of 94 (91.5%) patients with ?2 and 22 of 48 (45.8%) patients with SB-PCI ? 3 received CCR-0 resection (P < 0.001). Postoperative Grade 3 and Grade 4 complications occurred in 11 (7.7%) and 14 (9.9%). The overall operative mortality rate was 0.7% (1/142). Cox hazard model showed that CCR-0, SB-PCI ? 2, differentiated carcinoma, and PCI ? 10 were the independent favorite prognostic factors. Conclusions. Complete cytoreduction, PCI, SB-PCI threshold, and histologic type were the independent prognostic factors. PMID:23710154

Yonemura, Yutaka; Canbay, Emel; Ishibashi, Haruaki



[Mastectomy incisions and biopsy technics in view of subsequent reconstructive surgery in breast cancer].  


Patients are referred to departments for plastic surgery increasingly frequently for breast reconstruction following mastectomy for cancer of the breast. Successful results depend greatly on the primary mastectomy carried out by surgeons without experience in reconstruction. It is particularly important that the incisions are suitably placed so that the final result can be satisfactory. Our material consists of 119 patients who had been submitted to unilateral mastectomy for cancer of the breast at least one year previously. One fifth of the patients had hypertrophic breasts. The unequal distribution of weight following unilateral mastectomy is followed by such considerable discomfort from the remaining breast that this alone makes a reduction plastic operation necessary. Simultaneously, reconstruction is carried out on the side of the mastectomy. As the method of reconstruction, introduction of silicone prosthesis were carried out in 110 patients. Nine patients were, in addition, submitted to more complicated plastic flap procedures. The postoperative course was uncomplicated in 112 patients (94%). Reoperation proved necessary on seven occasions; in four patients on account of haematoma formation and rupture of the wound in three patients. In four patients, the prosthesis had to be renewed on account of rupture during the subsequent years. Guidelines for placing the incisions at the primary mastectomy are suggested to facilitate successful reconstruction. Finally, a suitable biopsy technique is described. PMID:2781648

Kiil, J; Kiil, J



[A case of surgery for stenosis of the colon from recurrent gastric cancer].  


In June 2010, a 67-year-old man presented with advanced gastric cancer. He underwent 2 courses of combination chemo- therapy with S-1/CDDP. After chemotherapy, total gastrectomy was performed(pT4aN3aM0, Stage IIIC). Although he underwent S-1 chemotherapy, colon tumors recurred 22 months after the operation. Colonoscopy revealed the presence of type 2 advanced cancer in the ascending colon, and type IIa early cancer in the transverse colon, which were diagnosed as either primary colon cancers or recurrent gastric cancers upon pathological examination. In October 2012, resection of the right side of the colon was performed in order to prevent malignant bowel obstruction. Pathological examination of the resected specimen identified recurrent gastric cancers. After the surgery, he is currently undergoing S-1 chemotherapy and has no sign of recurrent tumors. PMID:25731509

Okada, Kaoru; Oka, Yoshio; Uemura, Hisashi; Omura, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Nakane, Shigeru; Higaki, Naozumi; Hayashida, Hirohito; Nezu, Riichiro



Is Laparoscopic Surgery the Standard of Care for GI Luminal Cancer?  


As surgeons in India strive to keep pace with the technical advances in the field of laparoscopic surgery, we endeavor to evaluate the mounting global evidence regarding laparoscopic gastric and colorectal resections for cancer. We seem to be riding on the crest of excellence in traditional open surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies, opening avenues for research and for the establishment of practice guidelines in laparoscopic surgery. Results from available trials along with those from ongoing studies are paving the path toward the acceptance and standardization of these procedures. What must be ascertained is whether sound oncological principles, which are ultimately exhibited by long-term outcomes, are being preserved while garnering the established benefits of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25614719

Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Gaikwad, Vinay; Desouza, Ashwin; Goel, Mahesh



Techniques for restoring bowel continuity and function after rectal cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

A very low local recurrence rate of 3%-6% (associated with improved 5 year survival) is possible when proper oncological surgery is performed of mid and distal rectal adenocarcinoma. Restoration of bowel continuity is possible in most cases, without compromise of cancer clearance. Re-anastomosis can be performed with stapled, transabdominal hand-sewn or coloanal pull-through techniques. However after a direct (straight) anastomosis of the colon to the distal rectum/anus, up to 33% of patients have 3 or more bowel movements/d; some can be troubled with up to 14 stools a day. Construction of a 6-cm colonic J-pouch is likely to cause some reversed peristalsis which improves postoperative bowel frequency without causing neo-rectum evacuation problems. Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis patients have a median of 3 bowel movements a day compared with a median of 6 a day for straight anastomoses, at 1 year after surgery. In the longer term, bowel adaptation may enable the function after a straight anastomosis to approximate that of a colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis. This probably depends in the former, upon whether the more rigid sigmoid colon or more distensible descending colon is used. An additional advantage of the colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis is the lower risk of anastomotic complications. A more vascularized side-to-end (colonic J-pouch-anal) anastomosis is likely to heal better than an end-to-end (straight) anastomosis. Where the pelvis is too narrow for a bulky colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis, a coloplasty-anal-anastomosis is an option. The latter results in postoperative bowel function comparable with the colonic J-pouch. However, the risk of anastomotic complications is higher possibly related to its end-to-end anastomotic configuration. Laparoscopic techniques for accomplishing all the above are being proven to be effective. Restorative surgery for rectal cancer can be safely and effectively performed with methods to improve bowel function very acceptably; the future advances are likely in laparoscopy. PMID:17072945

Ho, Yik-Hong



Surgical site infections following colorectal cancer surgery: a randomized prospective trial comparing common and advanced antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver  

PubMed Central

Background An antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver was found effective in reducing surgical-site infection in a preliminary study of colorectal cancer elective surgery. We decided to test this finding in a randomized, double-blind trial. Methods Adults undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery at two university-affiliated hospitals were randomly assigned to have the surgical incision dressed with Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing or a common dressing. To blind the patient and the nursing and medical staff to the nature of the dressing used, scrub nurses covered Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber with a common wound dressing in the experimental arm, whereas a double common dressing was applied to patients of control group. The primary end-point of the study was the occurrence of any surgical-site infection within 30?days of surgery. Results A total of 112 patients (58 in the experimental arm and 54 in the control group) qualified for primary end-point analysis. The characteristics of the patient population and their surgical procedures were similar. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was lower in the experimental group (11.1% center 1, 17.5% center 2; overall 15.5%) than in controls (14.3% center 1, 24.2% center 2, overall 20.4%), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P?=?0.451), even with respect to surgical-site infection grade 1 (superficial) versus grades 2 and 3, or grade 1 and 2 versus grade 3. Conclusions This randomized trial did not confirm a statistically significant superiority of Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing in reducing surgical-site infection after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Trial registration NCT00981110 PMID:22621779



Role of Minimally Invasive Surgery in Staging of Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Since the introduction of laparoscopy and robotic surgery in gynecologic practice in the last several decades, use of these\\u000a minimally invasive surgical techniques has increased dramatically. The role of minimally invasive surgical techniques continues\\u000a to expand because they offer reduced intraoperative and postoperative complications, less intraoperative blood loss, and a\\u000a shorter postoperative recovery. Despite initial concerns about the use

David A. Iglesias; Pedro T. Ramirez


The role of secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrent ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the survival benefit of salvage surgical cytoreduction in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and compare the surgical outcome with salvage chemotherapy alone.

Mete Güngör; F?rat Ortaç; Macit Arvas; Derin Kösebay; Murat Sönmezer; Kenan Köse



Surgery Alone May Be Best for Early Endometrial Cancer

Results from a large international clinical trial show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early endometrial cancer, according to the Jan. 10, 2009, issue of the Lancet.


Surgical site infection in clean-contaminated head and neck cancer surgery: risk factors and prognosis.  


Since new treatment strategies, such as chemoradiotherapy, have been introduced for head and neck cancer, a higher number of unknown factors may be involved in surgical site infection in clean-contaminated head and neck cancer surgery. The aim of the present study was to clarify the risk factors of surgical site infection in clean-contaminated surgery for head and neck cancer and the prognosis of patients with surgical site infection. Participants were 277 consecutive patients with head and neck cancer who underwent clean-contaminated surgery for primary lesions at the Aichi Cancer Center over a 60-month period. A total of 22 putative risk factors were recorded in each patient and statistically analyzed to elucidate surgical site infection related factors. Surgical site infection was observed in 92 (32.1 %) of 277 cases. Univariate analysis indicated that alcohol consumption, T classification, neck dissection, reconstructive procedure, and chemoradiotherapy were significantly associated with surgical site infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two independent risk factors for surgical site infection: reconstructive surgery (p = 0.04; odds ratio (OR) 1.77) and chemoradiotherapy (p = 0.01; OR 1.93). In spite of surgical site infection, the five-year overall survival rate of patients with surgical site infection was not significantly different from those without surgical site infection. Although surgical site infection did not impact the overall survival of patients with surgical procedures, head and neck surgeons should pay attention to patients with previous chemoradiotherapy as well as to those with a high risk of surgical site infection requiring reconstructive surgery. PMID:22865106

Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Ozawa, Taijiro; Hyodo, Ikuo; Suzuki, Mikio



New method of bone reconstruction designed for skull base surgery.  


The direct endonasal or transoral transclival approaches to the skull base permit effective, minimally invasive surgery along the clivus. Developing long-term, effective techniques to prevent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and their consequences (infection and delayed healing) remains a major challenge. In this study we describe a method of bone reconstruction newly developed by us, which uses a custom designed silicone plug for bone replacement after minimally invasive skull base surgery with a low incidence of postoperative CSF leaks. German Landrace pigs were used to test the efficiency of the new technique. Twelve craniotomies were performed in six pigs using a subtemporal approach and subsequently the dura was opened. After these preparations the craniotomy defects were occluded with a silicone ball, which had a near spherical shape. The ball elastically adapts to the bone defect. Each pig also received an intracranial pressure (ICP) catheter and a subdural catheter for later fluorescein injection. Then we increased ICP by infusion of artificial CSF and detected fluorescein leaks from the craniotomy using ultraviolet illumination and a photomacroscope equipped with appropriate filters and a charge-coupled device camera. In all pigs we increased ICP to 75-80 mmHg by infusing 25-30 mL saline containing 0.05% sodium fluorescein. For the first four craniotomies infusions were interrupted after CSF leaks occurred due to technical failures, which were subsequently rectified. The following eight craniotomies were watertight without CSF leakage. This novel medical device allows a leak-proof closure of bone defects after minimally invasive craniotomies; no additional surgery or other therapies were necessary. The application of the silicone plug, which is made of a cost-effective and biocompatible material, is easy and fast, making use of a specially developed toolkit. PMID:18424152

Charalampaki, Patra; Heimann, Axel; Kopacz, Laszlo; Filippi, Ronald; Gawish, Islam; Perneczky, Axel; Kempski, Oliver



Surgery triggers outgrowth of latent distant disease in breast cancer: an inconvenient truth?  


We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these data, we proposed that metastatic breast cancer growth commonly includes periods of temporary dormancy at both the single cell phase and the avascular micrometastasis phase. We also suggested that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. These iatrogenic events are apparently very common in that over half of all metastatic relapses progress in that manner. Assuming this is true, there should be ample and clear evidence in clinical data. We review here the breast cancer paradigm from a variety of historical, clinical, and scientific perspectives and consider how dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy would be observed and what this would mean. Dormancy can be identified in these diverse data but most conspicuous is the sudden synchronized escape from dormancy following primary surgery. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a new paradigm for early stage breast cancer. We also suggest a new treatment that is meant to stabilize and preserve dormancy rather than attempt to kill all cancer cells as is the present strategy. PMID:24281072

Retsky, Michael; Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Baum, Michael; Gukas, Isaac



Surgery Triggers Outgrowth of Latent Distant Disease in Breast Cancer: An Inconvenient Truth?  

PubMed Central

We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these data, we proposed that metastatic breast cancer growth commonly includes periods of temporary dormancy at both the single cell phase and the avascular micrometastasis phase. We also suggested that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. These iatrogenic events are apparently very common in that over half of all metastatic relapses progress in that manner. Assuming this is true, there should be ample and clear evidence in clinical data. We review here the breast cancer paradigm from a variety of historical, clinical, and scientific perspectives and consider how dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy would be observed and what this would mean. Dormancy can be identified in these diverse data but most conspicuous is the sudden synchronized escape from dormancy following primary surgery. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a new paradigm for early stage breast cancer. We also suggest a new treatment that is meant to stabilize and preserve dormancy rather than attempt to kill all cancer cells as is the present strategy. PMID:24281072

Retsky, Michael; Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Baum, Michael; Gukas, Isaac



Surgery Theoretic Methods in Group Actions Sylvain Cappell \\Lambda and Shmuel Weinberger y  

E-print Network

Surgery Theoretic Methods in Group Actions Sylvain Cappell \\Lambda and Shmuel Weinberger y This paper is intended to give a brief introduction to the applications of the ideas of surgery of signal achievements of the surgery theoretic view­ point, notably in the directions of producing examples

Weinberger, Shmuel


Remapping the body: learning to eat again after surgery for esophageal cancer.  


Surgery for esophageal cancer offers the hope of cure but might impair quality of life. The operation removes tumors obstructing the esophagus but frequently leaves patients with eating difficulties, leading to weight loss. Maintaining or increasing body weight is important to many patients, both as a means of returning to "normal" and as a means of rejecting the identity of the terminal cancer patient, but surgery radically alters embodied sensations of hunger, satiety, swallowing, taste, and smell, rendering the previously taken-for-granted experience of eating unfamiliar and alien. Successful recovery depends on patients' learning how to eat again. This entails familiarization with physiological changes but also coming to terms with the social consequences of spoiled identity. The authors report findings from in-depth interviews with 11 esophageal cancer patients, documenting their experiences as they struggle to achieve a process of adaptation that is at once physiological, psychological, and social. PMID:17582019

Wainwright, David; Donovan, Jenny L; Kavadas, Vas; Cramer, Helen; Blazeby, Jane M



Role of physiotherapy and patient education in lymphedema control following breast cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether education in combination with physiotherapy can reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods We analyzed 1,217 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2011 who underwent tumor resection and axillary lymph node dissection. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A (n=415), who received neither education nor physiotherapy postsurgery; Group B (n=672), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery; and Group C (n=130), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery, followed by a physiotherapy program. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether BCRL developed. BCRL risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results During the follow-up, 188 patients (15.4%) developed lymphedema, including 77 (18.6%) in Group A, 101 (15.0%) in Group B, and 10 (7.7%) in Group C (P=0.010). The median period from surgery to lymphedema was 0.54 years (interquartile range =0.18–1.78). The independent risk factors for BCRL included positive axillary lymph node invasion, a higher (>20) number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, and having undergone radiation therapy, whereas receiving an educational program followed by physiotherapy was a protective factor against BCRL (hazard ratio =0.35, 95% confidence interval =0.18–0.67, P=0.002). Conclusion Patient education that begins within the first week postsurgery and is followed by physiotherapy is effective in reducing the risk of BCRL in women with breast cancer.

Lu, Shiang-Ru; Hong, Rong-Bin; Chou, Willy; Hsiao, Pei-Chi



[Usefulness of reductive surgery for elderly advanced breast cancer with bone metastases - a case report].  


We report the case of an elderly, advanced breast cancer patient with multiple bone metastases. Breast reduction surgery was useful for this patient. The patient was an 81-year-old woman who had a breast lump. A core needle biopsy for breast cancer led to a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma. The mucinous carcinoma was estrogen receptor (ER) nd progesterone receptor (PgR) positive and HER2/neu negative. Due to patient complications, it was not possible to treat with chemotherapy. The patient was administrated aromatase inhibitors (AI) and zoledronic acid hydrate. However, the AI treatment was not effective, and so she was administered toremifene. Toremifene treatment was effective for 6 months, after which she received fulvestrant. Fulvestrant treatment maintained stable disease (SD)for 14 months. After 14 months of fulvestrant treatment, serum concentrations of the tumor markers CA15-3, CEA, and BCA225 increased. We therefore decided to perform surgical breast reduction surgery. The pathological diagnosis from the surgically resected specimen was mucinous carcinoma, positive for ER and HER2, and negative for PgR. After surgery, serum concentrations of the tumor markers decreased. Following surgery, the patient was administrated lapatinib plus denosumab plus fulvestrant. The patient remains well, without bone metastases, 2 years and 6 months after surgery. PMID:25731373

Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Nagashima, Saki; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Tomita, Ryouichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao



[Combination of self-expandable metallic stent insertion and laparoscopic surgery as a less invasive treatment of obstructive left-sided colon cancer].  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treating obstructive left-sided colon cancer with a combination of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and laparoscopic surgery. Ten patients were included in this study. Two patients had obstructive transverse colon cancer, and eight had obstructive sigmoid colon cancer. The patients had a SEMS inserted preoperatively as a bridge to surgery. Efficient decompression was achieved in all the patients, without any complications. Normal oral intake was possible until the laparoscopic, or laparoscope-assisted, one-stage radical operation. The SEMS insertion did not affect the surgical maneuver or laparoscopic operation at all. None of the patients developed any postoperative complications. After surgery, five patients were diagnosed with Stage II disease and three patients were diagnosed with Stage IIIA disease. The remaining two patients had distant metastasis (para-aortic lymph node and liver) and were diagnosed with Stage IV disease. Chemotherapy was administered to the two patients with Stage IV disease after a comparatively early recovery from a less invasive surgical procedure. SEMS insertion appears to be an effective, less invasive decompression method. When used in combination with laparoscopic surgery, SEMS insertion appears to be a safe and less invasive method of treating obstructive left-sided colon cancer. PMID:25731260

Koizumi, Noriaki; Nakase, Yuen; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Fukumoto, Kanehisa



A study of the assessment of axillary lymph nodes before surgery for breast cancer using multidetector-row computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used in the detection of breast cancer metastasis, and a retrospective study was\\u000a conducted to determine whether the preoperative assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis using multidetector-row computed\\u000a tomography (MDCT) images would contribute to the selection of patients who require SLNB.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy of the 164 patients who underwent surgery of the breast during

Yuya Nasu; Hiroyuki Shikishima; Yuji Miyasaka; Yoshihiro Nakakubo; Kazuomi Ichinokawa; Toshifumi Kaneko



[Radical trachelectomy -- surgery for preserving woman's fertility in patients with invasive cervical cancer].  


For the past 15 years gynecological oncologists have been seeking ways to preserve woman's fertility when treating invasive cervical cancer. Many cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in young woman who wish to preserve their fertility. As more women are delaying childbearing, fertility preservation has become an important consideration. The standard surgical treatment for stage IA2-IB1 cervical cancer is a radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. This surgery includes removal of the uterus and cervix, radical resection of the parametrial tissue and upper vagina, and complete pelvic lymphadenectomy. Obviously, the standard treatment does not allow future childbearing. For some women with small localized invasive cervical cancers, there is hope for pregnancy after treatment. Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-sparing surgical approach developed in France in 1994 by Dr. Daniel Dargent for the treatment of early invasive cervical cancer. The radical trachelectomy operation has been described and performed abdominally, assisted vaginally by laparoscopy and robotically. PMID:24505637

Kostov, I; Vasilev, N; Nacheva, A; Lazarov, I



Early Gastric Cancer found at Preoperative Assessment for Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between gastric cancer and obesity has been suggested in large epidemiologic series. We present a 61-year-old\\u000a lady with BMI 48.7 kg\\/m2, who underwent preoperative work-up for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Her endoscopy showed a depressed lesion at the incisura\\u000a angularis, suggesting early gastric cancer. The biopsy confirmed well\\/moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The surgical\\u000a approach was subtotal gastrectomy leaving only part of

Gustavo Sevá-Pereira; Vilmar Luis Trombeta



Is Early Oral Feeding after Gastric Cancer Surgery Feasible? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the feasibility and safety of early oral feeding (EOF) after gastrectomy for gastric cancer through a systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials. Methods A literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library databases was performed for eligible studies published between January 1995 and March 2014. Systematic review was carried out to identify randomized controlled trials comparing EOF and traditional postoperative oral feeding after gastric cancer surgery. Meta-analyses were performed by either a fixed effects model or a random effects model according to the heterogeneity using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Six studies remained for final analysis. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2013 reporting on a total of 454 patients. No significant differences were observed for postoperative complication (RR?=?0.95; 95%CI, 0.70 to 1.29; P?=?0.75), the tolerability of oral feeding (RR?=?0.98; 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.06; P?=?0.61), readmission rate (RR?=?1; 95%CI, 0.30 to 3.31; P?=?1.00) and incidence of anastomotic leakage (RR?=?0.31; 95%CI, 0.01 to 7.30; P?=?0.47) between two groups. EOF after gastrectomy for gastric cancer was associated with significant shorter duration of the hospital stay (WMD?=??2.36; 95%CI, ?3.37 to ?1.34; P<0.0001) and time to first flatus (WMD?=??19.94; 95%CI, ?32.03 to ?7.84; P?=?0.001). There were no significant differences in postoperative complication, tolerability of oral feeding, readmission rates, duration of hospital stay and time to first flatus among subgroups stratified by the time to start EOF or by partial and total gastrectomy or by laparoscopic and open surgery. Conclusions The result of this meta-analysis showed that EOF after gastric cancer surgery seems feasible and safe, even started at the day of surgery irrespective of the extent of the gastric resection and the type of surgery. However, more prospective, well-designed multicenter RCTs with more clinical outcomes are needed for further validation. PMID:25397686

Zheng, Liansheng; Mou, Tingyu; Liu, Hao; Li, Guoxin



Endoscopic laser scalpel for head and neck cancer surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, such as laparoscopic surgery and endoscopy, provide reliable disease control with reduced impact on the function of the diseased organ. Surgical lasers can ablate, cut and excise tissue while sealing small blood vessels minimizing bleeding and risk of lymphatic metastases from tumors. Lasers with wavelengths in the IR are readily absorbed by water causing minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ideal for surgery near critical anatomical structures. MIS techniques have largely been unable to adopt the use of lasers partly due to the difficulty in bringing the laser into the endoscopic cavity. Hollow waveguide fibers have been adapted to bring surgical lasers to endoscopy. However, they deliver a beam that diverges rapidly and requires careful manipulation of the fiber tip relative to the target. Thus, the principal obstacle for surgical lasers in MIS procedures has been a lack of effective control instruments to manipulate the laser in the body cavity and accurately deliver it to the targeted tissue. To overcome this limitation, we have designed and built an endoscopic laser system that incorporates a miniature dual wedge beam steering device, a video camera, and the control system for remote and /or robotic operation. The dual wedge Risley device offers the smallest profile possible for endoscopic use. Clinical specifications and design considerations will be presented together with descriptions of the device and the development of its control system.

Patel, Snehal; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Kirov, Stefan; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo



Current Status of Surgical Planning for Orthognathic Surgery: Traditional Methods versus 3D Surgical Planning  

PubMed Central

Background: Orthognathic surgery has traditionally been performed using stone model surgery. This involves translating desired clinical movements of the maxilla and mandible into stone models that are then cut and repositioned into class I occlusion from which a splint is generated. Model surgery is an accurate and reproducible method of surgical correction of the dentofacial skeleton in cleft and noncleft patients, albeit considerably time-consuming. With the advent of computed tomography scanning, 3D imaging and virtual surgical planning (VSP) have gained a foothold in orthognathic surgery with VSP rapidly replacing traditional model surgery in many parts of the country and the world. What has yet to be determined is whether the application and feasibility of virtual model surgery is at a point where it will eliminate the need for traditional model surgery in both the private and academic setting. Methods: Traditional model surgery was compared with VSP splint fabrication to determine the feasibility of use and accuracy of application in orthognathic surgery within our institution. Results: VSP was found to generate acrylic splints of equal quality to model surgery splints in a fraction of the time. Drawbacks of VSP splint fabrication are the increased cost of production and certain limitations as it relates to complex craniofacial patients. Conclusions: It is our opinion that virtual model surgery will displace and replace traditional model surgery as it will become cost and time effective in both the private and academic setting for practitioners providing orthognathic surgical care in cleft and noncleft patients. PMID:25750846

Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A.; Howell, Lori K.; Boutros, Shadi; Scott, Michelle A.



Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: implications of genetic testing for screening and prophylactic surgery.  


Approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer show familial clustering, and 3% show autosomal dominance and high penetrance. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal-dominant, inherited cancer syndrome in which affected individuals develop diffuse-type gastric cancer at a young age. Inactivating mutations in the E-cadherin gene CDH1 have been identified in 30% to 50% of patients. CDH1 mutation carriers have an approximately 70% lifetime risk of developing DGC, and affected women carry an additional 20% to 40% risk of developing lobular breast cancer. Because endoscopic surveillance is ineffective in identifying early HDGC, gene-directed prophylactic total gastrectomy currently is offered for CDH1 mutation carriers. In series of asymptomatic individuals undergoing total gastrectomy for CDH1 mutations, the removed stomachs usually contain small foci of early DGC, making surgery not prophylactic but curative. The authors of this review recommend consideration of total gastrectomy in CDH1 mutation carriers at an age 5 years younger than the youngest family member who developed gastric cancer. Individuals who choose not to undergo prophylactic gastrectomy should be followed with biannual chromoendoscopy, and women with CDH1 mutations also should undergo regular surveillance with magnetic resonance imaging studies of the breast. Because of the emergence of gene-directed gastrectomy for HDGC, today, a previously lethal disease is detected by molecular techniques, allowing curative surgery at an early stage. PMID:18798546

Cisco, Robin M; Ford, James M; Norton, Jeffrey A



A Methylene Blue–assisted Technique for Harvesting Lymph Nodes After Radical Surgery for Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Harvesting lymph nodes (LNs) after gastrectomy is essential for accurate staging. This trial evaluated the efficiency and quality of a conventional method and a methylene blue–assisted method in a randomized manner. The key eligibility criteria were as follows: (i) histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach; (ii) clinical stage I-III; (iii) R0 resection planned by gastrectomy with D1+ or D2 lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint was the ratio of the pathologic number of harvested LNs per time (minutes) as an efficacy measure. The secondary endpoint was the number of harvested LNs, as a quality measure. Between August 2012 and December 2012, 60 patients were assigned to undergo treatment using the conventional method (n=29) and the methylene blue dye method (n=31). The baseline demographics were mostly well balanced between the 2 groups. The number of harvested LNs (mean±SD) was 33.6±11.9 in the conventional arm and 43.4±13.9 in the methylene blue arm (P=0.005). The ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time was 1.12±0.46 LNs/min in the conventional arm and 1.49±0.59 LNs/min in the methylene blue arm (P=0.010). In the subgroup analyses, the quality and efficacy were both superior for the methylene blue dye method compared with the conventional method. The methylene blue technique is recommended for harvesting LNs during gastric cancer surgery on the basis of both the quality and efficacy. PMID:25356528

Aoyama, Toru; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Shirai, Junya; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oba, Mari S.; Morita, Satoshi



Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) right upper lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) represents a new trend in the development of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. When applied in lung cancer surgeries, VATS can be used for both pulmonary lobectomy and regional lymph node dissection. Currently the main concerns are focused on the completeness of lymph node dissection for lung cancer and the safety of surgery. The lymph node dissection includes two parts: (I) dissection of interlobar and hilar lymph nodes; and (II) dissection of mediastinal lymph nodes. The demonstrated surgical procedures are featured by: (I) the interlobar and hilar lymph nodes are not removed separately; rathr, they are taken out en bloc with the pulmonary lobes during the surgery; and (II) systematic lymph node dissection, instead of systematic sampling, is applied for the removal of mediastinal lymph nodes. Also, during the fully anatomical resection, each blood vessel and bronchus underwent anatomical dissociation, indicating that this surgery is safe. PMID:24040542

Yang, Hong; Zheng, Ying-Bin; Huang, Qing-Yuan



[Technology: training centers--a new method for learning surgery in visceral surgery].  


The importance of training centers can be best described after first answering a few questions like: 1. What kind of surgery will we deal with in the future? 2. What kind of surgeon do we need for this surgery, if it is basically different? 3. How will this surgeon have to be educated/trained for this different surgery? Although I am aware of the fact, that statements about future prospects are usually doomed to fail, I maintain that endoscopic surgery will be an essential part of general surgery. If this is so, surgery will be dominated by extremely complicated technology, new techniques and new instruments. It will be a "different" surgery. It will offer more comfort at the same safety. The surgeon of the future will still need a certain personality; he will still need intuition and creativity. To survive in our society, he will have to be an organiser and even a businessman. Additionally, something new has to be added: he will have to understand modern, complicated technology and will have to use totally different instruments for curing surgical illness. This makes it clear that we will need a different education/training and may be even a different selection of surgeons. We should learn from other professions sharing common interests with surgery, for example, sports where the common interest is achieving most complicated motions and necessarily highly differentiated coordination. Common interest with airline pilots is the target of achieving absolute security. They have a highly differentiated selection and training concept. Training centers may be-under certain prerequisites-a true alternative for this necessary form of training. They must have a concept, i.e. contents and aims have to be defined, structured and oriented on the requirements of surgery for the patient. Responsibility for the concept, performance and control can only be in the hands of Surgical Societies and Universities. These prerequisites correspond most likely to training centers being established by universities and managed by them. Training centers set up by the industry contain some trouble spots, from "sponsoring" over "normal business" to "corruption". Being aware of the fact that training centers will replace traditional "surgery schools"-teaching in their current state is technology and techniques-they are a true alternative for learning/training in general surgery. PMID:9101978

Troidl, H



PiCO2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery.  


This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal PCO2 (PiCO2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer.PiCO2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010.All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. PiCO2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of PiCO2 from PaCO2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the PiCO2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of PiCO2 >100?mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of PiCO2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in PiCO2 after treatment.The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of PiCO2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru



Oncoplastic surgery for Japanese patients with breast cancer of the lower pole.  


This report presents the results of oncoplastic surgery in three Japanese patients with breast cancer lesions involving the lower pole of the breast. Their breasts were ptotic, and their lesions were considered to be suitable for breast conservation surgery. There were treated with partial mastectomy resection using vertical-scar mammaplasty, with reduction surgery and recentralization of the nipple-areola complex. Two patients underwent a mirror-image biopsy on the contralateral breasts to determine the symmetry. The remaining patient had periareolar incision mastopexy without reduction added for the contralateral breast. A large surgical margin was used to remove excessive skin and parenchymal tissue. Ideal symmetry was achieved by performing reduction and/or mastopexy on the contralateral breast. PMID:21922380

Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Hirata, Munetsugu; Mizoguchi, Tadao; Ishigami, Sumiya; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji



A phase ii trial of combined chemotherapy and surgery in stage iiia non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poor prognosis for patients with Stage IIIA clinical N2 treated by surgery alone has led clinical researchers to find a new treatment modality to improve the curative potential of surgery. Many Phase II trials have been carried out with induction chemo-or chemo-radiotherapy prior to surgery. From June 1988 to July 1991, 46 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

Samir Darwish; Vincenzo Minotti; Lucio Crinó; Riccardo Rossetti; Paolo Fiaschini; Ernesto Maranzano; Franco Checcaglini; Tommaso Todisco; Michele Giansanti; Ugo Mercati; Rino Vitali; Paolo Latini; Maurizio Tonat



Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma



Patients’ Expectations of Functional Outcomes Following Rectal Cancer Surgery: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal cancer patients’ expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of post-surgery function has received little study. Objective We used a qualitative approach to explore patients’ expectations of outcomes related to bowel function following sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS) for rectal cancer. Design and Setting Individual telephone interviews with patients who were about to undergo SPS for rectal cancer. Patients 26 patients (14 men, 12 women) with clinical stage (cTNM) I to III disease. Main Outcome Measures The semi-structured interview script contained open-ended questions on patients’ expectations of post-operative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Results Participants’ expectations of bowel function reflected three major themes: (1) information sources, (2) personal attitudes, and (3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants’ descriptions of the certainty, importance and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer-free and getting through surgery. Limitations This study is limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Conclusions Patients’ expectations of long term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer-experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the expectation formation process offers opportunities to develop strategies to enhance patient education and appropriately manage expectations, attend to immediate and long term concerns, and support patients through the treatment and recovery process. PMID:24401875

Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P. Terry; Wong, W. Douglas; Temple, Larissa K.



Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone Marrow at Primary Surgery: Prognostic Value in Comparison With Nodal Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Approximately 30% of the patients with primary breast cancer who have no axillary lymph node in- volvement (i.e., lymph node negative) at the time of surgery will relapse within 10 years; 10% -20% of the patients with distant metastases will be lymph node negative at surgery. Axillary lymph node dissection, as a surgical procedure, is associated with frequent complications.

Ingo J. Diel; Manfred Kaufmann; Serban D. Costa; Erich F. Solomayer; Sepp Kaul; Gunther Bastert


PREDICT: a new UK prognostic model that predicts survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer  

E-print Network

.06 Detection by Screening 0.70 0.53 to 0.92 -0.36 0.14 0.86 0.56 to 1.32 -0.15 0.22 Chemotherapy 0.73 0.60 to 0.89 -0.31 0.1 0.82 0.62 to 1.08 -0.2 0.14Wishart et al, Breast Cancer Research 2010, 12:R1 Page 4... Wishart et al: Breast Cancer Research 2010, 12:R1 AccessR E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Research articlePREDICT: a new UK prognostic model that predicts survival following surgery for invasive...

Wishart, Gordon C; Azzato, Elizabeth M; Greenberg, David C; Rashbass, Jem; Kearins, Olive; Lawrence, Gill; Caldas, Carlos; Pharoah, Paul D P



Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS) and non-conservative (NCS) procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate) and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold), whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC), explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70). Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:21504577



Biological effective dose evaluation and assessment of rectal and bladder complications for cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy and surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to retrospectively evaluate dosimetric parameters calculated as biological effective dose in relation to outcome in patients with cervical cancer treated with various treatment approaches, including radiotherapy with and without surgery. Material and methods Calculations of biological effective dose (BED) were performed on data from a retrospective analysis of 171 patients with cervical carcinoma stages IB-IIB treated with curative intent, between January 1989 and December 1991. 43 patients were treated only with radiotherapy and 128 patients were treated with a combination of radiotherapy and surgery. External beam radiotherapy was delivered with 6-21 MV photons from linear accelerators. Brachytherapy was delivered either with a manual radium technique or with a remote afterloading technique. The treatment outcome was evaluated at 5 years. Results The disease-specific survival rate was 87% for stage IB, 75% for stage IIA and 54% for stage IIB, while the overall survival rates were 84% for stage IB, 68% for stage IIA and 43% for stage IIB. Patients treated only with radiotherapy had a local control rate of 77% which was comparable to that for radiotherapy and surgery patients (78%). Late complications were recorded in 25 patients (15%). Among patients treated with radiotherapy and surgery, differences in radiation dose calculated as BED10 did not seem to influence survival. For patients treated with radiotherapy only, a higher BED10 was correlated to a higher overall survival (p = 0.0075). The dose response parameters found based on biological effective dose calculations were D50 = 85.2 Gy10 and the normalized to total dose slope of the dose response curve ? = 1.62 for survival and D50 = 61.6 Gy10 and ? = 0.92, respectively for local control. Conclusions The outcome correlates with biological effective dose for patients treated with radiation therapy alone, but not for patients treated with radiotherapy and surgery. No correlations were found between BED and late toxicity from bladder and rectum. PMID:23378849

Beskow, Catharina; Ågren-Cronqvist, Anna-Karin; Lewensohn, Rolf



Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment?  

PubMed Central

The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of a re-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae. PMID:21734879

Rodier, Jean-François; Volkmar, Pierre-Philippe; Bodin, Frédéric; Frigo, Séverine; Ciftci, Sait; Dahlet, Christian



Original Articles: Kidney Cancer: Parenchymal Sparing Surgery in Patients With Hereditary Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is the most well known cause of familial renal cancer. Because affected individuals with renal lesions can have complex, multisystem manifestations of von Hippel-Lindau disease, our renal management strategy has included parenchymal sparing surgery whenever possible. From May 1988 to January 1993, 20 patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (19 with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 1

McClellan M. Walther; Peter L. Choyke; Gary Weiss; Cia Manolatos; John Long; Robert Reiter; Richard B. Alexander; W. Marston. Linehan



Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery in Patients Affected by FIGO Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Concomitant chemoradiotherapy represents the standard treatment for patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer.\\u000a Survival rates in patients affected by FIGO stage IVA disease remain poor. Some authors have suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy\\u000a followed by radical surgery might be a valid alternative to standard treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze\\u000a the feasibility and results obtained by neoadjuvant

Pierluigi Benedetti Panici; Filippo Bellati; Natalina Manci; Milena Pernice; Francesco Plotti; Violante Di Donato; Marco Calcagno; Marzio Angelo Zullo; Ludovico Muzii; Roberto Angioli



Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery of Breast Cancer: Reliability and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a noninvasive technique that has been shown to coagulate benign and malignant tumors.The purpose of this study was to evaluate MRgFUS safety and effectiveness for the ablation of breast carcinomas. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty women with biopsy-proved breast cancer underwent MRgFUS treatment. Gadolinium- enhanced MR images were used for treatment planning and posttreatment

Hidemi Furusawa; Kiyoshi Namba; Sharon Thomsen; Futoshi Akiyama; Achiude Bendet; Chiaki Tanaka; Yukiko Yasuda; Hiroshi Nakahara



An acute care surgery service expedites the treatment of emergency colorectal cancer: a retrospective case–control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Emergency colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease that requires multidisciplinary approaches for management. However, it is unclear whether acute care surgery (ACS) services can expedite the workup and treatment of complex surgical diseases such as emergency CRC. We sought to assess the impact of an Acute Care and Emergency Surgery Service (ACCESS) on wait-times for inpatient colonoscopy and surgical resection among emergency CRC patients. Methods This retrospective case–control study was conducted at a tertiary-care, university-affiliated, cancer centre in London, Ontario, Canada. All patients aged 18 or older who presented to the emergency department with a recent (within 48 hours) diagnosis of CRC, or were diagnosed with CRC after admission, were included in the study. Patients were either in the pre-ACCESS (July 1, 2007-June 31, 2010) or post-ACCESS (July 1, 2010-June 30, 2012) groups. A third group of emergency CRC patients treated at an adjacent cancer centre that lacked ACCESS (non-ACCESS) was evaluated separately. The primary outcome was time from admission to colonoscopy and surgery. Results A total of 149 patients (47 pre-ACCESS, 37 post-ACCESS, and 65 non-ACCESS) were identified. Only 19% (n?=?9) of pre-ACCESS patients underwent inpatient colonoscopy, compared to 38% (n?=?14) in the post-ACCESS group (p?=?0.023). Additionally, 100% of patients in the post-ACCESS era underwent inpatient colonoscopy and surgery during the same admission, compared to only 44% of pre-ACCESS patients (p?=?0.006). Median wait-times for inpatient colonoscopy (2.0 and 1.8 days for pre- and post-ACCESS groups respectively, p?=?0.08) and surgical resection (1.6 and 2.3 days for pre- and post-ACCESS groups respectively, p?=?0.40) were similar. Conclusions Patients admitted to ACCESS underwent more inpatient colonoscopies and were more likely to have definitive surgery on that admission. ACS services can facilitate the workup and management of complex surgical diseases such as emergency CRC without delaying treatment. PMID:24656174



Physicians’ awareness of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer carcinomatosis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent trials have shown that cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (S+HIPEC) for colorectal cancer carcinomatosis (CRC-C) leads to 5-year, disease-free survival rates of more than 30%. Since these data represent a substantial change in the management of CRC-C, the objectives of this study were to determine physicians’ awareness of S+HIPEC for CRC-C and physician characteristics predictive of awareness of S+HIPEC for CRC-C. Methods This study was a mailed, cross-sectional survey of general surgeons and medical oncologists in Ontario. Results The response rate was 44.0% (214 of 487). Most respondents were men and younger than 50 years. There was an even split between those at academic and community hospitals. Overall, 46% of respondents were aware of S+HIPEC for CRC-C, and multivariate analysis showed that there were no physician characteristics predictive of awareness of S+HIPEC for CRC-C. Conclusion Physician awareness of S+HIPEC for CRC-C is low. Therefore, strategies to improve patient and physician knowledge about S+HIPEC for CRC-C are important to ensure appropriate treatment for patients. PMID:23883493

Spiegle, Gillian; Schmocker, Selina; Huang, Harden; Victor, J. Charles; Law, Calvin; McCart, J. Andrea; Kennedy, Erin Diane



Assessing appropriateness for elective colorectal cancer surgery: clinical, oncological, and quality-of-life short-term outcomes employing different treatment approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In recent years, colorectal cancer surgery has benefitted from new techniques such as laparoscopy and robotic surgery. However,\\u000a many treatment disparities exist among different centers for patients affected by the same kind of tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-five (41%) open (OCO) vs. 30 (28%) laparoscopic (LCO) vs. 34 (31%) robotic-assisted (RCO) colectomies and 34 (40%) open\\u000a (ORR) vs. 52 (60%) robotic (ROR) rectal

Emilio Bertani; Antonio Chiappa; Roberto Biffi; Paolo Pietro Bianchi; Davide Radice; Vittorio Branchi; Elena Cenderelli; Irene Vetrano; Sabine Cenciarelli; Bruno Andreoni


A Meta-analysis of the Short and Long-Term Results of Randomized Controlled Trials That Compared Laparoscopy-Assisted and Conventional Open Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the short- and long-term results of laparoscopy-assisted and open rectal\\u000a surgery for the treatment of patients with rectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register for relevant papers published\\u000a between January 1990 and April 2011 by using the search terms “laparoscopy,” “laparoscopy assisted,” “surgery,” “rectal

Hiroshi Ohtani; Yutaka Tamamori; Takashi Azuma; Yoshihiro Mori; Yukio Nishiguchi; Kiyoshi Maeda; Kosei Hirakawa


Complex reconstructions in head and neck cancer surgery: decision making  

PubMed Central

Defects in head and neck after tumor resection often provide significant functional and cosmetic deformity. The challenge for reconstruction is not only the aesthetic result, but the functional repair. Cancer may involve composite elements and the in sano resection may lead to an extensive tissue defect. No prospective randomized controlled studies for comparison of different free flaps are available. There are many options to cover defects and restore function in the head and neck area, however we conclude from experience that nearly all defects in head and neck can be closed by 5 different free flaps: radial forearm flap, free fibula flap, anterior lateral thigh flap, lateral arm flap and parascapular flap. PMID:21385421



Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended.

Varsos, G.; Yahalom, J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))



Breast cancer surgery and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.  


Researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with breast cancer surgery patients. DRG algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were assessed for those DRGs that individually contain at least 1% of all breast cancer surgery patients. Six standardised case vignettes were defined and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify breast cancer surgery patients according to different sets of classification variables into three to seven DRGs. Quasi prices for an index case treated with partial mastectomy range from €577 in Poland to €5780 in the Netherlands. Countries award their highest payments for very different kinds of patients. Breast cancer specialists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify breast cancer patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. PMID:23218742

Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Quentin, Wilm; Geissler, Alexander; Busse, Reinhard



The impact of risk-reducing gynaecological surgery in premenopausal women at high risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer due to Lynch syndrome.  


Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly increased lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (40-60 %) and ovarian cancer (7-12 %). Currently there is little evidence to support the efficacy of screening for the early detection of these cancers. Another option is risk-reducing hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Research on the impact of BSO in premenopausal women with a non-LS associated family history cancer has generally shown that women have a high level of satisfaction about their decision to undergo surgery. However, debilitating menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction are common post-surgical problems. We used a mixed methods study to explore the impact of risk-reducing gynaecological surgery in women with LS: 24 women were invited to take part; 15 (62.5 %) completed validated questionnaires and 12 (50 %) participated in semi-structured interviews. Our results suggest that risk reducing surgery does not lead to significant psychological distress and the women tend not to think or worry much about developing cancer. However, they tend to be distressed about the physical and somatic symptoms associated with menopause; their social well-being is somewhat affected, but sexual difficulties are minimal. The women reported being overwhelmingly satisfied with their decision to have surgery and with the quality of information they received prior to the operation. However, they felt underprepared for menopausal symptoms and received conflicting advice about whether or not to use HRT. Recommendations from the study include that professionals discuss the menopause, its side effects and HRT in detail prior to surgery. PMID:25342222

Moldovan, Ramona; Keating, Sianan; Clancy, Tara



Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in cancer patients undergoing major lung surgery.  


Despite the growing number of cancer cases and cancer surgeries around the world, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of anesthetics used in this population are poorly understood. Patients operated due to cancer are usually in severe state and often require chemotherapy. It might affect the PK/PD of drugs used in this population. Therefore, in this study we explored the PK/PD of propofol in cancer patients having a major lung surgery. 23 patients that underwent a propofol-fentanyl total intravenous anesthesia were included in the analysis. A large set of demographic, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters was collected for the purpose of covariate analysis. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling in NONMEM was used to analyze the collected data. A three-compartment model was sufficient to describe PK of propofol. The anesthetic effect (AAI index) was linked to the propofol effect site concentrations through a sigmoidal E max model. A slightly higher value of clearance, a lower value of distribution clearance, and a decreased volume of peripheral compartment were observed in our patients, as compared with the literature values reported for healthy volunteers by Schnider et al. and by Eleveld et al. Despite these differences, both models led to a clinically insignificant bias of -8 and -1 % in concentration predictions, as reflected by the median performance error. The C e50 and propofol biophase concentration at the time of postoperative orientation were low and equaled 1.40 and 1.13 mg/L. The population PK/PD model was proposed for cancer patients undergoing a major lung surgery. The large body of studied covariates did not affect PK/PD of propofol significantly. The modification of propofol dosage in the group of patients under study is not necessary when TCI-guided administration of propofol by means of the Schnider model is used. PMID:25628234

Przyby?owski, Krzysztof; Tyczka, Joanna; Szczesny, Damian; Bienert, Agnieszka; Wiczling, Pawe?; Kut, Katarzyna; Plenzler, Emilia; Kaliszan, Roman; Grze?kowiak, Edmund



Sphincter saving surgery is the standard procedure for treatment of low rectal cancer.  


Carcinoma rectum is a challenging problem both for the developed and underdeveloped countries. Colorectal cancer accounts for 9% of all cancer deaths (49,920) in 2009 in USA. Carcinoma involving the lower part of the rectum is now successfully managed by sphincter saving surgery with less morbidity and uneventful recovery. To observe the objective, subjective and functional outcome of the patients suffering from cancer of the lower third of the rectum managed by surgical intervention with preservation of sphincter. A comparative study was carried out on 54 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ultra-low anterior resection in the department of surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the tumor distance from anal verge. Thirty one (57%) patients were in Group A (Experimental) where tumor distance was 5cm from anal verge and upper 1cm of anal sphincter was sacrificed during surgical intervention. Twenty three (43%) patients were in Group B (Control) where tumor distance was 6cm from anal verge and whole length (4cm) of anal sphincter was preserved during surgical intervention. Functional integrity of anal sphincter was assessed between these two groups of patients following surgery. The mean age of the patients was 45.96±14.41 years. During surgery, ultra low anterior resection was performed to remove the tumor in all patients and for anastomosis double stapling technique was performed in 52(96%) patients and hand sewn technique was performed in 2(4%) patients irrespective of tumor distance from anal verge. Covering ileostomy was fashioned in all but one patient. During post-operative follow up anal sphincter muscle tone, anal sphincter function (Anal continence, p = 0.54), Quality of life (Social life, p = 0.54; Professional life, p = 0.23; House work and Need a diaper, p = 0.54) were not significantly impaired in both groups. Functional outcome of anal sphincter muscle and quality of life was not impaired in comparison to general population after low rectal cancer surgery. PMID:23715349

Rahman, M S; Khair, M A; Khanam, F; Haque, S; Alam, M K; Haque, M M; Salam, M A; Sikder, A H



Bleeding in Hepatic Surgery: Sorting through Methods to Prevent It  

PubMed Central

Liver resections are demanding operations which can have life threatening complications although they are performed by experienced liver surgeons. The parameter “Blood Loss” has a central role in liver surgery, and different strategies to minimize it are a key to improve results. Moreover, recently, new technologies are applied in the field of liver surgery, having one goal: safer and easier liver operations. The aim of this paper is to review the different principal solutions to the problem of blood loss in hepatic surgery, focusing on technical aspects of new devices. PMID:23213268

Romano, Fabrizio; Garancini, Mattia; Uggeri, Fabio; Degrate, Luca; Nespoli, Luca; Gianotti, Luca; Nespoli, Angelo; Uggeri, Franco



Replacing Transanal Excision with Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery and/or Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery for Early Rectal Cancer.  


The use of local resection of rectal polyps and early rectal cancer has progressed to become the standard of care in most institutions with a colorectal surgery specialist. The use of transanal excision (TAE) with anorectal retractors and standard instrumentation has been supplanted by the application of endoscopic techniques which allow direct video augmented visualization. The transanal endoscopic microsurgery method provides a 3D view and works under a constant flow of air to keep the rectal vault open. Instruments capable of accomplishing a surgical excision and suture closure work through a long 4 cm tube set at the anal canal. The newest version of TAE is transanal minimally invasive surgery which is similar to a single-site laparoscopic technique using a hand access port at the anal canal to maintain a seal for insufflation of the rectum, regular 2D video camera for visualization, and laparoscopic instrumentation through the port in the anus. Each of these techniques is described in detail and the outcomes compared, which show the progress being made in this area of colorectal surgery. PMID:25733972

Hakiman, Hekmat; Pendola, Michael; Fleshman, James W



[Evidence based surgery of cancer of head of pancreas].  


Physicians and surgeons who treat patients with gastrointestinal or hepatic disease must prescribe the most appropriate diagnostic tests, together with an accurate prognosis and effective and safe therapy. This paper examines the best modalities of surgical treatment for cancer of the pancreas, in an evidence-based approach. Evidence was classified as follows: Grade A : evidence from large randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic reviews (including meta-analyses) of multiple randomized trials which collectively have at least as much data as one single well-defined trial. Grade B: evidence from at least one high-quality study of non-randomized cohorts or evidence from at least one high-quality case-control study or one high-quality case series. Grade C: opinions from experts without references or access to any of the foregoing The data were obtained from Medline and from controlled randomized trials listed in the Cochrane Library up to the end of 2003. Two series (grade B) showed the superiority of Whipple over total pancreatectomy, with respective median survival times of 12.6 months and 9.6 months. Extensive lymphadenectomy (grade A) in patients with positive lymph nodes gave significantly better survival than standard resection in one trial, but this was not confirmed in the other trial. Results of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) were not different from those of the Whipple procedure on postoperative mortality, morbidity or survival (grade A). Portal vein resection increased the resectability rate. Post-operative mortality was not increased: survival was not different in four studies and was shorter in another four studies (grade C). Low-dose postoperative erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying if the right gastric artery is preserved (grade A). One trial suggests that pancreaticogastrostomy reduces the risk of pancreatic fistula. The two other trials are controversial and showed no difference. One prospective non randomized study showed that stenting in pancreaticojejunostomy reduces the risk of pancreatic fistulae and intraabdominal abscess. To prevent this risk of pancreatic fistula, six controlled trials involving patients receiving octreotride were performed Three European trials showed a smaller volume of abdominal drainage fluid and an abnormal amylase concentration; however, two American trials failed to demonstrate a significant difference. Occlusion of the pancreatic duct with fibrin glue did not reduce the risk of pancreatic fistula, but increased the risk of developing diabetes. Intraabdominal drainage after pancreatic resection significantly increased post-operative complications (grade A). Surgical resection and reconstruction procedures for pancreatic cancer must be based on evidence-based studies. However, the most important prognostic factor is the surgeon's experience, not only with regard to the post-operative course, but also survival. Specific teaching and training is thus essential. PMID:15656235

Launois, Bernard; Huguier, Michel



The integrated evaluation of the results of oncoplastic surgery for locally advanced breast cancer.  


The optimal surgical management of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) remains undefined. The aim of the study was to obtain long-term results of oncoplastic surgery in terms of overall survival, loco-regional recurrence, and quality of life in case of LABC. Prospective cohort study enrolled 60 patients with stage III breast cancer. Forty-two (70%) patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, 28 patients were considered suitable for surgery as initial treatment option. Type II oncoplastic surgery was performed for all patients: hemimastectomy and breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap - for 29 (48.3%), lumpectomy - 31 (51.7%), and reconstruction with subaxillary flap for four (6.7%), with bilateral reduction mammoplasty - 14 (23.3%) and with J-plastic - 13 (21.7%) patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy followed surgery for all, except one, patients. Sequential radiotherapy was administered for all patients. The mean period of follow-up was 86 months. Postoperative morbidity rate was 5%. Local-regional recurrence was detected in six (10%) patients. After reoperation no local relapse was diagnosed. However, three of these patients had systemic dissemination of the disease. Distant metastasis was detected in 23 (38.3%) patients. Distant metastasis-free survival at 5 years was 61.7%. Fourteen patients died (23.3%). A total of 87.2% of the patients had good and excellent esthetic outcome. Oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery can be proposed for selected patients with LABC with acceptable complication, local recurrence rate, and good esthetic results. PMID:24237716

Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Cepuliene, Daiva; Sepetauskiene, Egle



Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone for colorectal cancer: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  


Effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on colorectal cancer (CRC) have been largely studied, while its survival and surgical benefits remain controversial. This study aimed to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing efficacy and safety of NAC plus surgery with surgery alone (SA) for CRC. We searched systematically databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for RCTs comparing NAC and surgery with SA for treating CRC. References of relevant articles and reviews, conference proceedings, and ongoing trial databases were also screened. Primary outcomes included overall and disease-free survivals, total and perioperative mortalities, recurrence, and metastasis. Meta-analysis was performed where possible comparing parameters using relative risks (RRs). Safely analysis was then performed. Outcomes for stages II and III tumors were also meta-analyzed, respectively. Our study was conducted according to intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 6 RCTs comparing NAC (n=1393) with SA (n=1358) published from 2002 to 2012 were identified. Compared with SA, NAC tended to reduce overall recurrences (21.86% vs 25.15%, RR: 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-1.56, P=0.09), and prevent vascular invasion (32.30% vs 43.12%, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53-1.00, P=0.05); and significantly lowered distant metastasis (15.58% vs 23.80%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.86, P=0.002), especially liver metastasis rate (13.00% vs 18.25%, RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.99, P=0.04), and associated with higher incidence of ypT0-2 cases upon resection (13.04% vs 6.42%, RR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.02-5.44, P=0.04). All other parameters were comparable. NAC-related side-effects were generally mild. NAC mainly benefited patients with stage III disease. NAC could prevent recurrence and metastasis, associates with better tumor stages upon resection, and potentially impedes vascular invasion among CRC patients. NAC does not contribute to significant survival benefits for CRC, and compares favorably with SA in tumor-free resection rates, nodal status upon resection, and postsurgical complications. This level 1a evidence does not support NAC to obviously outweigh SA in terms of survival and surgical benefits for CRC currently. PMID:25526442

Huang, Lei; Li, Tuan-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Liu, Sha; Fu, Bin-Sheng; Liu, Wei



A prospective study of conservative surgery without radiation therapy in select patients with Stage I breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The effectiveness of radiation therapy (RT) in reducing local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in unselected patients with early stage invasive breast cancer has been demonstrated in multiple randomized trials. Whether a subset of women can achieve local control without RT is unknown. In 1986, we initiated a prospective one-arm trial of BCS alone for highly selected breast-cancer patients. This report updates those results. Methods and Materials: Eighty-seven (of 90 planned) patients enrolled from 1986 until closure in 1992, when a predefined stopping boundary was crossed. Patients were required to have a unicentric, T1, pathologic node-negative invasive ductal, mucinous, or tubular carcinoma without an extensive intraductal component or lymphatic-vessel invasion. Surgery included local excision with margins of at least 1 cm or a negative re-excision. No RT or systemic therapy was given. Results: Results are available on 81 patients (median follow-up, 86 months). Nineteen patients (23%) had local recurrence (LR) as a first site of failure (average annual LR: 3.5 per 100 patient-years of follow-up). Other sites of first failure included 1 ipsilateral axilla, 2 contralateral breast cancers, and 4 distant metastases. Six patients developed other (nonbreast) malignancies. Nine patients have died, 4 of metastatic breast cancer and 5 of unrelated causes. Conclusions: Even in this highly selected cohort, a substantial risk of local recurrence occurred after BCS alone with margins of 1.0 cm or more. These results suggest that with the possible exception of elderly women with comorbid conditions, radiation therapy after BCS remains standard treatment.

Lim, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail:; Gelman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara B.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schnitt, Stuart J. [Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)



Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis: evidence from an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been considered as a promising treatment modality for gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, there have also been many debates regarding the efficacy and safety of this new approach. Results from experimental animal model study could help provide reliable information. This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CRS + HIPEC to treat gastric cancer with PC in a rabbit model. Methods VX2 tumor cells were injected into the gastric submucosa of 42 male New Zealand rabbits using a laparotomic implantation technique, to construct rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC. The rabbits were randomized into control group (n = 14), CRS alone group (n = 14) and CRS + HIPEC group (n = 14). The control group was observed for natural course of disease progression. Treatments were started on day 9 after tumor cells inoculation, including maximal removal of tumor nodules in CRS alone group, and maximal CRS plus heperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion with docetaxel (10 mg/rabbit) and carboplatin (40 mg/rabbit) at 42.0 ± 0.5°C for 30 min in CRS + HIPEC group. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoints were body weight, biochemistry, major organ functions and serious adverse events (SAE). Results Rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC was successfully established in all animals. The clinicopathological features of the model were similar to human gastric PC. The median OS was 24.0 d (95% confidence interval 21.8 - 26.2 d ) in the control group, 25.0 d (95% CI 21.3 - 28.7 d ) in CRS group, and 40.0 d (95% CI 34.6 - 45.4 d ) in CRS + HIPEC group (P = 0.00, log rank test). Compared with CRS only or control group, CRS + HIPEC could extend the OS by at least 15 d (60%). At the baseline, on the day of surgery and on day 8 after surgery, the peripheral blood cells counts, liver and kidney functions, and biochemistry parameters were all comparable. SAE occurred in 0 animal in control group, 2 animals in CRS alone group including 1 animal death due to anesthesia overdose and another death due to postoperative hemorrhage, and 3 animals in CRS + HIPEC group including 1 animal death due to anesthesia overdose, and 2 animal deaths due to diarrhea 23 and 27 d after operation. Conclusions In this rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC, CRS alone could not bring benefit while CRS + HIPEC with docetaxel and carboplatin could significantly prolong the survival with acceptable safety. PMID:21548973



In Vivo Cancer Targeting and Imaging-Guided Surgery with Near Infrared-Emitting Quantum Dot Bioconjugates  

PubMed Central

Early detection and subsequent complete surgical resection are among the most efficient methods for treating cancer. However, low detection sensitivity and incomplete tumor resection are two challenging issues. Nanoparticle-based imaging-guided surgery has proven promising for cancer-targeted imaging and subsequent debulking surgery. Particularly, the use of near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes such as NIR quantum dots (QDs) allows deep penetration and high sensitivity for tumor detection. In this study, NIR-emitting CdTe QDs (maximum fluorescence emission peak at 728 nm) were synthesized with a high quantum yield (QY) of 38%. The tumor-specific QD bioconjugates were obtained by attaching cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (cRGD) to the surface of synthesized QDs, and then injected into U87 MG tumor-bearing mice via tail veins for tumor-targeted imaging. The tumor and its margins were visualized and distinguished by NIR QD bioconjugates, and tumor resection was successfully accomplished via NIR guidance using a Fluobeam-700 NIR imaging system. Our work indicates that the synthesized tumor-specific NIR QDs hold great promise as a potential fluorescent indicator for intraoperative tumor imaging. PMID:22916076

Li, Yan; Li, Zhe; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Fengjun; Cheng, Yingsheng; Zhang, Bingbo; Shi, Donglu



Mammotome-assisted endoscopic breast-conserving surgery: a novel technique for early-stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Because of its minimally invasive and highly accurate nature, the use of Mammotome, a vacuum-assisted breast biopsy device has proven beneficial to the treatment of benign breast lesions. Taking advantage of endoscopic and Mammotome techniques together, we utilized the Mammotome device for therapeutic excision of malignant lesions in breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods Between December 2009 and January 2010, two patients with early breast cancer received Mammotome-assisted endoscopic BCSs. Under ultrasound monitoring, the Mammotome system dissected the surrounding tissue and freed the tumor en bloc leaving negative margins; endoscopic axillary lymph node dissection then followed. Results The operation time was less than 180 minutes and the mean blood loss was 60 ml. The post-operative pathology report confirmed two patients to have invasive ductal carcinoma, one without axillary lymph nodes metastasis (0/11) and the other with one lymph node metastasis (1/21). No adverse events were noted. During a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was found. The patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Conclusions Mammotome-assisted endoscopic surgery appears to be a valuable option for early breast cancer. The long-term therapeutic effect remains to be confirmed. PMID:24742110



The Effect of Prospective Monitoring and Early Physiotherapy Intervention on Arm Morbidity Following Surgery for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Significant arm morbidity is reported following surgery for breast cancer, yet physiotherapy is not commonly part of usual care. This study compared the effect on arm morbidity after surgery for breast cancer of a clinical care pathway including preoperative education, prospective monitoring, and early physiotherapy (experimental group) to that of preoperative education alone (comparison group). Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental pretest–posttest, non-equivalent group design compared two clinical sites; Site A (n=41) received the experimental intervention, and Site B (n=31) received the comparison intervention. At baseline (preoperative) and 7 months postoperative, shoulder range of motion (ROM), upper-extremity (UE) strength, UE circumference, pain, UE function, and quality of life were assessed. Results: The experimental group maintained shoulder flexion ROM at 7 months, whereas the comparison group saw a decrease (mean 1° [SD 9°] vs. ?6° [SD 15°], p=0.03). A lower incidence of arm morbidity and better quality of life were observed in the experimental group, but these findings were not statistically significant. Baseline characteristics and surgical approaches differed between the two sites, which may have had an impact on the findings. Conclusion: Initial results are promising and support the feasibility of integrating a surveillance approach into follow-up care. This pilot study provides the foundation for a larger, more definitive trial. PMID:24403683

Singh, Chiara; De Vera, Mary



Endoscopic surgery for a parathyroid functioning adenoma resection with the neck region-lifting method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, endoscopic surgery has been applied to cervical exploration. We have developed new techniques for endoscopic neck surgery. We reported on a 53-year-old Japanese man with functioning parathyroid adenoma resected by endoscopic surgery with a neck region-lifting method. A 10-mm midline trocar for the endoscope and two 5-mm lateral trocars were inserted from the anterior chest wall to avoid neck

Hiroya Kitano; Masaki Fujimura; Masamitu Hirano; Hideyuki Kataoka; Takashi Kinoshita; Satoshi Seno; Kazutomo Kitajima



Transvaginal early fistula debridement and repair plus continuous vacuum aspiration via anal tube for rectovaginal fistula following rectal cancer surgery: report of four cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the feasibility and superiority of transvaginal early fistula debridement and repair plus continuous vacuum aspiration via anal tube for rectovaginal fistula following rectal cancer surgery. Methods: The clinical data of four cases of rectovaginal fistula following rectal cancer surgery were retrospectively analyzed in our center. After adequate preoperative preparation, the patients underwent transvaginal fistula debridement and repair plus continuous vacuum aspiration via anal tube under continuous epidural anesthesia. After surgery and before discharge, anti-infection and nutritional support was administered for 2 d, and fluid diet and anal tube vacuum aspiration continued for 7 d. Results: All the four cases healed. Three of them healed after one operation, and the other patient had obvious shrinkage of the fistular orifice after the first operation and underwent the same operation for a second time before complete healing. The duration of postoperative follow-up was 2, 7, 8 and 9 months respectively. No recurrence or abnormal sex life was reported. Conclusions: Early transvaginal fistula debridement and repair plus continuous vacuum aspiration via anal tube are feasible for rectovaginal fistula following rectal cancer surgery. This operation has many advantages, such as minimal invasiveness, short durations of operation, short treatment cycles, and easy acceptance by the patient. In addition, it does not necessitate colostomy for feces shunt and a secondary colostomy and reduction. PMID:25232416

Luo, Guo-De; Cao, Yong-Kuan; Wang, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Hu; Wang, Pei-Hong; Gong, Jia-Qing



Organ dysfunction in critically ill cancer patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to observe the incidence of organ dysfunction and the intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes of critically ill cancer patients during the cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy post-operative period. The present study included 25 critically ill cancer patients admitted to the ICU of the National Cancer Institute (Mexico City, Mexico) between January 2007 and February 2013. The incidence of organ dysfunction was 68% and patients exhibiting ?1 organ system dysfunction during ICU admittance remained in hospital for a significantly shorter period compared with patients who exhibited ?2 organ system dysfunctions (12.4±10.7 vs. 24.1±12.8 days; P=0.025). Therefore, the present study demonstrated that a high incidence of organ dysfunction was associated with a longer ICU hospital stay. PMID:25789059




[Radical cancer surgery of renal cell and prostate carcinoma with hematogenous metastasis: benefits].  


The therapeutic role of cytoreductive surgery for urogenital malignancies is controversially discussed in the literature. The current article critically reflects the potential impact of cytoreductive surgery in patients with renal cell cancer and prostate cancer with locoregional lymph node or systemic metastases based on a review of the literature and personal experience.Even in the era of molecular targeted therapies in metastatic renal cell cancer, cytoreductive radical nephrectomy seems to exert survival benefit when compared to systemic therapy alone if (1) patients demonstrate a good ECOG performance status, (2) exhibit good or intermediate prognosis according to the Heng criteria, (3) cerebral metastases have been excluded, and (4) >90% of the total cancer volume can be eliminated. Preliminary clinical studies suggest that neoadjuvant systemic treatment might be associated with a significantly reduced 1-year mortality rate.For prostate cancer cytoreductive radical prostatectomy is one of the guideline-recommended treatment options for men with intrapelvic lymph node metastases resulting in survival benefit when compared to androgen deprivation as monotherapy. Cytoreductive radical prostatectomy should be performed (1) in the presence of limited intrapelvic lymph node metastasis without bulky disease, (2) if complete resectability of the primary cancer and its metastasis can be achieved by extended radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy, (3) if the patient is included in a multimodality approach, and (4) if the life expectancy is > 10 years.The role of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy in men with osseous metastases remains unclear due to the lack of large clinical trials. Despite the presence of the first promising studies, it is not justified to perform cytoreductive radical prostatectomy outside clinical trials. Preliminary results from small studies indicate that patients with minimal metastatic burden, PSA decrease < 1.0 ng/ml following neoadjuvant ADT for 6 months and complete resectability of the tumor exhibit the best prognosis to benefit from this new surgical approach. PMID:24824471

Heidenreich, A; Pfister, D; Porres, D



Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by salvage surgery: effect on survival of patients with primary noncurative gastric cancer.  


The prognosis for gastric cancer patients who undergo noncurative resection is extremely poor. This study evaluated the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary noncurative gastric cancer. Thirty-four patients with biopsy-proven noncurative gastric cancer were treated with either of two neoadjuvant chemotherapies: FEMTXP (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, methotrexate, cisplatin) or THP-FLPM (pirarubicin, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, cisplatin, mitomycin C). Noncurability was determined by conventional staging procedures, staging laparoscopy, and exploratory laparotomy. After chemotherapy the resectability of the tumors was reassessed. Patients who were judged to be candidates for curative resection underwent salvage surgery. Of the final 33 patients, 8 (24.2%) showed a major response [0 complete response (CR), 8 partial response (PR)]. In three patients the second laparoscopy revealed disappearance of the peritoneal metastasis. Of the 33 patients, 14 (42.4%) underwent salvage surgery, including 8 curative resections (2 curability A, 6 curability B). Pathologic examinations revealed a grade 2 response in eight patients but no grade 3 response. Univariate analysis showed the following to be significant prognostic factors: histology type (differentiated type vs. undifferentiated type; p = 0.035), T4 as a noncurative factor (T4 vs. T3 or less; p = 0.025), clinical response (PR + no change vs. progressive disease; p = 0.002), and salvage surgery (resected vs. unresected; p = 0.001). Among these factors, salvage surgery was found to be the only independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis, with a relative risk of 0.253 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.066 to 0.974. The treatment was well tolerated. Major toxicities of WHO grade 3 or more were leukopenia in 20 (60.6%), gastrointestinal toxicities in 5 (15.2%), renal toxicities in 2 (6.1%), and alopecia in 1 (3.0%). In conclusion, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is effective for primary noncurative gastric cancer when salvage surgery can be performed. A chemotherapy regimen with a higher complete response rate would improve the prognosis of this dismal disease even more. PMID:12209246

Yano, Masahiko; Shiozaki, Hitoshi; Inoue, Masatoshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Doki, Yuichiro; Yasuda, Takushi; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa; Monden, Morito



Current and Future Intraoperative Imaging Strategies to Increase Radical Resection Rates in Pancreatic Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer is poor. Even the small minority that undergoes resection with curative intent has low 5-year survival rates. This may partly be explained by the high number of irradical resections, which results in local recurrence and impaired overall survival. Currently, ultrasonography is used during surgery for resectability assessment and frozen-section analysis is used for assessment of resection margins in order to decrease the number of irradical resections. The introduction of minimal invasive techniques in pancreatic surgery has deprived surgeons from direct tactile information. To improve intraoperative assessment of pancreatic tumor extension, enhanced or novel intraoperative imaging technologies accurately visualizing and delineating cancer cells are necessary. Emerging modalities are intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging and freehand nuclear imaging using tumor-specific targeted contrast agents. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature on laparoscopic ultrasonography and we summarized and discussed current and future intraoperative imaging modalities and their potential for improved tumor demarcation during pancreatic surgery. PMID:25157372

Handgraaf, Henricus J. M.; Boonstra, Martin C.; Van Erkel, Arian R.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Putter, Hein; Van De Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Mieog, J. Sven D.



The influence of goal-directed fluid therapy on the prognosis of elderly patients with hypertension and gastric cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to investigate the influence of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on the prognosis of elderly patients with gastric cancer and hypertension. Methods Sixty elderly patients (>60 years old) with primary hypertension who received gastric cancer radical surgery and who were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or III were enrolled in the current study. Selected patients were divided randomly into two arms, comprising a conventional intraoperative fluid management arm (arm C, n=30) and a GDFT arm (arm G, n=30). Patients in arm C were infused with crystalloids or colloids according to the methods of Miller’s Anesthesia (6th edition), while those in arm G were infused with 200 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 15 minutes under the FloTrac/Vigileo monitoring system, with stroke volume variation between 8% and 13%. Hemodynamics and tissue perfusion laboratory indicators in patients were recorded continuously from 30 minutes before the operation to 24 hours after the operation. Results Compared with arm C, the average intraoperative intravenous infusion quantity in arm G was significantly reduced (2,732±488 mL versus 3,135±346 mL, P<0.05), whereas average colloid fluid volume was significantly increased (1,235±360 mL versus 760±280 mL, P<0.05). In addition, there were more patients exhibiting intraoperatively and postoperatively stable hemodynamics and less patients with low blood pressure in arm G. Postoperative complications were less frequent, and the time of postoperative hospital stay shorter, in arm G. No significant differences were observed in mortality between the two arms. Conclusion Our research showed that GDFT stabilized perioperative hemodynamics and reduced the occurrence of postoperative complications in elderly patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery. PMID:25378913

Zeng, Kai; Li, Yanzhen; Liang, Min; Gao, Youguang; Cai, Hongda; Lin, Caizhu



Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Versus Surgery for Medically Operable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Markov Model-Based Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy and overall survival in patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with either stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) or surgery. Methods and Materials: We constructed a Markov model to describe health states after either SBRT or lobectomy for Stage I NSCLC for a 5-year time frame. We report various treatment strategy survival outcomes stratified by age, sex, and pack-year history of smoking, and compared these with an external outcome prediction tool (Adjuvant{exclamation_point} Online). Results: Overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and other causes of death as predicted by our model correlated closely with those predicted by the external prediction tool. Overall survival at 5 years as predicted by baseline analysis of our model is in favor of surgery, with a benefit ranging from 2.2% to 3.0% for all cohorts. Mean quality-adjusted life expectancy ranged from 3.28 to 3.78 years after surgery and from 3.35 to 3.87 years for SBRT. The utility threshold for preferring SBRT over surgery was 0.90. Outcomes were sensitive to quality of life, the proportion of local and regional recurrences treated with standard vs. palliative treatments, and the surgery- and SBRT-related mortalities. Conclusions: The role of SBRT in the medically operable patient is yet to be defined. Our model indicates that SBRT may offer comparable overall survival and quality-adjusted life expectancy as compared with surgical resection. Well-powered prospective studies comparing surgery vs. SBRT in early-stage lung cancer are warranted to further investigate the relative survival, quality of life, and cost characteristics of both treatment paradigms.

Louie, Alexander V. [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Rodrigues, George, E-mail: [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Hannouf, Malek [Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Zaric, Gregory S. [Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Richard Ivey School of Business, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Palma, David A. [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Cao, Jeffrey Q. [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Richard Ivey School of Business, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Yaremko, Brian P. [Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Malthaner, Richard [Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Division of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Mocanu, Joseph D. [Richard Ivey School of Business, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)



Outcome of Primary Tumor in Patients With Synchronous Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Receiving Combination Chemotherapy Without Surgery As Initial Treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of interventions necessary to palliate the intact primary tumor in patients who present with synchronous, stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) and who receive up-front modern combination chemotherapy without prophylactic surgery. Patients and Methods By using a prospective institutional database, we identified 233 consecutive patients from 2000 through 2006 with synchronous metastatic CRC and an unresected primary tumor who received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based, triple-drug chemotherapy (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin; bolus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan; or fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan) with or without bevacizumab as their initial treatment. The incidence of subsequent use of surgery, radiotherapy, and/or endoluminal stenting to manage primary tumor complications was recorded. Results Of 233 patients, 217 (93%) never required surgical palliation of their primary tumor. Sixteen patients (7%) required emergent surgery for primary tumor obstruction or perforation, 10 patients (4%) required nonoperative intervention (ie, stent or radiotherapy), and 213 (89%) never required any direct symptomatic management for their intact primary tumor. Of those 213 patients, 47 patients (20%) ultimately underwent elective colon resection at the time of metastasectomy, and eight patients (3%) underwent this resection during laparotomy for hepatic artery infusion pump placement. Use of bevacizumab, location of the primary tumor in the rectum, and metastatic disease burden were not associated with increased intervention rate. Conclusion Most patients with synchronous, stage IV CRC who receive up-front modern combination chemotherapy never require palliative surgery for their intact primary tumor. These data support the use of chemotherapy, without routine prophylactic resection, as the appropriate standard practice for patients with neither obstructed nor hemorrhaging primary colorectal tumors in the setting of metastatic disease. PMID:19487380

Poultsides, George A.; Servais, Elliot L.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Patil, Sujata; Kemeny, Nancy E.; Guillem, Jose G.; Weiser, Martin; Temple, Larissa K.F.; Wong, W. Douglas; Paty, Phillip B.



Surgery for non?small cell lung cancer: systematic review and meta?analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery is considered the treatment of choice for patients with resectable stage I and II (and some patients with stage IIIA) non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but there have been no previously published systematic reviews. Methods A systematic review and meta?analysis of randomised controlled trials was conducted to determine whether surgical resection improves disease specific mortality in patients with stages I–IIIA NSCLC compared with non?surgical treatment, and to compare the efficacy of different surgical approaches. Results Eleven trials were included. No studies had untreated control groups. In a pooled analysis of three trials, 4?year survival was superior in patients undergoing resection with stage I–IIIA NSCLC who had complete mediastinal lymph node dissection compared with lymph node sampling (hazard ratio estimated at 0.78 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.93)). Another trial reported an increased rate of local recurrence in patients with stage I NSCLC treated with limited resection compared with lobectomy. One small study reported a survival advantage among patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. No other trials reported significant improvements in survival after surgery compared with non?surgical treatment. Conclusion It is difficult to draw conclusions about the efficacy of surgery for locoregional NSCLC because of the small number of participants studied and methodological weaknesses of the trials. However, current evidence suggests that complete mediastinal lymph node dissection is associated with improved survival compared with node sampling in patients with stage I–IIIA NSCLC undergoing resection. PMID:16449262

Wright, G; Manser, R L; Byrnes, G; Hart, D; Campbell, D A



Designing A Pattern Stabilization Method Using Scleral Blood Vessels For Laser Eye Surgery  

E-print Network

Designing A Pattern Stabilization Method Using Scleral Blood Vessels For Laser Eye Surgery Aydin,abc}, Abstract-- In laser eye surgery, the accuracy of operation depends on coherent eye tracking and registration techniques. Main approach used in image processing based eye trackers

Erdem, Erkut


The Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Intractable Lymphedema after Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Lymphedema of the upper limb after breast cancer surgery is a disease that carries a life-long risk and is difficult to cure once it occurs despite the various treatments which have been developed. Two patients were referred from general surgery department for intractable lymphedema. They were treated with stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs), and the circumferences of the mid-point of their each upper and lower arms were measured on every visit to the pain clinic. A decrease of the circumference in each patient was observed starting after the second injection. A series of blocks were established to maintain a prolonged effect. Both patients were satisfied with less swelling and pain. This case demonstrates the benefits of an SGB for intractable upper limb lymphedema. PMID:25589949

Kim, Jin; Cho, Soo Young; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Jong Hak



[A bridge to surgery for colon cancer obstruction in a very elderly patient - a case report].  


A 94-year-old woman with a distended abdomen was transferred to our hospital.Based on the enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT) finding, she was diagnosed with colonic obstruction due to sigmoid cancer. Colonoscopy was performed to make definitive and qualitative diagnoses, and to release the stenosis using a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS). The SEMS was inserted without complication.On the fifth day after the decompression, the patient underwent laparoscope-assisted sigmoidectomy with lymph node resection.Despite the colon obstruction, a primary anastomosis was performed.The operation time was 163 min, and 3 mL of blood was lost.The patient was discharged without complications. We describe the case of a bridge to surgery in a very elderly patient. A bridge to surgery can be an effective option for the treatment of colon obstruction in non-elderly and very elderly patients. PMID:25731263

Kagawa, Yoshinori; Kato, Takeshi; Sakisaka, Hideki; Sato, Yasufumi; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Kusama, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kei; Mukai, Yosuke; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Takeno, Jun; Nakahira, Shin; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeda, Yutaka; Tamura, Shigeyuki



Which method of pancreatic surgery do medical consumers prefer among open, laparoscopic, or robotic surgery? A survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The consumers' preferences are not considered in developing or implementing new medical technologies. Furthermore, little efforts are made to investigate their demands. Therefore, their preferred surgical method and the factors affecting that preference were investigated in pancreatic surgery. Methods Six-hundred subjects including 100 medical personnel (MP) and 500 lay persons (LP) were surveyed. Questionnaire included basic information on different methods of distal pancreatectomy; open surgery (OS), laparoscopic surgery (LS), and robotic surgery (RS). Assuming they required the operation, participants were told to indicate their preferred method along with a reason and an acceptable cost for both benign and malignant conditions. Results For benign disease, the most preferred method was LS. Limiting the choice to LS and RS, LS was preferred for cost and well-established safety and efficacy. OS was favored in malignant disease for the concern for radicality. Limiting the choice to LS and RS, LS was favored for its better-established safety and efficacy. The majority thought that LS and RS were both overpriced. Comparing MP and LP responses, both groups preferred LS in benign and OS in malignant conditions. However, LP more than MP tended to prefer RS under both benign and malignant conditions. LP thought that LS was expensive whereas MP thought the cost reasonable. Both groups felt that RS was too expensive. Conclusion Though efforts for development of novel techniques and broadening indication should be encouraged, still more investments and research should focus on LS and OS to provide optimal management and satisfaction to the patients. PMID:24761401

Kwon, Wooil; Park, Jae Woo; Han, In Woong; Kang, Mee Joo; Kim, Sun-Whe



Advanced esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial fistula successfully treated by?esophageal bypass surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction When esophageal cancer infiltrates the respiratory tract and forms a fistula, a patient’s quality of life falls remarkably. Abstinence from oral feeding is necessary to prevent respiratory complications including pneumonia. Surgery is sometimes necessary to maintain quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer complicated by tracheobronchial fistula. Presentation of case Twelve patients who underwent esophageal bypass between 2006 and 2011 in our hospital were studied. Patient characteristics, therapeutic course, outcome, and operation type were compared. Six patients among 8 who could not tolerate oral feeding could do so after bypass surgery. Ten patients were able to enjoy oral intake up until the last few days of life. Three patients survived for more than 10 months. In spite of undergoing an operation, 1 patient survived for only 2 months and another for 4 months. The only complication was postoperative delirium in 1 patient. Discussion While surgical bypass is more invasive than procedures such as endoscopic stenting, we had few complications after operative intervention and were able to maintain quality of life in our patients. Conclusion This bypass procedure is a treatment option for patients with tracheobronchial fistula from advanced esophageal cancer. PMID:25765740

Kimura, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu



OVSCORE - a validated score to identify ovarian cancer patients not suitable for primary surgery.  


Following primary debulking surgery, the presence of a residual tumor mass is one of the most important prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. In a previous study, we established the OVSCORE, an algorithm to predict surgical outcome, based on the clinical factors of nuclear grading and ascitic fluid volume, plus the cancer biomarkers, kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), KLK6 and KLK13. In the present study, OVSCORE performance was tested in an independent ovarian cancer patient cohort consisting of 87 patients. The impact of KLKs, KLK5, 6, 7 and 13 and other clinical factors on patient prognosis and outcome was also evaluated. The OVSCORE proved to be a strong and statistically significant predictor of surgical success in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC, 0.777), as well as positive and negative predictive value in this independent study group. KLK6 and 13 individually did not show clinical relevance in this cohort, but two other KLKs, KLK5 and KLK7, were associated with advanced FIGO stage, higher nuclear grade and positive lymph node status. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis for overall survival (OS), KLK7 had a protective impact on OS. This study confirms the role of KLKs in ovarian cancer for surgical success and survival, and validates the novel OVSCORE algorithm in an independent collective. As a key clinical application, the OVSCORE could aid gynecological oncologists in identifying those ovarian cancer patients unlikely to benefit from radical surgery who could be candidates for alternative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25436002

Dorn, Julia; Bronger, Holger; Kates, Ronald; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Kiechle, Marion; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Schmitt, Manfred; Harbeck, Nadia



OVSCORE - a validated score to identify ovarian cancer patients not suitable for primary surgery  

PubMed Central

Following primary debulking surgery, the presence of a residual tumor mass is one of the most important prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. In a previous study, we established the OVSCORE, an algorithm to predict surgical outcome, based on the clinical factors of nuclear grading and ascitic fluid volume, plus the cancer biomarkers, kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), KLK6 and KLK13. In the present study, OVSCORE performance was tested in an independent ovarian cancer patient cohort consisting of 87 patients. The impact of KLKs, KLK5, 6, 7 and 13 and other clinical factors on patient prognosis and outcome was also evaluated. The OVSCORE proved to be a strong and statistically significant predictor of surgical success in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC, 0.777), as well as positive and negative predictive value in this independent study group. KLK6 and 13 individually did not show clinical relevance in this cohort, but two other KLKs, KLK5 and KLK7, were associated with advanced FIGO stage, higher nuclear grade and positive lymph node status. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis for overall survival (OS), KLK7 had a protective impact on OS. This study confirms the role of KLKs in ovarian cancer for surgical success and survival, and validates the novel OVSCORE algorithm in an independent collective. As a key clinical application, the OVSCORE could aid gynecological oncologists in identifying those ovarian cancer patients unlikely to benefit from radical surgery who could be candidates for alternative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25436002




Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

Baku?a, Stanis?aw



Role of Peritoneal Lavage Cytology and Prediction of Prognosis and Peritoneal Recurrence After Curative Surgery for Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose In colorectal cancer, the role of detecting free malignant cells from peritoneal lavage is currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the positive rate of free malignant cells in peritoneal lavage fluid and their predictive value for prognosis and peritoneal recurrence after a curative resection. Methods From October 2009 to December 2011, in a prospective manner, we performed cytologic examinations of peritoneal lavage fluid obtained just after the abdominal incision from 145 patients who underwent curative surgery for colorectal cancer. We used proportional hazard regression models to analyze the predictive role of positive cytology for peritoneal recurrence and survival. Results Among total 145 patients, six patients (4.1%) showed positive cytology. During the median follow-up of 32 months (range, 8-49 months), 27 patients (18.6%) developed recurrence. Among them, 5 patients (3.4%) showed peritoneal carcinomatosis. In the multivariate analysis, positive cytology was an independent predictive factor for peritoneal recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 136.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.2-1,531.9; P < 0.0001) and an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival (HR, 11.4; 95% CI, 1.8-72.0; P = 0.009) and for disease-free survival (HR, 11.1; 95% CI, 3.4-35.8; P < 0.0001). Conclusion Positive cytology of peritoneal fluid was significantly associated with peritoneal recurrence and worse survival in patients undergoing curative surgery for colorectal cancer. Peritoneal cytology might be a useful tool for selecting patients who need intraperitoneal or systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25580413

Bae, Sung Joon; Ki, Young-Jun; Cho, Sang Sik; Moon, Sun Mi; Park, Sun Hoo



Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis



Single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer: State of art  

PubMed Central

A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer resection provides the same oncologic results as open surgery along with all clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery. During the last years, a great effort has been made to research for minimizing parietal trauma, yet for cosmetic reasons and in order to further reduce surgery-related pain and morbidity. New techniques, such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) have been developed in order to reach the goal of “scarless” surgery. Although NOTES may seem not fully suitable or safe for advanced procedures, such as colectomies, SIL is currently regarded as the next major advance in the progress of minimally invasive surgical approaches to colorectal disease that is more feasible in generalized use. The small incision through the umbilicus allows surgeons to use familiar standard laparoscopic instruments and thus, perform even complex procedures which require extraction of large surgical specimens or intestinal anastomosis. The cosmetic result from SIL is also better because the only incision is made through the umbilicus which can hide the wound effectively after operation. However, SIL raises a number of specific new challenges compared with the laparoscopic conventional approach. A reduced capacity for triangulation, the repeated conflicts between the shafts of the instruments and the difficulties to achieve a correct exposure of the operative field are the most claimed issues. The use therefore of this new approach for complex colorectal procedures might understandingly be viewed as difficult to implement, especially for oncologic cases. PMID:24876729

Cianchi, Fabio; Staderini, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta



Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a predictor of complications in oesophagogastric cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction An anaerobic threshold (AT) of <11ml/min/kg can identify patients at high risk of cardiopulmonary complications after major surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in predicting cardiopulmonary complications in high risk patients undergoing oesophagogastric cancer resection. Methods Between March 2008 and October 2010, 108 patients (83 men, 25 women) with a median age of 66 years (range: 38–84 years) underwent CPET before potentially curative resections for oesophagogastric cancers. Measured CPET variables included AT and maximum oxygen uptake at peak exercise (VO2 peak). Outcome measures were length of high dependency unit stay, length of hospital stay, unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results The mean AT and VO2 peak were 10.8ml/min/kg (standard deviation [SD]: 2.8ml/min/kg, range: 4.6–19.3ml/min/kg) and 15.2ml/min/kg (SD: 5.3ml/min/kg, range: 5.4–33.3ml/min/kg) respectively; 57 patients (55%) had an AT of <11ml/min/ kg and 26 (12%) had an AT of <9ml/min/kg. Postoperative complications occurred in 57 patients (29 cardiopulmonary [28%] and 28 non-cardiopulmonary [27%]). Four patients (4%) died in hospital and 21 (20%) required an unplanned ICU admission. Cardiopulmonary complications occurred in 42% of patients with an AT of <9ml/min/kg compared with 29% of patients with an AT of ?9ml/min/kg but <11ml/min/kg and 20% of patients with an AT of ?11ml/min/kg (p=0.04). There was a trend that those with an AT of <11ml/min/kg and a low VO2 peak had a higher rate of unplanned ICU admission. Conclusions This study has shown a correlation between AT and the development of cardiopulmonary complications although the discriminatory ability was low. PMID:23484995

McCaffer, CJ; Carter, RC; Fullarton, GM; Mackay, CK; Forshaw, MJ



Surveillance patterns after curative-intent colorectal cancer surgery in Ontario  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Postoperative surveillance following curative-intent resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is variably performed due to existing guideline differences and to the limited data supporting different strategies. OBJECTIVES: To examine population-based rates of surveillance imaging and endoscopy in patients in Ontario following curative-intent resection of CRC with no evidence of recurrence, as well as patient or disease factors that may predispose certain groups to more frequent versus less frequent surveillance; to provide insight to the care patients receive in the presence of conflicting guidelines, in efforts to help improve care of CRC survivors by identifying any potential underuse or overuse of particular surveillance modalities, or inequalities in access to surveillance. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and several linked databases. Ontario patients undergoing curative-intent CRC resection from 2003 to 2007 were identified, excluding patients with probable disease relapse. In the five-year period following surgery, the number of imaging and endoscopic examinations was determined. RESULTS: There were 4960 patients included in the study. Over the five-year postoperative period, the highest proportion of patients who underwent postoperative surveillance received the following number of tests for each modality examined: one to three abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans (n=2073 [41.8%]); one to three abdominal ultrasounds (n=2443 [49.3%]); no chest CTs, one to three chest x-rays (n=2385 [48.1%]); and two endoscopies (n=1845 [37.2%]). Odds of not receiving any abdominopelvic imaging (CT or abdominal ultrasound) were higher in those who did not receive adjuvant chemo-therapy (OR 6.99 [95% CI 5.26 to 9.35]) or those living in certain geographical areas, but were independent of age, sex and income. Nearly all patients (n=4473 [90.2%]) underwent ?1 endoscopy at some point during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In contrast to findings from similar studies in other jurisdictions, most Ontario CRC survivors receive postoperative surveillance with imaging and endoscopy, and care is equitable across sociodemographic groups, although unexplained geographical variation in practice exists and warrants further investigation. PMID:25014181

Tan, Jensen; Muir, Jennifer; Coburn, Natalie; Singh, Simron; Hodgson, David; Saskin, Refik; Kiss, Alex; Paszat, Lawrence; El-Sedfy, Abraham; Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig; Law, Calvin



Laparoscopic Surgery for Advanced Gastric Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic gastrectomy has been widely accepted especially in patients with early-stage gastric cancer. However, the safety and oncologic validity of laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer are still being debated. Since the late 90s', we have been engaged in developing a stable and robust methodology of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer, and have established laparoscopic distinctive technique for suprapancreatic lymph node dissection, namely the outermost layer-oriented medial approach. In this article, We present the development history of this method, and current status and future perspectives of laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:23610715

Suda, Koichi; Satoh, Seiji



Knowledge, Understanding and Utilization of Preventive Strategies against Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Healthy and Immunosuppressed Mohs Surgery Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Despite various national recommendations advising individuals to reduce their exposure to UV radiation, many people still do not utilize these skin cancer prevention strategies. Objective The study assesses patients’ sources of medical information, knowledge of sun protection strategies, and barriers to implement these strategies. The study also compares the overall rate of utilization of skin cancer prevention strategies between healthy and immunocompromised patients. Materials and Methods Survey-based study was conducted on 140 Mohs surgery patients. Results Seventy-three percent of healthy and 74% of immunosuppressed participants identified sunscreen use as a form of protective strategy; only 36% and 27%, respectively, use sunscreen daily. Participants cite physician and internet as equal sources of medical information. Knowing two or more strategies correlated to a higher self-rating of daily utilization of any protective strategy. Conclusions The results of our study show that general knowledge regarding sun protection strategies is still limited, but awareness of multiple strategies correlated with an increase in sun protective behavior. Surprisingly, despite having a much higher incidence of skin cancers, the immunosuppressed group did not show more awareness of prevention strategies or higher utilization compared to healthy participants. PMID:24354730

Goldenberg, Alina; Nguyen, Bichchau Thi; Jiang, Shang I Brian



Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

Senthi, Sashendra, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)] [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Chua, Boon H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)



Adjuvant intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil and intravenous leucovorin after colorectal cancer surgery: a randomized phase II placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty patients were randomized to receive adjuvant intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 500 mg\\/m2\\/day) and intravenous leucovorin (60 mg\\/m2\\/day) and 51 to receive placebo after curative surgery for colorectal cancer. Treatment started on the day after surgery and continued for 6 days. One case of stomatitis, one of leucopenia and one case of abnormal liver function tests were the only chemotherapy-related toxic

W. Graf; J.-E. Westlin; L. Påhlman; B. Glimelius



Systematic Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenectomy during Cytoreductive Surgery in Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Potential Benefit on Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study was carried out to evaluate the potential benefit on survival of systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (SL) during primary or secondary cytoreductive surgery on patients with Stage IIIC-IV of epithelial ovarian cancer. A total of 105 optimally cytoreduced (macroscopic disease 10 cm), type of surgery and variety of cytoreductive operations performed. Group A patients had a longer

Carlo Scarabelli; Angelo Gallo; Antonio Zarrelli; Caterina Visentin; Elio Campagnutta




PubMed Central

Study purposes were to determine the prevalence of persistent pain in the breast; characterize distinct persistent pain classes using growth mixture modeling, and evaluate for differences among these pain classes in demographic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative characteristics. In addition, differences in the severity of common symptoms and quality of life outcomes measured prior to surgery, among the pain classes, were evaluated. Patients (n=398) were recruited prior to surgery and followed for six months. Using growth mixture modeling, patients were classified into no (31.7%), mild (43.4%), moderate (13.3%), and severe (11.6%) pain groups based on ratings of worst breast pain. Differences in a number of demographic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative characteristics differentiated among the pain classes. In addition, patients in the moderate and severe pain classes reported higher preoperative levels of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance than the no pain class. Findings suggest that approximately 25% of women experience significant and persistent levels of breast pain in the first six months following breast cancer surgery. PMID:23182226

Miaskowski, Christine; Cooper, Bruce; Paul, Steven M.; West, Claudia; Langford, Dale; Levine, Jon D.; Abrams, Gary; Hamolsky, Deborah; Dunn, Laura; Dodd, Marylin; Neuhaus, John; Baggott, Christina; Dhruva, Anand; Schmidt, Brian; Cataldo, Janine; Merriman, John; Aouizerat, Bradley E.



Growth hormone, alone and in combination with insulin, increases whole body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics in cancer patients after surgery.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of growth hormone, alone and in combination with insulin, on the protein kinetics of patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer who have undergone surgery and are receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with malignancies of the upper GI tract are at increased risk for malnutrition and perioperative death and complications. Standard nutritional support has not significantly altered outcome. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin have been shown to have some benefit in patients with cancer; however, their action in patients undergoing resection has not previously been studied. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing surgery for upper GI tract malignancies were prospectively randomized into one of three nutritional support groups after surgery: 10 patients received standard TPN, 10 received TPN plus daily injections of GH, and 10 received daily GH, systemic insulin, and TPN. The patients underwent a protein kinetic radiotracer study on the fifth day after surgery to determine whole body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics. RESULTS: Patients who received standard TPN only were in a state of negative skeletal muscle protein net balance. Those who received GH and insulin had improved skeletal muscle protein net balance compared with the TPN only group. Whole body protein net balance was improved in the GH and the GH and insulin groups compared with the TPN only group. GH and insulin combined did not improve whole body net balance more than GH alone. GH administration significantly increased serum IGF-1 and GH levels. Insulin infusion significantly increased serum insulin levels and the insulin/glucagon ratio. CONCLUSION: Growth hormone and GH plus insulin regimens improve protein kinetic parameters in patients with upper GI tract cancer who are receiving TPN after undergoing surgery. PMID:9923794

Berman, R S; Harrison, L E; Pearlstone, D B; Burt, M; Brennan, M F



Oncoplastic surgery in a Japanese patient with breast cancer in the lower inner quadrant area: partial mastectomy using horizontal reduction mammoplasty.  


We report the results of oncoplastic surgery in a Japanese patient with early breast cancer. Her breasts were ptotic, and her lesion was considered to be suitable for breast-conserving surgery. Oncoplastic surgery involving partial resection of the gland and a horizontal-type mammoplasty was performed. The technique was easy to perform, and the cosmetic outcome was excellent. PMID:21188565

Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Hirata, Munetsugu; Mizoguchi, Tadao; Ishigami, Sumiya; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji



Measures for Preventing Wound Infections During Elective Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: Scrubbing With Gauze  

PubMed Central

In addition to the general surgical-site infection prevention measures in colorectal cancer surgery, we performed a simple subcutaneous scrubbing procedure with gauze at the time of abdominal closure, which reduced the incidence of wound infections. There are 289 patients whose primary colon cancer lesions were removed by elective surgeries. They were divided into Group A (74 patients with no wound infection prevention measures who were treated from 2002 to 2003), Group B (76 patients with wound infection prevention measures who were treated from 2007 to 2008), and Group C (139 patients with subcutaneous scrubbing with gauze plus the measures in Group B who were treated from 2009 to 2012). The incidence in Group A was 23%, while the corresponding values in Group B and Group C were 14.5% and 2.9%, respectively. The incidence of wound infections was substantially reduced by additional subcutaneous scrubbing with a saline solution and gauze during closure of a surgical incision. This very simple procedure was considered useful for surgical site infection prevention. PMID:24444266

Goi, Takanori; Ueda, Yuki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Sawai, Katsuji; Morikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akio



Drug-eluting scaffold to deliver chemotherapeutic medication for management of pancreatic cancer after surgery  

PubMed Central

Traditional post-surgical chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer is notorious for its devastating side effects due to the high dosage required. On the other hand, legitimate concerns have been raised about nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery because of its potential cytotoxicity. Therefore, we explored the local delivery of a reduced dosage of FOLFIRINOX, a four-drug regimen comprising oxaliplatin, leucovorin, irinotecan, and fluorouracil, for pancreatic cancer using a biocompatible drug-eluting scaffold as a novel chemotherapy strategy after palliative surgery. In vitro assays showed that FOLFIRINOX in the scaffold caused massive apoptosis and thereby a decrease in the viability of pancreatic cancer cells, confirming the chemotherapeutic capability of the drug-eluting scaffold. In vivo studies in an orthotopic murine xenograft model demonstrated that the FOLFIRINOX in the scaffold had antitumorigenic and antimetastatic effects comparable with those achieved by intraperitoneal injection, despite the dose released by the scaffold being roughly two thirds lower. A mechanistic study attributed our results to the excellent ability of the FOLFIRINOX in the scaffold to destroy the CD133+CXCR4+ cell population responsible for pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis. This clinically oriented study gives rise to a promising alternative strategy for postsurgical management of pancreatic cancer, featuring a local chemotherapeutic effect with considerable attenuation of side effects. PMID:23885173

Zhan, Qian; Shen, Baiyong; Deng, Xiaxing; Chen, Hao; Jin, Jiabin; Zhang, Xing; Peng, Chenghong; Li, Hongwei



Update on the management of pancreatic cancer: Surgery is not enough  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of death in cancer and has a 5-year survival of < 5%. Only about 15% of the patients present with a resectable PDAC with potential to undergo “curative” surgery. After surgery, local and systemic recurrence, is though very common. The median survival of resected patients with adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery is only 20-23 mo. This underscores the significant need to improve PDAC management strategies. Increased survival rate is dependent on new breakthroughs in our understanding of not at least tumor biology. The aim of this review is to update and comment on recent knowledge concerning PDAC biology and new diagnostics and treatment modalities. One fundamental approach to improve survival rates is by earlier and improved diagnosis of the disease. In recent years, novel blood-based biomarkers have emerged based on genetic, epigenetic and protein changes in PDAC with very promising results. For biomarkers to enter clinical practice they need to have been developed using adequate control groups and provide high sensitivity and specificity and by this identify patients at risk already in a pre-symptomatic stage. Another way to improve outcomes, is by employing neoadjuvant treatments thereby increasing the number of resectable cases. Novel systemic treatment regimes like FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel have demonstrated improvements in prolonging survival in advanced cases, but long-term survival is still scarce. The future improved understanding of PDAC biology will inevitably render new treatment options directed against both the cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:25805920

Ansari, Daniel; Gustafsson, Adam; Andersson, Roland



The Process of Deciding About Prophylactic Surgery for Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Patient Questions, Uncertainties, and Communication  

PubMed Central

Many women who have, or are at risk for, BRCA 1/2 mutations or breast cancer decline prophylactic surgery, but questions remain as to how they make and experience these decisions. Our methods consisted of interviewing 32 women for 2 hr each; 19 were tested, 20 were symptomatic. Our results showed that these surgical options forced women to confront questions, involving stresses and uncertainties, regarding: implications of test results, prognoses with and without surgery, and effects of surgery (e.g., on self-image). Given these dilemmas, many women turned to doctors who then ranged in what and how they communicated about these issues, and how strongly they offered input. Some patients felt disappointed at provider non-directiveness, while others found providers too directive. Patients turned to family members and friends, who also ranged in how and what they communicated, and whether they agreed with the patient and/or each other. Many women turned to patient communities, but then had to decide how involved to be, and what information to provide or accept. These data suggest that providers and others may need to be more aware of the series of questions, involving stresses and uncertainties, that these women face, and the complex roles providers themselves may play. These data highlight needs for physicians to be able to address these issues flexibly, gauging patient preferences for information and paternalism (vs. autonomy). These data suggest areas for future research: for example, on how providers decide whether, what and how to communicate about these issues, and how these choices shape treatment decisions. PMID:20014126

Klitzman, Robert; Chung, Wendy



Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer



Octreotide as Palliative Therapy for Cancer-Related Bowel Obstruction That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

Colorectal Cancer; Constipation, Impaction, and Bowel Obstruction; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer



Integration of robotics into two established programs of minimally invasive surgery for endometrial cancer appears to decrease surgical complications  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare peri- and postoperative outcomes and complications of laparoscopic vs. robotic-assisted surgical staging for women with endometrial cancer at two established academic institutions. Methods Retrospective chart review of all women that underwent total hysterectomy with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy by robotic-assisted or laparoscopic approach over a four-year period by three surgeons at two academic institutions. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were measured. Secondary outcomes included operative time, blood loss, transfusion rate, number of lymph nodes retrieved, length of hospital stay and need for re-operation or re-admission. Results Four hundred and thirty-two cases were identified: 187 patients with robotic-assisted and 245 with laparoscopic staging. Both groups were statistically comparable in baseline characteristics. The overall rate of intraoperative complications was similar in both groups (1.6% vs. 2.9%, p=0.525) but the rate of urinary tract injuries was statistically higher in the laparoscopic group (2.9% vs. 0%, p=0.020). Patients in the robotic group had shorter hospital stay (1.96 days vs. 2.45 days, p=0.016) but an average 57 minutes longer surgery than the laparoscopic group (218 vs. 161 minutes, p=0.0001). There was less conversion rate (0.5% vs. 4.1%; relative risk, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.34; p=0.027) and estimated blood loss in the robotic than in the laparoscopic group (187 mL vs. 110 mL, p=0.0001). There were no significant differences in blood transfusion rate, number of lymph nodes retrieved, re-operation or re-admission between the two groups. Conclusion Robotic-assisted surgery is an acceptable alternative to laparoscopy for staging of endometrial cancer and, in selected patients, it appears to have lower risk of urinary tract injury. PMID:23346310

Cardenas-Goicoechea, Joel; Soto, Enrique; Chuang, Linus; Gretz, Herbert



Determining Which Patients Require Irradiation of the Supraclavicular Nodal Area After Surgery for N1 Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We designed this study to determine which patients have a high risk of supraclavicular node recurrence in N1 breast cancer previously treated with surgery but not having received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT) and to identify which patients needed SCRT. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 448 pathologic N1 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy or breast-conserving treatment, but without SCRT, between 1994 and 2003. Mastectomy was performed in 302 patients (67.4%). The median number of axillary nodes dissected was 17 (range, 5-53). Systemic chemotherapy was administered in 443 patients (98.9%), and 144 patients received radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The median follow-up was 88 months (range, 15-170 months). Results: At follow-up, the treatment failed in 101 patients (22.5%), and 39 patients (8.7%) had supraclavicular node recurrence. Prognostic factors in supraclavicular node recurrence included lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.0001), extracapsular extension (p < 0.0001), the number of involved axillary nodes (p = 0.0003), and the level of involved axillary nodes (p = 0.012) in univariate and multivariate analyses. The total number of prognostic factors correlated well with supraclavicular node recurrence. In the analysis of 5-year supraclavicular node recurrence-free survival, patients with two or more factors showed a significantly higher recurrence rate than did patients with fewer than two factors (96.8% and 72.9%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The prognostic factors associated with supraclavicular node recurrence were lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular extension, and the number and level of involved axillary nodes. Patients with two or more prognostic factors might benefit from SCRT.

Yu, Jeong Il [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won, E-mail: wonp68@skku.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Hyuk; Ahn, Jin Suk [Department of Hematologic Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jung Hyun; Nam, Suk Jin [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Expression is Associated With a Worse Prognosis in Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Curative Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In gastric cancer, the recurrence rate is high even after curative surgery. A relevant issue is the identification of independent\\u000a prognostic factors to select high-risk patients; such features can be used as predictive factors for tailored therapies. In\\u000a this study we have investigated the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression as a prognostic marker for\\u000a predicting cancer behavior

Gennaro Galizia; Eva Lieto; Michele Orditura; Paolo Castellano; Anna La Mura; Vincenzo Imperatore; Margherita Pinto; Anna Zamboli; Ferdinando De Vita; Francesca Ferraraccio



Specific and nonspecific immunotherapy as an adjunct to curative surgery for cancer of the lung.  

PubMed Central

Attempts to improve survival following curative surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer are reviewed. Most of these approaches have been designed to stimulate the resistance of lung cancer patients in a non-specific fashion. Living bacteria or products of dead bacteria have been given as adjunctive treatment. Various routes have been used; oral, intradermal, subdermal, or intrapleural, with either BCG or Corynebacterium parvum. No reproducible benefit has been observed. Levamisole has not been proven to be useful. Trials have yet to be completed to confirm the use of thymosin fraction V for small cell carcinoma in improving the effectiveness of chemotherapy. A pilot trial using specific active immunotherapy is described. Prolongation of survival four years after closure of the trial in those patients immunized, compared with non-immunized patients, has prompted two further clinical trials. A small trial has confirmed the effectiveness of specific immunotherapy as adjunctive therapy for squamous cell carcinoma. A large multicenter trial in Canada and the United States should be completed and open to analysis in 1984 and may shed light on the role of tumor-associated antigens in stimulating specific resistance to lung cancer. PMID:7039148

Hollinshead, A. C.; Stewart, T. H.



Protocol for the OUTREACH trial: a randomised trial comparing delivery of cancer systemic therapy in three different settings - patient's home, GP surgery and hospital day unit  

PubMed Central

Background The national Cancer Reform Strategy recommends delivering care closer to home whenever possible. Cancer drug treatment has traditionally been administered to patients in specialist hospital-based facilities. Technological developments mean that nowadays, most treatment can be delivered in the out-patient setting. Increasing demand, care quality improvements and patient choice have stimulated interest in delivering some treatment to patients in the community, however, formal evaluation of delivering cancer treatment in different community settings is lacking. This randomised trial compares delivery of cancer treatment in the hospital with delivery in two different community settings: the patient's home and general practice (GP) surgeries. Methods/design Patients due to receive a minimum 12 week course of standard intravenous cancer treatment at two hospitals in the Anglia Cancer Network are randomised on a 1:1:1 basis to receive treatment in the hospital day unit (control arm), or their own home, or their choice of one of three neighbouring GP surgeries. Overall patient care, treatment prescribing and clinical review is undertaken according to standard local practice. All treatment is dispensed by the local hospital pharmacy and treatment is delivered by the hospital chemotherapy nurses. At four time points during the 12 week study period, information is collected from patients, nursing staff, primary and secondary care teams to address the primary end point, patient-perceived benefits (using the emotional function domain of the EORTC QLQC30 patient questionnaire), as well as secondary end points: patient satisfaction, safety and health economics. Discussion The Outreach trial is the first randomised controlled trial conducted which compares delivery of out-patient based intravenous cancer treatment in two different community settings with standard hospital based treatment. Results of this study may better inform all key stakeholders regarding potential costs and benefits of transferring clinical services from hospital to the community. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN66219681 PMID:22035502



A New Noninvasive Approach in Breast Cancer Therapy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal vision of modern medicine includes tumor surgery with the human body remaining completely intact. A noninvasive therapy could avoid infections and scar formation; it would require less anesthesia, reduce recovery time, and possibly also reduce costs. This study investi- gated whether human breast cancer can be effectively treated with a novel combination of image guidance and energy delivery,

Peter E. Huber; Juergen W. Jenne; Ralf Rastert; Ioannis Simiantonakis; Hans-Peter Sinn; Hans-Joachim Strittmatter; Dietrich von Fournier; Michael F. Wannenmacher; Juergen Debus



Low molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery: an experience from one Korean institute  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy for preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and adverse effects of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in order to launch a prospective clinical trial in Korea. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 108 consecutive patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the type of thromboprophylaxis: group A, LMWH combined with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC); group B, IPC alone. The postoperative outcomes of the two groups were compared. Results Symptomatic VTE was observed in only 1 patient (0.9%) from group B. Postoperative bleeding was more common in group A than in group B (10.9% vs. 7.5%), although the difference was not significant (P = 0.055). Most bleeding episodes were minor and managed conservatively without intervention. Only a high body mass index was associated with a significantly increased risk of postoperative bleeding (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.43; P = 0.051). Conclusion A 40 mg of enoxaparin sodium is a safe and feasible dose for prevention of VTE. With the results of this study, we are planning a prospective randomized clinical trial to investigate the clinical efficacy of LMWH thromboprophylaxis in gastric cancer patients in Korea. PMID:24761403

Choi, Sung Ho; Shim, Jung Ho; Park, Cho Hyun



Outcomes of Positron Emission Tomography-Staged Clinical N3 Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcome and efficacy of regional lymph node irradiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and surgery in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive clinical N3 (cN3) breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 55 patients with ipsilateral infraclavicular (ICL), internal mammary (IMN), or supraclavicular (SCL) lymph node involvement in the absence of distant metastases, as revealed by an initial PET scan, were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical nodal stage at diagnosis (2002 AJCC) was cN3a in 14 patients (26%), cN3b in 12 patients (22%), and cN3c in 29 patients (53%). All patients were treated with NCT, followed by mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery and subsequent radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent. Results: At the median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-80 months), 20 patients (36%) had developed treatment failures, including distant metastases either alone or combined with locoregional recurrences that included one ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), six regional failures (RF), and one case of combined IBR and RF. Only 3 patients (5.5%) exhibited treatment failure at the initial PET-positive clinical N3 lymph node. The 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 80%, 60%, and 79%, respectively. RT delivered to PET-positive IMN regions in cN3b patients and at higher doses ({>=}55 Gy) to SCL regions in cN3c patients was not associated with improved 5-year IMN/SCL relapse-free survival or DFS. Conclusion: NCT followed by surgery and RT, including the regional lymph nodes, resulted in excellent locoregional control for patients with PET-positive cN3 breast cancer. The primary treatment failure in this group was due to distant metastasis rather than RF. Neither higher-dose RT directed at PET-positive SCL nodes nor coverage of PET-positive IMN nodes was associated with additional gains in locoregional control or DFS.

Park, Hae Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: [Center for Breast Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kang, Han-Sung [Center for Breast Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu; Ha, Sung Whan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer



Pain on the first postoperative day after head and neck cancer surgery.  


Postoperative pain within the first 24 h after head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery was assessed. Factors influencing postoperative pain were identified. In a prospective cohort single center study 145 HNC patients rated their pain on the first postoperative day using questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment (QUIPS) including numeric rating scales (NRS, 0-10) for the determination of patient's pain on ambulation, his maximal and minimal pain. QUIPS allowed a standardized assessment of patients' characteristics and pain-related parameters. The influence of these parameters on the patients' postoperative pain was estimated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. One-third had already pain prior to the surgical intervention. Overall, the mean pain on ambulation, maximal pain and minimal pain were 2.55 ± 2.36, 3.18 ± 2.86, and 1.38 ± 2.86 (NRS), respectively. 53 % of the patients had maximal pain scores >3. Multivariate analysis revealed independent predictors for more postoperative pain on ambulation: intensity of chronic preoperative pain, usage of non-opioids on ward, and existence of pain documentation on ward. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain and usage of non-opioids on ward were independent risk factors for more maximal pain. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain was independently associated to more minimal pain. Concerning pain management side effects, the risk for drowsiness increased with longer time of surgery. Postoperative pain after HNC surgery is highly variable and seems often to be unnecessarily high. Many patients seem to receive less analgesia than needed or ineffective analgesic drug regimes. PMID:25261106

Inhestern, Johanna; Schuerer, Jenny; Illge, Christina; Thanos, Ira; Meissner, Winfried; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando



Cell proliferation measured by MIB1 and timing of surgery for breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the use of the antibody MIB1 as a proliferative and prognostic marker in breast cancer and whether changes in proliferative activity could account for differences in prognosis of premenopausal women operated on during different phases of the menstrual cycle. MIB1 expression was strongly correlated with S-phase fraction and histological grade. There was no difference in MIB1 scores between different phases of the menstrual cycle. Both MIB1 score and timing of surgery correlated significantly with duration of survival, while the two together were even stronger predictors of overall survival. Women with slowly proliferating tumours surgically removed in the luteal phase had a very good prognosis, whereas women with rapidly proliferating tumours excised at other times of the cycle had a worse prognosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9652769

Cooper, L. S.; Gillett, C. E.; Smith, P.; Fentiman, I. S.; Barnes, D. M.



Four-arm single docking full robotic surgery for low rectal cancer: technique standardization.  


The authors present the four-arm single docking full robotic surgery to treat low rectal cancer. The eight main operative steps are: 1- patient positioning; 2- trocars set-up and robot docking; 3- sigmoid colon, left colon and splenic flexure mobilization (lateral-to-medial approach); 4-Inferior mesenteric artery and vein ligation (medial-to-lateral approach); 5- total mesorectum excision and preservation of hypogastric and pelvic autonomic nerves (sacral dissection, lateral dissection, pelvic dissection); 6- division of the rectum using an endo roticulator stapler for the laparoscopic performance of a double-stapled coloanal anastomosis (type I tumor); 7- intersphincteric resection, extraction of the specimen through the anus and lateral-to-end hand sewn coloanal anastomosis (type II tumor); 8- cylindric abdominoperineal resection, with transabdominal section of the levator muscles (type IV tumor). The techniques employed were safe and have presented low rates of complication and no mortality. PMID:25140655

Ramos, José Reinan; Parra-Davila, Eduardo



Video-assisted thoracic surgery left S1+2+3 segmentectomy for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

A 49-year-old female presented with a solitary pulmonary nodule on the chest screening computed tomography (CT) scan. The nodule was 1.3 cm in diameter and located in the apical segment of left upper lobe. The lesion was considered to be cT1aN0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a 3-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) wedge resection was performed. Intraoperative frozen sections revealed a lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, sequential S1+2+3 segmentectomy of the left upper lobe was performed, also systematic lymph node dissection was carried out. The final pathological stage was pT1aN0M0 (Ia). PMID:25589985

Lu, Weishan; Zhou, Xinming



Preoperative Short-Course Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy Followed by Delayed Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Phase 2 Multicenter Study (KROG 10-01)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A prospective phase 2 multicenter trial was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative short-course concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer were enrolled. Radiation therapy of 25 Gy in 5 fractions was delivered over 5 consecutive days using helical tomotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered on the same 5 days with intravenous bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day). After 4 to 8 weeks, total mesorectal excision was performed. The primary endpoint was the pathologic downstaging (ypStage 0-I) rate, and secondary endpoints included tumor regression grade, tumor volume reduction rate, and toxicity. Results: Seventy-one patients completed the planned preoperative CRT and surgery. Downstaging occurred in 20 (28.2%) patients, including 1 (1.4%) with a pathologic complete response. Favorable tumor regression (grade 4-3) was observed in 4 (5.6%) patients, and the mean tumor volume reduction rate was 62.5 ± 21.3%. Severe (grade ?3) treatment toxicities were reported in 27 (38%) patients from CRT until 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative short-course concurrent CRT followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer demonstrated poor pathologic responses compared with conventional long-course CRT, and it yielded considerable toxicities despite the use of an advanced radiation therapy technique.

Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae Hwan [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Min Ju; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hoon; Jang, Hong Seok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun-Gi [Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Ah [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Taek-Keun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)



Ovarian Tuberculosis masquerading as ovarian cancer in HIV infected patient: a plea to avoid unnecessary surgery  

PubMed Central

Female patients who present with adnexial mass and weight loss should not be presumed to have ovarian carcinoma until after extensive investigation. This is to avoid the mistake of radical surgery with its attendant morbidity and mortality. An important disease to consider in our environment is ovarian TB that respond well to medication. A 35 year old HIV-1 positive house wife presented with fever, persistent vomiting, progressive weight loss, vague abdominal pain and swelling. Patient occasionally ingest unpasteurized milk since childhood but had no sustained contact with adult with chronic cough. She had no menstrual abnormality. Imaging studies revealed right ovarian mass measuring 11.8cmx10cm. Right ovarian malignancy was highly suspected, for which she underwent exploratory laporotomy. Histopathology result was consistent with tuberculous granuloma. Chest radiograph was normal. Her CD4 count was 541cells/ul. Patient was commenced on anti tuberculotic therapy based on the Nigerian National TB control and she responded well. Tuberculosis of the ovary can masquerade as ovarian cancer, especially among HIV patients in regions where TB-HIV co infections is endemic, it should be ruled out before performing extended surgery.

Denue, Ballah Akawu; Kwayabura, Salisu Aliyu; Ngadda, Haruna Asura



Patients' perceived health status following primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  


How oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients view their 'quality of life' is of fundamental importance. Any differences seen in their health state compared with normative data and with other disease conditions allows a wider perspective on their outcome after surgery. A cross-sectional postal survey was undertaken of patients treated for oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma by primary surgery using the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 4 (UW-QOL v4) and the EuroQol EQ-5D. Of 348 patients surveyed, 224 returned analysable forms, (response rate 64%). In the EQ-5D items, 40% of the group reported a problem in walking, 23% with self-care, 44% in performing usual activities, 50% with pain or discomfort and 33% with anxiety or depression. The mean overall health visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 74 (SE 1) minimum 30 and maximum 100. The mean utility (health index) score was 0.75 (SE 0.02) minimum -0.18 and maximum 1.0. Compared to national reference data, patients in our cohort of under 60 years of age fared significantly worse than expected for their age but this was not so for older patients. There were strong correlations between appropriate domains of the EQ-5D and UW-QOLv4 and between UW-QOL global measures and EQ-5D VAS. PMID:17008054

Rogers, S N; Miller, R D; Ali, K; Minhas, A B; Williams, H F; Lowe, D



The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.  

PubMed Central

A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W



Transoral Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer: Long Term Quality of Life and Functional Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine swallowing, speech and quality of life (QOL) outcomes following transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care academic comprehensive cancer center. Patients 81 patients with previously untreated OPSCC. Intervention Primary surgical resection via TORS and neck dissection as indicated. Main Outcome Measures Patients were asked to complete the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI) pre-operatively and at 3 weeks as well as 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Swallowing ability was assessed by independence from a gastrostomy tube (G-Tube). Clinicopathological and follow-up data were also collected. Results Mean follow-up time was 22.7 months. HNCI response rates at 3 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months were 79%, 60%, 63%, 67% respectively. There were overall declines in speech, eating, aesthetic, social and overall QOL domains in the early post-operative periods. However, at 1 year post-TORS scores for aesthetic, social and overall QOL remained high. Radiation therapy was negatively correlated with multiple QOL domains (p<0.05), while age > 55 years correlated with lower speech and aesthetic scores (p<0.05). HPV status did not correlate with any QOL domain. G-Tube rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively. The extent of TORS (> 1 oropharyngeal site resected) and age > 55 years predicted the need for a G-Tube at any point after TORS (p<0.05). Conclusions Patients with OPSCC treated with TORS maintain a high QOL at 1 year after surgery. Adjuvant treatment and advanced age tend to decrease QOL. PMID:23576186

Dziegielewski, Peter T.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Durmus, Kasim; Old, Matthew; Agrawalm, Amit; Kakarala, Kiran; Marcinow, Anna; Ozer, Enver



Percutaneous comprehensive cryoablation for metastatic esophageal cancer after failure of radical surgery.  


Esophageal cancer is common in China. There is a lack of treatment strategies for metastatic esophageal cancer (MEC) after radical surgery on the primary tumor. Cryoablation is an attractive option because tumor necrosis can be safely induced in a minimally invasive manner. This study assessed its therapeutic effect in MEC after failure of radical surgery. One hundred and forty patients met the inclusion criteria from May, 2003 to March, 2011. Comprehensive cryotherapy of multiple metastases was performed on 105 patients; 35 received chemotherapy. No severe complications occurred during or after cryoablation. Overall survival (OS) was assessed according to therapeutic protocol, pathologic type, treatment timing and number of procedures. The OS of patients who received comprehensive cryoablation (44±20 months) was significantly longer than that of those who underwent chemotherapy (23±24 months; P=0.0006). In the cryotherapy group, the OS for squamous cell carcinoma (45±19 months) was longer than that for adenocarcinoma (33±18 months; P=0.0435); the OS for timely cryoablation (46±19 months) was longer than that for delayed cryoablation (33±20 months; P=0.0193); the OS for multiple cryoablation (50±17 months) was longer than that for single cryoablation (37±20 months; P=0.0172); and the OS for cryo-immunotherapy (56±17 months) was longer than that for cryoablation alone (39±19 months; P=0.0011). Thus, comprehensive cryotherapy may have advantages over chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic MEC and, in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, supplementary immunotherapy and timely and multiple cryoablation may be associated with a better prognosis. PMID:24513461

Jiongyuan, Xu; Lizhi, Niu; Feng, Mu; Shupeng, Liu; Yin, Leng; Mengtian, Liao; Jianying, Zeng; Fei, Yao; Jibing, Chen; Jialiang, Li; Kecheng, Xu



Antimicrobial prophylaxis for major head and neck surgery in cancer patients: sulbactam-ampicillin versus clindamycin-amikacin.  

PubMed Central

A total of 99 patients with head and neck cancer who were to undergo surgery were randomized in a prospective comparative study of sulbactam-ampicillin (1:2 ratio; four doses of 3 g of ampicillin and 1.5 g of sulbactam intravenously [i.v.] every 6 h) versus clindamycin (four doses of 600 mg i.v. every 6 h)-amikacin (two doses of 500 mg i.v. every 12 h) as prophylaxis starting at the induction of anesthesia. The two groups of evaluable patients (43 in the clindamycin-amikacin treatment group and 42 in the sulbactam-ampicillin treatment group) were comparable as far as age (mean, 57 years; range, 21 to 84 years), sex ratio (71 males, 28 females), weight (mean, 66 kg; range, 40 to 69 kg), indication for surgery (first surgery, 48 patients; recurrence, 37 patients), previous anticancer treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy), type of surgery, and stage of cancer. The overall infection rate (wound, bacteremia, and bronchopneumonia) within 20 days after surgery was 20 patients in each group. Wound infections occurred in 14 (33%) sulbactam-ampicillin-treated patients and 9 (21%) clindamycin-amikacin-treated patients (P = 0.19; not significant). The rates of bacteremia were 2 and 4%, respectively. The rates of bronchopneumonia were 14.3 and 23.2%, respectively (P was not significant). Most infections were polymicrobial, but strict anaerobes were recovered only from patients who received sulbactam-ampicillin. Antimicrobial treatment was required within 20 days after surgery for 42% of the sulbactam-ampicillin-treated patients and 44% of the clindamycin-amikacin-treated patients. By comparison with previous studies, we observed a decreased efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery because of the increased proportion of patients who were at very high risk for infection (extensive excision and plastic reconstruction in patients with recurrent stage III and IV cancers) and because of the longer duration of surgery. PMID:1416895

Phan, M; Van der Auwera, P; Andry, G; Aoun, M; Chantrain, G; Deraemaecker, R; Dor, P; Daneau, D; Ewalenko, P; Meunier, F



[Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastases and sentinel node navigation surgery in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer].  


In spite of recent advances in diagnostic tools such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and positron-emission tomography, preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastases in patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer has been problematic because of the low sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of micrometastases. To overcome this issue, the sentinel node (SN) concept has attracted attention in recent years and is anticipated to become a novel diagnostic tool for the identification of clinically undetectable lymph node metastases in patients with early upper GI cancer. For early-stage gastric cancer, in which a better prognosis can generally be achieved using conventional surgical approaches, individualized, minimally invasive gastrectomy based on a combination of laparoscpic surgery with SN navigation surgery should be established as the next surgical milestone. Several issues remain to be resolved in laparoscopic gastrectomy with three-dimensional computed tomography navigation. PMID:18409586

Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko



Dosimetric Evaluation of Different Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques for Breast Cancer After Conservative Surgery.  


Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) potentially leads to a more favorite dose distribution compared to 3-dimensional or conventional tangential radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer after conservative surgery or mastectomy. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) among helical tomotherapy (HT), inverse-planned IMRT (IP-IMRT), and forward-planned field in field (FP-FIF) IMRT techniques after breast-conserving surgery. Computed tomography scans from 20 patients (12 left sided and 8 right sided) previously treated with T1N0 carcinoma were selected for this dosimetric planning study. We designed HT, IP-IMRT, and FP-FIF plans for each patient. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as OARs dose and volume parameters. Both HI and CI of the PTV showed statistically significant difference among IP-IMRT, FP-FIF, and HT with those of HT were best (P < .05). Compared to FP-FIF, IP-IMRT showed smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and breast, while HT indicated smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung but larger exposed volumes of contralateral lung and breast as well as heart. In addition, HT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of ipsilateral lung (except for fraction of lung volume receiving >30 Gy and 20 Gy), heart, contralateral lung, and breast compared with IP-IMRT. For breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, HT provides better dose homogeneity and conformity of PTV compared to IP-IMRT and FP-FIF techniques, especially for patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes involved. Meanwhile, HT decreases the OAR volumes receiving higher doses with an increase in the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Hence, composite factors including dosimetric advantage, clinical effect, and economic burden should be taken into comprehensive consideration when choosing an RT technique in clinical practice. PMID:25311257

Zhang, Fuli; Wang, Yadi; Xu, Weidong; Jiang, Huayong; Liu, Qingzhi; Gao, Junmao; Yao, Bo; Hou, Jun; He, Heliang



Determination of standard number, size and weight of mediastinal lymph nodes in postmortem examinations: reflection on lung cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Mediastinal lymph node dissection is an essential component of lung cancer surgery. Literature lacks established information regarding the number and size of the healthy lymph nodes. In this postmortem autopsy study, we aim to define the number, size and weight of the lymph nodes in each mediastinal lymph node station. To implement the data for the clinical practice, we analyzed the possible number of nodes to be dissected in a systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection from the right and left sides during lung cancer surgery. Methods Sixty-two samples obtained from cadavers who did not die from chest malignancies, extrathoracic malignancies, any kind of infections or previous hospitalization before the death were included to the study. The locations of the nodes were recorded according to the American Thoracic Society Mediastinal Lymph Node Map. The number, size and weight of the nodes were determined at each station. Results Median age of the cadavers was 39 years. Primary causes of death were asphyxia in 10 (16.1%) subjects, trauma in 29 (46.8%) subjects, cardiovascular problems in 10 (16.1%) subjects, and undetermined in 13 (21%) subjects. The median number of lymph nodes resected from each patient was 23 (range: 11–54). The right sided paratracheal lymph nodes (Station 2R and 4R) were more frequent, heavier and longer than left sided lymph nodes (Station 2L and 4L) at the paratrecheal region. Right sided inferior mediastinal lymph nodes were heavier and longer than the left ones; however, their availability was more often on the left. Conclusions The properties of mediastinal lymph nodes at particular stations are different for number, size and weight. Station 4R and 7 have the highest number of nodes followed by stations 5 and 6. We recommend removing the lymph nodes of these stations completely in lung cancer patients to rule out the possibility of micrometastatic disease. Diameter of normal lymph node may be 1 cm for the stations other than 4R and 7, but the definition of normal diameter of a lymph node at the stations 4R and 7 may be changed as 1,5 cm and 2,0 cm, respectively. Weight of the nodes may be a new subject to study and may be defined as a new modality to define a staging to be more accurate and the issue needs further investigations. PMID:23591054



B-cell lymphoma 2 and ?-catenin expression in colorectal cancer and their prognostic role following surgery.  


The prognosis of colorectal cancer depends on the stage of the disease. However, even within the same stage there may be different outcomes in terms of recurrence and survival. Therefore, it is clear that as well as pathological stage, novel biomarkers that are capable of improving risk stratification and therapeutic decision?making are required. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential roles of two previously proposed biomarkers of tumour status: B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) and ??catenin. A total of 412 patients undergoing surgery for primary colorectal cancer were studied. Tumour specimens of the patients were collected, fixed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of Bcl?2 and ??catenin. The data were then analyzed in relation to disease?free survival and overall survival. Pathological stage was the only variable that was significantly correlated with both disease?free and overall survival. The expression levels of neither Bcl?2 nor ??catenin were able to accurately predict prognosis. However, there was a clear association between nuclear ??catenin expression levels and disease?free survival in the three tumour stages. There was an increased hazard ratio in stage I and II nuclear ??catenin positive tumours, whereas there was a marked decrease in risk in stage III positive tumours. A similar effect was also observed with regards to overall survival, however this finding was not significant. The results of the present study suggest that conventional pathological tumour staging is the only accurate prognostic method. Neither Bcl?2 or ??catenin were shown to be useful biomarkers for the prognosis of colorectal cancer. However, the heterogeneous behaviour of nuclear ??catenin expression in the various tumour stages may indicate a possible role in predicting the response of patients to chemotherapy. Therefore, nuclear ??catenin expression may be a biomarker for the prediction of improved responses to chemotherapy. PMID:25738398

Balzi, Manuela; Ringressi, Maria Novella; Faraoni, Paola; Booth, Catherine; Taddei, Antonio; Boni, Luca; Bechi, Paolo



Is laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery associated with an increased risk in obese patients? A retrospective study from China  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of obesity on surgical outcomes after laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection in Chinese patients is still unclear. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the prospectively collected data from 527 consecutive colorectal cancer patients who under went laparoscopic resection from January 2008 to September 2013. Patients were categorized into three groups: nonobese (body mass index (BMI) <25.0 kg/m2), obese I (BMI 25.0 = to 29.9 kg/m2) and obese II (BMI ?30.0 kg/m2). Clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes and postoperative complications were compared between nonobese, obese I and obese II patients. Results From among the 527 patients, there were 371 patients with in the nonobese group, 142 patients in the obese I group and 14 patients in the obese II group. The patients were well-matched for age, sex and American Society of Anesthesiologists class, except for BMI (P = 0.001). The median operative time correlated highly significantly with increasing weight (median: nonobese = 135 minutes, obese I = 145 minutes, obese II = 162.5 minutes; P = 0.001). There appeared to be a slight tendency toward grade III complications (rated according to the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications) in the obese II group, but this difference was not significant (nonobese = 5.1%, obese I = 3.5% and obese II = 14.3%; P = 0.178). None of the grade III complications which occurred in the obese II group were wound dehiscences that required a stitch. Other aspects, such as estimated blood loss, harvested lymph nodes, operation type, pathological results, conversion rate and overall postoperative complications, were not statistically significant. Conclusion With sufficient experience, laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery is feasible and safe in obese Chinese patients. PMID:24919472



Survival differences between European and US patients with colorectal cancer: role of stage at diagnosis and surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Population based colorectal cancer survival among patients diagnosed in 1985–89 was lower in Europe than in the USA (45% v 59% five year relative survival). Aims: To explain this difference in survival using a new analytic approach for patients diagnosed between 1990 and 1991. Subjects: A total of 2492 European and 11 191 US colorectal adenocarcinoma patients registered by 10 European and nine US cancer registries. Methods: We obtained clinical information on disease stage, number of lymph nodes examined, and surgical treatment. We analysed three year relative survival, calculating relative excess risks of death (RERs, referent category US patients) adjusted for age, sex, site, surgery, stage, and number of nodes examined, using a new multivariable approach. Results: We found that 85% of European patients and 92% of US patients underwent surgical resection. Three year relative survival was 69% for US patients and 57% for European patients. After adjustment for age, sex, and site, the RER was significantly high in all 10 European populations, ranging from 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.86–1.32) (Modena, Italy) to 2.22 (1.79–2.76) (Thames, UK). After further adjustment for stage, surgical resection, and number of nodes examined (a determinant of stage), RERs ranged from 0.77 (0.62–0.96) to 1.59 (1.28–1.97). For some European registries the excess risk was small and not statistically significant. Conclusions: US-Europe survival differences in colorectal cancer are large but seem to be mostly attributable to differences in stage at diagnosis. There are wide variations in diagnostic and surgical practice between Europe and the USA. PMID:15647193

Ciccolallo, L; Capocaccia, R; Coleman, M P; Berrino, F; Coebergh, J W W; Damhuis, R A M; Faivre, J; Martinez-Garcia, C; Møller, H; Ponz de Leon, M; Launoy, G; Raverdy, N; Williams, E M I; Gatta, G



Association between Education Level and Prognosis after Esophageal Cancer Surgery: A Swedish Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background An association between education level and survival after esophageal cancer has recently been indicated, but remains uncertain. We conducted a large study with long follow-up to address this issue. Methods This population-based cohort study included all patients operated for esophageal cancer in Sweden between 1987 and 2010 with follow-up until 2012. Level of education was categorized as compulsory (?9 years), intermediate (10–12 years), or high (?13 years). The main outcome measure was overall 5-year mortality after esophagectomy. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between education level and mortality, expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for sex, age, co-morbidity, tumor stage, tumor histology, and assessing the impact of education level over time. Results Compared to patients with high education, the adjusted HR for mortality was 1.29 (95% CI 1.07–1.57) in the intermediate educated group and 1.42 (95% CI 1.17–1.71) in the compulsory educated group. The largest differences were found in early tumor stages (T-stage 0–1), with HRs of 1.73 (95% CI 1.00–2.99) and 2.58 (95% CI 1.51–4.42) for intermediate and compulsory educated patients respectively; and for squamous cell carcinoma, with corresponding HRs of 1.38 (95% CI 1.07–1.79) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.19–1.95) respectively. Conclusions This Swedish population-based study showed an association between higher education level and improved survival after esophageal cancer surgery, independent of established prognostic factors. The associations were stronger in patients of an early tumor stage and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811880

Brusselaers, Nele; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lindblad, Mats; Lagergren, Jesper



Surgical treatment of esophageal cancer: benefit and limitation of endoscopic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1990s, the minimalization of surgical invasiveness to reduce postoperative complications has become a major topic in the field of gastrointestinal surgery, including esophageal surgery. Initial challenges in the field of esophageal surgery were reported in 1993. Although the initial reports of thoracoscopic esophagectomy failed to show the lower incidence of postoperative complication compared with conventional open surgery, recent

Yuko Kitagawa; Hiroya Takeuchi; Yoshiro Saikawa; Masaki Kitajima



Perioperative variables associated with surgical site infection in breast cancer surgery.  


Despite the fact that breast operations are usually categorized as clean procedures, higher surgical site infection (SSI) rates are reported. This study aimed to determine the perioperative variables related to SSI in breast cancer patients. Medical records of breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between January 2005 and August 2007 at a university based hospital were reviewed. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative clinical data from 199 patients were extracted and analysed. Overall, the SSI rate was 19.1% (38 cases). SSI was associated with a high body mass index (P=0.001), history of diabetes mellitus (P<0.0001), smoking (P<0.0001), or active skin disorders (P<0.0001). Other SSI-related variables included a tumour at an advanced clinical stage (P=0.003) and neoadjuvant therapy (P=0.003). Breast-conserving operations were less frequently associated with SSI than were radical procedures (mastectomy alone and mastectomy followed by immediate reconstruction) (P=0.0001). PMID:22054593

Angarita, F A; Acuna, S A; Torregrosa, L; Tawil, M; Escallon, J; Ruíz, Á



Factors Associated with the Incidence of Local Recurrences of Breast Cancer in Women Who Underwent Conservative Surgery  

PubMed Central

Conservative surgery is considered the procedure of choice for women who are affected by early stage tumours. The local recurrence of cancer as a consequence of breast tissue conservation is a growing concern. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of women who had local recurrences of breast cancer after conservative surgery and to examine the associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables and the incidence of tumour recurrence in these women. The retrospective cohort included 880 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent conservative surgery between January 2000 and December 2010. Recurrences occurred in 60 patients, and the mean age of the women at diagnosis was 48.8 years. Predictive factors for local recurrence were young age (<39 years) (P = 0.028 and OR = 10.93), surgical margin involvement (P = 0.001 and OR = 3.66), and Her-2 overexpression (P = 0.045 and OR = 1.94). The establishment of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics might help to select optimum treatments, which is a crucial challenge for public health in Brazil, especially with regard to reductions of surgery and hospitalisation expenditures in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde—SUS). PMID:25530886

Tovar, Juliana Rodrigues; Zandonade, Eliana; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa



Lymphedema of the operated and irradiated breast in breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy.  


The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer in 1990 indicated that breast conserving surgery with radiotherapy is the primary therapy for the majority of women with early stage breast cancer. Despite good aesthetic results, a remarkable number of patients suffer from lymphedema of the operated and irradiated breast. 131 study participants scored 8 subjective symptoms of breast edema on a scale from 0 to 10 and completed the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire to assess the health related quality of life among breast cancer patients. Incidence of breast edema, up to 5 years following surgery, was 75.5%. There was a significant positive correlation between breast edema and body mass index. Breast edema also correlated significantly with chemotherapy treatment, anti-hormone therapy, age, and all aspects of quality of life, except sexual functioning, sexual enjoyment, and upset by hair loss. There were no significant differences in breast edema related to the post- operative period, the level of nodal dissection, preoperative bra cup size, tumor location and whether the surgery was performed on the dominant side. Despite the benefits of breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, breast edema is a common complication that lowers quality of life significantly. PMID:23700762

Adriaenssens, N; Verbelen, H; Lievens, P; Lamote, J



[Trans-anal resection for recurrence of a very low rectal anastomosis at the suture line after colorectal cancer surgery].  


When a relatively small anastomotic recurrence of colorectal cancer is detected in the low rectum, trans-anal resection (TAR) might be an option both for curative intent and for preservation of anal function. We report 3 such cases. Case No. 1: A 58-year-old woman presented with an anastomotic recurrence of sigmoid colon cancer. Low anterior resection(LAR)was performed. Two small recurrent nodules were detected at the suture line 1 year after LAR, which were successfully treated with TAR. The depth of the nodules indicated T2 cancer. The patient remained cancer free 5 years after TAR. Case No. 2: A 56-year-old man developed a severe anastomotic stenosis and an anastomotic recurrence 6 months after LAR for low rectal cancer. TAR was performed circumferentially to resect both the stricture and the recurrence. The depth of the nodule indicated T2 cancer. The patient was cancer free for 7 years after TAR. Case No. 3: A 54-year-old man developed 2 small recurrent nodules at the suture line after LAR for low rectal cancer. TAR was performed. The depth of the nodule indicated T1 cancer. One of the nodules was not resected, which necessitated intersphincteric resection (ISR) 10 months later. In conclusion, in cases of a relatively small recurrence of low rectal anastomosis after colorectal cancer surgery, TAR is an effective treatment option. PMID:25731308

Nishimura, Yoji; Yatsuoka, Toshimasa; Toyoda, Tetsutaka; Shimada, Ryu; Ishikawa, Hideki; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Yoichi



The Axillary Nodal Harvest in Breast Cancer Surgery Is Unchanged by Sentinel Node Biopsy or the Timing of Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may undergo delayed completion axillary dissection. Where intraoperative analysis is available, immediate completion axillary dissection can be performed. Alternatively, patients may undergo primary axillary dissection for breast cancer, historically or when preoperative assessment suggests axillary metastases. This study aims to determine if there is a difference in the total number of lymph nodes or the number of metastatic nodes harvested between the 3 possible approaches. Methods. Three consecutive comparable groups of 50 consecutive patients who underwent axillary dissection in each of the above contexts were identified from the Portsmouth Breast Unit Database. Patient demographics, clinicopathological variables, and surgical treatment were recorded. The total pathological nodal count and the number of metastatic nodes were compared between the groups. Results. There were no differences in clinico-pathological features between the three groups for all features studied with the exception of breast surgical procedure (P < 0.001). There were no differences in total nodal harvest (P = 0.822) or in the number of positive nodes harvested (P = 0.157) between the three groups. Conclusion. The three approaches to axillary clearance yield equivalent nodal harvests, suggesting oncological equivalence and robustness of surgical technique. PMID:22693673

Byrne, B. E.; Cutress, R. I.; Gill, J.; Wise, M. H.; Yiangou, C.; Agrawal, A.



Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer



Tivozanib in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer That is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage C Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)



Comprehensive Patient Questionnaires in Predicting Complications in Older Patients With Gynecologic Cancer Undergoing Surgery

Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer



Comparative evaluation of function after surgery for cancer of the alveolobuccal complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The current study was undertaken to assess the functional deficit after hemiresection of the mandible and to determine whether lateral segment resection with reconstruction was a functionally superior alternative in the management of patients suffering from alveolobuccal cancer.Patients and Methods: Eighty-three patients were assigned to one of two main groups: Group I, hemiresection of the mandible (n = 47),

Snehal G Patel; Sanjay P Deshmukh; Dhairyasheel N Savant; Hosi M Bhathena



Prospective evaluation of quality of life after oncologic surgery for oral cancer.  


The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in patients undergoing surgical therapy for cancer of the lower region of the oral cavity (floor of the mouth and adjacent regions such as the tongue, alveolus, buccal sulcus, and oropharynx). A total of 83 patients were enrolled into the study. QoL was assessed using the core questionnaire and the head and neck module of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC H&N35). The questionnaires were distributed to the patients preoperatively on the day of hospital admission and 3 months, 6 months and 12 months postoperatively. The changes in the scores were tested longitudinally for statistical significance using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The effect of gender, tumour stage, and prognosis (recurrent disease/non-survival) were tested at the individual intervals additionally by ANOVA procedures. Results showed that surgical treatment of oral cancer of the floor of the mouth led to a temporary deterioration of physical function and role function 3 months after surgery. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in oral function with reduced body image and reduced ability and willingness for social contact. The levels of these scores improved until the end of the first year after treatment. Pain, emotional function and the feeling of being ill constantly improved during 1 year. Patients with advanced stage of the disease (Stages III and IV) showed lower values in role function, social function, pain- and site-specific effects such as swallowing and nutritional aspects. PMID:12361079

Schliephake, H; Jamil, M U



The correlates of benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery in non-small-cell lung cancer: a metaregression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is widely used, it is not clear which subgroup of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients should be treated with this approach, and if a particular benefit associated with NCT exists. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential correlates of benefit from NCT in patients with NSCLC. Methods All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) utilizing a NCT arm (without radiotherapy) versus a control arm before surgery were included for metaregression analysis. All regression analyses were weighed for trial size. Separate analyses were conducted for trials recruiting patients with different stages of disease. Previously published measures of treatment efficacy were used for the purpose of this study, regardless of being published in full text or abstract form. Results A total of 14 RCTs, consisting of 3,615 patients, were selected. Histology, stage, various characteristics of the NCT protocol, and different trial features including trial quality score were not associated with the benefit of NCT. However, in trials of stage 3 disease only, there was a greater benefit in terms of reduction in mortality from NCT, if protocols with three chemotherapeutics were used (B?=??0.18, t?=??5.25, P?=?0.006). Conclusions We think that patients with stage 3 NSCLC are served better with NCT before surgery if protocols with three chemotherapy agents or equally effective combinations are used. In addition, the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is consistent with regard to disease and patient characteristics. This finding should be tested in future RCTs or individual patient data meta-analyses. PMID:22877422



Quality of life after colorectal cancer surgery in patients from University Clinical Hospital Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.  


Quality of life (QoL) has become an important outcome measure for patients with cancer, but results from population-based studies are infrequently published. The objective of this study was to asses QoL in patients who underwent the colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery and to compare it to the QoL of general population. The patients who were admitted from January 2004 until May 2006 at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery at the Clinical Hospital Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina were divided in three groups: group of CRC patients who had received surgery and as a result of surgical treatment have colostomy, group of CRC patients who had received surgery in the same period and don't have colostomy and the third group that consisted of controls. QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires by the European Organization for Cancer Research and Treatment (EORTC) were used. A total of 67 patients were included in this study, supplemented by the thirty healthy examinees. Healthy group had significantly better results in physical functioning compared with colorectal cancer patients and better results in cognitive and social functioning. Also, they reported symptoms of diarrhea and constipation less frequently than the group with colostomy and. The group with colostomy had poorer results in emotional functioning than the group without colostomy, and also reported significantly poorer results for domain "body image". Healthy group showed better results in sexual enjoinment than the patient with colorectal cancer. Patients without colostomy reported more micturition and defecation problems and female sexual problems compared to the healthy group. Generally we found that healthy population had better results than the CRC patients, while the patients with stoma had worse results than the nonstoma patients. The results presented here suggest that psychological treatment should be an integral part of the CRC treatment plan. PMID:20120395

Trnini?, Zoran; Vidacak, Ana; Vrhovac, Jasna; Petrov, Bozo; Setka, Violeta



Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature.  


Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreaticobiliary tumors. These patients typically present in a malnourished state. Various screening tools have been employed to help with preoperative risk stratification. Examples include the subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and nutritional risk index (NRI). Adequate studies have not been performed to determine if perioperative interventions, based on nutrition risk assessment, result in less morbidity and mortality. The routine use of gastric decompression with nasogastric sump tubes may be unnecessary following elective pancreatic resections. Instead, placement should be selective and employed on a case-by-case basis. A wide variety of feeding modalities are available, oral nutrition being the most effective. Artificial nutrition may be provided by temporary nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, or combined nasogastrojejunal tube) or surgically placed tube [gastrostomy (GT), jejunostomy (JT), gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJT)], and intravenously (parenteral nutrition, PN). The optimal tube for enteral feeding cannot be determined based on current data. Each is associated with a specific set of complications. Dual lumen tubes may be useful in the presence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) as the stomach may be decompressed while feeds are delivered to the jejunum. However, all feeding tubes placed in the small intestine, except direct jejunostomies, commonly dislodge and retroflex into the stomach. Jejunostomies are associated with less frequent, but more serious complications. These include intestinal torsion and bowel necrosis. PN is associated with septic, metabolic, and access-related complications and should be the feeding strategy of last-resort. Enteral feeds are clearly preferred over parental nutrition. A sound understanding of perioperative nutrition may improve patient outcomes. Patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery should undergo multidisciplinary nutrition screening and intervention, and the surgical/oncological team should include nutrition professionals in managing these patients in the perioperative period. PMID:25713805

Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S; Chabot, John A; Kluger, Michael D



Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature  

PubMed Central

Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreaticobiliary tumors. These patients typically present in a malnourished state. Various screening tools have been employed to help with preoperative risk stratification. Examples include the subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and nutritional risk index (NRI). Adequate studies have not been performed to determine if perioperative interventions, based on nutrition risk assessment, result in less morbidity and mortality. The routine use of gastric decompression with nasogastric sump tubes may be unnecessary following elective pancreatic resections. Instead, placement should be selective and employed on a case-by-case basis. A wide variety of feeding modalities are available, oral nutrition being the most effective. Artificial nutrition may be provided by temporary nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, or combined nasogastrojejunal tube) or surgically placed tube [gastrostomy (GT), jejunostomy (JT), gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJT)], and intravenously (parenteral nutrition, PN). The optimal tube for enteral feeding cannot be determined based on current data. Each is associated with a specific set of complications. Dual lumen tubes may be useful in the presence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) as the stomach may be decompressed while feeds are delivered to the jejunum. However, all feeding tubes placed in the small intestine, except direct jejunostomies, commonly dislodge and retroflex into the stomach. Jejunostomies are associated with less frequent, but more serious complications. These include intestinal torsion and bowel necrosis. PN is associated with septic, metabolic, and access-related complications and should be the feeding strategy of last-resort. Enteral feeds are clearly preferred over parental nutrition. A sound understanding of perioperative nutrition may improve patient outcomes. Patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery should undergo multidisciplinary nutrition screening and intervention, and the surgical/oncological team should include nutrition professionals in managing these patients in the perioperative period. PMID:25713805

Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S.; Chabot, John A.



Respiration-induced movement correlation for synchronous noninvasive renal cancer surgery.  


Noninvasive surgery (NIS), such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based ablation or radiosurgery, is used for treating tumors and cancers in various parts of the body. The soft tissue targets (usually organs) deform and move as a result of physiological processes such as respiration. Moreover, other deformations induced during surgery by changes in patient position, changes in physical properties caused by repeated exposures and uncertainties resulting from cavitation also occur. In this paper, we present a correlation-based movement prediction technique to address respiration-induced movement of the urological organs while targeting through extracorporeal trans-abdominal route access. Among other organs, kidneys are worst affected during respiratory cycles, with significant three-dimensional displacements observed on the order of 20 mm. Remote access to renal targets such as renal carcinomas and cysts during noninvasive surgery, therefore, requires a tightly controlled real-time motion tracking and quantitative estimate for compensation routine to synchronize the energy source(s) for precise energy delivery to the intended regions. The correlation model finds a mapping between the movement patterns of external skin markers placed on the abdominal access window and the internal movement of the targeted kidney. The coarse estimate of position is then fine-tuned using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), thereby achieving a nonlinear mapping. The technical issues involved in this tracking scheme are threefold: the model must have sufficient accuracy in mapping the movement pattern; there must be an image-based tracking scheme to provide the organ position within allowable system latency; and the processing delay resulting from modeling and tracking must be within the achievable prediction horizon to accommodate the latency in the therapeutic delivery system. The concept was tested on ultrasound image sequences collected from 20 healthy volunteers. The results indicate that the modeling technique can be practically integrated into an image-guided noninvasive robotic surgical system with an indicative targeting accuracy of more than 94%. A comparative analysis showed the superiority of this technique over conventional linear mapping and modelfree blind search techniques. PMID:22828843

Abhilash, Rakkunedeth H; Chauhan, Sunita



The Effect of Extent of Surgery and Number of Lymph Node Metastases on Overall Survival in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context: Total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection is recommended in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, the relationship between disease severity and extent of resection on overall survival remains unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the effect of surgery on overall survival in MTC patients. Methods: Using data from 2968 patients with MTC diagnosed between 1998 and 2005 from the National Cancer Database, we determined the relationship between the number of cervical lymph node metastases, tumor size, distant metastases, and extent of surgery on overall survival in patients with MTC. Results: Older patient age (5.69 [95% CI, 3.34–9.72]), larger tumor size (2.89 [95% CI, 2.14–3.90]), presence of distant metastases (5.68 [95% CI, 4.61–6.99]), and number of positive regional lymph nodes (for ?16 lymph nodes, 3.40 [95% CI, 2.41–4.79]) were independently associated with decreased survival. Overall survival rate for patients with cervical lymph nodes resected and negative, cervical lymph nodes not resected, and 1–5, 6–10, 11–16, and ?16 cervical lymph node metastases was 90, 76, 74, 61, 69, and 55%, respectively. There was no difference in survival based on surgical intervention in patients with tumor size ? 2 cm without distant metastases. In patients with tumor size > 2.0 cm and no distant metastases, all surgical treatments resulted in a significant improvement in survival compared to no surgery (P < .001). In patients with distant metastases, only total thyroidectomy with regional lymph node resection resulted in a significant improvement in survival (P < .001). Conclusions: The number of lymph node metastases should be incorporated into MTC staging. The extent of surgery in patients with MTC should be tailored to tumor size and distant metastases. PMID:24276457

Hughes, David T.; Yin, Huiying; Banerjee, Mousumi; Haymart, Megan R.



Proportion and Clinical Outcomes of Postoperative Radiotherapy Omission after Breast-Conserving Surgery in Women with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study was conducted to investigate the proportion and clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients who did not receive postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods This retrospective study included all breast cancer patients received curative BCS without PORT between 2003 and 2013. In the PORT omission group, characteristics and local recurrence differences were compared between the recommended group and the refused group. To compare the local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) of the PORT omission group and the control group who received PORT, subjects were selected by using the pooled data of patients treated between 1994 and 2007. Results During the study period, 96 patients did not receive PORT among a total of 6,680 patients who underwent BCS. Therefore, the overall rate of PORT omission was 1.4%. Among the 96 patients, 20 were recommended for PORT omission (recommended group) and 76 refused PORT (refused group). The median follow-up period of all study participants was 19.3 months (range, 0.3-115.1 months). Patients in the recommended group were older (p=0.004), were more likely to be postmenopausal (p=0.013), and had more number of positive prognostic factors compared with the refused group. Overall, 12 cases of disease recurrence, including 11 cases of local recurrence, developed in the PORT-refused group. The LRFS of the PORT-omission group was significantly inferior to that of patients who received PORT after BCS (p<0.001). In the PORT-omission group, significant favorable prognostic factors for LRFS were having histologic grade 1 or 2 disease (p=0.023), having no axillary lymph node metastasis (p=0.039), receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy (p=0.046), and being in the recommended group (p=0.026). Conclusion The rate of PORT omission in the present study is very low among women who underwent surgery compared to that of other studies worldwide. PORT omission is significantly related to a high local recurrence rate. PMID:25834611

Yu, Jeong Il; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won Ho; Im, Young-Hyuck; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Yeon Hee



[Present status and tasks for genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery in patients with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].  


In Japan, awareness of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) has gradually increased among health care workers and the general population. We focus on two current topics: genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery for HBOC. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2, the genes responsible for HBOC, is performed to diagnose HBOC. PCR-direct sequencing is a standard method used for BRCA1/2 mutation analysis. Recently, genetic rearrangement of BRCA1 was reported in a Japanese patient with HBOC. Therefore, MLPA tests are also being included in routine genetic testing for the disease. The result of "uncertain significance, " which indicates unclear pathogenic significance, is obtained in about 3% of all patients who undergo BRCA1/2 genetic tests. Furthermore, novel candidate genes for HBOC, such as RAD51C, PALB2, and BRIP1, were recently identified. Prophylactic surgical intervention for HBOC includes procedures such as risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) and risk-reducing mastectomy(RRM). In Japan, RRSO is performed in very few patients at present. Increasing evidence from overseas indicates that RRSO contributes to a decreased incidence of ovarian/breast cancers and lowers overall mortality. Therefore, a system for performing RRSO was established in our institute. RRSO was approved to be performed as a clinical examination by our Institutional Review Board. The clinical significance of ipsilateral complete mastectomy and RRM remains unclear. Based on the NCCN guidelines, conservative mastectomy with radiation therapy is relatively contraindicated in patients with HBOC. However, several studies have reported that conservative mastectomy with radiation the rapydoes not increase the incidence of recurrent or metachronous breast cancers in the ipsilateral breast of mutation-positive patients when compared to mutation-negative or control patients. However, more aggressive malignancies seem to be included in the mutation-positive group(especially BRCA1 -mutation-positive cases). RRM clearly reduced the incidence of breast cancers. RRM may also be allowed as a treatment option for HBOC in Japan. PMID:22504676

Arai, Masami; Taki, Keiko; Iwase, Haruko; Takizawa, Ken; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Iwase, Takuji



Robot-assisted surgery for kidney cancer increased access to a procedure that can reduce mortality and renal failure.  


Surgeons increasingly use robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery for a variety of medical conditions. For hospitals, the acquisition and maintenance of a robot requires a significant investment, but financial returns are not linked to any improvement in long-term patient outcomes in the current reimbursement environment. Kidney cancer provides a useful case study for evaluating the long-term value that this innovation can provide. Kidney cancer is generally treated through partial or radical nephrectomy, with evidence favoring the former procedure for appropriate patients. We found that robot-assisted surgery increased access to partial nephrectomy and that partial nephrectomy reduced mortality and renal failure. The value of the benefits of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery to patients, in terms of quality-adjusted life-years gained, outweighed the health care and surgical costs to patients and payers by a ratio of five to one. In addition, we found no evidence that the availability of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery increased the likelihood that inappropriate patients received partial nephrectomy. PMID:25646101

Chandra, Amitabh; Snider, Julia Thornton; Wu, Yanyu; Jena, Anupam; Goldman, Dana P



What couples say about their recovery of sexual intimacy after prostatectomy: toward the development of a conceptual model of couples’ sexual recovery after surgery for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interventions designed to help couples recover sexual intimacy after prostatectomy have not been guided by a comprehensive conceptual model. Aim We examined a proposed biopsychosocial conceptual model of couples’ sexual recovery that included functional, psychological and relational aspects of sexuality, surgery-related sexual losses, and grief and mourning as recovery process. Methods We interviewed twenty couples pre-operatively and 3-months post-operatively. between 2010 and 2012. Interviews were analyzed with Analytic Induction qualitative methodology, using NVivo software. Paired t-tests described functional assessment data. Study findings led to a revised conceptual model. Main Outcome Measures Couples’ experiences were assessed through semi-structured interviews; male participants’ sexual function was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and female participants’ sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index. Results Pre-operatively, 30% of men had erectile dysfunction (ED), 84% of partners were post-menopausal. All valued sexual recovery, but worried about cancer spread and surgery side-effects. Faith in themselves and their surgeons led 90% of couples to overestimate erectile recovery. Post-operatively, most men had ED and lost confidence. Couples’ sexual activity decreased. Couples reported feeling loss and grief: cancer diagnosis was the first loss, followed by surgery-related sexual losses. Couples’ engagement in intentional sex, patients’ acceptance of erectile aids and partners’ interest in sex aided the recovery of couples’ sexual intimacy recovery. Unselfconscious sex, not return to erectile function baseline, was seen as the endpoint. Survey findings documented participants’ sexual function losses, confirming qualitative findings. Conclusions Couples’ sexual recovery requires addressing sexual function, feelings about losses and relationship simultaneously. Peri-operative education should emphasize the roles of nerve damage in ED and grief and mourning in sexual recovery. PMID:25358901

Wittmann, Daniela; Carolan, Marsha; Given, Barbara; Skolarus, Ted A.; Crossley, Heather; An, Lawrence; Palapattu, Ganesh; Clark, Patricia; Montie, James E.



Reduced-Port Laparoscopic Surgery for a Tumor-Specific Mesorectal Excision in Patients With Colorectal Cancer: Initial Experience With 20 Consecutive Cases  

PubMed Central

Purpose Single-port plus one-port, reduced-port laparoscopic surgery (RPLS) may decrease collisions between laparoscopic instruments and the camera in a narrow, bony, pelvic cavity while maintaining the cosmetic advantages of single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience with and to assess the feasibility and safety of RPLS for tumor-specific mesorectal excisions (TSMEs) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods Between May 2010 and August 2012, RPLS for TSME was performed in 20 patients with colorectal cancer. A single port with four channels through an umbilical incision and an additional port in the right lower quadrant were used for RPLS. Results The median operation time was 231 minutes (range, 160-347 minutes), and the estimated blood loss was 100 mL (range, 50-500 mL). We transected the rectum with one laparoscopic stapler in 17 cases (85%). The median time to soft diet was 4 days (range, 3-6 days), and the length of hospital stay was 7 days (range, 5-45 days). The median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 16 (range, 7-36), and circumferential resection margin involvement was found in 1 case (5%). Seven patients (35%) developed postoperative complications, and no mortalities occurred within 30 days. During the median follow-up period of 20 months (range, 12-40 months), liver metastasis occurred in 1 patient 10 months after surgery, and local recurrence was nonexistent. Conclusion RPLS for TSME in patients with colorectal cancer is technically feasible and safe without compromising oncologic safety. However, further studies comparing RPLS with a conventional, laparoscopic low-anterior resection are needed to prove the advantages of the RPLS procedure.

Bae, Sung Uk; Baek, Se Jin; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu



Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Predictor of Pathologic Response and a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a predictor of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and prognostic factor for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 352 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery. Serum CEA levels were determined before CRT administration (pre-CRT CEA) and before surgery (post-CRT CEA). Correlations between pre-CRT CEA levels and rates of good response (Tumor regression grade 3/4) were explored. Patients were categorized into three CEA groups according to their pre-/post-CRT CEA levels (ng/mL) (Group A: pre-CRT CEA {<=} 3; B: pre-CRT CEA >3, post-CRT CEA {<=}3; C: pre- and post-CRT CEA >3 ng/mL), and their oncologic outcomes were compared. Results: Of 352 patients, good responses were achieved in 94 patients (26.7%). The rates of good response decreased significantly as the pre-CRT CEA levels became more elevated (CEA [ng/mL]: {<=}3, 36.4%; 3-6, 23.6%; 6-9, 15.6%; >9, 7.8%; p < 0.001). The rates of good response were significantly higher in Group A than in Groups B and C (36.4% vs. 17.3% and 14.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was significantly better in Groups A and B than in Group C (82% and 79% vs. 57%, respectively; p = 0.005); the CEA grouping was identified as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). Conclusions: In locally advanced rectal cancer patients, CEA levels could be of clinical value as a predictor of response to preoperative CRT and as an independent prognostic factor after preoperative CRT and curative surgery.

Park, Ji Won [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of)



Hospital procedure volume and teaching status do not influence treatment and outcome measures of rectal cancer surgery in a large general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear benefit of increased hospital procedure volume or teaching hospital status on outcomes of rectal cancer surgery has\\u000a yet to be shown. Few have examined treatment differences that may lead to varying outcomes. This study assessed the impact\\u000a of hospital procedure volume and teaching status on both treatment and outcome measures of rectal cancer surgery in a large\\u000a general

Marko Simunovic; Teresa To; Nancy Baxter; Andrew Balshem; Eric Ross; Zane Cohen; Robin McLeod; Paul Engstrom; Elin Sigurdson



Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis: evidence from an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been considered as a promising treatment\\u000a modality for gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, there have also been many debates regarding the\\u000a efficacy and safety of this new approach. Results from experimental animal model study could help provide reliable information.\\u000a This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of

Li Tang; Lie-Jun Mei; Xiao-Jun Yang; Chao-Qun Huang; Yun-Feng Zhou; Yutaka Yonemura; Yan Li



Expert Opinion on Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Parallels Evidence from a Cumulative Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence.Study DesignA systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews,

Guillaume Martel; Alyson Crawford; Jeffrey S. Barkun; Robin P. Boushey; Craig R. Ramsay; Dean A. Fergusson



Intensity-Modulated Whole Abdominal Radiotherapy After Surgery and Carboplatin/Taxane Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Phase I Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Results: Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

Rochet, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.rochet@med.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian; Jensen, Alexandra D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Dinkel, Julien [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus K.; Schubert, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichbaum, Michael H.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Harms, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Claraspital, Basel (Switzerland)



Outcome After Conservative Surgery and Breast Irradiation in 5,717 Patients With Breast Cancer: Implications for Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and predictive factors of patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast only, without supraclavicular nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 5,717 patients with pT1-T4 breast cancer were treated at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range, 30-80 years). All patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years (range, 1-27 years). Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 1,535 patients (26.9%). Tamoxifen was prescribed in 2,951 patients (51.6%). The patients were split into three groups according to number of positive axillary nodes (PAN): P1, negative axillary lymph nodes; P2, one to three PAN; P3, more than three PAN. Results: The P3 patients had a higher incidence of supraclavicular fossa recurrence (SFR) compared with P2 and P1 patients. However, the incidence of SFR in P3 patients was low (only 5.5%), whereas the incidence of distant metastases (DM) was 27.2%. Distant metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor for breast cancer survival. Additionally, in the subgroup of patients who developed local recurrence, DM was the most important death predictor. Conclusion: Our series suggests that isolated SFR in patients who did not receive supraclavicular radiotherapy is infrequent, as well as in those patients who have more than three PAN, and SFR seems not to influence the outcome, which depends on DM occurrence.

Livi, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.livi@dfc.unifi.i [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Scotti, Vieri [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Saieva, Calogero [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Center, Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro; Detti, Beatrice; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Cardillo, Carla Deluca; Paiar, Fabiola; Mangoni, Monica [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Medical Physics, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Cataliotti, Luigi [Department of Surgery, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bianchi, Simonetta [Department of Pathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Biti, Giampaolo [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)



Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer



Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery.  


A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure. PMID:24980159

Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald



Cytokine Candidate Genes Predict the Development of Secondary Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Lymphedema (LE) is a frequent complication following breast cancer treatment. While progress is being made in the identification of phenotypic risk factors for the development of LE, little information is available on the mo