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Sample records for cancer surgery wards

  1. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  2. Barriers to Nurse-Patient Communication in Cardiac Surgery Wards: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafipour, Vida; Mohammad, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Background: An appropriate and effective nurse-patient communication is of the most important aspect of caring. The formation and continuation of such a relationship depends on various factors such as the conditions and context of communication and a mutual understanding between the two. A review of the literature shows that little research is carried out on identification of such barriers in hospital wards between the patients and the healthcare staff. Objectives: The present study was therefore conducted to explore the experiences of nurses and patients on communication barriers in hospital cardiac surgery wards. Design and Methods: This qualitative research was carried out using a content analysis method (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). The participants were selected by a purposeful sampling and consist of 10 nurses and 11 patients from the cardiac surgery wards of three teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Data was gathered by unstructured interviews. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Results: Findings were emerged in three main themes including job dissatisfaction (with the sub-themes of workload tension and decreased motivation), routine-centered care (with the sub-themes of habitual interventions, routinized and technical interventions, and objective supervision), and distrust in competency of nurses (with the sub-themes of cultural contrast, less responsible nurses, and their apathy towards the patients). Conclusions: Compared to other studies, our findings identified different types of communication barriers depending on the nursing settings. These findings can be used by the ward clinical nursing managers at cardiac surgery wards to improve the quality of nursing care. PMID:25363126

  3. Innovative computer-based learning for breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Karen Louise

    Discussions with student nurses when they have been on placement on the breast cancer surgery ward highlighted their lack of knowledge about breast cancer surgery. This lack of knowledge by student nurses necessitated the development of a computer-based learning tool. A distance-learning tool was found to be an effective way of providing education, due to lack of facilities and workload on the ward. The student nurses using this tool will have better understanding of the treatments their patients are undergoing, leading to improved patient care. PMID:17353818

  4. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is little benefit of taking out the whole pancreas if the cancer can be treated by removing only part of ... if the tumor has not grown outside the pancreas. Surgery does not stop cancer, but may be done to ease pain if ...

  5. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy and targeted therapy. This helps to increase survival. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two main types of breast ... shown lumpectomy plus radiation offers the same overall survival benefit as mastectomy for early ... (almost always followed by radiation): The surgeon ...

  6. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of surgery can be ... 2 to 3 hours. What to expect after breast cancer surgery: After your surgery, you will be taken ...

  7. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning. PMID:26427363

  8. Surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dooley, W C

    1998-11-01

    Women with breast cancer today have many more therapeutic options available to them for their surgical therapy. Almost all patients with breast cancer have some options for breast conservation. Active patient involvement in analyzing and understanding the pros and cons of each of these options seems extremely important to the long-term emotional and psychological outcome of their breast cancer therapy. Several reports this year have reintroduced the issue of adequate local control. The common philosophy a decade ago was that because systematic therapy (adjuvant chemotherapy) was improving, local therapy would become of lesser importance. Several studies this year have indicated the extreme importance of local control in maximizing survival advantage because of the relationship of increasing local failure and deteriorating survival from systemic disease. Despite significant improvements in treatment, our screening and diagnostic approaches have still failed to identify the majority of lesions prior to the patient's own palpation of the tumor. Using new diagnostic modalities that do not involve surgery, the biopsy of lower probability lesions with great accuracy is expected to improve the efficacy of the current screening measures. Despite all the improvements, the most important therapeutic step in the management of breast cancer remains earlier diagnosis and earlier extirpation of the initial invasive focus of malignancy. PMID:9818228

  9. Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Goldenberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer represents a growing proportion of head and neck malignancies. This has been associated with the increase in infection of the oropharynx by oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has opened the door for minimally invasive surgery for HPV-related and non-HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Compared to traditional open surgical approaches, TORS has been shown to improve functional outcomes in speech and swallowing, while maintaining good oncologic outcomes. PMID:24808952

  10. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... done instead). Gallbladder cancers are sometimes found by accident after a person has a cholecystectomy for another ... Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gallbladder Cancer Talking With ...

  11. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Pancreatic surgery is done to treat cancer of the pancreas gland. When You Are in the Hospital All ... Claudius C, Lillemoe KD. Palliative Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Cameron ... Vickers SM. Exocrine Pancreas. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  12. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 81. Update Date 5/20/2015 Updated by: John A. Daller, MD, PhD., Department of Surgery, University ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  13. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have sex. But if both testicles are removed, sperm cells cannot be produced and a man becomes ... sparing surgery with their doctors, as well as sperm banking (freezing and storing sperm cells obtained before ...

  14. Surgery for Pre-Cancers and Cancers of the Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation therapy for cervical cancer Surgery for cervical cancer Cryosurgery A metal probe cooled with liquid nitrogen ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  15. Assessment of knowledge among patients of surgical wards regarding clinical symptoms and diagnostics of the most common malignant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowska, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The aim of this work was to evaluate the knowledge of symptoms and prophylaxis among hospitalized patients. Material and methods The research was carried in the Provincial Hospital in Bydgoszcz (i.e. general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, urology, breast surgery and thoracic surgery). 250 hospitalized patients took part in the tests, as well as 50 healthy people. The scientific method used was a specially designed questionnaire. The Bioethics Committee of Collegium Medicum of Mikołaj Kopernik University in Bydgoszcz approved these tests. Results Patients from the Breast Diseases Ward had better knowledge about cancers than the control group. Symptoms of lung cancer were known to both groups to the same extent. Patients from the Clinical Ward of Thoracic Surgery were very knowledgeable about lung cancer, but they did not know anything about other malignant types of cancer. Patients from Gynecology and Obstetrics wards are better than the control group only at knowledge about symptoms and screening of cervix cancer. Patients from the Urology Ward have the best knowledge about screening of prostate cancer and colon cancer. Those hospitalized at the Surgery Ward do not know symptoms of colon cancer, but they have knowledge about its screening. Conclusions Patients from the Clinical Ward of Thoracic and Cancer Surgery and the Clinical Surgery Ward had the least knowledge about malignant tumors.Patients from Urology, Gynecology and Obstetrics wards have better knowledge about malignant tumors treated there. PMID:23788944

  16. Lipofilling in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Rietjens, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lipofilling is being performed either as a part of oncoplastic technique or alone by itself for correction of defects and asymmetry after oncologic breast cancer surgery. Its efficacy, safety and technical procedures are varying among institutions and individual surgeon’s experiences. We provide a literature review and view point focus on this novel technique which emphasize on the application on breast cancer reconstruction. PMID:25083450

  17. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States as they are in countries (like Japan) where stomach cancer is more common and more ... lymphadenectomy ) when a gastrectomy is done. Surgeons in Japan have had very high success rates by removing ...

  18. Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the abdomen. The surgeon can look at the pancreas and other organs for tumors and take biopsy ... pancreatic cancers appear to be confined to the pancreas at the time they are found. Even then, ...

  19. Caring for patients with cancer in non-specialist wards: the nurse experience.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S; Wilkes, L M; Ogunsiji, O; Walker, A

    2005-07-01

    This study aims to describe the experiences of nurses caring for cancer patients in non-specialist wards. The study was conducted in a large (420 beds) and small (32 beds) hospital in an area health service with urban and rural populations in the west of Sydney. A qualitative descriptive approach was utilized to collect data from the nurses. Data were collected using a survey and in-depth interviews of nurses working in non-specialist cancer wards. Transcribed data were managed with Nudist Vivo software and analysed for common themes using process of constant comparison and contrast. Twenty-five surveys were returned and five nurses volunteered to be interviewed. The six major themes that emerged from analysis of data were: emotional nature of care, lack of time, lack of knowledge of cancer treatment, family support, environment not conducive to proper care and dealing with patient's non-acceptance of cancer diagnosis. The nurses in this study wished to provide quality supportive care for cancer patients and their families but the inconducive environment and inadequate relevant training hindered the nurses' efforts. This then presents further need of relevant training for nurses in cancer care and time management, to meet up with these challenges. PMID:15952970

  20. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat. The heat helps kill any remaining tumor cells. This allows PMMA to be used without cryosurgery for some types of bone tumors. Surgical treatment of metastasis To be able to cure a bone cancer, it and any existing metastases must be removed ...

  1. Surgery for Cancer of the Vulva (Vulvectomy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Effects » Fertility and Sexual Side Effects in Women » Sexuality for the Woman with Cancer » Surgery for cancer ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Sexuality for the Woman With Cancer + - Text Size Download ...

  2. Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Surgery Wards of a Large Teaching Hospital in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Silvano; Gioia, Renato; De Simone, Giuseppe; Noviello, Silvana; Lombardi, Domenico; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Filippelli, Amelia; Rega, Maria Rosaria; Massari, Angelo; Elberti, Maria Giovanna; Grisi, Lucilla; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Surgical infections represent an increasingly important problem for the National Health System. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganisms concerned as well as the utilization of antibiotics in the General and Emergency Surgery wards of a large teaching hospital in southern Italy in the period 2011–2013. Methods Data concerning non-duplicate bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility were retrieved from the Vitek 2 database. The pharmacy provided data about the consumption of antibiotics in the above reported wards. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used. Results In all, 94 Gram-negative were isolated in 2011, 77 in 2012, and 125 in 2013, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa always being the most frequently isolated microorganisms. A. baumannii showed high rates of resistance to carbapenems (with values of 100% in 2011 and 2012) and low rates of resistance to tigecycline, colistin and amikacin. In the same years, there were respectively 105, 93, and 165 Gram-positive isolated. The rate of MRSA isolates ranged from 66% to 75% during the study period. Conclusions Our results show no significant increase in antimicrobial resistance over the period in question, and a higher rate of both MRSA isolates and resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii compared with other European data. PMID:26075047

  3. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  4. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  5. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  6. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed completely. Palliative surgery is not expected to cure the cancer, but it can sometimes help a person feel ... an option. In some cases it might even cure the cancer. But even for people who are eligible for ...

  7. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  8. Mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Gen; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic techniques have been extensively used for the surgical management of colorectal cancer during the last two decades. Accumulating data have demonstrated that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncologic outcomes when compared with open surgery. However, some controversies regarding the oncologic quality of mini-invasive surgery for rectal cancer exist. Meanwhile, some progresses in colorectal surgery, such as robotic technology, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice specimen extraction, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, have been made in recent years. In this article, we review the published data and mainly focus on the current status and latest advances of mini-invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID:24589210

  9. New Guidelines Set Safe Surgery Margins for Some Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... New Guidelines Set Safe Surgery Margins for Some Breast Cancers 2 millimeters is enough to guard against recurrences ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New surgery guidelines for certain breast cancer patients could reduce both unnecessary surgeries and recurrence ...

  10. [Organ-sparing surgery for penile cancer].

    PubMed

    Schlenker, B; Gratzke, C; Tilki, D; Hungerhuber, E; Schneede, P; Reich, O; Stief, C G; Seitz, M

    2008-07-01

    In patients with penile cancer health-related quality of life is closely related to organ-sparing surgery. To achieve an ideally suited treatment modality for this rare but aggressive tumor entity different operating techniques like micrographic surgery, laser treatment, and glansectomy were developed. These should offer optimal oncological treatment while preserving sexual function. This article gives an overview of indications and limits of organ-sparing treatment in penile cancer. PMID:18551271

  11. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27440037

  12. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  13. Factors Influencing Communication Between the Patients with Cancer and their Nurses in Oncology Wards

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Nikanfar, Alireza; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Ghahramanian, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the factors influencing nurse-patient communication in cancer care in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in oncology wards of hospitals in Tabriz. Data was collected through purposive sampling by semi-structured deep interviews with nine patients, three family members and five nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: The main theme of the research emerged as “three-factor effects” that demonstrates all the factors related to the patient, nurse, and the organization and includes three categories of “Patient as the center of communication”, “Nurse as a human factor”, and “Organizational structures”. The first category consists of two sub-categories of “Imposed changes by the disease” and the “patient's particular characteristics”. The second category includes sub-categories of “sense of vulnerability” and “perception of professional self: Pre-requisite of patient-centered communication”. The third category consists of the sub-categories of “workload and time imbalance”, “lack of supervision”, and “impose duties in context of neglecting nurse and patient needs”. Characteristics of the patients, nurses, and care environment seemed to be the influential factors on the communication. Conclusions: In order to communicate with cancer patients effectively, changes in philosophy and culture of the care environment are essential. Nurses must receive proper trainings which meet their needs and which focus on holistic and patient-centered approach. PMID:24600177

  14. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward: Clinical risk factors and prediction by bedside cognitive tests.

    PubMed

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Koerner, Ejnar Alex; Schultz, Helga Holm; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2016-08-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent psychiatric complication to cancer, but rarely recognized by oncologists. Aims 1. To estimate the prevalence of delirium among inpatients admitted at an oncological cancer ward 2. To investigate whether simple clinical factors predict delirium 3. To examine the value of cognitive testing in the assessment of delirium. Methods On five different days, we interviewed and assessed patients admitted to a Danish cancer ward. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases Version 10, WHO ICD-10 Diagnostic System and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious participants were CAM positive. Poor performance on the cognitive tests was associated with delirium. Medical records describing CNS metastases, benzodiazepine or morphine treatment were associated with delirium. Conclusions Delirium is prevalent among cancer inpatients. The Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test can be used as screening tools for delirium among inpatients with cancer, but even in synergy, they lack specificity. Combining cognitive testing and attention to nurses' records might improve detection, yet further studies are needed to create a more detailed patient profile for the detection of delirium. PMID:26882016

  15. The effect of continuing care on patient's quality-of-life after disc surgery in neurosurgery and very important person wards

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Eslami, Manijeh; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Tabesh, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, lumbar herniation discs, a prevalent problem with a sign of lumbar and feet pain in society. Removal of disk by surgery decrease pain but reduce quality-of-life (QOL). In some cases, lake of following and caring of patient after surgery, herniation disc recurrent. Previous studies show that patient education and followings is important, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of continuing care on patient QOL after disc surgery in neurosurgery and very important person (VIP) ward in Al-Zahra Hospital. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on 64 patients hospitalized in the neurosurgery and VIP wards of Al-Zahra Hospital, in Isfahan, Iran, in 2013. The patients were selected by simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to two groups (study and control). Patients’ response to short form-36 questionnaire before and 4 weeks and 3 months after continuing care in study group, and simultaneously, in the control group. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference in mean of physical and psychological dimensions before and 4 weeks and 3 months after intervention in study group (P < 0.05), but in control group, the difference was not significant (P = 0.8). Pairwise comparison of mean physical and psychological dimensions at different time points by Fisher's least significant difference showed that there was a significant difference in the intervention group (P < 0.022). But in the control group, there was no significant difference between pairs of time points (P > 0.18). Conclusion: Continuing care improves dimensions of patients’ QOL, and it is recommended as a nursing and nonmedical intervention in disc surgery patients. PMID:27462648

  16. New technologies in thyroid cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhepnorrarat, Rataphol Chris; Witterick, Ian J

    2013-07-01

    Several new technologies have advanced the practice of thyroid surgery in recent years, with some centers implementing substantial changes in the way thyroid surgery is performed. As many thyroid cancers are diagnosed at an early stage the treatment is quite effective, and the prognosis is good for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. With excellent long term survival, advancements in the treatment of patients with thyroid cancers are focusing on reducing complications of surgery, improving quality-of-life and delivering care in a cost-effective way. The LigaSure electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system and Harmonic scalpel have been designed to aid in dissection with less thermal spread than conventional electrocautery. Alternative access approaches to the thyroid allow for improved cosmetic outcomes and potentially improve the view of the surgical field. The intraoperative use of gamma-probe for the localization of metastases and sentinel lymph nodes are being increasingly reported on. Surgeon performed ultrasound is promoted for improving the detection of disease, and intraoperative nerve monitoring is now widespread, aiding in laryngeal nerve detection and protection. The assay of parathyroid hormone is also in common use for predicting patients at risk for developing postoperative hypocalcemia. This article reviews the current literature on new technologies for thyroid surgery and discusses some of the implications for the future of this field of surgery. PMID:23578371

  17. Surgery for pancreatic cancer - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Claudius C, Lillemoe KD. Palliative Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2014: 481-487. Jensen EH, Borja-Cacho D, ...

  18. Laparoscopic cancer surgery. Lessons from gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wade, T P; Comitalo, J B; Andrus, C H; Goodwin, M N; Kaminski, D L

    1994-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may inhibit the discovery of unsuspected gallbladder cancer, and the effect of LC on the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is unknown. We present two cases of unsuspected gallbladder cancer removed laparoscopically and report the discovery of peritoneal tumor implantation at the umbilical port site 21 days after LC. Although gallbladder carcinoma flow cytometry has been reported to be of prognostic value by Japanese investigators, this technique did not distinguish herein between an invasive adenocarcinoma and carcinoma in situ. A cellular doubling time of 56 h was calculated from one tumor. When unsuspected invasive gallbladder cancer is found after LC, laparoscopic port sites should be inspected at reoperation and, at a minimum, the port site through which the gallbladder was removed should be widely excised. This demonstration of cancer recurrence in laparoscopic port sites may limit the application of laparoscopy to elective cancer resection. PMID:8059312

  19. Exilic effects of illness and pain in Solzhenitsyn's Cancer Ward: how sharpening the moral imagination can facilitate repatriation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2009-03-01

    This essay uses Solzhenitsyn's Cancer Ward to explore the exilic effects of illness and pain. The novel is uniquely suited for such an analysis given the theme of exile that predominates both in the narrative and in the composition of multiple characters within that narrative. I argue that illness, and in particular pain, is a liminal state, an existential hinterlands. The ethical approach to literature and medicine may suggest, as a response to these exilic effects, the need to cultivate connection and empathy by sharpening the moral imagination. If pain and illness exile the sufferer, the imperative to reach out takes on ethical content. PMID:18946635

  20. [Minimally Invasive Open Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuo; Watanabe, Shunichi

    2016-07-01

    Significant efforts have been made to reduce the invasiveness of surgical procedures by surgeons for a long time. Surgeons always keep it in mind that the basic principle performing less invasive surgical procedures for malignant tumors is to decrease the invasiveness for patients without compromising oncological curability and surgical safety. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been used increasingly as a minimally invasive approach to lung cancer surgery. Whereas, whether VATS lobectomy is a less invasive procedure and has equivalent or better clinical effect compared with open lobectomy for patients with lung cancer remains controversial because of the absence of randomized prospective studies. The degree of difficulty for anatomical lung resection depends on the degree of the fissure development, mobility of hilar lymph nodes, and the degree of pleural adhesions. During pulmonary surgery, thoracic surgeons always have to deal with not only these difficulties but other unexpected events such as intraoperative bleeding. Recently, we perform pulmonary resection for lung cancer with minimally invasive open surgery (MIOS) approach. In this article, we introduce the surgical procedure of MIOS and demonstrate short-term results. Off course, the efficacy of MIOS needs to be further evaluated with long-term results. PMID:27440030

  1. Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogi, Marcello C; Fanucchi, Olivia; Melfi, Franco; Mussi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the role of minimally invasive surgery has been increased, especially with the introduction of the robotic system in the surgical field. The most important advantages of robotic system are represented by the wristed instrumentation and the depth perception, which can overcome the limitation of traditional thoracoscopy. However, some data still exist in literature with regard to robotic lobectomy. The majority of papers are focused on its safety and feasibility, but further studies with long follow-ups are necessary in order to assess the oncologic outcomes. We reviewed the literature on robotic lobectomy, with the main aim to better define the role of robotic system in the clinical practice. PMID:25207216

  2. Irradiation and surgery for selected cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.T.

    1982-08-01

    Combinations of radiation therapy with surgery originated when the surgeon thought he had transected cancer. Unrealistic expectations, however, plagued these combinations until it was appreciated that the dose required to eradicate a given cancerous mass varied primarily with its volume and the associated oxygen tension of its cells. This helped to establish the rationale for combining irradiation and surgery and enabled the radiation therapist to more closely tailor dose needs to each specific clinical problem. Tailoring of dose remains crude. Our greatest errors continue to be attributable to poor definition of tumor extent and the underestimation of residual tumor volume. We need more precise information from the surgeon and pathologist along with greater knowledge of patterns of spread. To the degree that such added information becomes available, we have the means to increase loco-regional control rates.

  3. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  4. Radiation May Help After Surgery for 'Soft-Tissue' Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158322.html Radiation May Help After Surgery for 'Soft-Tissue' Cancers ... called soft-tissue sarcomas may benefit more from radiation therapy after surgery than younger patients do, a ...

  5. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more risk, ... comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may be best to ...

  6. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more ... News) -- When it comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Masoud; Balavarca, Yesilda; Jansen, Lina; Gondos, Adam; Lemmens, Valery; Sjövall, Annika; B⊘rge Johannesen, Tom; Moreau, Michel; Gabriel, Liberale; Gonçalves, Ana Filipa; Bento, Maria José; van de Velde, Tony; Kempfer, Lana Raffaela; Becker, Nikolaus; Ulrich, Alexis; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Schrotz-King, Petra; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) was first introduced over 20 years ago and recently has gained increasing acceptance and usage beyond clinical trials. However, data on dissemination of the method across countries and on long-term outcomes are still sparse. In the context of a European collaborative study, a total of 112,023 CRC cases from 3 population-based (N = 109,695) and 4 institute-based clinical cancer registries (N = 2328) were studied and compared on the utilization of MIS versus open surgery. Cox regression models were applied to study associations between surgery type and survival of patients from the population-based registries. The study considered adjustment for potential confounders. The percentage of CRC patients undergoing MIS differed substantially between centers and generally increased over time. MIS was significantly less often used in stage II to IV colon cancer compared with stage I in most centers. MIS tended to be less often used in older (70+) than in younger colon cancer patients. MIS tended to be more often used in women than in men with rectal cancer. MIS was associated with significantly reduced mortality among colon cancer patients in the Netherlands (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (0.63–0.69), Sweden (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60–0.76), and Norway (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67–0.79). Likewise, MIS was associated with reduced mortality of rectal cancer patients in the Netherlands (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68–0.80) and Sweden (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.90). Utilization of MIS in CRC resection is increasing, but large variation between European countries and clinical centers prevails. Our results support association of MIS with substantially enhanced survival among colon cancer patients. Further studies controlling for selection bias and residual confounding are needed to establish role of MIS in survival of patients. PMID:27258522

  8. Surgery for Liver Metastases From Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martella, Luca; Bertozzi, Serena; Londero, Ambrogio P.; Steffan, Agostino; De Paoli, Paolo; Bertola, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of surgical therapy in patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the results obtained with local treatment of hepatic metastases in patients with gastric cancer, by performing a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1990 and 2014. These works included multiple studies that evaluated the different survival rate among patients who underwent local treatment, such as hepatectomy or radiofrequency ablation, for hepatic metastases derived from primary gastric cancer. The collected studies were evaluated for heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality, and a pooled hazard ratio (HR) was calculated with a confidence interval estimated at 95% (95% CI). After conducting a thorough research among all published works, 2337 studies were found and after the review process 11 observational studies were included in the analysis. The total amount of patients considered in the survival analysis was 1010. An accurate analysis of all included studies reported a significantly higher survival rate in the group of patients who underwent the most aggressive local treatment for hepatic metastases (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.46–0.95) as opposed to patients who underwent only palliation or systemic treatment. Furthermore, palliative local treatment of hepatic metastases had a higher survival rate if compared to surgical (without liver surgery) and systemic palliation (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96). Considering the only 3 studies where data from multivariate analyses was available, we found a higher survival rate in the local treatment groups, but the difference was not significant (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.22–1.15). Curative and also palliative surgery of liver metastases from gastric cancer may improve patients’ survival. However, further trials are needed in order to better understand the role of surgery in this

  9. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Poruk, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19th century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20th century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections. PMID:26361403

  10. Pancreatic cancer surgery: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Griffin, James F; Poruk, Katherine E; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The history of pancreatic cancer surgery, though fraught with failure and setbacks, is punctuated by periods of incremental progress dependent upon the state of the art and the mettle of the surgeons daring enough to attempt it. Surgical anesthesia and the aseptic techniques developed during the latter half of the 19(th) century were instrumental in establishing a viable setting for pancreatic surgery to develop. Together, they allowed for bolder interventions and improved survival through the post-operative period. Surgical management began with palliative procedures to address biliary obstruction in advanced disease. By the turn of the century, surgical pioneers such as Alessandro Codivilla and Walther Kausch were demonstrating the technical feasibility of pancreatic head resections and applying principles learned from palliation to perform complicated anatomical reconstructions. Allen O. Whipple, the namesake of the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), was the first to take a systematic approach to refining the procedure. Perhaps his greatest contribution was sparking a renewed interest in the surgical management of periampullary cancers and engendering a community of surgeons who advanced the field through their collective efforts. Though the work of Whipple and his contemporaries legitimized PD as an accepted surgical option, it was the establishment of high-volume centers of excellence and a multidisciplinary approach in the later decades of the 20(th) century that made it a viable surgical option. Today, pancreatic surgeons are experimenting with minimally invasive surgical techniques, expanding indications for resection, and investigating new methods for screening and early detection. In the future, the effective management of pancreatic cancer will depend upon our ability to reliably detect the earliest cancers and precursor lesions to allow for truly curative resections. PMID:26361403

  11. Do Too Many Lung Cancer Patients Miss Out on Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159488.html Do Too Many Lung Cancer Patients Miss Out on Surgery? Study evaluates treatment ... 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients with advanced lung cancer might live longer if treated surgically, but few ...

  12. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  13. Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Zhi-Ming; Hong, De-Fei

    2016-08-28

    Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic surgery. The available evidence suggests that minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) is as safe and feasible as open PD (OPD), and shows some benefit, such as less intraoperative blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay. Despite the limited evidence for MIPD in pancreatic cancer, most of the available data show that the short-term oncological adequacy is similar between MIPD and OPD. Some surgical techniques, including superior mesenteric artery-first approach and laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with major vein resection, are believed to improve the rate of R0 resection. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is less technically demanding and is accepted in more pancreatic centers. It is technically safe and feasible and has similar short-term oncological prognosis compared with open distal pancreatectomy. PMID:27621576

  14. Transoral laser surgery for supraglottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Juan P; Suárez, Carlos; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ambrosch, Petra; Fagan, Johannes J; Genden, Eric M; Ferlito, Alfio

    2008-05-01

    The goal of treatment for supraglottic cancer is to achieve cure and to preserve laryngeal function. Organ preservation strategies include both endoscopic and open surgical approaches as well as radiation and chemotherapy. The challenge is to select the correct modalities for each patient. Endoscopic procedures should be limited to tumors that can be completely visualized during diagnostic microlaryngoscopy. If complete resection can be achieved, the oncologic results of transoral laser surgery appear to be comparable to those of classic supraglottic laryngectomy. In addition, functional results of transoral laser resection are superior to those of the conventional open approach, in terms of the time required to restore swallowing, tracheotomy rate, incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistulae, and shorter hospital stay. The management of the neck remains of paramount importance, as survival of patients with supraglottic cancer depends more on cervical metastasis than on the primary tumor. Most authors advocate bilateral elective neck dissection. However, in selected cases (T1,T2 clinically negative [N0] lateral supraglottic cancers), ipsilateral selective neck dissection could be performed without compromising survival. The authors conclude that with careful selection of patients, laser supraglottic laryngectomy is a suitable, and often the preferred, treatment option for supraglottic cancer. PMID:18327778

  15. Influence of obesity and bariatric surgery on gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Anna Carolina Batista; Santo, Marco Aurelio; de Cleva, Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancer (GC) are related to obesity and bariatric surgery. Risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux and Helicobacter pylori, must be investigated and treated in obese population. After surgery, GC reports are anecdotal and treatment is not standardized. This review aims to discuss GC related to obesity before and after bariatric surgery. PMID:27458534

  16. Choices in Surgery for Older Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Vikram; Spiliopoulos, Markos K.; Audisio, Riccardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. As the population ages and life expectancy increases, the burden of cancer on health services will increase. Older patients with breast cancer are becoming more suitable for surgery; tailored surgical techniques and increasing healthy life expectancy alongside improved assessment of patients are aiding this trend. Surgery is also becoming a favoured treatment of personal choice for older patient with breast cancer. Evidence shows that surgery is almost always feasible for the older patient with outcomes (survival, progression, and recurrence rates) comparable to younger groups and superior to non-surgical treatments. We aim to describe the current status of surgery for the older patient with breast cancer, showing it is an option that should not be denied. Surgery should always be considered regardless of age, after evaluation of co-morbidities. PMID:24715825

  17. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology. PMID:26059248

  18. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  19. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  20. Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: An Update in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jung Myun; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, robotic surgery for rectal cancer has rapidly gained acceptance among colorectal surgeons worldwide, with well-established safety and feasibility. The lower conversion rate and better surgical specimen quality of robotic compared with laparoscopic surgery potentially improves survival. Earlier recovery of voiding and sexual function after robotic total mesorectal excision is another favorable outcome. Long-term survival data are sparse with no evidence that robotic surgery offers major benefits in oncological outcomes. Although initial reports are promising, more rigorous scientific evaluation in multicenter, randomized clinical trials should be performed to definitely determine the advantages of robotic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:26875201

  1. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers.

    PubMed

    Dziegielewski, Peter T; Kang, Stephen Y; Ozer, Enver

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is increasingly used in laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer surgery. Ablative procedures described in these anatomical sites include: (i) supraglottic laryngectomy, (ii) total laryngectomy, (iii) glottic cordectomy, and (iv) partial pharyngectomy. TORS supraglottic laryngectomy remains the most commonly performed of these procedures. Initial oncologic and functional outcomes with these procedures are promising and comparable to other treatment options. As robotic instrumentation technology advances a rise in TORS laryngeal/hypopharyngeal surgery is anticipated. PMID:26266762

  2. Surgical treatment of early breast cancer in day surgery.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Casà, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2007-01-01

    Quadrantectomy and associated sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is currently employed in most breast surgery centres as the gold standard in the treatment of early breast cancer. This approach has a modest morbidity and can usually be performed in a day-surgery regimen, leading to best acceptance by the patients. This reports outlines the experience of our Breast Unit with quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery for early breast cancer. One hundred patients presenting to our institution with primary invasive breast cancer measuring less than 3 cm and clinically negative axillary nodes underwent quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery. For 60 women with breast cancer the sentinel node was negative, so the only definitive surgical treatment was performed in the day-surgery regimen; 40 patients with positive sentinel nodes were hospitalised a second time for axillary dissection. In these patients that needed clearance of the axilla, SLNB was performed on the only positive node in 22 cases (55%). None of the patients admitted for quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery required re-hospitalisation after discharge. All patients proved to be fully satisfied with early discharge from hospital when questioned on the occasion of subsequent monitoring. Short-stay surgical programs in early invasive breast cancer treatment are feasible today owing to the availability of less invasive approaches such as quadrantectomy and SLNB. There are two main pointers to a distinct advantage for this kind of approach, i.e. recovery and psychological adjustment. Recovery from surgery is faster and the patient tends to play down the seriousness of the operation and to have a better mental attitude to neoplastic disease. Moreover, when performing quadrantectomy with SLNB in day surgery fewer than 50% of breast cancer patients (40% in our experience) require another surgical treatment, concluding the surgery in a single session. PMID:18019641

  3. The state of academic cancer surgery in the UK.

    PubMed

    Eckhouse, S; Sullivan, R

    2008-10-01

    Despite media and public perception to the contrary cancer surgery is the most important modality for the control and cure of cancer. However, after years of underinvestment by research funders and increasing service delivery demands the academic cancer surgeon is an endangered species. In an effort to improve evidence-based policymaking in this critical domain of cancer research the ECRM has conducted a semi-quantitative assessment of the state of academic cancer surgery in the UK. We have found that the percentage of investment in cancer surgical technologies R&D is less than 1% and even when this is extended to other diseases then this figure is still less than 1%. A decline in the overall numbers of academic surgical staff is paralleled by our finding that over 50% of the academic cancer surgeons in this survey had insufficient time for research. With clinical trials and surgical technology development identified as key research domains the majority (60-80%) did not perceive any benefit for surgical research in these areas as a result of the creation of the UK National Cancer Research Institute. We also found high support for academic surgery from colleagues but medium-low support from many institutions. Key policy conclusions are: (1) greater hypothecated investment by research funders, particularly for the development of surgical technologies as well as clinical trials, and (2) the creation of cancer surgery centres of excellence which have sufficient staffing and institutional support to engendered a creative academic environment. PMID:19383341

  4. [Surgery for pancreatic cancer: Evidence-based surgical strategies].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Cabús, Santiago; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer surgery represents a challenge for surgeons due to its technical complexity, the potential complications that may appear, and ultimately because of its poor survival. The aim of this article is to summarize the scientific evidence regarding the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer in order to help surgeons in the decision making process in the management of these patients .Here we will review such fundamental issues as the need for a biopsy before surgery, the type of pancreatic anastomosis leading to better results, and the need for placement of drains after pancreatic surgery will be discussed. PMID:25957457

  5. [Comparison of robotic surgery documentary in gynecological cancer].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Robotic surgery is a surgical technique recently introduced, with major expansion and acceptance among the medical community is currently performed in over 1,000 hospitals around the world and in the management of gynecological cancer are being developed comprehensive programs for implementation. The objectives of this paper are to review the scientific literature on robotic surgery and its application in gynecological cancer to verify its safety, feasibility and efficacy when compared with laparoscopic surgery or surgery classical major surgical complications, infections are more common in traditional radical surgery compared with laparoscopic or robotic surgery and with these new techniques surgical and staying hospital are lesser than the former however, the disadvantages are the limited number of robot systems, their high cost and applies only in specialized centers that have with equipment and skilled surgeons. In conclusion robotic surgery represents a major scientific breakthrough and surgical management of gynecological cancer with better results to other types of conventional surgery and is likely in the coming years is become its worldwide. PMID:23336154

  6. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Frangioni, John V

    2013-09-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better and less expensively than current standards. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light (700-900 nm) has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes, minimize the time patients are under anaesthesia and lower health-care costs largely by way of its improved contrast and depth of tissue penetration relative to visible light. Accordingly, the past few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this Review, we introduce the concept of NIR fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, examine the clinical trial literature to date and outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization. Although NIR seems to be superior to many traditional imaging techniques, its incorporation into routine care of patients with cancer depends on rigorous clinical trials and validation studies. PMID:23881033

  7. Role of minimally invasive surgery in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nezhat, Farr R; Pejovic, Tanja; Finger, Tamara N; Khalil, Susan S

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of ovarian cancer includes upfront surgery with intent to accurately diagnose and stage the disease and to perform maximal cytoreduction, followed by chemotherapy in most cases. Surgical staging of ovarian cancer traditionally has included exploratory laparotomy with peritoneal washings, hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, multiple peritoneal biopsies, and possible pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. In the early 1990s, pioneers in laparoscopic surgery used minimally invasive techniques to treat gynecologic cancers, including laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer and primary and secondary cytoreduction in advanced and recurrent disease in selected cases. Since then, the role of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology has been continually expanding, and today advanced laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques are used to evaluate and treat cervical and endometrial cancer. However, the important question about the place of the minimally invasive approach in surgical treatment of ovarian cancer remains to be evaluated and answered. Overall, the potential role of minimally invasive surgery in treatment of ovarian cancer is as follows: i) laparoscopic evaluation, diagnosis, and staging of apparent early ovarian cancer; ii) laparoscopic assessment of feasibility of upfront surgical cytoreduction to no visible disease; iii) laparoscopic debulking of advanced ovarian cancer; iv) laparoscopic reassessment in patients with complete remission after primary treatment; and v) laparoscopic assessment and cytoreduction of recurrent disease. The accurate diagnosis of suspect adnexal masses, the safety and feasibility of this surgical approach in early ovarian cancer, the promise of laparoscopy as the most accurate tool for triaging patients with advanced disease for surgery vs upfront chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and its potential in treatment of advanced cancer have been documented and

  8. Contract management of Ontario's cancer surgery wait times strategy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Siu Mee; Irish, Jonathan C; Thompson, Leslee J

    2007-01-01

    The province of Ontario, as a result of the First Ministers' Meeting, was committed to addressing surgery wait times in Ontario. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's response to this commitment was the Wait Times Strategy (WTS) initiative, which addressed access issues with the aim of positively impacting wait times in cancer surgery. Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) was tasked with managing the cancer surgery WTS. CCO engaged in accountability agreements with Ontario hospitals to provide incremental cancer surgery volumes, in return for one-time funding. Through the use of accountability agreements, CCO was able to tie service volume delivery, quality care initiatives and reporting requirements to funding. Other elements of the cancer surgery WTS implementation included the development of wait times definitions, guidelines and targets; the use of a performance management system; facilitation by existing regional cancer leads and continued development of regional cancer programs. Eight key lessons were learned: (1) baseline volume guarantees are critical to ensuring that wait times are positively impacted; (2) there is a need to create a balance between accountability and systems management; (3) clinical quality initiatives can be tied to funding initiatives; (4) allocations of services should be informed by many factors; (5) regional leadership is key to ensuring that local needs are met; (6) data are invaluable in improving performance; (7) there is regional disparity in service delivery, capacity and resources across the province; and (8) program sustainability is an underlying goal of the WTS for cancer surgery. The implication is that accountability agreements can be leveraged to create sustainable health management systems. PMID:18019899

  9. Laparoscopic surgery for gynaecological cancers in obese women.

    PubMed

    Martinek, Igor E; Haldar, Krishnayan; Tozzi, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery in the management of gynaecological malignancies has been growing for over a decade. Concomitantly the incidence of obesity has been increasing worldwide. This review summarizes the available studies on minimal invasive surgery in obese women with gynaecological malignancies. We undertook a literature search to identify the differences between traditional open methods and the laparoscopic approach in terms of intra- and postoperative outcome and patient safety. Only eight relevant studies were identified. Six of these focused on endometrial cancer, one study included early stage cervical and ovarian cancers with other benign conditions, while another paper included cervical and endometrial pre-cancers and only a few malignant conditions. Obesity is generally known to increase the risk of intra- and postoperative complications. However, several studies show that obesity, formerly precluding keyhole surgery, seems now to be an indication for the laparoscopic approach. As compared to laparotomy, laparoscopic surgery has a good postoperative outcome, reduced estimated blood loss (EBL) and pain and in some series an increased lymph node count. Laparoscopy has been shown to be cost effective with a shorter hospital stay and return to normal activity. Survival is reported to be the same with both laparotomy and laparoscopy. The benefits of minimal invasive surgery in gynaecological surgery are starting to be found with robotic surgery. PMID:20079589

  10. [Evidence-Based Review of Laryngeal Cancer Surgery].

    PubMed

    Wiegand, S

    2016-04-01

    Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer has been established for decades. In addition to total laryngectomy, which was first performed in 1873, a large number of organ preservation surgical techniques, like open partial laryngectomy, transoral laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery, have been developed. Studies on laryngeal cancer surgery are mainly retrospective case series and cohort studies. The evolution of chemoradiation protocols and their analysis in prospective randomized trials have led to an increasing acceptance of non-surgical treatment procedures. In addition to an improvement of prognosis, in recent years the preservation of function and maintenance of life quality after primary therapy of laryngeal cancer has increasingly become the focus of therapy planning. Significant late toxicity after chemoradiation has been identified as an important issue. This leads to a reassessment of surgical concepts and initiation of studies on laryngeal cancer surgery which was additionally stimulated by the advent of transoral robotic surgery in the U.S.. Improving the evidence base in laryngeal cancer surgery by successful establishment of surgical trials should be the future goal. PMID:27128401

  11. Robotic surgery for oropharynx cancer: promise, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, John R; Genden, Eric M

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown a rise in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer without a corresponding increase in oral cavity cancers. These diverging trends are explained by human papilloma virus, which preferentially affects the oropharynx. Cancers resulting from this viral infection bear a better prognosis than those that are smoking-related. Treatment of oropharyngeal cancers has typically involved the use of radiation and chemotherapy to avoid the morbidity of mandibular splitting surgery. The use of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has obviated the need for large-scale open approaches but still provides the pathologic staging data that is unavailable from non-surgical approaches. Although TORS is in its infancy, early functional and oncologic outcome data are promising. The complex management of oropharyngeal cancers should utilize the available treatment modalities to optimize outcomes and stratify patients to different treatment based on risk status. PMID:22311683

  12. [Robot-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    As surgical robots have widely spread, verification of their usefulness in the general thoracic surgery field is required. The most favorable advantage of robotic surgery is the markedly free movement of joint-equipped robotic forceps under three-dimensional high-vision. Accurate operation makes complex procedures straightforward and may overcome weak points of previous thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery for lung cancer has been safely introduced and initial results have shown favorable. It is still at the stage of clinical research, but is expected to take its usefulness in the procedure of hilar exposure, lymph node dissection and the suturing of lung parenchyma or bronchus. The evidence is insufficient for robotic thoracic surgery, and also safety management, education and significant cost are larger problems. Now, urgent issues are to carry out clinical trial for advanced medical care and insurance acquisition. PMID:27440027

  13. [Advances of minimally invasive technique in colorectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xishan

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal surgery is rapidly developing in the direction of minimally invasive surgery and functional surgery. New technology and ideas are constantly emerging recently. Laparoscopic colon surgery has already been recommended by NCCN guideline. However, laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery still needs to wait for survival and recurrence rates of long-term follow-up data for verification. In recent years, with the rapid progression of imaging equipment of laparoscope, the new 3D laparoscopic system will process image more quickly, and surgeons can get space depth feeling like open surgery only with a pair of glasses. The new 3D laparoscopic system has many advantages, and can also shorten the learning curve of the beginners. But it does not mean the traditional 2D laparoscopy has been out of date. It is admitted that dialectical view on the development of the technology and equipment is still required. New things also need the accumulation of time and validation, and the deficiency of imaging system remains to be improved. At present, the robotic colorectal cancer surgery is still in its infancy, and its application is relatively common in colon surgery. In respect of robotic rectal cancer surgery, it still lacks of long-term follow-up survival results for verification. To reduce physical and psychological trauma for patients is the goal of the surgeon. Surgeons are experiencing the change from minimally invasion to non-invasion. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) arise at the historic moment. Among them, transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) incorporates the concepts of NOTES, anal minimally invasive surgery and total mesorectum excision, guaranteeing the radical cure and no scar of abdomen, but it still needs multicenter, large sample and long-term follow-up clinical data to prove its safety, efficacy and indication. Therefore, surgical procedure is transforming from conventional

  14. Present laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takeo; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    In many clinical studies, laparoscopic surgery (LS) for colon cancer has been shown to be less invasive than open surgery (OS) while maintaining similar safety. Furthermore, there are no significant differences between LS and OS in long-term outcomes. Thus, LS has been accepted as one of the standard treatments for colon cancer. In the treatments of rectal cancer as well, LS has achieved favorable outcomes, with many reports showing long-term outcomes comparable to those of OS. Furthermore, the magnification in laparoscopy improves visualization in the pelvic cavity and facilitates precise manipulation, as well as providing excellent educational effects. For these reasons, rectal cancer has seemed to be well indicated for LS, as has been colon cancer. The indication for LS in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, which is relatively unresectable (e.g., cancer invading other organs), remains an open issue. In recent years, new techniques such as single-port and robotic surgery have begun to be introduced for LS. Presently, various clinical studies in our country as well as in most Western countries have demonstrated that LS, with these new techniques, are gradually showing long-term outcomes. PMID:27081638

  15. [Robotic surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingping; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    The outstanding advantages of robotic surgery include the stable and three-dimension image and the convenience of surgery manipulation. The disadvantages include the lack of factile feedback, high cost and prolonged surgery time. It was reported that robotic surgery was associated with less trauma stress and faster recovery in elderly patients(≥75 years old) when compared with open surgery. Elderly people have a higher incidence of carcinogenesis and also have more comorbidities and reduced functional reserve. Clinical data of patients over 75 years old treated by robotic surgery in Zhongshan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University from March 2011 to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 24 consecutive patients were included with a median age of 77.8 years old. There were 18 male and 6 female patients. Among them, 14 patients were diagnosed with descending and sigmoid colon cancers while 10 with rectal cancers; 19 had tumor size larger than 5 cm; 16 were diagnosed with ulcerative adenocarcinoma. Fourteen patients were complicated with hypertension, 6 with cardiopulmonary diseases, 4 with diabetes mellitus and 3 with cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty-two patients underwent low anterior resection and 2 abdominoperineal resection. The estimated blood loss was 85 ml; the median operation time was (123.1±45.2) min; the median number of retrieved lymph node was 12.4. Postoperative pathologic results showed that 3 patients were stage I, 10 stage II, and 11 stage III. Postoperative complication was observed in 3 patients: urinary infection in 1 case, intraperitoneal infection in 1 case and atria fibrillation in 1 case, respectively. Median time to first postoperative flatus was 2.8 days. Our results indicated that robotic surgery is safe and feasible in the elderly patients. The next generation of robotic system may make up for these deficiencies through new technologies. With the advantage of more advanced surgical simulator, robotic surgery will play a

  16. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  17. Pancreatic cancer surgery: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song Cheol; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Kwang Min; Lee, Young Ju

    2012-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer patients have an extremely poor survival prognosis, and surgical resection remains the only curative treatment. Greater experience in pancreatic surgery and developments in surgical techniques have reduced surgical mortality and morbidity rates. It has been suggested that experienced pancreaticoduodenectomy centers should have mortality rates of less than 5% and major complication rates of less than 40%. Surgical resection followed by combined adjuvant therapy is currently the standard treatment for resectable pancreas cancer. Patients with borderline or marginal resectable tumors are beginning to have favorable outcomes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation. A number of prospective randomized trials have concluded that "extended" pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head cancer, involving radical dissection of lymph nodes and peripancreatic soft tissue, does not appear to provide any survival benefits compared with "standard" pancreaticoduodenectomy. Conversely, extensive surgery for pancreatic tail or body cancer (i.e., radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy) can result in favorable R0 resection rates and survival outcomes. However, more prospective randomized trial data are required before these conclusions can be considered established. Laparoscopic approaches are being increasingly used in the field of pancreatic tumor surgery. Moreover, robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery has also been tried in some expert centers. Again, at present a lack of outcome data prevent any definitive conclusion at this stage on the usefulness of those approaches compared to standard open approaches. Finally, a major problem hindering efforts to identify optimal surgical treatment modalities for pancreas cancer is the lack of a clear definition and standardization of surgical procedures and pathologic descriptions. The American Hepato- PancreatoBiliary Association/Society of Surgical Oncology/Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract

  18. Role of primary surgery in advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Münstedt, Karsten; Franke, Folker E

    2004-01-01

    Background Major issues in surgery for advanced ovarian cancer remain unresolved. Existing treatment guidelines are supported by a few published reports and fewer prospective randomized clinical trials. Methods We reviewed published reports on primary surgical treatment, surgical expertise, inadequate primary surgery/quality assurance, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, interval debulking, and surgical prognostic factors in advanced ovarian cancer to help resolve outstanding issues. Results The aim of primary surgery is a well-planned and complete intervention with optimal staging and surgery. Surgical debulking is worthwhile as there are further effective treatments available to control unresectable residual disease. Patients of gynecologic oncology specialist surgeons have better survival rates. This may reflect a working 'culture' rather than better technical skills. One major problem though, is that despite pleas to restrict surgery to experienced surgeons, specialist centers are often left to cope with the results of inadequate primary surgical resections. Patients with primary chemotherapy or those who have had suboptimal debulking may benefit from interval debulking. A proposal for a better classification of residual tumor is given. Conclusions Optimal surgical interventions have definite role to play in advanced ovarian cancers. Improvements in surgical treatment in the general population will probably improve patients' survival when coupled with improvements in current chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:15461788

  19. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  20. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Puri, Varun; Meyers, Bryan F

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection is currently the gold standard in operable patients with early-stage lung cancer. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a technique that has technically evolved and grown increasingly popular over the past two decades. This article presents the evolution, definition, current application, and some of the controversies surrounding VATS lobectomy. PMID:23158083

  1. Surgery for small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    de Hoyos, Alberto; DeCamp, Malcolm M

    2014-11-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises approximately 14% of all lung cancer cases. Most patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and are therefore treated nonoperatively with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. A small subset of patients with SCLC present with early-stage disease and will benefit from surgical resection plus chemotherapy. The rationale for radiotherapy in these patients remains controversial. PMID:25441133

  2. [Complications of radical surgery for advanced ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Chéreau, E; Ballester, M; Lesieur, B; Selle, F; Coutant, C; Rouzier, R; Daraï, E

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of advanced ovarian cancer should include surgery with optimal cytoreduction, which is the first prognosis factor. This surgery usually requires extensive resection (pelvic surgery, extensive lymphadenectomy, upper abdominal surgery and sometimes multiple intestinal resection). The complete surgery usually requires a resection of the diaphragm peritoneum in 10 to 100% of cases, intestinal resection in 20 to 100% of cases, splenectomy in 1 to 33% of cases, pancreatectomy in 0 11% of cases, resection of liver metastases in 0 to 16% of cases and cholecystectomy in 2 to 20% of cases. The main complications reported were digestive fistula (1.4 to 8.2%), lymphocyst (0.6 to 32%), septic complications (3.7 to 41.4%) and pulmonary complications (0 to 59%) in case of diaphragmatic surgery. The postoperative mortality ranges from 0.3 to 5.7%. Radical surgery increases the rate of complete cytoreduction with significant morbidity and postoperative mortality. Because these complications decrease survival, it is essential to assess the risk of occurrence of these events to inform patients. PMID:21183387

  3. Is laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery equal to open surgery? An evidence based perspective

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Beat M; Friess, Helmut; Shrikhande, Shailesh V

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) is an evolving subject. Recent studies show that LCS can not only offer safe surgery but evidence is growing that this new technique can be superior to classical open procedures. Fewer perioperative complications and faster postoperative recovery are regularly mentioned when studies of LCS are presented. Even though the learning curve of LCS is frequently debated when limitations of laparoscopic surgeries are reviewed, studies show that in experienced hands LCS can be a safe procedure for colorectal cancer treatment. The learning curve however, is associated with high conversion rates and economical aspects such as higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. Nevertheless, laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery (LCCR) offers several advantages such as less co-morbidity and less postoperative pain in comparison with open procedures. Furthermore, the good exposure of the pelvic cavity by laparoscopy and the magnification of anatomical structures seem to facilitate pelvic dissection laparoscopically. Moreover, recent studies describe no difference in safety and oncological radicalness in LCCR compared to the open total mesorectal excision (TME). The oncological adequacy of LCCR still remains unproven today, because long-term results do not yet exist. To date, only a few studies have described the results of laparoscopic TME combined with preoperative adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer. The aim of this review is to examine the various areas of development and controversy of LCCR in comparison to the conventional open approach. PMID:21160858

  4. The role of surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cameán, María; Delgado-Sánchez, Elsa; Piñera, Antonio; Diestro, Maria Dolores; De Santiago, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the standard management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is correct surgical staging and optimal tumour cytoreduction followed by platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy. Standard surgical staging consists of peritoneal washings, total hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, inspection of all abdominal organs and the peritoneal surface, biopsies of suspicious areas or randomised biopsies if they are not present, omentectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. After this complete surgical staging, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for ovarian cancer is applied to determine the management and prognosis of the patient. Complete tumour cytoreduction has shown an improvement in survival. There are some criteria to predict cytoreduction outcomes based on serum biomarkers levels, preoperative imaging techniques, and laparoscopic-based scores. Optimised patient selection for primary cytoreduction would determine patients who could benefit from an optimal cytoreduction and might benefit from interval surgery. The administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy after debulking surgery has shown an increase in progression-free survival and overall survival, especially in patients with no residual disease after surgery. It is considered that 3–17% of all epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) occur in young women that have not fulfilled their reproductive desires. In these patients, fertility-sparing surgery is a worthy option in early ovarian cancer. PMID:27594911

  5. The role of surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, María; Delgado-Sánchez, Elsa; Piñera, Antonio; Diestro, Maria Dolores; De Santiago, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the standard management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is correct surgical staging and optimal tumour cytoreduction followed by platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy. Standard surgical staging consists of peritoneal washings, total hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, inspection of all abdominal organs and the peritoneal surface, biopsies of suspicious areas or randomised biopsies if they are not present, omentectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. After this complete surgical staging, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for ovarian cancer is applied to determine the management and prognosis of the patient. Complete tumour cytoreduction has shown an improvement in survival. There are some criteria to predict cytoreduction outcomes based on serum biomarkers levels, preoperative imaging techniques, and laparoscopic-based scores. Optimised patient selection for primary cytoreduction would determine patients who could benefit from an optimal cytoreduction and might benefit from interval surgery. The administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy after debulking surgery has shown an increase in progression-free survival and overall survival, especially in patients with no residual disease after surgery. It is considered that 3-17% of all epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) occur in young women that have not fulfilled their reproductive desires. In these patients, fertility-sparing surgery is a worthy option in early ovarian cancer. PMID:27594911

  6. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic vs open rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Winson Jianhong; Chew, Min Hoe; Dharmawan, Angela Renayanti; Singh, Manraj; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Loi, Carol Tien Tau; Tang, Choong Leong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term clinical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic rectal resection (LRR) and the impact of conversion in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: An analysis was performed on a prospective database of 633 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection. Patients were compared in three groups: Open surgery (OP), laparoscopic surgery, and converted laparoscopic surgery. Short-term outcomes, long-term outcomes, and survival analysis were compared. RESULTS: Among 633 patients studied, 200 patients had successful laparoscopic resections with a conversion rate of 11.1% (25 out of 225). Factors predictive of survival on univariate analysis include the laparoscopic approach (P = 0.016), together with factors such as age, ASA status, stage of disease, tumor grade, presence of perineural invasion and vascular emboli, circumferential resection margin < 2 mm, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival benefit of laparoscopic surgery was no longer significant on multivariate analysis (P = 0.148). Neither 5-year overall survival (70.5% vs 61.8%, P = 0.217) nor 5-year cancer free survival (64.3% vs 66.6%, P = 0.854) were significantly different between the laparoscopic group and the converted group. CONCLUSION: LRR has equivalent long-term oncologic outcomes when compared to OP. Laparoscopic conversion does not confer a worse prognosis. PMID:27358678

  7. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ferenc János; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results. PMID:25260081

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence in simultaneous thyroidectomy with parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Emirikçi, Selman; Özçınar, Beyza; Öner, Gizem; Omarov, Nail; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Soytaş, Yiğit; Aksakal, Nihat; Yanar, Fatih; Barbaros, Umut; Erbil, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is often seen in conjunction with an underlying thyroid disorder. Imaging methods that are used to localize the parathyroid adenoma also detect associated thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to detect the rate of thyroid cancer identified while performing parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy in patients with PHPT. Material and Methods: Files of all patients who were operated for PHPT and who underwent simultaneous thyroidectomy were analyzed. Data regarding parathyroid pathology, surgical procedures, indications of thyroid surgery, and pathology results were retrospectively recorded. The indications for thyroid surgery included presence of suspicious thyroid nodules in ultrasonography, increase in size of thyroid nodules in follow-up ultrasound, or presence of suspicious thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings. Rates of thyroid cancer detection were investigated according to definite pathology reports. Results: Eighty-three patients who underwent parathyroidectomy with a diagnosis of PHPT with concurrent thyroidectomy in Department of General Surgery, İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine were included in the study. Eighteen patients were male (22%) and 65 were female (78%). The median age was 53 (18–70) years. The primary indication for parathyroidectomy was primary hyperparathyroidism in all patients. The thyroid procedures applied in addition to parathyroidectomy were lobectomy + isthmusectomy in 29 patients (35%), bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy in 20 patients (24%), bilateral total thyroidectomy in 23 patients (28%), and total thyroidectomy on one side and near total thyroidectomy to the other side in 11 patients (13%). The only indication for thyroidectomy was the presence of thyroid nodules until 2000 (20 patients, 24%). Indications in the remaining 63 patients included the presence of multiple nodules that cannot be followed up by ultrasonography in 25

  9. [Ultrasound semiotics in recurrent ovarian cancer after optimal cytoreductive surgery].

    PubMed

    Baklanova, N S; Kolomiets, L A; Frolova, I G; Viatkina, N V; Krasil'nikov, S É

    2014-01-01

    Features of ultrasound picture of morphologically verified recurrence of ovarian cancer in 21 patients are presented, who received combined treatment including cytoreductive surgery in the form of hysterectomy with oophorectomy, resection of the greater omentum and 6 courses of chemotherapy CAP for ovarian cancer stage III (FIGO). In all patients cytoreductive surgery was optimal--without residual tumor. Recurrence of the disease was detected in 12-48 months in 80.9% of the cases. Three variants of recurrence was revealed by ultrasonography: isolated peritoneal dissemination, in 14.2% of the cases, which was mainly detected during the first 12 months; single entities in the projection of the small pelvis (61.9%) and mixed form (local lesions of small pelvis and peritoneal dissemination) in 23.8% of the cases. PMID:25033684

  10. Current State of Vascular Resections in Pancreatic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, Thilo; Schneider, Lutz; Büchler, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the Western world and, even in 2014, a therapeutic challenge. The only chance for long-term survival is radical surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy which can be performed in about 20% of all PDAC patients by the time of diagnosis. As pancreatic surgery has significantly changed during the past years, extended operations, including vascular resections, have become more frequently performed in specialized centres and the border of resectability has been pushed forward to achieve a potentially curative approach in the respective patients in combination with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies. In contrast to adjuvant treatment which has to be regarded as a cornerstone to achieve long-term survival after resection, neoadjuvant treatment strategies for locally advanced findings are currently under debate. This overview summarizes the possibilities and evidence of vascular, namely, venous and arterial, resections in PDAC surgery. PMID:26609306

  11. 4. FIRE BREAK BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC WARD AND NEXT WARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRE BREAK BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC WARD AND NEXT WARD TO THE SOUTH - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  12. [Rational approach of antibioprophylaxis: systematic review in ENT cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Blayau, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Baujat, B; Arlet, G; Bonnet, F; Quesnel, C

    2013-05-01

    In head and neck cancer surgery antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in reducing the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI). However, controversies between antibiotic prophylaxis and curative antibiotic therapy exist, particularly when complex and decaying surgeries are performed in risky underlying conditions, with a risk of persisting salivary effusion in the postoperative period, or in the case of reconstruction with myo-cutaneous flaps. We have performed a systematic review of the literature according to PRISMA recommendations to answer the following questions: indications for antibiotic prophylaxis and curative antibiotic therapy, optimal duration, and choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery. Literature analysis allows to conclude that patients undergoing Altemeier classes 2 and 3 surgical procedures should receive perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis restricted to the first 24 postoperative hours. No benefit has been shown with its extension beyond these 24 hours. The most adapted combinations of antibiotics in this setting are "amoxicillin+clavulanic acid" and "clindamycin+gentamicin". However, the level of evidence regarding the most decaying surgeries with high risk of SSI is low, making it necessary to perform new high-powered randomized trials in these patients. Eventually, it should be noted that antibiotic prophylaxis should be an integral part of SSI preventive measures, including application of hygiene measures, and postoperative monitoring of SSI clinical signs. PMID:23566591

  13. Minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer: Are we there yet?

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Bradley J; Makhija, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic colon surgery for select cancers is slowly evolving as the standard of care but minimally invasive approaches for rectal cancer have been viewed with significant skepticism. This procedure has been performed by select surgeons at specialized centers and concerns over local recurrence, sexual dysfunction and appropriate training measures have further hindered widespread acceptance. Data for laparoscopic rectal resection now supports its continued implementation and widespread usage by expeienced surgeons for select patients. The current controversies regarding technical approaches have created ambiguity amongst opinion leaders and are also addressed in this review. PMID:21412496

  14. Robotic surgery in cancer care: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Malignancy-associated mortality, decreased productivity, and spiritual, social and physical burden in cancer patients and their families impose heavy costs on communities. Therefore cancer prevention, early detection, rapid diagnosis and timely treatment are very important. Use of modern methods based on information technology in cancer can improve patient survival and increase patient and health care provider satisfaction. Robot technology is used in different areas of health care and applications in surgery have emerged affecting the cancer treatment domain. Computerized and robotic devices can offer enhanced dexterity by tremor abolition, motion scaling, high quality 3D vision for surgeons and decreased blood loss, significant reduction in narcotic use, and reduced hospital stay for patients. However, there are many challenges like lack of surgical community support, large size, high costs and absence of tactile and haptic feedback. A comprehensive view to identify all factors in different aspects such as technical, legal and ethical items that prevent robotic surgery adoption is thus very necessary. Also evidence must be presented to surgeons to achieve appropriate support from physicians. The aim of this review article is to survey applications, opportunities and barriers to this advanced technology in patients and surgeons as an approach to improve cancer care. PMID:24606422

  15. Wards from hell.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jane

    2016-03-16

    'You're kidding,' I thought, having just realised the special care baby unit where I intended to work was next to the ward where they performed terminations of pregnancy. To make matters worse, women who had miscarried were on the same ward. PMID:26982847

  16. Breast Cancer Surgery and Financial Reimbursement in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Juergen; Wallwiener, Diethelm

    2012-01-01

    The reimbursement for breast cancer-specific operative interventions in Germany is regulated by the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. The essential elements of the German DRG system, which was developed as a per-case lump-sum payment system, are presented, including the participating institutions. The actual treatment situation in breast cancer surgery is now aptly reflected in the introduction of the OPS (operation and treatment procedure classification) 2012. This is oriented on the classification model of Hoffmann and Wallwiener, with its complexity-based differentiation that reflects the basic idea of different resource usage. Despite the actual potential of the appropriately differentiated encryption of surgical procedures, which illustrates their differences in resource costs and consumption, appropriate reimbursement has still not been achieved. Hopefully, in the future the calculation of the DRGs in the field of breast cancer surgery will be based on data feedback from the hospitals and treatment institutions, and will be more suited to the main purpose of the DRG system, i.e. that reimbursement reflects resource expenditure. A necessary basic tool for differentiated, complexity-oriented encryption has been achieved with the OPS 2012, which mirrors our classification model for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery. PMID:24647777

  17. Hoarseness caused by arytenoid dislocation after surgery for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Nobuyasu; Imai, Kazuhiro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Saito, Hajime; Takashima, Shinogu; Kudo, Satoshi; Kawaharada, Yasushi; Ogawa, Jun-Ichi

    2014-12-01

    The patient was a 64-year-old woman with no history of laryngeal disorders. She underwent video-assisted right lower lobectomy and node dissection for lung cancer. Using a stylet while the patient was under general anesthesia, tracheal intubation with a 35-French gauge left-sided double-lumen endobronchial tube was successfully performed on the first attempt. The patient developed slight hoarseness on postoperative day 1, and we initially suspected recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis caused by the surgery, which we elected to treat conservatively. However, because her hoarseness had not improved 4 months after surgery, we evaluated her vocal cords using laryngoscopy. This revealed severe dysfunction of the right vocal cord and arytenoid dislocation, which we treated through reduction using a balloon catheter. By 6 months, the patient's vocal cord mobility had improved. Arytenoid dislocation is a rare complication, but should be suspected when patients have right vocal fold paralysis after lung cancer surgery. PMID:23807399

  18. The role of surgery in the management of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mustard, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    This is a review of one surgeon's personal experience with 85 patients with thyroid cancer treated over a 20-year period. The data confirm that for papillary thyroid tumours, with rare exceptions, the prognosis is excellent. Anaplastic lesions, however, are consistently lethal. Follicular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma fall between these extremes. A simple clinical classification is offered as a guide to operative management and a reliable index of prognosis. Patients with clinically apparent, "manifest cancer" have serious, life-threatening disease; many such patients die of their disease. Patients with "neck lumps not yet diagnosed" usually have papillary carcinoma; their prognosis is excellent. Patients whose thyroid tumours fall into the category of "malignant nodule" or "pathologist's cancer" are particularly fortunate: in this series no such patient has died. The importance of age in relation to thyroid cancer is also confirmed: non of the patients first treated before the age of 40 years has died of cancer. For young patients with favourable disease the author recommends conservative surgical treatment, which avoids cosmetic deformity or functional disability, to be followed by administration of levothyroxine to suppress production of thyroid=stimulating hormone. For patients with "unfavourable" thyroid cancer valuable palliation can often be achieved by a combination of surgery and irradiation. Survival rates for the total series are 76% at 5 years and 60% at 10 years. PMID:1139493

  19. Robotic-assisted surgery versus open surgery in the treatment of rectal cancer: the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Liao, Guixiang; Li, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Xianming; Deng, Haijun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted rectal cancer surgery (RRCS) and open rectal cancer surgery (ORCS). Electronic database (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library) searches were conducted for all relevant studies that compared the short-term and long-term outcomes between RRCS and ORCS. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences, and hazard ratios were calculated. Seven studies involving 1074 patients with rectal cancer were identified for this meta-analysis. Compared with ORCS, RRCS is associated with a lower estimated blood loss (mean difference [MD]: -139.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -159.11 to -120.86; P < 0.00001), shorter hospital stay length (MD: -2.10, 95% CI: -3.47 to -0.73; P = 0.003), lower intraoperative transfusion requirements (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.99, P = 0.05), shorter time to flatus passage (MD: -0.97, 95% CI = -1.06 to -0.88, P < 0.00001), and shorter time to resume a normal diet (MD: -1.71.95% CI = -3.31 to -0.12, P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in surgery-related complications, oncologic clearance, disease-free survival, and overall survival between the two groups. However, RRCS was associated with a longer operative time. RRCS is safe and effective. PMID:27228906

  20. Robotic-assisted surgery versus open surgery in the treatment of rectal cancer: the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guixiang; Li, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Xianming; Deng, Haijun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted rectal cancer surgery (RRCS) and open rectal cancer surgery (ORCS). Electronic database (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library) searches were conducted for all relevant studies that compared the short-term and long-term outcomes between RRCS and ORCS. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences, and hazard ratios were calculated. Seven studies involving 1074 patients with rectal cancer were identified for this meta-analysis. Compared with ORCS, RRCS is associated with a lower estimated blood loss (mean difference [MD]: −139.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −159.11 to −120.86; P < 0.00001), shorter hospital stay length (MD: −2.10, 95% CI: −3.47 to −0.73; P = 0.003), lower intraoperative transfusion requirements (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.99, P = 0.05), shorter time to flatus passage (MD: −0.97, 95% CI = −1.06 to −0.88, P < 0.00001), and shorter time to resume a normal diet (MD: −1.71.95% CI = −3.31 to −0.12, P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in surgery-related complications, oncologic clearance, disease-free survival, and overall survival between the two groups. However, RRCS was associated with a longer operative time. RRCS is safe and effective. PMID:27228906

  1. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  2. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Byung Mo; Lee, Bong Hwa; Kim, Byung Chun; Park, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery. Results Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, P<0.001), but the time to soft food intake (6.0 vs 6.6 days, P=0.036) and the postoperative hospital stay (13.7 vs 15.7 days, P=0.018) were shorter in the laparoscopic group. The number of harvested lymph nodes was lower in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (20.3 vs 24.3, P<0.001). The 5-year overall survival (90.8% vs 88.6%, P=0.540) and disease-free survival (86.1% vs 78.9%, P=0.201) rates were similar in both groups. Conclusion The present study showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated with several perioperative benefits and similar oncologic outcomes to open surgery for the resection of transverse colon cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery offers a safe alternative to open surgery in patients with transverse colon cancer. PMID:27143915

  3. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Yasumitsu; Hattori, Masakazu; Douden, Kenji; Ishiyama, Yasuhiro; Hashizume, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) for colorectal cancer on short-term clinical and oncological outcomes by comparison with multiport conventional laparoscopic colectomy (CLC). METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE for the time period of 2008 to December 2014 to retrieve all relevant literature. The search terms were “laparoscopy”, “single incision”, “single port”, “single site”, “SILS”, “LESS” and “colorectal cancer”. Publications were included if they were randomized controlled trials, case-matched controlled studies, or comparative studies, in which patients underwent single-incision (SILS or LESS) laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Studies were excluded if they were non-comparative, or not including surgery involving the colon or rectum. A total of 15 studies with 589 patients who underwent SILC for colorectal cancer were selected. RESULTS: No significant differences between the groups were noted in terms of mortality or morbidity. The benefit of the SILC approach included reduction in conversion rate to laparotomy, but there were no significant differences in other short-term clinical outcomes between the groups. Satisfactory oncological surgical quality was also demonstrated for SILC for the treatment of colorectal cancer with a similar average lymph node harvest and proximal and distal resection margin length as multiport CLC. CONCLUSION: SILC can be performed safely with similar short-term clinical and oncological outcomes as multiport CLC. PMID:26843918

  4. Management of Thyroid Nodules and Surgery for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Shaha, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer has seen a worldwide increase in the last three decades. Whether this is due to a ‘true increase’ in incidence or simply increased detection of otherwise subclinical disease remains unclear. The treatment of thyroid cancer revolves around appropriate surgical intervention, minimising complications and the use of adjuvant therapy in select circumstances. Prognostic features and risk stratification are crucial in determining the appropriate treatment. There continues to be considerable debate in several aspects of management in these patients. Level 1 evidence is lacking, and there are limited prospective data to direct therapy, hence limiting decision-making to retrospective analyses, treatment guidelines based on expert opinion and personal philosophies. This overview focuses on the major issues associated with the investigation of thyroid nodules and the extent of surgery. As overall survival in well-differentiated thyroid cancer exceeds 95%, it is important to reduce over-treating the large majority of patients, and focus limited resources on high-risk patients who require aggressive treatment and closer attention. The onus is on the physician to avoid treatment-related complications from thyroid surgery and to offer the most efficient and cost-effective therapeutic option. PMID:20381323

  5. Nanobiotechnology promotes noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    The successful cancer eradication in a noninvasive manner is the ultimate objective in the fight against cancer. As a "bloodless scalpel," high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as one of the most promising and representative noninvasive therapeutic modalities for cancer surgery. However, large-scale clinical applications of HIFU are still in their infancy because of critical efficiency and safety issues which remain to be solved. Fortunately, recently developed nanobiotechnology provides an alternative efficient approach to improve such important issues in HIFU, especially for cancer therapy. This Research News presents the very recent exciting progresses on the elaborate design and fabrication of organic, inorganic, and organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles for enhancing the HIFU ablation efficiency against tumor tissues. It is highly expected that this Research News can arouse more extensive research enthusiasm on the development of functional nanomaterials for highly efficient HIFU-based synergistic therapy, which will give a promising noninvasive therapeutic modality for the successful cancer therapy with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues, due to the noninvasive and site-specific therapeutic features of HIFU. PMID:24898413

  6. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MANAGEMENT OF ORAL CANCERSURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jatin P.; Gil, Ziv

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with a high prevalence in South Asia. Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain the most dominant etiologic factors, however HPV has been recently implicated in oral cancer. Surgery is the most well established mode of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. The factors that affect choice of treatment are related to the tumor and the patient. Primary site, location, size, proximity to bone, and depth of infiltration are factors which influence a particular surgical approach. Tumors that approach or involve the mandible require specific understanding of the mechanism of bone involvement. This facilitates the employment of mandible sparing approaches such as marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy. Reconstruction of major surgical defects in the oral cavity requires use of a free flap. The radial forearm free flap provides excellent soft tissue and lining for soft tissue defects in the oral cavity. The fibula free flap remains the choice for mandibular reconstruction. Over the course of the past thirty years there has been improvement in the overall survival of patients with oral carcinoma largely due to the improved understanding of the biology of local progression, early identification and treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck, and employment of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. The role of surgery in primary squamous cell carcinomas in other sites in the head and neck has evolved with integration of multidisciplinary treatment approaches employing chemotherapy and radiotherapy either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, larynx preservation with concurrent chemoradiotherapy has become the standard of care for locally advanced carcinomas of the larynx or pharynx requiring total laryngectomy. On the other hand, for early staged tumors of the larynx and pharynx, transoral laser microsurgery has become an effective means of local control of these lesions

  7. Fast-track laparoscopic surgery: A better option for treating colorectal cancer than conventional laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    TAUPYK, YERLAN; CAO, XUEYUAN; ZHAO, YINQUAN; WANG, CHAO; WANG, QUAN

    2015-01-01

    Fast-track surgery (FTS), a multimodal rehabilitation technique, has been recommended as surgical therapy for colorectal cancer. The objective of the present study was to compare the outcomes of FTS and conventional laparoscopic surgery. This study was a blinded randomized trial. A total of 70 patients with colorectal cancer were divided into two groups and underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection. The FTS group consisted of 31 patients and the control group consisted of 39 patients. Protocols for the treatment of the FTS group included skipping pre-operative mechanical bowel preparation, early restoration of diet and early post-operative ambulation. Outcome measures, length of hospital stay, post-operative surgical stress response [C-reactive protein (CRP)] and post-operative complications were compared between the two groups. The average length of total hospital stay for the FTS and the control groups was 5.9±0.8 and 10.9±1.3 days, respectively (P<0.05), and the length of post-operative hospital stay for the FTS and control group was 4.3±0.8 and 8.0±1.1 days, respectively. (P<0.05) First flatus time for the FTS and control groups was 1.6±0.8 and 2.5±0.9 days, respectively (P<0.05). Defecation time for the FTS and control groups was 2.2±0.7 and 4.5±0.7 days, respectively (P<0.05). The time to restoration of a solid diet also showed a significant difference between the FTS and control groups (1.1±0.3 vs. 3.6±0.9 days; P<0.05). Following surgery, due to post-operative surgical stress, the two groups CRP levels increased significantly, but the levels of the FTS group were lower than those of the conventional control group (P<0.05). There was no difference in post-operative complications between the FTS and control groups. This study confirms that FTS shortens hospital stay and accelerates the recovery of bowel function without increase of post-operative complications. FTS is safe, improves post-operative recovery and is a better option than conventional

  8. Surreptitious surgery on Long Island Sound: The oral cancer surgeries of President Grover Cleveland.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William

    2010-01-01

    Grover Cleveland rose from being the mayor of Buffalo to the governor of New York to the president of the United States. At the start of Cleveland's second term as president, the nation was involved in a severe financial crisis, the extent of which was not known by the general public. President Cleveland was to make a strong appeal to Congress in the coming months to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. He thought this would set the nation on the road to fiscal recovery. However, his vice president, Adlai Stevenson, strongly opposed repeal of the Sherman Act. Prior to scheduling his appearance before Congress, President Cleveland noticed a rough spot on his palate. A biopsy confirmed that it was cancer, and it was determined that surgery was needed. Cleveland and his advisors thought the nation would be thrown into a panic if the President's health did not remain a secret. A surgical team, which included a dentist, performed the surgery in secrecy while traveling aboard a yacht. A prosthetic obturator was fabricated by a New York prosthodontist to close the surgical defect. Cleveland recovered well, made a forceful speech before Congress, had the Sherman Act repealed and lived without a recurrence of his oral cancer for the rest of his life. The public remained unaware, for the most part, of the gravity of President Cleveland's health for decades. PMID:20359065

  9. Cytoreductive Surgery plus HIPEC for Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Goéré, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Occurring either synchronously or metachronously to the primary tumor, peritoneal metastases (PM) are diagnosed in 8 to 20 % of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Prognosis of these patients appears to be worse than those with other sites of metastases. While systemic therapy has shown significant prolongation of survival in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, the outcomes in the subset of patients with PM has been much inferior. Over the last 2 decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been effective in substantially prolonging survival in patients with colorectal PM and have the potential to cure certain patients as well. This article reviews the current evidence for CRS and HIPEC to treat colorectal PM as well as future research going on in this form of locoregional treatment. PMID:27065708

  10. Open questions and novel concepts in oral cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Zacchigna, Serena; Biasotto, Matteo; Piovesana, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The persistence of cancerous cells after surgery in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents a major challenge, as it often leads to local recurrences and secondary primary tumors, which are eventually responsible for a large proportion of deaths. This persistence is currently evaluated by histological analyses. In this review we discuss some important pitfalls of the histopathological analysis, such as margin evaluation, specimen shrinkage and T staging. In addition, we critically analyze the appropriateness of current surgical techniques in relation to the concept of field cancerization. Finally, we describe some novel imaging and molecular approaches, which might be useful in tailoring surgical resections and encourage the use of OSCC animal models to explore and provide proof of concept of the feasibility and potential clinical utility of innovative surgical protocols. PMID:26003319

  11. Sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadatomo, Ai; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Zuiki, Toru; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2013-08-01

    We report the first case of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. The patient is a 75-year-old man who presented with the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer 2 years before presentation. CT scan showed a distended sigmoid colon with a mesenteric twist, or "whirl sign." Colonoscopy showed a mucosal spiral and luminal stenosis with dilated sigmoid colon distally and ischemic mucosa. The diagnosis of ischemic colonic necrosis due to sigmoid volvulus was established. Resection of the necrotic sigmoid colon was performed and a descending colon stoma was created. A long remnant sigmoid colon and chronic constipation may contribute to the development of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Prompt diagnosis is essential for adequate treatment, and colonoscopy aids in the diagnosis of ischemic changes in patients without definitive findings of a gangrenous colon. PMID:23879414

  12. Gastrostomy Tube Use after Transoral Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al-khudari, Samer; Bendix, Scott; Lindholm, Jamie; Simmerman, Erin; Hall, Francis; Ghanem, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate factors that influence gastrostomy tube (g-tube) use after transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal (OP) cancer. Study Design/Methods. Retrospective review of TORS patients with OP cancer. G-tube presence was recorded before and after surgery at followup. Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazards model evaluated effects of early (T1 and T2) and advanced (T3, T4) disease, adjuvant therapy, and free flap reconstruction on g-tube use. Results. Sixteen patients had tonsillar cancer and 13 tongue base cancer. Of 22 patients who underwent TORS as primary therapy, 17 had T1 T2 stage and five T3 T4 stage. Seven underwent salvage therapy (four T1 T2 and three T3 T4). Nine underwent robotic-assisted inset free flap reconstruction. Seventeen received adjuvant therapy. Four groups were compared: primary early disease (PED) T1 and T2 tumors, primary early disease with adjunctive therapy (PEDAT), primary advanced disease (PAD) T3 and T4 tumors, and salvage therapy. Within the first year of treatment, 0% PED, 44% PEDAT, 40% PAD, and 57% salvage patients required a g-tube. Fourteen patients had a temporary nasoenteric tube (48.3%) postoperatively, and 10 required a g-tube (34.5%) within the first year. Four of 22 (18.2%) with TORS as primary treatment were g-tube dependent at one year and had received adjuvant therapy. Conclusion. PED can be managed without a g-tube after TORS. Similar feeding tube rates were found for PEDAT and PAD patients. Salvage patients have a high rate of g-tube need after TORS. PMID:23936676

  13. Role of surgery in colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Özgür; Çetinkaya, Erdinç; Ersöz, Şiyar; Tez, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer, and approximately 35%-55% of patients with CRC will develop hepatic metastases during the course of their disease. Surgical resection represents the only chance of long-term survival. The goal of surgery should be to resect all metastases with negative histological margins while preserving sufficient functional hepatic parenchyma. Although resection remains the only chance of long-term survival, management strategies should be tailored for each case. For patients with extensive metastatic disease who would otherwise be unresectable, the combination of advances in medical therapy, such as systemic chemotherapy (CTX), and the improvement in surgical techniques for metastatic disease, have enhanced prognosis with prolongation of the median survival rate and cure. The use of portal vein embolization and preoperative CTX may also increase the number of patients suitable for surgical treatment. Despite current treatment options, many patients still experience a recurrence after hepatic resection. More active systemic CTX agents are being used increasingly as adjuvant therapy either before or after surgery. Local tumor ablative therapies, such as microwave coagulation therapy and radiofrequency ablation therapy, should be considered as an adjunct to hepatic resection, in which resection cannot deal with all of the tumor lesions. Formulation of an individualized plan, which combines surgery with systemic CTX, is a necessary task of the multidisciplinary team. The aim of this paper is to discuss different approaches for patients that are treated due to CRC liver metastasis. PMID:24876733

  14. Feasibility Evaluation of Radioimmunoguided Surgery of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ananth; Reilly, Raymond M.; Holloway, Claire M. B.; Caldwell, Curtis B.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery involves completely excising the tumour while limiting the amount of normal tissue removed, which is technically challenging to achieve, especially given the limited intraoperative guidance available to the surgeon. This study evaluates the feasibility of radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) to guide the detection and delineation of tumours intraoperatively. The 3D point-response function of a commercial gamma-ray-detecting probe (GDP) was determined as a function of radionuclide (131I, 111In, 99mTc), energy-window threshold, and collimator length (0.0–3.0-cm). This function was used to calculate the minimum detectable tumour volumes (MDTVs) and the minimum tumour-to-background activity concentration ratio (T:B) for effective delineation of a breast tumour model. The GDP had larger MDTVs and a higher minimum required T:B for tumour delineation with 131I than with 111In or 99mTc. It was shown that for 111In there was a benefit to using a collimator length of 0.5-cm. For the model used, the minimum required T:B required for effective tumour delineation was 5.2 ± 0.4. RIGS has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of breast-conserving surgery; however, before these benefits can be realized, novel radiopharmaceuticals need to be developed that have a higher specificity for cancerous tissue in vivo than what is currently available. PMID:22518303

  15. Nanoshell-mediated laser surgery simulation for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Elliott, Andrew; Shetty, Anil; Stafford, R Jason; Oden, J Tinsley

    2009-01-01

    Laser surgery, or laser-induced thermal therapy, is a minimally invasive alternative or adjuvant to surgical resection in treating tumors embedded in vital organs with poorly defined boundaries. Its use, however, is limited due to the lack of precise control of heating and slow rate of thermal diffusion in the tissue. Nanoparticles, such as nanoshells, can act as intense heat absorbers when they are injected into tumors. These nanoshells can enhance thermal energy deposition into target regions to improve the ability for destroying larger cancerous tissue volumes with lower thermal doses. The goal of this paper is to present an integrated computer model using a so-called nested-block optimization algorithm to simulate laser surgery and provide transient temperature field predictions. In particular, this algorithm aims to capture changes in optical and thermal properties due to nanoshell inclusion and tissue property variation during laser surgery. Numerical results show that this model is able to characterize variation of tissue properties for laser surgical procedures and predict transient temperature fields comparable to those measured by in vivo magnetic resonance temperature imaging techniques. Note that the computational approach presented in the study is quite general and can be applied to other types of nanoparticle inclusions. PMID:20648233

  16. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancers: Surgery Alone Versus Surgery Plus Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Hee Keun; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the role of radiotherapy after curative-intent surgery in the management of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1997 through 2005, 78 patients with EHBD cancer were surgically staged. These patients were stratified by the absence of adjuvant radiation (n = 47, group I) versus radiation (n = 31, group II) after resection. Pathology examination showed 27 cases in group I and 20 cases in group II had microscopically positive resection margins. The patients in group II received 45 to 54 Gy of external beam radiotherapy. The primary endpoints of this study were overall survival, disease-free survival, and prognostic factors. Results: There were no differences between the 5-year overall survival rates for the two groups (11.6% in group I vs. 21% in group II). However, the patients with microscopically positive resection margins who received adjuvant radiation therapy had higher median disease-free survival rates than those who underwent surgery alone (21 months vs. 10 months, respectively, p = 0.042). Decreasing local failure was found in patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (61.7% in group I and 35.6% in group II, p = 0.02). Outcomes of the patients with a positive resection margin and lymph node metastasis who received postoperative radiation therapy were doubled compared to those of patients without adjuvant radiotherapy. Resection margin status, lymph node metastasis, and pathology differentiation were significant prognostic factors in disease-free survival. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy might be useful in patients with EHBD cancer, especially for those patients with microscopic residual tumors and positive lymph nodes after resection for increasing local control.

  17. Role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Meaghan; Walker, Joan L

    2009-05-01

    Minimum surgical treatment for endometrial cancer is removal of the uterus. The operative approach to achieve that goal ranges from vaginal hysterectomy alone to laparotomy with radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy with possible omentectomy, and resection of all metastatic disease. Stratifying the risk factors for predicting presence of metastatic disease has error rates exceeding tolerance for many gynecologic oncologists. Most accept routine laparoscopic surgical staging with hysterectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, and removal of adnexa as standard care for patients with endometrial cancer. Modifying the extent of surgical staging for low-risk intrauterine findings or excessive risk for postoperative morbidity is also accepted. Laparoscopic surgery has become the ideal initial surgical approach for this disease, allowing for visual inspection of common metastatic sites, biopsy of abnormal areas, and cytology from peritoneal surfaces. The extent of staging can be altered depending on frozen section findings from the uterus, adnexa, and peritoneal surfaces. Intraoperative medical decision-making can be individualized, encompassing all known risk factors for metastases and balancing comorbidities and potential adverse outcomes. This article documents how laparoscopic surgery satisfies the needs of individual patients and surgeons treating this disease. PMID:19460281

  18. A multimodal nano agent for image-guided cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinzi; Muhanna, Nidal; De Souza, Raquel; Wada, Hironobu; Chan, Harley; Akens, Margarete K; Anayama, Takashi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Serra, Stefano; Irish, Jonathan; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative imaging technologies including computed tomography and fluorescence optical imaging are becoming routine tools in the cancer surgery operating room. They constitute an enabling platform for high performance surgical resections that assure local control while minimizing morbidity. New contrast agents that can increase the sensitivity and visualization power of existing intraoperative imaging techniques will further enhance their clinical benefit. We report here the development, detection and visualization of a dual-modality computed tomography and near-infrared fluorescence nano liposomal agent (CF800) in multiple preclinical animal models of cancer. We describe the successful application of this agent for combined preoperative computed tomography based three-dimensional surgical planning and intraoperative target mapping (>200 Hounsfield Units enhancement), as well as near-infrared fluorescence guided resection (>5-fold tumor-to-background ratio). These results strongly support the clinical advancement of this agent for image-guided surgery with potential to improve lesion localization, margin delineation and metastatic lymph node detection. PMID:26218742

  19. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Ramakrishnan Ayloor; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer associated peritoneal carcinomatosis (GCPC) has a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than one year. Systemic chemotherapy including targeted agents has not been found to significantly increase the survival in GCPC. Since recurrent gastric cancer remains confined to the abdominal cavity in many patients, regional therapies like aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been investigated for GCPC. HIPEC has been used for three indications in GC- as an adjuvant therapy after a curative surgery, HIPEC has been shown to improve survival and reduce peritoneal recurrences in many randomised trials in Asian countries; as a definitive treatment in established PC, HIPEC along with CRS is the only therapeutic modality that has resulted in long-term survival in select groups of patients; as a palliative treatment in advanced PC with intractable ascites, HIPEC has been shown to control ascites and reduce the need for frequent paracentesis. While the results of randomised trials of adjuvant HIPEC from western centres are awaited, the role of HIPEC in the treatment of GCPC is still evolving and needs larger studies before it is accepted as a standard of care. PMID:26811651

  20. [Complications and mortality of surgery for bronchogenic cancers].

    PubMed

    Roeslin, N; Morand, G

    1992-01-01

    Resection surgery for lung cancer is beset with specific or non-specific complications which often darken the prognosis for life. The specific complications, related to surgical dissections, are mainly per- and postoperative haemorrhages of various origins and, less frequently, disturbances in respiration, nerve wound or chylothorax. Soon after pneumonectomy a bronchial fistula encouraged by different factors may appear (3.3% of the cases) and empyema, usually caused by staphylococci, may develop (3%). Non-specific complications may disturb the post-resection period, involving the lungs (atelectasia, parenchymal infections, acute respiratory failure) or the cardiovascular system (pulmonary embolism, dysarrhythmia). The overall perioperative mortality rate has decreased with time owing to advances in anaesthesia and intensive care: in the hands of certain medico-surgical teams it does not exceed 3%. It is significantly lower in lobar (mean: 4.5%) than in pulmonary (mean: 8.4%) resections. Enlarged resections and lymph node dissections are aggravating factors. Patients aged 70 or more do not tolerate these operations so well: their mean overall mortality rate is twice that observed in younger patients (8% on average and up to 20%). Resection surgery for lung cancer remains a necessarily hazardous procedure but is the only treatment that can cure the patient. Its success is directly conditioned by a good preoperative risk evaluation. PMID:1303584

  1. Variation in Medicare Payments for Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsattar, Zaid M.; Birkmeyer, John D.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most expensive cancer in the United States. Episode-based bundled payments may be a strategy to decrease costs. However, it is unknown how payments are distributed across hospitals and different perioperative services. Methods: We extracted actual Medicare payments for patients in the fee-for-service Medicare population who underwent CRC surgery between January 2004 and Decembe 2006 (N = 105,016 patients). Payments included all service types from the date of hospitalization up to 1 year later. Hospitals were ranked from least to most expensive and grouped into quintiles. Results were case-mix adjusted and price standardized using empirical Bayes methods. We assessed the contributions of index hospitalization, physician services, readmissions, and postacute care to the overall variation in payment. Results: There is wide variation in total payments for CRC care within the first year after CRC surgery. Actual Medicare payments were $51,345 per patient in the highest quintile and $26,441 per patient in the lowest quintile, representing a difference of Δ = $24,902. Differences were persistent after price standardization (Δ = $17,184 per patient) and case-mix adjustment (Δ = $4,790 per patient). Payments for the index surgical hospitalization accounted for the largest share (65%) of payments but only minimally varied (11.6%) across quintiles. However, readmissions and postacute care services accounted for substantial variations in total payments. Conclusion: Medicare spending in the first year after CRC surgery varies across hospitals even after case-mix adjustment and price standardization. Variation is largely driven by postacute care and not the index surgical hospitalization. This has significant implications for policy decisions on how to bundle payments and define episodes of surgical CRC care. PMID:26130817

  2. Transoral surgery for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer - The paradigm shift of the head and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tateya, Ichiro; Shiotani, Akihiro; Satou, Yasuo; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Morita, Shuko; Muto, Manabu; Ito, Juichi

    2016-02-01

    Transoral surgery is a less invasive treatment that is becoming a major strategy in the treatment of laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. It is a minimally invasive approach that has no skin incision and limits the extent of tissue dissection, disruption of speech and swallowing muscles, blood loss, damage to major neurovascular structures, and injury to normal tissue. Transoral approaches to the laryngo-pharynx, except for early glottis cancer, had been limited traditionally to tumors that can be observed directly and manipulated with standard instrumentation and lighting. Since the 1990s, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been used as an organ preservation strategy with good oncological control and good functional results, although it has not been widely used because of its technical difficulty. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is becoming popular as a new treatment modality for laryngo-pharyngeal cancer, and surgical robots are used widely in the world since United States FDA approval in 2009. In spite of the global spread of TORS, it has not been approved by the Japan FDA, which has led to the development of other low-cost transoral surgical techniques in Japan. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) was developed as a new transoral surgery system for laryngo-pharyngeal lesions to address the problems of TLM. In TOVS, a rigid endoscope is used to visualize the surgical field instead of a microscope and the advantages of TOVS include the wide operative field and working space achieved using the distending laryngoscope and videolaryngoscope. Also, with the spread of narrow band imaging (NBI), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which are widely used for superficial cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, have been applied for the superficial laryngo-pharyngeal cancer. Both EMR and ESD are performed mainly by gastroenterologists with a sharp dissector and magnifying endoscopy (ME)-NBI with minimal surgical margin

  3. Second Primary Lung Cancers Demonstrate Better Survival with Surgery than Radiation.

    PubMed

    Taioli, Emanuela; Lee, Dong-Seok D; Kaufman, Andrew; Wolf, Andrea; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Gomez, Jorge; Flores, Raja M

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have had curative surgery for lung cancer are at the highest risk of developing a new lung cancer. Individual studies are usually underpowered to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in second primary lung cancer (SPLC). The goal of this study is to determine which treatment is best associated with survival in patients who develop a new primary lung cancer. All pathologically proven stage I lung cancer cases that received cancer-directed surgery included in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database between 2004 and 2010 were selected. Cases that received radiation therapy were excluded. Cases that developed a SPLC 6 or more months after the diagnosis of the first cancer were analyzed. The original data set consisted of 9564 stage I lung cancer cases treated with surgery; 520 of them developed a second primary, and completed data were available for 494 of them. Stage I disease was diagnosed in 272 patients with SPLCs (58.5%); 45.8% of these underwent cancer surgery alone, and 31.6% received radiation alone. Surgery was performed more frequently in early stages and younger patients. Surgical patients had statistically significant longer survival than patients treated with radiation (log-rank P < 0.0001) or not treated with surgery or radiation (log-rank P < 0.0001). The incidence of SPLCs was 5.4%. Stage I second primaries had improved survival when compared with later stage disease, and surgery conferred an increased survival benefit as compared with radiation. PMID:27568161

  4. Surgery of colorectal cancer lung metastases: analysis of survival, recurrence and re-surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guerrera, Francesco; Mossetti, Claudio; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Bruna, Maria Cristina; Bora, Giulia; Olivetti, Stefania; Lausi, Paolo Olivo; Solidoro, Paolo; Ciccone, Giovannino; Ruffini, Enrico; Oliaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgery is considered an effective therapeutic option for patients with lung metastasis (MTS) of colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of the study was to evaluate efficacy and feasibility of lung metastasectomy in CRC patients and to explore factors of prognostic relevance. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients operated for lung MTS of CRC from 2004 to 2012 in a single Institution. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were progression free survival (PFS) in resection status R0 and OS in in patients submitted to re-resections. In order to evaluate prognostic factors, a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was performed. Results One-hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients were included in the final analysis. The median follow-up (FU) was 45 months. The 5-year OS and PFS were 53% (95% CI: 44–60%) and 33% (95% CI: 25–42%), respectively. Two- and 5-year survival after re-resection were 79% (95% CI: 63–89%) and 49% (95% CI: 31–65%), respectively. Multivariate adjusted analysis showed that primary CRC pathological TNM stages (P=0.019), number of resected MTS ≥5 (P=0.009) and lymph nodal involvement (P<0.0001) are independent predictors of poor prognosis. Conclusions Patients operated and re-operated for lung MTS from CRC cancers showed encouraging survival rates. Our results indicated that primary CRC stage, number of MTS and lymph nodal involvement are strong predictive factors. Prognosis after surgery remained comforting up to four resected MTS. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to have a benefit on survival in patients affected by multiple metastases. Finally, according to the high rate of unidentified lymph node involvement in pre-operative setting, lymph node sampling should be advisable for a correct staging. PMID:27499967

  5. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer. PMID:26811619

  6. Core Outcomes for Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Consensus Study

    PubMed Central

    Whistance, Robert N.; Forsythe, Rachael O.; Macefield, Rhiannon; Pullyblank, Anne M.; Avery, Kerry N. L.; Brookes, Sara T.; Thomas, Michael G.; Sylvester, Paul A.; Russell, Ann; Oliver, Alfred; Morton, Dion; Kennedy, Robin; Jayne, David G.; Huxtable, Richard; Hackett, Roland; Card, Mia; Brown, Julia; Blazeby, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is common, and there is a great need to improve the delivery of such care. The gold standard for evaluating surgery is within well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs); however, the impact of RCTs is diminished by a lack of coordinated outcome measurement and reporting. A solution to these issues is to develop an agreed standard “core” set of outcomes to be measured in all trials to facilitate cross-study comparisons, meta-analysis, and minimize outcome reporting bias. This study defines a core outcome set for CRC surgery. Methods and Findings The scope of this COS includes clinical effectiveness trials of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer. Excluded were nonsurgical oncological interventions. Potential outcomes of importance to patients and professionals were identified through systematic literature reviews and patient interviews. All outcomes were transcribed verbatim and categorized into domains by two independent researchers. This informed a questionnaire survey that asked stakeholders (patients and professionals) from United Kingdom CRC centers to rate the importance of each domain. Respondents were resurveyed following group feedback (Delphi methods). Outcomes rated as less important were discarded after each survey round according to predefined criteria, and remaining outcomes were considered at three consensus meetings; two involving international professionals and a separate one with patients. A modified nominal group technique was used to gain the final consensus. Data sources identified 1,216 outcomes of CRC surgery that informed a 91 domain questionnaire. First round questionnaires were returned from 63 out of 81 (78%) centers, including 90 professionals, and 97 out of 267 (35%) patients. Second round response rates were high for all stakeholders (>80%). Analysis of responses lead to 45 and 23 outcome domains being retained

  7. Quality of life after surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gavaruzzi, Teresa; Giandomenico, Francesca; Del Bianco, Paola; Lotto, Lorella; Perin, Alessandro; Pucciarelli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is now considered a relevant clinical outcome. This study systematically reviewed articles published in the last 5 years, focusing on the impact of rectal cancer treatment on patients' HRQoL. Of the 477 articles retrieved, 56 met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently reported comparisons were between surgical procedures (21 articles), especially between sphincter-preserving and non-sphincter preserving surgery or between stoma and stoma-free patients (13 articles), and between multimodality therapies (11 articles). Additionally, twelve articles compared patients' and healthy controls' HRQoL as primary or secondary aim. The majority of the studies were observational (84 %), controlled (66 %), cross-sectional (54 %), prospective (100 %), with a sample of more than 100 patients (59 %), and with more than 60 % of patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy (50 %). The most frequently used instruments were the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30), its colorectal cancer specific module QLQ-CR38, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 items questionnaire. Findings from the included articles are summarised and commented, with a special focus on the comparison between surgical treatments, between irradiated and not-irradiated patients, and between patients and the general population. PMID:25103003

  8. Laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery: Current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastrectomy has been widely accepted as a standard alternative for the treatment of early-stage gastric adenocarcinoma because of its favorable short-term outcomes. Although controversies exist, such as establishing clear indications, proper preoperative staging, and oncologic safety, experienced surgeons and institutions have applied this approach, along with various types of function-preserving surgery, for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. With technical advancement and the advent of state-of-the-art instruments, indications for laparoscopic gastrectomy are expected to expand as far as locally advanced gastric cancer. Laparoscopic gastrectomy appears to be promising; however, scientific evidence necessary to generalize this approach to a standard treatment for all relevant patients and care providers remains to be gathered. Several multicenter, prospective randomized trials in high-incidence countries are ongoing, and results from these trials will highlight the short- and long-term outcomes of the approach. In this review, we describe up-to-date findings and critical issues regarding laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:26811620

  9. Comparison of postoperative complications in advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Poonam; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar; Noronha, Vanita; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Head and neck cancer is the third most common cancer in India with 60% presenting in advanced stages. There is the emerging role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in the management of these advanced cancers. There is a general perception that complication rates are higher with the use of NACT. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospectively collected data of head and neck cancer patients operated at our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014. A total of 205 patients were included in the study. These patients were studied in two groups. Group 1 included 153 patients who underwent surgery alone, and Group 2 included 52 patients who received 2-3 cycles of NACT followed by surgery. Results: The mean age of the population was 51 years in the Group 1 and 45 years in Group 2. The hospital stay and readmissions in postoperative period were similar in the two groups. In this study, the complication rate was 37.9% in the surgery patients and 30.8% in the NACT patients (P = 0.424). Conclusion: The postoperative complication rates in patients who received NACT followed by surgery were not significantly different from those who underwent surgery. PMID:26811595

  10. Impact of Type of Surgery on Survival Outcome in Patients With Early Gallbladder Cancer in the Era of Minimally Invasive Surgery: Oncologic Safety of Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jin-Young; Heo, Jin Seok; Han, Youngmin; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted as a feasible and safe treatment modality in many cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. However, most guidelines on gallbladder cancer (GBC) regard laparoscopic surgery as a contraindication, even for early GBC. This study aims to evaluate and compare recent surgical outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery for T1(a,b) GBC and to determine the optimal surgical strategy for T1 GBC.The study enrolled 197 patients with histopathologically proven T1 GBC and no history of other cancers who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2014 at 3 major tertiary referral hospitals with specialized biliary-pancreas pathologists and optimal pathologic handling protocols. Median follow-up was 56 months. The effects of depth of invasion and type of surgery on disease-specific survival and recurrence patterns were investigated.Of the 197 patients, 116 (58.9%) underwent simple cholecystectomy, including 31 (15.7%) who underwent open cholecystectomy and 85 (43.1%) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The remaining 81 (41.1%) patients underwent extended cholecystectomy. Five-year disease-specific survival rates were similar in patients who underwent simple and extended cholecystectomy (96.7% vs 100%, P = 0.483), as well as being similar in patients in the simple cholecystectomy group who underwent open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (100% vs 97.6%, P = 0.543). Type of surgery had no effect on recurrence patterns.Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for T1 gallbladder cancer can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open surgery. Considering less blood loss and shorter hospital stay with better cosmetic outcome, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be justified as a standard treatment for T1b as well as T1a gallbladder cancer when done by well-experienced surgeons based on exact pathologic diagnosis. PMID:27258495

  11. A goggle navigation system for cancer resection surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junbin; Shao, Pengfei; Yue, Ting; Zhang, Shiwu; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    We describe a portable fluorescence goggle navigation system for cancer margin assessment during oncologic surgeries. The system consists of a computer, a head mount display (HMD) device, a near infrared (NIR) CCD camera, a miniature CMOS camera, and a 780 nm laser diode excitation light source. The fluorescence and the background images of the surgical scene are acquired by the CCD camera and the CMOS camera respectively, co-registered, and displayed on the HMD device in real-time. The spatial resolution and the co-registration deviation of the goggle navigation system are evaluated quantitatively. The technical feasibility of the proposed goggle system is tested in an ex vivo tumor model. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using a goggle navigation system for intraoperative margin detection and surgical guidance.

  12. Mohs micrographic surgery for the management of nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, Lara; Dana, Ali; Liegeois, Nanette

    2009-08-01

    Many treatment modalities have been described to address the growing epidemic of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is a surgical technique that allows complete and precise microscopic margin analysis by using horizontal frozen sections. The purpose of MMS is twofold: to ensure definitive excision and to minimize loss of normal surrounding tissue. MMS offers the advantages of superior cure rates and, because tissue removal is minimized, excellent cosmetic outcomes. Therefore, MMS has become the treatment of choice for many high-risk tumors. Because this technique is labor intensive, MMS is not indicated in certain situations. Understanding the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of MMS remains paramount for facial plastic surgeons managing NMSC. PMID:19698914

  13. Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer after optimized surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after optimized surgery requires a full understanding of the disease, especially as it has changed in the last 15 years, what comprises optimized surgery, and the different types and implications of disease relapse that can be encountered. PTC has evolved to tumors that are much smaller than previously seen, largely due to various high quality imaging studies obtained for different reasons, but serendipitously identifying thyroid nodules that prove to be papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). With rare exception, these cancers are cured by conservative surgery without additional therapy, and seldom result in recurrent disease. PTC is highly curable in 85% of cases because of its rather innocent biologic behavior. Therefore, the shift in emphasis from disease survival to recurrence is appropriate. As a result of three technologic advances—high-resolution ultrasound (US), recombinant TSH, and highly sensitive thyroglobulin (Tg)—disease relapse can be discovered when it is subclinical. Endocrinologists who largely control administration of radioactive iodine have used it to ablate barely detectable or even biochemically apparent disease, hoping to reduce recurrence and perhaps improve survival. Surgeons, in response to this new intense postoperative surveillance that has uncovered very small volume disease, have responded by utilizing US preoperatively to image this disease, and incorporated varying degrees of lymphadenectomy into their initial treatment algorithm. Bilateral thyroid resection—either total or near-total thyroidectomy—remains the standard for PTC >1 cm, although recent data has re-emphasized the value of unilateral lobectomy in treating even some PTC measuring 1-4 cm. Therapeutic lymphadenectomy has universal approval, but when lymph nodes in the central neck are not worrisome to the surgeon’s intraoperative assessment, although that judgment in incorrect up to 50%, whether they should be excised

  14. The role of the robotic technique in minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Luca, Fabrizio; Petz, Wanda; Valvo, Manuela; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Biffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery is feasible, oncologically safe, and offers better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, and time until return to working activity. Nevertheless, laparoscopic techniques are not widely used in rectal surgery, mainly because they require a prolonged and demanding learning curve that is available only in high-volume and rectal cancer surgery centres experienced in minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is a new technology that enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on robotic surgery, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:24101946

  15. CT Imaging Biomarkers Predict Clinical Outcomes After Pancreatic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liang; Shi, Xiaohua; Xue, Huadan; Wu, Huanwen; Chen, Ge; Sun, Hao; He, Yonglan; Jin, Zhengyu; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine whether changes in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) parameters could predict postsurgery overall and progression-free survival (PFS) in pancreatic cancer patients. Seventy-nine patients with a final pathological diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included in this study from June 2008 to August 2012. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT of tumors was obtained before curative-intent surgery. Absolute enhancement change (AEC) and relative enhancement change (REC) were evaluated on DCE-CT. PFS and overall survival (OS) were compared based on CT enhancement patterns. The markers of fibrogenic alpha-smooth muscle antigen (α-SMA) and periostin in tumor specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The χ2 test was performed to determine whether CT enhancement patterns were associated with α-SMA-periostin expression levels (recorded as positive or negative). Lower REC (<0.9) was associated with shorter PFS (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31–0.89) and OS (HR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25–0.78). The α-SMA and periostin expression level were negatively correlated with REC (both P = 0). Among several CT enhancement parameters, REC was the best predictor of patient postsurgery survival. Low REC was associated with a short progression-free time and poor survival. The pathological studies suggested that REC might be a reflection of cancer fibrogenic potential. PMID:26844495

  16. Radiotherapy and chemoradiation after surgery for early cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda; Siu, Shing Shun N; Luesley, David; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review first published in Issue 4, 2009. There is an ongoing debate about the indications for, and value of, adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery in women with early cervical cancer. Certain combinations of pathological risk factors are thought to represent sufficient risk for recurrence, that they justify the use of postoperative pelvic radiotherapy, though this has never been shown to improve overall survival, and use of more than one type of treatment (surgery and radiotherapy) increases the risks of side effects and complications. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant therapies (radiotherapy, chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, chemoradiation) after radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer (FIGO stages IB1, IB2 or IIA). Search methods For the original review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 4, 2008. The Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE (January 1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1950 to November 2008). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. For this update, we extended the database searches to September 2011 and searched the MetaRegister for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared adjuvant therapies (radiotherapy, chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, or chemoradiation) with no radiotherapy or chemoradiation, in women with a confirmed histological diagnosis of early cervical cancer who had undergone radical hysterectomy and dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Information on grade 3 and 4 adverse events was collected from the trials. Results were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Main results Two RCTs

  17. Impact of Prior Abdominal Surgery on Rates of Conversion to Open Surgery and Short-Term Outcomes after Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ik Yong; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Young Wan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of prior abdominal surgery (PAS) on rates of conversion to open surgery and short-term outcomes after laparoscopic surgery for colon and rectal cancers. Methods We compared three groups as follows: colon cancer patients with no PAS (n = 272), major PAS (n = 24), and minor PAS (n = 33), and rectal cancer patients with no PAS (n = 282), major PAS (n=16), and minor PAS (n = 26). Results In patients with colon and rectal cancers, the rate of conversion to open surgery was significantly higher in the major PAS group (25% and 25%) compared with the no PAS group (8.1% and 8.9%), while the conversion rate was similar between the no PAS and minor PAS groups (15.2% and 15.4%). The 30-day complication rate did not differ among the three groups (28.7% and 29.1% in the no PAS group, 29.2% and 25% in the major PAS group, and 27.3% and 26.9% in the minor PAS group). The mean operative time did not differ among the three groups (188 min and 227 min in the no PAS group, 191 min and 210 min in the major PAS group, and 192 min and 248 min in the minor PAS group). The rate of conversion to open surgery was significantly higher in patients with prior gastrectomy or colectomy compared with the no PAS group, while the conversion rate was similar between the no PAS group and patients with prior radical hysterectomy in patients with colon and rectal cancers. Conclusions Our results suggest that colorectal cancer patients with minor PAS or patients with prior radical hysterectomy can be effectively managed with a laparoscopic approach. In addition, laparoscopy can be selected as the primary surgical approach even in patients with major PAS (prior gastrectomy or colectomy) given the assumption of a higher conversion rate. PMID:26207637

  18. Laparoscopic vs. open approach for colorectal cancer: evolution over time of minimal invasive surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the late '80s the successes of the laparoscopic surgery for gallbladder disease laid the foundations on the modern use of this surgical technique in a variety of diseases. In the last 20 years, laparoscopic colorectal surgery had become a popular treatment option for colorectal cancer patients. Discussion Many studies emphasized on the benefits stating the significant advantages of the laparoscopic approach compared with the open surgery of reduced blood loss, early return of intestinal motility, lower overall morbidity, and shorter duration of hospital stay, leading to a general agreement on laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to conventional open surgery for colon cancer. The reduced hospital stay may also decrease the cost of the laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer, despite th higher operative spending compared with open surgery. The average reduction in total direct costs is difficult to define due to the increasing cost over time, making challenging the comparisons between studies conducted during a time range of more than 10 years. However, despite the theoretical advantages of laparoscopic surgery, it is still not considered the standard treatment for colorectal cancer patients due to technical limitations or the characteristics of the patients that may affect short and long term outcomes. Conclusions The laparoscopic approach to colectomy is slowly gaining acceptance for the management of colorectal pathology. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer demonstrates better short-term outcome, oncologic safety, and equivalent long-term outcome of open surgery. For rectal cancer, laparoscopic technique can be more complex depending on the tumor location. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery may translate better care quality for oncological patients and lead to increased cost saving through the introduction of active enhanced recovery programs which are likely cost-effective from the perspective of the hospital health-care providers

  19. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for gastric cancer: Does it really benefit the patient?

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Tohru; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Masaji

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation surgery is accepted as a standard treatment procedure for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, the benefit of reduced lymphadenectomy based on SLN examination remains unclear in cases of gastric cancer. Here, we review previous studies to determine whether SLN navigation surgery is beneficial for gastric cancer patients. Recently, a large-scale prospective study from the Japanese Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery reported that the endoscopic dual tracer method, using a dye and radioisotope for SLN biopsy, was safe and effective when applied to cases of superficial and relatively small gastric cancers. SLN mapping with SLN basin dissection was preferred for early gastric cancer since it is minimally invasive. However, previous studies reported that limited gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy may not improve the patient’s postoperative quality of life (QOL). As a result, the benefit of SLN navigation surgery for gastric cancer patients, in terms of their QOL, is limited. Thus, endoscopic and laparoscopic limited gastrectomy combined with SLN navigation surgery has the potential to become the standard minimally invasive surgery in early gastric cancer. PMID:26973385

  20. The Cancer Ward: Scapegoating Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeargan, Linda D.; Nehemkis, Alexis M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes scapegoating encountered during the author's third-year experience as psychological consultant to the oncology unit of a large medical center. Therapeutic strategies for managing the crisis within the structure of an ongoing staff support group are discussed. A conceptual framework for understanding the scapegoating process is…

  1. Observation as Good as Surgery for Some Men with Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Many men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer could forego radical prostatectomy and live as long as men who have immediate surgery, according to long-awaited results from a clinical trial published July 19, 2012, in NEJM.

  2. Laparoscopic-Assisted Versus Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Toscano, Chiara; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Basile, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the theoretical advantages of laparoscopic surgery, it is still not considered the standard treatment for colorectal cancer patients because of criticism concerning oncologic stability. This study aimed at examining the short- and long-term follow-up results of laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colorectal cancer and at investigating clinical outcomes, oncologic safety, and any potential advantages of laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively analyzed a database containing the information about patients who underwent surgery for stage I–III colorectal cancer from January 2004 to January 2012 at our institution. Results The patients who underwent the laparoscopic-assisted procedure showed a significantly faster recovery than those who underwent open surgery, namely, less time to first passing flatus (P=.041), time of first bowel motion (P=.04), time to resume normal diet (P=.043), and time to walk independently (P=.031). Laparoscopic colorectal surgery caused less pain for patients, leading to lower need of analgesic (P=.002) and less hospital recovery time (P=.034), compared with patients who underwent open surgery. No differences were found in 3- and 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates. Conclusions Our results suggested that the laparoscopic approach was as safe as the open alternative. Laparoscopic-assisted surgery has been shown to be a favorable surgical option with better short-term outcomes and similar long-term oncological control compared with open resection. PMID:23004676

  3. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Benefits, Challenges, and Solutions for Underutilization

    PubMed Central

    Gusani, Niraj J.; Kimchi, Eric T.; Kavic, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. Methods: We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. Results: We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Conclusions: Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future. PMID:25489209

  5. [Comprehensive Treatment for Lung Cancer 
Based on Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    He, Jianxing

    2016-06-20

    The treatment for resectable lung cancer has developed to the era of comprehensive treatment based on minimally invasive surgery (MIS). MIS is not only manifested by the "shrink" of incisions, but also by the individualization and meticulous of incisions. Meanwhile, the minimal invasiveness of other procedures in MIS, such as the minimally invasive anesthesia (tubeless anesthesia) and minimally invasive, meticulous and individualized surgical instruments represented by 3D thoracoscope with naked eye. Even advanced stage lung cancer patients could receive precision treatment based on molecular information of their cancer tissue obtained by surgery. Therefore, the treatment for lung cancer should be comprehensive treatment based on MIS. PMID:27335290

  6. [Treatment outcomes of colon cancer surgery combined with radical lymphadenectomy].

    PubMed

    Lipská, L; Visokai, V; Mrácek, M; Levý, M

    2008-05-01

    The authors analyzed a group of 1281 subjects with colorectal cancer operated and followed up in a single institution from I/1992 to VIII/2007. Colon carcinoma patients were assessed separately (C18). Patients with rectal and rectosigmoid tumors are not included in the presentation. A total of 846 patients were operated for colon carcinomas. In 546 subjects, radical R0 resections were achieved. In the R0 group, the male/female ratio is 315/231, age 29-94 years, the mean age of 69 years. The R0 group stratification by TNM classification was: I 17.8%, II 49.6%, III 24.0%, IV 8.1%, TNMx 0.5%. Irrespective of the TNM staging, three-year, five-year and ten-year survival rates were 80%, 71%, and 51%, resp. The median survival time was 9.85 years. Postoperative morality was 5.5%, morbidity 29.8%, anastomic leak occured in 5.7%. Systematic lymph node dissection up to the apical level, had been gradually introduced as an integral part of the R0 surgery. The aim of the study is to analyze outcomes of the colon carcinoma surgical management, combined with radical lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, effects of the extensive procedure on the postoperative morbidity and moratility rates are analyzed as well. PMID:18595540

  7. [Lung cancer in the elderly: what about surgery?].

    PubMed

    Rivera, C; Gisselbrecht, M; Pricopi, C; Fabre, E; Mordant, P; Badia, A; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2014-01-01

    Geriatric oncology is a rapidly expanding domain because of the deep epidemiological changes of the last decades related to the ageing of the population. Lung cancer treatment in patients 75 years and over is a major issue of thoracic oncology. Curative surgery remains the treatment offering the best survival rates to the patient whatever his age. The important variability observed within the elderly forces us to take into account their specificities, in particular for ageing physiology and associated comorbidities. Thus, preoperative workup permitting to assess the resectability of the tumor but also the operability of the patient is all the more essential in the advanced age that it must be adapted to the particular characteristics of the elderly. Thanks to recent data of the literature, morbidity and mortality associated to surgical treatment are now better characterized and considered as acceptable in accordance with long-term survival. Clinical investigation remains essential to acquire a better knowledge of potential benefit of multimodal treatments in the elderly, for which very few data are available. PMID:24581796

  8. Morbidities of Lung Cancer Surgery in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Binod; Eastwood, Daniel; Sukumaran, Sunitha; Hassler, George; Tisol, William; Gasparri, Mario; Choong, Nicholas; Santana-Davila, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a risk factor for increased peri-operative morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. There have been limited studies to correlate the morbidity of lung cancer resection with obesity. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent surgical resection for lung cancer at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2006 to 2010. Data on patient demographics, weight, pathology findings and hospital course were abstracted after appropriate IRB approval. Peri-operative morbidity was defined as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism or any medical complications arising within 30 days after surgery. Fisher’s exact test was used to test the association between BMI and peri-operative morbidities. Results Between 2006 and 2010,320 lung resections were performed for lung cancer. Median age was 67(IQR 59–75) years and 185(57.8%) were females.121 (37.8%) patients had a BMI<25 and 199(62.18%) patients had a BMI≥25. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.8 % (n=6) in the whole group; only 2 of these patients had a BMI ≥ 25. Peri-operative morbidity occurred in 28(23.14%) of normal BMI patients and in 47(23.61%) of BMI ≥ 25 patients (p=0.54). Specific morbidities encountered by patients with normal vs. BMI ≥ 25 were: atrial fibrillation 11(9.09%) vs. 24(12.06%) (p=0.46), Pulmonary embolism 1(0.83%) vs. 3(1.51%) (p=1.0), congestive heart failure 2(1.65%) vs. 2(1.01%) (p=0.63), renal failure 4(3.3%) vs.2 (1.0%)(p=0.29), respiratory failure 12(9.92%) vs. 17(8.54%) (p=0.69) and acute respiratory distress syndrome 2(1.65%) vs. 1(0.50%) (p=0.55). Median hospital stay was 5 days in the lower BMI group and 4 days in the BMI ≥25 groups (p=0.52). Conclusions Overweight and normal weight patients do not differ significantly in rates of perioperative morbidities, 30-day mortality and length of stay. Our study indicates that potential curative surgical resections can be offered to even significantly overweight

  9. [Palliative surgery for malignant bowel obstruction in patients with advanced and recurrent gastroenterological cancer].

    PubMed

    Kitani, Kotaro; Yukawa, Masao; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tsujie, Masanori; Hara, Joji; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Sato, Katsuaki; Isono, Sayuri; Kawai, Kenji; Miura, Ken; Watatani, Masahiro; Inoue, Masatoshi

    2013-11-01

    We report the outcomes of palliative surgery for the treatment of malignant bowel obstruction in patients with advanced gastroenterological cancer. We studied 20 patients who had undergone palliative surgery over 3 years. We analyzed the clinical findings, surgical procedure, postoperative clinical course, and prognosis. The origin of the patients was colorectal cancer( 9 cases), gastric cancer( 4 cases), uterine cancer( 3 cases), pancreatic cancer( 2 cases), bladder( 1 case), and anal cancer (1 case). Small bowel obstruction was noted in 8 cases and colorectal obstruction was noted in 14 cases. Colostomy was performed in 13 cases, resection and reconstruction were performed in 6 cases, and bypass was performed in 4 cases. Ninety percent of the patients were able to eat solid food following the surgery, but 20% of the patients were forced to have bowel obstruction. The median survival time after palliative surgery was 3 (range, 0-15) months, and 6 patients (30%) died within 2 months. We concluded that palliative surgery for the treatment of malignant bowel obstruction could improve the patients' quality of life. The decision for performing palliative surgery should be made while considering the patient's prognosis, wishes, and potential for symptom improvement. PMID:24393893

  10. Bone quantitative ultrasound at hand phalanges of women following breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Bolanowski, Marek; Chwałczyńska, Agnieszka; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer surgery and its adjunctive therapy follow in lymphedema, decreased limb mobility and bone deterioration. The aim was to establish relation of postsurgical limb lymphedema with bone properties assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of hand phalanges in postmenopausal women after breast cancer surgery. In all, 63 women aged 62.81 ± 8.83 years, after breast cancer surgery were compared with control group of 418 age-matched women. Their skeletal status was assessed by QUS measurements at proximal phalanges using DBM Sonic 1200. There were no statistically significant differences in QUS measurements (Ad-SoS) between groups of operated subjects and the controls, between limbs (operated vs. nonoperated side, with and without lymphedema), and regarding method of surgery. Ad-SoS was greater in estrogen-treated patients than in nontreated ones at the side with no breast surgery (1994.11 ± 67.83 vs. 1943.27 ± 58.34; P = 0.046). Ad-SoS was lower in patients with adjunctive antiestrogen therapy than without this therapy at the side of surgery (1937.35 ± 54.71 vs. 1966.78 ± 59.18; P = 0.0449), and nonbreast surgery side (1934.55 ± 52.06 vs. 1973.31 ± 57.17; P = 0.0066). Breast cancer surgery followed by concomitant therapies does not influence significantly QUS at hand phalanges. This was proven regarding method of surgery, side of surgery, and lymphedema. Additional hormonal treatment can influence phalangeal QUS in breast cancer survivors. PMID:21495803

  11. Minimization of curative surgery for treatment of early cervical cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Takahide; Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Tsuruga, Tetsushi; Yamashita, Aki; Oda, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Onda, Takashi; Konishi, Ikuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-07-01

    Surgery is effective and useful for curative treatment of patients with early invasive cervical cancer, yet minimization of surgical procedures provides many additional advantages for patients. Because the mean age of patients diagnosed with cervical precancer and invasive cancer has been decreasing, the need for minimization of surgery to reduce disruption of fertility is increasing. Trachelectomy is an innovative procedure for young patients with invasive cancer. Minimally invasive procedures are increasingly implemented in the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer, such as laparoscopic/robotic surgery and sentinel lymph node navigation. The use of modified radical hysterectomy may not only be curative but also minimally invasive for Stage IA2-IB1 patients with a tumor size <2 cm in diameter. Here, we have summarized and discussed the minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer. PMID:25888708

  12. A Clinical Outcome-Based Prospective Study on Venous Thromboembolism After Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bolis, Giorgio; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Tonelli, Francesco; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Moia, Marco; Parazzini, Fabio; Rossi, Romina; Sonaglia, Francesco; Valarani, Bettina; Bianchini, Carlo; Gussoni, Gualberto

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Data: The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after cancer surgery is based on clinical trials on VTE prophylaxis that used venography to screen deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, the clinical relevance of asymptomatic venography-detected DVT is unclear, and the population of these clinical trials is not necessarily representative of the overall cancer surgery population. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of clinically overt VTE in a wide spectrum of consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cancer and to identify risk factors for VTE. Methods: @RISTOS was a prospective observational study in patients undergoing general, urologic, or gynecologic surgery. Patients were assessed for clinically overt VTE occurring up to 30 ± 5 days after surgery or more if the hospital stay was longer than 35 days. All outcome events were evaluated by an independent Adjudication Committee. Results: A total of 2373 patients were included in the study: 1238 (52%) undergoing general, 685 (29%) urologic, and 450 (19%) gynecologic surgery. In-hospital prophylaxis was given in 81.6% and postdischarge prophylaxis in 30.7% of the patients. Fifty patients (2.1%) were adjudicated as affected by clinically overt VTE (DVT, 0.42%; nonfatal pulmonary embolism, 0.88%; death 0.80%). The incidence of VTE was 2.83% in general surgery, 2.0% in gynecologic surgery, and 0.87% in urologic surgery. Forty percent of the events occurred later than 21 days from surgery. The overall death rate was 1.72%; in 46.3% of the cases, death was caused by VTE. In a multivariable analysis, 5 risk factors were identified: age above 60 years (2.63, 95% confidence interval, 1.21–5.71), previous VTE (5.98, 2.13–16.80), advanced cancer (2.68, 1.37–5.24), anesthesia lasting more than 2 hours (4.50, 1.06–19.04), and bed rest longer than 3 days (4.37, 2.45–7.78). Conclusions: VTE remains a common complication of cancer surgery, with a remarkable proportion

  13. Overuse of surgery in patients with pancreatic cancer. A nationwide analysis in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Balzano, Gianpaolo; Capretti, Giovanni; Callea, Giuditta; Cantù, Elena; Carle, Flavia; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background According to current guidelines, pancreatic cancer patients should be strictly selected for surgery, either palliative or resective. Methods Population-based study, including all patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer in Italy between 2010 and 2012. Hospitals were divided into five volume groups (quintiles), to search for differences among volume categories. Results There were 544 hospitals performing 10 936 pancreatic cancer operations. The probability of undergoing palliative/explorative surgery was inversely related to volume, being 24.4% in very high-volume hospitals and 62.5% in very low-volume centres (adjusted OR 5.175). Contrarily, the resection rate in patients without metastases decreased from 86.9% to 46.1% (adjusted OR 7.429). As for resections, the mortality of non-resective surgery was inversely related to volume (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, mortality of non-resective surgery was higher than that for resections (8.2% vs. 6.7%; p < 0.01). Approximately 9% of all resections were performed on patients with distant metastases, irrespective of hospital volume group. The excess cost for the National Health System from surgery overuse was estimated at 12.5 million euro. Discussion. Discrepancies between guidelines on pancreatic cancer treatment and surgical practice were observed. An overuse of surgery was detected, with serious clinical and economic consequences. PMID:27154812

  14. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer in the older person: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Moug, S.J.; McCarthy, K.; Coode-Bate, J.; Stechman, M.J.; Hewitt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic surgery is being increasingly offered to the older person. Objective To systematically review the literature regarding laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in older people and compare to younger adult populations. Study selection We included randomized controlled trials that compared open to laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Older people were defined as being 65 years and above. Outcome measures Overall survival and post-operative morbidity and mortality. Secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay, wound recurrence, disease-free survival and conversion rate. Results Seven trials included older people, average age of approximately 70 years. Two reported data specific to older patients (over 70 years): The ALCCaS study reported reduced length of stay and short-term complication rates in the laparoscopic group when compared to open surgery (8 versus 10 days, and 36.7% versus 50.6% respectively) and the CLASICC study reported equivalent 5 year survival between arms and a reduction of 2 days length of stay following laparoscopic surgery in older people. In trials which considered data on older and younger participants all five trials reported comparable overall survival and showed comparable or reduced complication rates; two demonstrated significantly shorter length of stay following laparoscopic surgery compared to open surgery. Conclusion Large numbers of older people have been included in well-conducted, multi-centre, randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery. This systematic review suggests that age itself should not be a factor when considering the best surgical option for older patients. PMID:26468376

  15. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  16. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR GASTRIC CANCER: TIME TO CHANGE THE PARADIGM

    PubMed Central

    BARCHI, Leandro Cardoso; JACOB, Carlos Eduardos; BRESCIANI, Cláudio José Caldas; YAGI, Osmar Kenji; MUCERINO, Donato Roberto; LOPASSO, Fábio Pinatel; MESTER, Marcelo; RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, Ulysses; DIAS, André Roncon; RAMOS, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery widely used to treat benign disorders of the digestive system, has become the focus of intense study in recent years in the field of surgical oncology. Since then, the experience with this kind of approach has grown, aiming to provide the same oncological outcomes and survival to conventional surgery. Regarding gastric cancer, surgery is still considered the only curative treatment, considering the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy performed. Conventional surgery remains the main modality performed worldwide. Notwithstanding, the role of the minimally invasive access is yet to be clarified. Objective: To evaluate and summarize the current status of minimally invasive resection of gastric cancer. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO with the following headings: gastric cancer, minimally invasive surgery, robotic gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy, stomach cancer. The language used for the research was English. Results: 28 articles were considered, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyzes, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Conclusion: Minimally invasive gastrectomy may be considered as a technical option in the treatment of early gastric cancer. As for advanced cancer, recent studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic approach. Robotic gastrectomy will probably improve outcomes obtained with laparoscopy. However, high cost is still a barrier to its use on a large scale. PMID:27438040

  17. Single-port versus multi-port laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokuoka, Masayoshi; Ide, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mitsunobu; Hirose, Hajime; Hashimoto, Yasuji; Matsuyama, Jin; Yokoyama, Shigekazu; Fukushima, Yukio; Sasaki, Yo

    2016-01-01

    The safety of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SLS) in elderly patients with colorectal cancer has not been established. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcomes of SLS and multi-port laparoscopic surgery (MLS) and to assess the feasibility of SLS in colorectal cancer patients aged ≥70 years. A retrospective case-control study of colon cancer patients undergoing elective surgical intervention between 2011 and 2014 was conducted. A total of 129 patients with colon cancer underwent surgery and were included in the analysis. Data regarding patient demographics, surgical variables, oncological outcomes and short-term outcomes were evaluated for statistical significance to compare MLS (n=79) and SLS (n=50) in colon cancer patients. No significant differences were observed in patient characteristics. No case required re-admission within 30 days post surgery. The mean surgery times were similar for the MLS and SLS groups when cases with left and right hemicolectomies were combined (207.7 and 215.9 min, respectively; P=0.47). In addition, overall perioperative outcomes, including blood loss, number of lymph nodes harvested, size of the surgical margin and complications, were similar between these groups. Thus, we suggest that SLS can be performed safely in elderly patients with colon cancer. PMID:27446454

  18. Laparoscopic versus Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of 163 Patients in a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Salman, Bulent; Yuksel, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancers. Materials and Methods. The medical records from a total of 163 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancers were retrospectively analyzed. Patient's demographic data, operative details and postoperative early outcomes, outpatient follow-up, pathologic results, and stages of the cancer were reviewed from the database. Results. The patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery showed significant advantages due to the minimally invasive nature of the surgery compared with those who underwent open surgery, namely, less blood loss, faster postoperative recovery, and shorter postoperative hospital stay (P < 0.05). However, laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer resulted in a longer operative time compared with open surgery (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for medical complications (P > 0.05). Open surgery resulted in more incisional infections and postoperative ileus compared with laparoscopic surgery (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the pathologic parameters between two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions. These findings indicated that laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer had the clear advantages of a minimally invasive surgery and relative disadvantage with longer surgery time and exhibited similar pathologic parameters compared with open surgery. PMID:25506425

  19. Teaching a 'good' ward round.

    PubMed

    Powell, Natalie; Bruce, Christopher G; Redfern, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Ward rounds are a vital part of hospital medicine and junior doctors play a key role in their delivery. Despite the importance of ward rounds to patient care and experience, we believe that junior doctors may lack the training and skills to carry them out most effectively. We designed a simulation-based training session focusing on ward round skills themed to key patient safety issues and have delivered the training to over 100 learners (medical students and foundation year one doctors). Few learners had any prior training in ward rounds. The session was highly valued by all participants and surveys completed both before and after the session showed statistically significant improvements in confidence in leading and documenting ward rounds. In addition, 94% of final year medical students and 93% of doctors felt such training should be included in the undergraduate curriculum. We believe there is a current gap in training around ward round skills and would strongly encourage simulation-based ward round training to be developed for undergraduates. Further sessions following qualification may then consolidate and develop ward round skills adapted to the level of the doctor. PMID:25824064

  20. The Effect of Neoadjuvant Therapy on Early Complications of Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Mashhadi, Mohammadtaghi; Bagheri, Reza; Abdollahi, Abbas; Ghamari, Mohammad Javad; Shahidsales, Soudabeh; Salehi, Maryam; Shahkaram, Reza; Majidi, Mohamad Reza; Sheibani, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is required in esophageal cancer due to its invasive nature. The aim of this study was to evaluate early post-esophagectomy complications in patients with esophageal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACR). Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was carried out between 2009 and 2011. Patients with lower-third esophageal cancer were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group consisted of 50 patients receiving standard chemoradiotherapy (Group A) and then undergoing surgery, and the second group consisted of 50 patients undergoing surgery only (Group B). Patients were evaluated with respect to age, gender, clinical symptoms, type of pathology, time of surgery, perioperative blood loss, and number of lymph nodes resected as well as early post-operative complicate including leakage at the anastomosis site, chylothorax and pulmonary complications, hospitalization period, and mortality rate within the first 30 days after surgery. Results: The mean age of patients was 55 years. Seventy-two patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 28 patients had adenocarcinoma (ACC). There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to age, gender, time of surgery, complications including anastomotic leakage, chylothorax, pulmonary complications, cardiac complications, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or mortality. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding hospital stay, time of surgery, perioperative blood loss, and number of lymph nodes resected. Conclusion: The use of NACR did not increase early post-operative complications or mortality among patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:26788476

  1. Quality of Online Information to Support Patient Decision-Making in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jordan G.; Tucholka, Jennifer L.; Steffens, Nicole M.; Neuman, Heather B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer patients commonly use the internet as an information resource. Our objective was to evaluate the quality of online information available to support patients facing a decision for breast surgery. Methods Breast cancer surgery-related queries were performed (Google and Bing), and reviewed for content pertinent to breast cancer surgery. The DISCERN instrument was used to evaluate websites’ structural components that influence publication reliability and ability of information to support treatment decision-making. Scores of 4/5 were considered “good”. Results 45 unique websites were identified. Websites satisfied a median 5/9 content questions. Commonly omitted topics included: having a choice between breast conservation and mastectomy (67%) and potential for 2nd surgery to obtain negative margins after breast conservation (60%). Websites had a median DISCERN score of 2.9 (range 2.0–4.5). Websites achieved higher scores on structural criteria (median 3.6 [2.1–4.7]), with 24% rated as “good”. Scores on supporting decision-making questions were lower (2.6 [1.3–4.4]), with only 7% scoring “good”. Conclusion Although numerous breast cancer-related websites exist, most do a poor job providing women with essential information necessary to actively participate in decision-making for breast cancer surgery. Providing easily-accessible, high-quality online information has the potential to significantly improve patients’ experiences with decision-making. PMID:26417898

  2. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant. PMID:26590997

  3. Technologies Enhance Tumor Surgery: Helping Surgeons Spot and Remove Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Technologies Enhance Tumor Surgery Helping Surgeons Spot and Remove ... over time. NIH-funded researchers are developing new technologies to help surgeons determine exactly where tumors end ...

  4. Surgery Choices for Women with DCIS or Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tattoo that looks like the areola (the dark area around your nipple). There are two main ... feeling in your breast, nipple, and areola (the dark area around your nipple). Maybe. After surgery, the ...

  5. Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer by Transumbilical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui-hua; Liu, Mu-biao; He, Yuan-li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare the outcomes of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) versus traditional laparoscopic surgery (TLS) for early stage endometrial cancer (EC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with early stage EC who were surgically treated by TU-LESS or TLS between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. We identified 18 EC patients who underwent TU-LESS. Propensity score matching was used to match this group with 18 EC patients who underwent TLS. All patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy by TU-LESS or TLS without conversion to laparoscopy or laparotomy. Number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved, operative time and estimated blood loss were comparable between 2 groups. Satisfaction values of the cosmetic outcome evaluated by the patient at day 30 after surgery were significantly higher in TU-LESS group than that in TLS group (9.6 ± 0.8 vs 7.5 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery, postoperative hospital stay, and hospital cost. For the surgical management of early stage EC, TU-LESS may be a feasible alternative approach to TLS, with comparable short-term surgical outcomes and superior cosmetic outcome. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to identify these benefits. PMID:27057851

  6. Treating early-stage breast cancer: hospital characteristics associated with breast-conserving surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Johantgen, M E; Coffey, R M; Harris, D R; Levy, H; Clinton, J J

    1995-01-01

    Despite growing acceptance of the fact that women with early-stage breast cancer have similar outcomes with lumpectomy plus radiation as with mastectomy, many studies have revealed the uneven adoption of such breast-conserving surgery. Discharge data from the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project, representing multiple payers, locations, and hospital types, demonstrate increasing trends in breast-conserving surgery as a proportion of breast cancer surgeries from 1981 to 1987. Women with axillary node involvement were less likely to have a lumpectomy, even though consensus recommendations do not preclude this form of treatment when local metastases are present. Non-White race, urban hospital location, and hospital teaching were associated with an increased likelihood of having breast-conserving surgery. PMID:7573632

  7. Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P–2 trial. JAMA 2006; 295(23):2727– ... and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prevention ...

  8. Is Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection the Option for Early Gastric Cancer Patients with Contraindication to Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Said; Coriat, Romain; Audard, Virginie; Leblanc, Sarah; Prat, Frederic; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Surgical therapy is the traditional approach for early gastric cancer. Patients with comorbidities cannot benefit from this treatment because of high surgical morbidities and mortalities. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a new technique for complete en bloc resection of early gastric cancer. We report the case of a patient with severe cardiomyopathy who developed early gastric cancer without metastases present on CT scan. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection because of the high risk associated to surgery due to severe comorbidity. The patient had complete submucosal dissection with complete en bloc resection. The lateral and deep margins were free of cancerous cells based on histopathology study. The patient was controlled every 6 months for 30 months by endoscopy. Systematic biopsies were done. No recurrences were diagnosed. This report supports the application of endoscopic treatment for patients with early gastric cancer and at high risk for surgery due to comorbidities. PMID:21060691

  9. Polaroid photographic referral for skin cancer--a potentially useful method of reducing time to surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, F; McGregor, J C

    1999-06-01

    A prospective trial was conducted on twenty-five patients referred by dermatologists during 1998 using a referral letter and an accompanying polaroid photograph for prospective plastic surgical management of skin cancers. Using the description and the photograph, suitable patients were given dates for operation without requiring a plastic surgery out-patient clinic appointment. This enabled, not only a saving in the cost of an out-patient appointment, but a significant reduction in waiting time to surgery. PMID:10461694

  10. Why are older women not having surgery for breast cancer? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sowerbutts, Anne Marie; Griffiths, Jane; Lavelle, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for breast cancer. However, there is evidence that older women are not receiving this treatment. This study explores reasons why older women are not having surgery. Methods Twenty eight in‐depth interviews were conducted with women over 70 years old with operable breast cancer receiving primary endocrine therapy (PET) as their primary treatment. The interviews focused on their perceptions of why they were being treated with PET rather than surgery. Transcripts were analysed using the Framework method. Results Based on reasons for PET, patients were divided into three groups: ‘Patient Declined’, ‘Patient Considered’ or ‘Surgeon Decided’. The first group ‘Patient Declined’ absolutely ruled out surgery to treat their breast cancer. These patients were not interested in maximising their survival and rejected surgery citing their age or concerns about impact of treatment on their level of functioning. The second group ‘Patient Considered’ considered surgery but chose to have PET most specifying if PET failed then they could have the operation. Patients viewed this as offering them two options of treatment. The third group ‘Surgeon Decided’ was started by the surgeon on PET. These patients had comorbidities and in most cases the surgeon asserted that the comorbidities were incompatible with surgery. Conclusions Older women represent a diverse group and have multifaceted reasons for foregoing surgery. Discussions about breast cancer treatment should be patient centred and adapted to differing patient priorities. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho‐Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25645068

  11. The Comparative Effectiveness of Surgery and Radiosurgery for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, James B.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Cramer, Laura D.; Decker, Roy H.; Kim, Anthony W.; Gross, Cary P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has disseminated as an alternative therapy. The comparative mortality and toxicity of these treatments for patients of different life expectancies (LE) are unknown. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we identified patients age ≥67 who underwent SBRT or surgery for stage I NSCLC from 2007–2009. Matched patients were stratified into short (<5 years) and long (≥5 years) LE. Mortality and complication rates were compared using Poisson regression. Findings Overall, 367 SBRT and 711 surgery patients were matched. Acute toxicity (0–1-month) from SBRT was lower than surgery (7.9% vs. 54.9%, p<.001). At 24-months post-treatment, there was no difference (69.7% vs. 73.9%, p=.31). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for toxicity for SBRT vs. surgery was 0.74 [95%CI 0.64–0.87]. Overall mortality was lower for SBRT than surgery at 3-months (2.2% vs. 6.1%; p=.005), but by 24-months, overall mortality was higher for SBRT (40.1% vs. 22.3% p<.001). For patients with short LE there was no difference in lung cancer mortality (IRR 1.01 [95% CI 0.40–2.56]). However for patients with long LE, there was greater overall mortality (IRR 1.49 [95% CI 1.11–2.01]) and a trend towards greater lung cancer mortality (IRR 1.63 [95% CI 0.95–2.79]) for SBRT vs. surgery. Conclusions SBRT was associated with lower immediate mortality and toxicity compared to surgery. However, for patients with long LE, there appears to be a relative benefit for surgery compared to SBRT. PMID:25847699

  12. Time-to-administration in postoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: does minimally-invasive surgery help?

    PubMed

    Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Checcacci, Paolo; Guerra, Francesco; Mirasolo, Vita M; Moraldi, Luca; Ferrara, Angelo; Annecchiarico, Mario; Coratti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The optimal delay in the start of chemotherapy following rectal cancer surgery has not yet been identified. However, postponed adjuvant therapy has been proven to be connected with a significant survival detriment. We aimed to investigate whether the time to initiation of adjuvant treatment can be influenced by the application of minimally invasive surgery rather than traditional open surgery. By comprehensively evaluating the available inherent literature, several factors appear to be associated with delayed postoperative chemotherapy. Some of them are strictly related to surgical short-term outcomes. Laparoscopy results in shortened length of hospital stay, reduced surgical morbidity and lower rate of wound infection compared to conventional surgery. Probably due to such advantages, the application of minimally-invasive surgery to treat rectal malignancies seems to impact favorably the possibility to start adjuvant chemotherapy within an adequate timeframe following surgical resection, with potential improvement in patient survival. PMID:26976732

  13. Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, C

    2007-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery. PMID:18666739

  14. [History and development trend of minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer in China].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minhua; Ma, Junjun

    2016-08-25

    With the development in past 20 years, the utilization of the laparoscopic surgery, which is the main trend in minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer, has tremendously changed. Minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer is now at a high level platform after going through the exploration at the very beginning and rapid development in the period of standardizing and promoting the regulations. Nowadays, the unique advantage that the laparoscopy owns is high definition and enlargement of the image, along with the establishment of the key note in series of laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision and the improvement of surgical instruments and methods make the operation skills accurate and normative in exploration of correct plane, high ligation of vessels and protection of nerve during the lymph node dissection of colorectal surgery. Currently, the most common procedure widely used in reconstruction of gastrointestinal(GI) tract is still laparoscopy-assisted approach. The frequent reconstruction of GI tract in rectal cancer surgery is double stapling technique, coloanal anastomosis by hand-sewn technique and the laparoscopic reconstruction of GI tract based on NOSE. At present, the most reconstructions of GI tract, including reconstruction by instrument and by hand-sewn are operated extracorporeally by pulling out the colon through the small incision, which is used to extract specimen. Although compared with the traditional reconstruction of GI tract, the complete laparoscopic excision has the advantage that the incision is smaller, it is more expensive. The preference approach of laparoscopic surgery is mainly medial approach, but with further understanding of CME, TME and the basic of medial approach, the new approaches like total medial approach, hybrid medial approach and caudal approach applied in right hemicolectomy and cephalad medial approach applied in rectal cancer have derived. As the introduction of NOTES, transanal TME and transanal

  15. Sexual dysfunctions in the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards compared to other specialized wards in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Gholamhossain; Shahin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Having pleasurable sexual intercourses plays a major role in marital life satisfaction. Many of the medical and psychiatric disorders may affect the sexual function of the patients. The present study aims to investigate the relative frequency of sexual dysfunctions in the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards and that of the patients in other specialized wards. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional one, carried out on 900 patients hospitalized in psychiatric, cardiac, orthopedic, ophthalmology, and dermatology and plastic surgery wards of 5 hospitals in Isfahan. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX). Results: Sexual dysfunction in the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards (38%) was significantly higher than in the patients in other wards (27%), (P = 0.00). Among the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards, those with bipolar disorder (37.3%) had the highest prevalence rate of sexual dysfunction. The patients with schizophrenia, major depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders had the following rates respectively. Among the patients in non-psychiatric wards, those in cardiac wards (37.1%) had the highest prevalence rate of sexual dysfunction. There was a significant relationship between the drug uses, mostly psychiatric drugs especially anti-psychotics, and the occurrence of sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: Considering the significant relative frequency of sexual dysfunction in psychiatric patients and undesired effects of simultaneous occurrence of both of these disorders in the patients, more emphasis is recommended to be placed on the prevention and proper treatment of these disorders in the patients. PMID:26623400

  16. Factors affecting surgical site infection rate after elective gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Tolga; Javadov, Mirkhalig; Yeğen, Cumhur S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after surgery and is an indicator of quality of care. Risk factors for SSI are studied thoroughly for most types of gastrointestinal surgeries and especially colorectal surgeries, but accumulated data is still lacking for gastric surgeries. We studied the parameters affecting SSI rate after gastric cancer surgery. Material and Methods Consecutive patients, who underwent elective gastric cancer surgery between June and December 2013, were included. Descriptive parameters, laboratory values and past medical histories were recorded prospectively. All patients were followed for 1 month. Recorded parameters were compared between the SSI (+) and SSI (−) groups. Results Fifty-two patients (mean age: 58.87±9.25 [31–80]; 67% male) were included. SSI incidence was 19%. ASA score ≥3 (p<0.001), postoperative weight gain (p<0.001), smoking (p=0.014) and body mass index (BMI) ≥30 (p=0.025) were related with a higher SSI incidence. Also patients in the SSI (+) group had a higher preoperative serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.014). Conclusion We assume that decreasing BMI to <30, stopping smoking at least 3 weeks before the operation, and preventing postoperative weight gain by avoiding excessive intravenous hydration will all help decrease SSI rate after gastric surgery. PMID:27528811

  17. Transoral Endoscopic Head and Neck Surgery: The Contemporary Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gil Chai; Holsinger, Floyd Christopher; Li, Ryan J

    2015-12-01

    Traditional open surgical approaches are indicated for treatment of select tumor subsites of head and neck cancer, but can also result in major cosmetic and functional morbidity. Transoral surgical approaches have been used for head and neck cancer since the 1960s, with their application continuing to evolve with the changing landscape of this disease and recent innovations in surgical instrumentation. The potential to further reduce treatment morbidity with transoral surgery, while optimizing oncologic outcomes, continues to be investigated. This review examines current literature evaluating oncologic and quality-of-life outcomes achieved through transoral head and neck surgery. PMID:26568549

  18. Quality of Life After Breast Cancer Surgery With or Without Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Demetris; Weissman, Oren; Polyniki, Anna; Papageorgiou, Neofytos; Haik, Joseph; Farber, Nimrod; Winkler, Eyal

    2009-01-01

    In the modern era, where breast-conserving surgery is a viable alternative to mastectomy, breast cancer patients and their healthcare providers have to consider the issue of quality of life in regards to the type of surgery. The choice of surgical procedure should consider the perceptions of women diagnosed with breast cancer as well as their functional and emotional well-being. A more holistic approach to the patient should be implemented with proper psychological evaluation before and psychological support after the crisis. PMID:19572009

  19. Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Lin, Chen-Sung; Shih, Chih-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, novel results using pulmonary wedge resection executed through single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was first described. Since that time, single-port VATS has been advocated for the treatment of a spectrum of thoracic diseases, especially lung cancer. Lung cancer remains one of the top three cancer-related deaths in Taiwan, and surgical resection remains the “gold standard” for early-stage lung cancer. Anatomical resections (including pneumonectomy, lobectomy, and segmentectomy) remain the primary types of lung cancer surgery, regardless of whether conventional open thoracotomy, or 4/3/2-ports VATS are used. In the past three years, several pioneers have reported their early experiences with single-port VATS lobectomy, segmentectomy, and pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Our goal was to appraise their findings and review the role of single-port VATS in the treatment of lung cancer. In addition, the current concept of mini-invasive surgery involves not only smaller resections (requiring only a few incisions), but also sub-lobar resection as segmentectomy. Therefore, our review will also address these issues. PMID:24455171

  20. The influence of complications on the costs of complex cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Short, Marah N; Aloia, Thomas A; Ho, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is widely known that outcomes after cancer surgery vary widely, depending on interactions between patient, tumor, neoadjuvant therapy, and provider factors. Within this complex milieu, the influence of complications on the cost of surgical oncology care remains unknown. The authors examined rates of Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) occurrence for 6 cancer operations and their association with costs of care. METHODS The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) PSI definitions were used to identify patient safety-related complications in Medicare claims data. Hospital and inpatient physician claims for the years 2005 through 2009 were analyzed for 6 cancer resections: colectomy, rectal resection, pulmonary lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatic resection. Risk-adjusted regression analyses were used to measure the association between each PSI and hospitalization costs. RESULTS Overall PSI rates ranged from a low of 0.01% for postoperative hip fracture to a high of 2.58% for respiratory failure. Death among inpatients with serious treatable complications, postoperative respiratory failure, postoperative thromboembolism, and accidental puncture/laceration were >1% for all 6 cancer operations. Several PSIs—including decubitus ulcer, death among surgical inpatients with serious treatable complications, and postoperative thromboembolism—raised hospitalization costs by ≥20% for most cancer surgery types. Postoperative respiratory failure resulted in a cost increase >50% for all cancer resections. CONCLUSIONS The consistently higher costs associated with cancer surgery PSIs indicate that substantial health care savings could be achieved by targeting these indicators for quality improvement. PMID:24382697

  1. [Laparoscopic surgery of colon cancer. State of art and literature review].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Paolo P; Ceriani, Chiara; Montorsi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade advances in laparoscopic surgery have revolutionized the surgical approach to many diseases. Although the first case series on laparoscopic segmental colectomy in patient with sigmoid cancer was described in 1991, this technique has not been readily accepted. Despite reduced morbidity and improved convalescence after laparoscopic surgery for benign disorders, surgeons have been sceptical about similar advantages of laparoscopic colectomy for cancer. The safety of the procedure has been questioned because of early reports of port-site metastases and there has been uncertainty about whether minimally invasive surgery for colonic malignancies would achieve adequate oncologic resection. Open surgical resection of the primary tumor, until just recently, has been widely considered the most effective treatment of colon cancer. The adherence to the principles of complete abdominal exploration, high ligation of mesenteric vessels, lymphnodal clearance and adequate bowel resection margins is essential. Several randomized trials were initiated in the early 1990s to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing minimally invasive and conventional open surgery for colon cancer. Today the results of this large multiinstitutional randomized trials have been reported. This review examines recent data from randomized, controlled trials and meta-analysis, that report the short- and long-term outcomes after laparoscopic colectomy for cancer. PMID:17139955

  2. The effect of neuraxial anesthesia on cancer recurrence and survival after cancer surgery: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Meilin; Chen, Wankun; Hou, Wenting; Li, Lihong; Ding, Ming; Miao, Changhong

    2016-01-01

    Several animal and observational studies have evaluated the effects of neuraxial anesthesia on the recurrence and survival of cancer surgery; studies reported benefit, whereas others did not. To provide further evidence that neuraxial anesthesia(combined with or without general anesthesia (GA))may be associated with reduced cancer recurrence and long-term survival after cancer surgery, we conducted this meta-analysis. A total of 21 studies were identified and analyzed, based on searches conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. After data abstraction, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the impact of neuraxial anesthesia (combined with or without GA) and GA on oncological outcomes after cancer surgery. For overall survival (OS), a potential association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved OS (HR 0.853, CI 0.741-0.981, P = 0.026, the random-effects model) was observed compared with GA. Specifically, we found a positive association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved OS in colorectal cancer (HR 0.653, CI 0.430-0.991, P = 0.045, the random-effects model). For recurrence-free survival (RFS), a significant association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved RFS (HR 0.846, CI 0.718-0.998, P = 0.047, the random-effects model) was detected compared with GA. Our meta-analysis suggests that neuraxial anesthesia may be associated with improved OS in patients with cancer surgery, especially for those patients with colorectal cancer. It also supports a potential association between neuraxial anesthesia and a reduced risk of cancer recurrence. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether the association between neuraxial use and survival is causative. PMID:26918830

  3. Evaluation of Tumor Response after Short-Course Radiotherapy and Delayed Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rega, Daniela; Pecori, Biagio; Scala, Dario; Avallone, Antonio; Pace, Ugo; Petrillo, Antonella; Aloj, Luigi; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Delrio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Neoadjuvant therapy is able to reduce local recurrence in rectal cancer. Immediate surgery after short course radiotherapy allows only for minimal downstaging. We investigated the effect of delayed surgery after short-course radiotherapy at different time intervals before surgery, in patients affected by rectal cancer. Methods From January 2003 to December 2013 sixty-seven patients with the following characteristics have been selected: clinical (c) stage T3N0 ≤ 12 cm from the anal verge and with circumferential resection margin > 5 mm (by magnetic resonance imaging); cT2, any N, < 5 cm from anal verge; and patients facing tumors with enlarged nodes and/or CRM+ve who resulted unfit for chemo-radiation, were also included. Patients underwent preoperative short-course radiotherapy with different interval to surgery were divided in three groups: A (within 6 weeks), B (between 6 and 8 weeks) and C (after more than 8 weeks). Hystopatolgical response to radiotherapy was measured by Mandard’s modified tumor regression grade (TRG). Results All patients completed the scheduled treatment. Sixty-six patients underwent surgery. Fifty-three of which (80.3%) received a sphincter saving procedure. Downstaging occurred in 41 cases (62.1%). The analysis of subgroups showed an increasing prevalence of TRG 1–2 prolonging the interval to surgery (group A—16.7%, group B—36.8% and 54.3% in group C; p value 0.023). Conclusions Preoperative short-course radiotherapy is able to downstage rectal cancer if surgery is delayed. A higher rate of TRG 1–2 can be obtained if interval to surgery is prolonged to more than 8 weeks. PMID:27548058

  4. Improved Outcomes Associated with Higher Surgery Rates for Older Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stacy W.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Lamont, Elizabeth B.; McNeil, Barbara J.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Keating, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although surgery offers the greatest chance of cure for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), older and sicker patients often fail to undergo resection. The benefits of surgery in older patients and patients with multiple co-morbidities are uncertain. Methods We identified a national cohort of 17,638 Medicare beneficiaries, aged ≥66 years living in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas who were diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC during 2001–2005. We compared areas with high and low rates of curative surgery for early-stage lung cancer to estimate the effectiveness of surgery in older and sicker patients. We used logistic regression models to assess mortality by quintile of area-level surgery rates, adjusting for potential confounders. Findings Fewer than 63% of patients underwent surgery in low-surgery areas while >79% underwent surgery in high-surgery areas. High-surgery areas operated on more patients with advanced age and COPD than low-surgery areas. Adjusted all-cause one year mortality was 18.0% in high-surgery areas vs. 22.8% in low-surgery areas (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86–0.93) for each 10% increase in surgery rates). One year lung-cancer-specific mortality was similarly lower in high-versus low-surgery areas (12.0% versus 16.9%), adjusted OR=0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.91) for each 10% increase in surgery rates. Interpretations Higher rates of surgery for stage I/II NSCLC are associated with improved survival, even when older patients and sicker patients undergo resection. More work is needed to identify and reduce barriers to surgery for early-stage NSCLC. PMID:21800285

  5. Health Problems Can Plague Seniors After Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... as they prepare for surgery. Now that the prevalence of such events is known, treatment approaches that keep these age-related health concerns in mind may be better applied in the future to better assist these patients," lead author Dr. Hung-Jui Tan, a fellow in ...

  6. Do Too Many Lung Cancer Patients Miss Out on Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear from the study that a more aggressive approach to surgery would in fact lead to longer survivals. "It is easy to imagine that surgeons were selecting out those in each stage which they thought would do better based upon variables not included in this study," he noted. It's " ...

  7. Can We Be Less Radical with Surgery for Early Cervical Cancer?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Madeleine C; Tidy, John A

    2016-03-01

    Although a rare cancer in the developed world due to the success of cervical screening programmes, cervical cancer remains one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women under the age of 35 years old. Radical hysterectomy and more recently radical trachelectomy have been highly effective in curing the majority of women with early stage disease. Many, however, are left with long-term 'survivorship' issues including bowel, bladder and sexual dysfunction. In view of these chronic co-morbidities, many clinicians now consider whether a less radical approach to surgery may be an option for some women. This review focuses on the current evidence for the safety of conservative surgery for early stage cervical cancer with regard to cure rates in comparison to standard management, as well as any improvement in short and long-term morbidity associated with a more conservative approach. PMID:26838586

  8. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  9. Robotic surgery for early stage cervical cancer: Evolution and current trends.

    PubMed

    Medlin, Erin E; Kushner, David M; Barroilhet, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The management of early stage cervical cancer often includes surgery in the form of radical hysterectomy, radical trachelectomy, or radical parametrectomy. Surgical techniques have evolved to include minimal invasive approaches, and more recently, to include robotic assisted techniques. This review highlights the evolution of surgical management of early cervical cancer and specifically explores robotic assisted radical hysterectomy, radical trachelectomy, radical parametrectomy, and the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26768315

  10. [A Case of Advanced Esophageal Cancer and Tongue Cancer Treated with Induction DCF Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motomu; Koyanagi, Kazuo; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Kakefuda, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 60s was admitted for the treatment of advanced cervical esophageal cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes and advanced tongue cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes. Esophageal cancer was suspected to have invaded the trachea. The tongue cancer was located on the left side and had invaded beyond the median line of the tongue. Both cancers were pathologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, it was determined that pharyngo-laryngo- esophagectomy and total glossectomy were required prior to the treatment. However, after 2 courses of docetaxel/cisplatin/ 5-FU combined induction chemotherapy, both cancers remarkably decreased; consequently, an esophagectomy to preserve laryngeal function and partial glossectomy could be performed simultaneously. The patient is well without recurrence 1 year post-surgery. PMID:26602401

  11. [Outcomes of Tertiary Debulking Surgery(TDS)for Re-Recurrent Ovarian Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Shinya; Konishi, Haruhisa; Okame, Shinichi; Komatsu, Masaaki; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The survival of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who have completed secondary debulking surgery (SDS) has been shown to increase. However, whether tertiary debulking surgery (TDS) aimed at complete surgery is useful in patients with a second recurrence is unclear. Eight patients who had undergone SDS were treated after a second recurrence in our hospital. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Consequently, TDS was performed in 4 of the patients (TDSgr). All 4 patients underwent complete debulking surgery, 2 patients received blood transfusions, and none had serious postoperative complications. The median treatment free interval (TFI) from recurrence surgery to the second recurrence was 16 months (range, 9-23 months), and the median TFI after the second recurrence was 30.5 months (range, 15-69 months). Meanwhile, the median TFI after the second recurrence was 7.5 months (range, 1-31 months) in the 4 patients who did not undergo TDS (non-TDSgr). The median survival times after the second recurrence in TDSgr and non-TDSgr were 53 months (range, 41-69 months) and 12 months (range, 2-30 months), respectively. When complete surgery is indicated in patients with a second recurrent ovarian cancer after SDS, in case of good physical condition with single or multiple recurrent lesions, TDS may increase survival and TFI. PMID:27067855

  12. The Role of Surgery for Asymptomatic Primary Tumors in Unresectable Stage IV Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Wan

    2013-01-01

    There are still debates regarding the appropriate primary treatment policy for asymptomatic primary colorectal lesions in cases of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Even though there are patients with asymptomatic primary tumors when starting chemotherapy, those patients may still undergo surgery due to complications related to primary tumors in the middle of chemotherapy; therefore, controversy exists regarding surgical resection of primary colorectal lesions in cases where symptoms are absent when making a diagnosis. Thus, based on the published literature, we discuss opinions that prefer first-line surgery for primary tumors as well as opinions favoring first-line chemotherapy for treating unresectable synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer. Although the upfront chemotherapy including targeted agents is suggested as an effective treatment in recent years, the first line surgery has been a preferred treatment for decades. The first line surgery is beneficial to prolong the survival duration given the retrospective analysis of randomized trial data. So far, no prospective comparison study has only focused on the first-line treatment modality; thus, future clinical studies focusing on the survival duration and the quality of life should be performed as soon as possible. Furthermore, at this point, multidisciplinary team approaches would be helpful in finding the appropriate therapy. Regardless of symptoms, the performance status and the tumor burden should be taken into consideration as well. In case of surgical resection, minimally invasive surgery, such as laparoscopic surgery, is recommended. PMID:23700570

  13. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  14. [3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference - Surgery Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue in the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 2nd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations. PMID:27579720

  15. Laparoscopic Surgery for Acute Appendicitis in Children With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Julia; Stringel, Gustavo; Ozkaynak, Mehmet Fevzi; McBride, Whitney; Pandya, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominal pain during cancer chemotherapy may be caused by medical or surgical conditions. A retrospective review of 5 children with cancer who had appendicitis while receiving chemotherapy was performed. Case Descriptions: Three had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 1 each had T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Two of the patients had a Pediatric Appendectomy Score of 6, and 1 each had a score of 7, 5, and 2. All had evidence of appendicitis on computed tomography. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed without any perioperative complication. Discussion: Appendicitis is an important diagnosis in children with cancer, and laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and the procedure of choice. PMID:26390529

  16. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy is a standard therapy for early-stage breast cancer patients. In addition, recent developments in oncoplastic surgery have improved cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. Therefore, a breast surgeon’s current role in BCS is not only to perform a curative resection of cancerous lesions with adequate surgical margins, but also to preserve the shape and appearance of the treated breast. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery (EBCS), which has the advantage of a less noticeable scar, was developed more than ten years ago. Recently, some clinical studies have reported the feasibility, oncological outcomes, aesthetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction of EBCS. Herein, we will review the EBCS clinical studies that have been conducted so far and discuss current issues regarding this operative method. PMID:25083503

  17. Influence of psychological intervention on pain and immune functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinying; Cui, Limin; Wang, Wei; Su, Quanzhi; Li, Xiuzhi; Wu, Junben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of psychological intervention on pain, immune system and adrenocortical functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery. Methods: We selected 124 patients who received surgery for treating stage I or II lung cancer and divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group received comprehensive psychological intervention while the control group was given conventional nursing intervention. Pain of patients in two groups was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Before and after intervention, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ and free cortisol level in serum were measured. Moreover, QLQ-C30, a life quality measurement scale developed by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was used. Results: Compared to control group, VAS of patients in experimental group remarkably decreased before anesthesia, 6 hour, 12 hour 24 hour and 48 hour after surgery (P<0.05), and moreover, OLQ-C30 score and various factor scores (except physical symptoms) in experimental group were much higher (P<0.05). No statistical significant difference was found in immune index between two groups before intervention (P>0.05). Differences of CD3+ and CD4+ before and after intervention were both statistically significant (P<0.05), so did free cortisol level (P<0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive psychological intervention can effectively relieve pain, improve immune functions and enhance quality of life for patients suffering from lung cancer surgery. PMID:27022366

  18. Optimal Total Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer: the Role of Robotic Surgery from an Expert's View

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeonghyun

    2010-01-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) has gained worldwide acceptance as a standard surgical technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. Ever since laparoscopic surgery was first applied to TME for rectal cancer, with increasing penetration rates, especially in Asia, an unstable camera platform, the limited mobility of straight laparoscopic instruments, the two-dimensional imaging, and a poor ergonomic position for surgeons have been regarded as limitations. Robotic technology was developed in an attempt to reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. The robotic system has many advantages, including a more ergonomic position, stable camera platform and stereoscopic view, as well as elimination of tremor and subsequent improved dexterity. Current comparison data between robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery show similar intraoperative results and morbidity, postoperative recovery, and short-term oncologic outcomes. Potential benefits of a robotic system include reduction of surgeon's fatigue during surgery, improved performance and safety for intracorporeal suture, reduction of postoperative complications, sharper and more meticulous dissection, and completion of autonomic nerve preservation techniques. However, the higher cost for a robotic system still remains an obstacle to wide application, and many socioeconomic issues remain to be solved in the future. In addition, we need more concrete evidence regarding the merits for both patients and surgeons, as well as the merits compared to conventional laparoscopic techniques. Therefore, we need large-scale prospective randomized clinical trials to prove the potential benefits of robot TME for the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:21221237

  19. Reconstructive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    The field of head and neck surgery has gone through numerous changes in the past two decades. Microvascular free flap reconstructions largely replaced other techniques. More importantly, there has been a paradigm shift toward seeking not only to achieve reliable wound closure to protect vital structures, but also to reestablish normal function and appearance. The present paper will present an algorithmic approach to head and neck reconstruction of various subsites, using an evidence-based approach wherever possible. PMID:26556426

  20. [Current status and novel approach of robotic surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic technique is now widely used in rectal surgery because of its advantages in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, short- and long-term outcomes. Total mesorectal excision(TME) is recommended as the standard procedure for rectal cancer. Laparoscopic TME, however, can be challenging due to its two-dimensional vision, restricted instrument movements, and a prolonged learning curve. Robotic surgery overcomes these intrinsic limitations by superior three-dimensional magnified optics, stable retraction platform, and 7 degrees of freedom of instrument movements, and offers an easier operation and shorter learning curve. This review summarizes the advantages as well as the current status of robotic rectal surgery, and explores the novel approach and new techniques with the related literature and the author's own experience. PMID:26303685

  1. The role of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Ovarian Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage (Stages III and IV) when peritoneal cancer spread has already occurred. The standard treatment comprises of surgery to remove all macroscopic disease followed by systemic chemotherapy. Despite all efforts, it recurs in over 75 % of the cases, most of these recurrences being confined to the peritoneal cavity. Recurrent ovarian cancer has a poor long term outcome and is generally treated with multiple lines of systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. The propensity of ovarian cancer to remain confined to the peritoneal cavity warrants an aggressive locoregional approach. The combined treatment comprising of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) that removes all macroscopic disease and HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy) has been effective in providing long term survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastases of gastrointestinal origin. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy used as adjuvant therapy has shown a survival benefit in ovarian cancer. This has prompted the use of CRS and HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer as a part of first line therapy and second line therapy for recurrent disease. This article reviews the current literature and evidence for the use of HIPEC in ovarian cancer. PMID:27065709

  2. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery for Superficial Cancer of the Uvula

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Kaise, Mitsuru; Takeda, Hidehiko; Ohashi, Kenichi; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that endoscopic resection is effective for the treatment of superficial pharyngeal cancers, as for digestive tract cancers. However, the optimal treatment for superficial cancer of the uvula has not been established because of the rarity of this condition. We present two male patients in their 70s with superficial cancer of the uvula, detected with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Both patients underwent surgical resection of the uvula under general anesthesia. The extent of the lesions was determined by means of gastrointestinal endoscopy by using magnifying observation with narrow-band imaging, enabling the performance of minimally invasive surgery. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed to achieve en bloc resection of the intramucosal carcinoma that had infiltrated the area adjacent to the uvula. Gastrointestinal endoscopists should carefully examine the laryngopharynx to avoid missing superficial cancers. Our minimally invasive treatment for superficial cancer of the uvula had favorable postoperative outcomes, and prevented postoperative loss of breathing, swallowing, and articulation functions. PMID:27040382

  3. Complex permittivities of breast tumor tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Takumi; Kubota, Shin-ichi; Kuroki, Shin-ichiro; Sogo, Kenta; Arihiro, Koji; Okada, Morihito; Kadoya, Takayuki; Hide, Michihiro; Oda, Miyo; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2014-06-01

    The variability in measurements of complex permittivities of tumor tissues between multiple samples could be attributed to the volume fraction of cancer cells in the excised tumor tissue. By the use of a digital photomicrograph image and hematoxylin-eosin staining, it was found that the malignant tumor tissue was not fully occupied by the cancer cells, but the cells were distributed locally in the stroma cells depending on the growth of cancer. The results showed that the volume fraction of cancer cells in the tumor tissue had a correlation to the measured conductivity and dielectric constant in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 6 GHz. It introduces a method to understand and gauge variability in measurements between different tumors.

  4. Surgery for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: Tips, Tricks, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Satish K; Heriot, Alexander G; Lynch, Andrew Craig

    2016-06-01

    Rectal cancer can recur locally in up to 10% of the patients who undergo definitive resection for their primary cancer. Surgical salvage is considered appropriate in the curative setting as well as select cases with palliative intent. Disease-free survival following salvage resection is dependent upon achieving an R0 resection margin. A clear understanding of applied surgical anatomy, appropriate preoperative planning, and a multidisciplinary approach to aggressive soft tissue, bony, and vascular resection with appropriate reconstruction is necessary. Technical tips, tricks, and pitfalls that may assist in managing these cancers are discussed and the roles of additional boost radiation and intraoperative radiation therapy in the management of such cancers are also discussed. PMID:27247536

  5. Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use Among Veterans With Colon Cancer: Insights From a California Study

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Denise M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Perrin, Ruth; Zhang, Qiuying; Weichle, Thomas; Ferreira, M. Rosario; Lee, Todd; Benson, Al B.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ≥ 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed for 6 months after diagnosis. Results Among 601 veterans with colon cancer, 72% were initially diagnosed and treated in non-VA facilities. Among veterans with stage I to III cancer, those diagnosed and initially treated in VA facilities experienced similar colectomy rates as those at non-VA facilities. Stage III patients diagnosed and initially treated in VA versus non-VA facilities had similar odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In both settings, older patients had lower odds of receiving chemotherapy than their younger counterparts even when race and comorbidity were considered (age 76 to 85 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.46; age ≥ 86 years: OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73). Conclusion In California, older veterans with colon cancer used both VA and non-VA facilities for cancer treatment, and odds of receiving cancer-directed surgery and chemotherapy were similar in both systems. Among stage III patients, older age lowered odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both systems. Further studies should continue to explore potential health system effects on quality of colon cancer care across the United States. PMID:20406940

  6. Current trends in initial management of laryngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery.

    PubMed

    Silver, Carl E; Beitler, Jonathan J; Shaha, Ashok R; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2009-09-01

    The role of open surgery for management of laryngeal cancer has been greatly diminished during the past decade. The development of transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery (TLS), improvements in delivery of radiation therapy (RT) and the advent of multimodality protocols, particularly concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) have supplanted the previously standard techniques of open partial laryngectomy for early cancer and total laryngectomy followed by adjuvant RT for advanced cancer. A review of the recent literature revealed virtually no new reports of conventional conservation surgery as initial treatment for early stage glottic and supraglottic cancer. TLS and RT, with or without laser surgery or CCRT, have become the standard initial treatments for T1, T2 and selected T3 laryngeal cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may have an emerging role in the treatment of early laryngeal cancer. Anterior commissure involvement presents particular difficulties in application of TLS, although no definitive conclusions have been reached with regard to optimal treatment of these lesions. Results of TLS are equivalent to those obtained by conventional conservation surgery, with considerably less morbidity, less hospital time and better postoperative function. Oncologic results of TLS and RT are equivalent for glottic cancer, but with better voice results for RT in patients who require more extensive cordectomy. The preferred treatment for early supraglottic cancer, particularly for bulkier or T3 lesions is TLS, with or without postoperative RT. The Veterans Administration Study published in 1991 established the fact that the response to neoadjuvant CT predicts the response of a tumor to RT. Patients with advanced tumors that responded either partially or completely to CT were treated with RT, and total laryngectomy was reserved for non-responders. This resulted in the ability to preserve the larynx in a significant number of patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer, while

  7. Surgical site infection in clean-contaminated head and neck cancer surgery: risk factors and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Ozawa, Taijiro; Hyodo, Ikuo; Suzuki, Mikio

    2013-03-01

    Since new treatment strategies, such as chemoradiotherapy, have been introduced for head and neck cancer, a higher number of unknown factors may be involved in surgical site infection in clean-contaminated head and neck cancer surgery. The aim of the present study was to clarify the risk factors of surgical site infection in clean-contaminated surgery for head and neck cancer and the prognosis of patients with surgical site infection. Participants were 277 consecutive patients with head and neck cancer who underwent clean-contaminated surgery for primary lesions at the Aichi Cancer Center over a 60-month period. A total of 22 putative risk factors were recorded in each patient and statistically analyzed to elucidate surgical site infection related factors. Surgical site infection was observed in 92 (32.1 %) of 277 cases. Univariate analysis indicated that alcohol consumption, T classification, neck dissection, reconstructive procedure, and chemoradiotherapy were significantly associated with surgical site infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two independent risk factors for surgical site infection: reconstructive surgery (p = 0.04; odds ratio (OR) 1.77) and chemoradiotherapy (p = 0.01; OR 1.93). In spite of surgical site infection, the five-year overall survival rate of patients with surgical site infection was not significantly different from those without surgical site infection. Although surgical site infection did not impact the overall survival of patients with surgical procedures, head and neck surgeons should pay attention to patients with previous chemoradiotherapy as well as to those with a high risk of surgical site infection requiring reconstructive surgery. PMID:22865106

  8. Limited significance of curative surgery in Borrmann type IV gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Yoo, Han Mo; Song, Kyo Young; Park, Cho Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Borrmann type IV advanced gastric cancer has a poor prognosis. Although surgical resection remains the only hope for a cure, the role of curative surgery is questionable in this type of cancer. This study defined the role of curative surgery in the prognosis of type IV gastric cancer. We analyzed 168 patients with Borrmann type IV undergoing surgery at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from 1989 to 2010. We categorized the patients into curative (R0) and non-curative (R1, R2, and non-resection) groups. The curative and non-curative groups comprised 88 and 80 patients, respectively. The preoperative predictive value of Borrmann type IV was 50.5, and 8.9 % of the patients had microscopic resection margin involvement. The 3- to 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients in the curative group was significantly higher than that of in the non-curative group (p < 0.001). However, in a multivariate analysis, curability was not a significant predictor of survival (p = 0.187). In the curative group, the most frequent recurrence site was the peritoneum (85.7 %). Most recurrences occurred within 2 years. The role of surgery for Borrmann type IV is quite limited. Such cases have a poor prognosis even after curative surgery. In addition, microscopic resection margin involvement is frequent in type IV cancer because it is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Therefore, multimodal diagnostic tools and treatment strategies should be developed for Borrmann type IV gastric cancer. PMID:27251378

  9. Comparison of neoadjuvant versus a surgery first approach for gastric and esophagogastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Maria C

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant worldwide health concern. While surgery is required for cure, all but the earliest of cancers will require multimodality therapy. Chemotherapy and chemoradiation in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings have shown to improve overall survival, but the sequencing of treatment is controversial. As healthcare expenses surge, it is increasingly important to impart value to these treatments. This review will look at the intersection of effective treatment and costs for gastric cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:296-303. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27511285

  10. Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Shingo; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (SPVATS) emerged several years ago as a new, minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of respiratory surgery, and is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for some thoracic surgeons in Europe and Asia. However, the adoption rate of this procedure in the United States and Japan remains low. We herein reviewed our experience of SPVATS for early lung cancer in our center, and evaluated the safety and minimal invasiveness of this technique. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone SPVATS for pathological stage I lung cancer in Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between September 2012 and October 2015. In SPVATS, an approximately 4-cm incision was made at the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. A rib spreader was not used at the incision site, and surgical manipulation was performed very carefully in order to avoid contact between surgical instruments and the intercostal nerves. The same surgeon performed surgery on all patients, and analyzed laboratory data before and after surgery. Results Eighty-four patients underwent anatomical lung resection for postoperative pathological stage I lung cancer. The mean wound length was 4.2 cm. Eighty-four patients underwent lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was 1.85%±0.36%. Our patients consisted of 49 men (58.3%) and 35 women (41.7%), with 64, 18, 1, and 1 having adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The mean operative time was 175±21 min, operative blood loss 92±18 mL, and duration of drain placement 1.9±0.6 days. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 7.1±1.7 days, numeric rating scale (NRS) 1 week after surgery 2.8±0.6, and occurrence rate of allodynia 1 month after surgery 10.7%. No patient developed serious

  11. Surgery Triggers Outgrowth of Latent Distant Disease in Breast Cancer: An Inconvenient Truth?

    PubMed Central

    Retsky, Michael; Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Baum, Michael; Gukas, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these data, we proposed that metastatic breast cancer growth commonly includes periods of temporary dormancy at both the single cell phase and the avascular micrometastasis phase. We also suggested that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. These iatrogenic events are apparently very common in that over half of all metastatic relapses progress in that manner. Assuming this is true, there should be ample and clear evidence in clinical data. We review here the breast cancer paradigm from a variety of historical, clinical, and scientific perspectives and consider how dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy would be observed and what this would mean. Dormancy can be identified in these diverse data but most conspicuous is the sudden synchronized escape from dormancy following primary surgery. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a new paradigm for early stage breast cancer. We also suggest a new treatment that is meant to stabilize and preserve dormancy rather than attempt to kill all cancer cells as is the present strategy. PMID:24281072

  12. Surgery triggers outgrowth of latent distant disease in breast cancer: an inconvenient truth?

    PubMed

    Retsky, Michael; Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Baum, Michael; Gukas, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these data, we proposed that metastatic breast cancer growth commonly includes periods of temporary dormancy at both the single cell phase and the avascular micrometastasis phase. We also suggested that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. These iatrogenic events are apparently very common in that over half of all metastatic relapses progress in that manner. Assuming this is true, there should be ample and clear evidence in clinical data. We review here the breast cancer paradigm from a variety of historical, clinical, and scientific perspectives and consider how dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy would be observed and what this would mean. Dormancy can be identified in these diverse data but most conspicuous is the sudden synchronized escape from dormancy following primary surgery. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a new paradigm for early stage breast cancer. We also suggest a new treatment that is meant to stabilize and preserve dormancy rather than attempt to kill all cancer cells as is the present strategy. PMID:24281072

  13. Patient experiences and outcomes following facial skin cancer surgery: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica H; Klassen, Anne F; Lawson, Jessica L; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-08-01

    Early melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer of the facial area are primarily treated with surgery. Little is known about the outcomes of treatment for facial skin cancer patients. The objective of the study was to identify concerns about aesthetics, procedures and health from the patients' perspective after facial skin surgery. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and develop themes. We identified five major themes on the impact of skin cancer surgery: appearance-related concerns; psychological (e.g., fear of new cancers or recurrence); social (e.g. impact on social activities and interaction); physical (e.g. pain and swelling) concerns and satisfaction with the experience of care (e.g., satisfaction with surgeon). The priority of participants was the removal of the facial skin cancer, as this reduced their overall worry. The aesthetic outcome was secondary but important, as it had important implications on the participants' social and psychological functioning. The participants' experience with the care provided by the surgeon and staff also contributed to their satisfaction with their treatment. This conceptual framework provides the basis for the development of a new patient-reported outcome instrument. PMID:25833383

  14. Is surgery in the elderly for oesophageal cancer justifiable? Results from a single centre.

    PubMed

    Mirza, A; Pritchard, S; Welch, I

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Advanced age is an identified risk factor for patients undergoing oncological surgical resection. The surgery for oesophageal cancer is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to study the operative management of elderly patients (≥70 years) at a single institute. Methods. The data was collected from 206 patients who have undergone operative resection of oesophageal cancer. The demographic, operative, histological, and postoperative follow-up of all patients were analysed. Results. A total of 46 patients of ≥70 years who had surgical resection for oesophageal cancer were identified. Patients ≥70 years had poor overall survival (P = 0.00). Also elderly patients with nodal involvement had poor survival (P = 0.04). Age at the time of surgery had no impact on the incidence of postoperative complication and inpatient mortality. Both the univariate and multivariate analyses showed age, nodal stage, and positive resection margins as independent prognostic factors for patients undergoing surgery for oesophageal cancer. Conclusions. Advanced age is associated with poor outcome following oesophageal resection. However, the optimisation of both preoperative and postoperative care can significantly improve outcomes. The decision of operative management should be individualised. Age should be considered as one of the factors in surgical resection of oesophageal cancer in the elderly patients. PMID:24205444

  15. Remapping the body: learning to eat again after surgery for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, David; Donovan, Jenny L; Kavadas, Vas; Cramer, Helen; Blazeby, Jane M

    2007-07-01

    Surgery for esophageal cancer offers the hope of cure but might impair quality of life. The operation removes tumors obstructing the esophagus but frequently leaves patients with eating difficulties, leading to weight loss. Maintaining or increasing body weight is important to many patients, both as a means of returning to "normal" and as a means of rejecting the identity of the terminal cancer patient, but surgery radically alters embodied sensations of hunger, satiety, swallowing, taste, and smell, rendering the previously taken-for-granted experience of eating unfamiliar and alien. Successful recovery depends on patients' learning how to eat again. This entails familiarization with physiological changes but also coming to terms with the social consequences of spoiled identity. The authors report findings from in-depth interviews with 11 esophageal cancer patients, documenting their experiences as they struggle to achieve a process of adaptation that is at once physiological, psychological, and social. PMID:17582019

  16. Weekday of oesophageal cancer surgery in relation to early postoperative outcomes in a nationwide Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lagergren, Jesper; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Later weekday of surgery for oesophageal cancer seems to increase 5-year mortality, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesised that early postoperative reoperations and mortality might explain this association, since reoperation after oesophagectomy decreases long-term prognosis, and later weekday of elective surgery increases 30-day mortality. Design This was a population-based cohort study during the study period 1987–2014. Setting All Swedish hospitals conducting elective surgery for oesophageal cancer in Sweden. Participants Included were 1748 patients, representing almost all (98%) patients who underwent elective surgery for oesophageal cancer in Sweden during 1987–2010, with follow-up until 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The risk of reoperation or mortality within 30 days of oesophageal cancer surgery was assessed in relation to weekday of surgery by calculating ORs with 95% CIs using multivariable logistic regression. ORs were adjusted for age, comorbidity, tumour stage, histology, neoadjuvant therapy and surgeon volume. Results Surgery Wednesday to Friday did not increase the risk of reoperation or mortality compared with surgery Monday to Tuesday (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.31). A decreased point estimate of reoperation (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.21) was counteracted by an increased point estimate of mortality (OR=1.28, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.99). ORs did not increase from Monday to Friday when each weekday was analysed separately. There was no association between weekday of surgery and reoperation specifically for anastomotic leak, laparotomy or wound infection. Stratification for surgeon volume did not reveal any clear associations between weekday of surgery and risk of 30-day reoperation or mortality. Conclusions Weekday of oesophageal cancer surgery does not seem to influence the risk of reoperation or mortality within 30 days of surgery, and thus cannot explain the association between weekday of surgery and long

  17. Physician pain and discomfort during minimally invasive gynecologic cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Megan E.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Munsell, Mark F.; Greer, Marilyn; Burke, William M.; Naumann, Wendell T.; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite increasing awareness of physical strain to surgeons associated with minimally invasive surgery (MIS), its use continues to expand. We sought to gather information from gynecologic oncologists regarding physical discomfort due to MIS. Methods Anonymous surveys were e-mailed to 1,279 Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) members. Physical symptoms (numbness, pain, stiffness, and fatigue) and surgical and demographic factors were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine risk factors for physical symptoms. Results We analyzed responses of 350 SGO members who completed the survey and currently performed >50% of procedures robotically (n=122), laparoscopically (n=67), or abdominally (n=61). Sixty-one percent of members reported physical symptoms related to MIS. The rate of symptoms was higher in the robotic group (72%) than the laparoscopic (57%) or abdominal group (49%) (p=0.0052). Stiffness (p=0.0373) and fatigue (p=0.0125) were more common in the robotic group. Female sex (p<0.0001), higher caseload, (p=0.0007) and academic practice (p=0.0186) were associated with increased symptoms. On multivariate analysis, robotic surgery (odds ratio [OR] 2.38, 95% CI 1.20-4.69) and female sex (OR 4.20, 95% CI 2.13-8.29) were significant predictors of symptoms. There was no correlation between seeking treatment and surgical modality (laparotomy 11%, robotic 20%, laparoscopy 25%, p= 0.12). Conclusions Gynecologic oncologists report physical symptoms due to MIS at an alarming rate. Robotic surgery and female sex appear to be risk factors for physical discomfort. As we strive to improve patient outcomes and decrease patient morbidity with MIS, we must also work to improve the ergonomics of MIS for surgeons. PMID:24887354

  18. Pleural Photodynamic Therapy and Surgery in Lung Cancer and Thymoma Patients with Pleural Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ying-Fan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pleural spread is difficult to treat in malignancies, especially in lung cancer and thymoma. Monotherapy with surgery fails to have a better survival benefit than palliative chemotherapy, the currently accepted treatment. Photodynamic therapy utilizes a photosensitizer to target the tumor site, and the tumor is exposed to light after performing a pleurectomy and tumor resection. However, the benefits of this procedure to lung cancer or thymoma patients are unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer or thymoma with pleural seeding who underwent pleural photodynamic therapy and surgery between 2005 and 2013. Eighteen patients enrolled in this study. The mean patient age was 52.9 ± 12.2 years. Lung cancer was the inciting cancer of pleural dissemination in 10 patients (55.6%), and thymoma in 8 (44.4%). There was no procedure-related mortality. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the 3-year survival rate and the 5-year survival rate were 68.9% and 57.4%, respectively. We compared the PDT lung cancer patients with those receiving chemotherapy or target therapy (n = 51) and found that the PDT group had better survival than non-PDT patients (mean survival time: 39.0 versus 17.6 months; P = .047). With proper patient selection, radical surgical resection combined with intrapleural photodynamic therapy for pleural spread in patients with non-small cell lung cancer or thymoma is feasible and may provide a survival benefit. PMID:26193470

  19. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for cervical cancer: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yun-Hua; Wang, Xin-Xiu; Zhu, Jing-Song; Gao, Li

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) versus radical surgery (RS) for patients with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of NACT + RS versus RS alone for patients with cervical cancer was performed according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The following electronic databases were searched from their inception to April 2015: PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Statistical analysis was done using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. Five RCT involving 739 patients were studied. There were significant differences between the NACT + RS and the RS-alone groups for positive lymph nodes (OR, 0.45; 95%CI: 0.29-0.70) and parametrial infiltration (OR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25-0.92), while treatment efficacy did not differ significantly for 5-year overall survival rate (OR, 1.17; 95% CI: 0.85-1.61), 5-year disease-free survival rate (OR, 1.09; 95% CI: 0.77-1.56) or recurrence rate (OR, 1.17; 95% CI: 0.85-1.61). The results also indicated that chemotherapy-related toxicity was well tolerated. For patients with cervical cancer, NACT could significantly reduce the number of positive lymph nodes and the level of parametrial infiltration compared with RS alone, and be well tolerated. PMID:26807961

  20. Current Status of Minimally Invasive Surgery for Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, James

    2016-05-01

    Recent randomized controlled data have shown possible limitations to laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer. The retrospective data, used as the basis for designing the trials, and which showed no problems with the technique, are discussed. The design of the randomized trials is discussed relative to the future meta-analysis of the recent data. The implications of the current findings on practice are discussed as surgeons try to adjust their practice to the new findings. The possible next steps for clinical and research innovations are put into perspective as new technology is considered to compensate for newly identified limitations in the laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:26831061

  1. Cost impact analysis of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program implementation in Alberta colon cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, G.; Kiyang, L.N.; Chuck, A.; Thanh, N.X.; Gramlich, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (eras) colorectal guideline has been implemented widely across Alberta. Our study examined the clinical and cost impacts of eras on colon cancer patients across the province. Methods We first used both summary statistics and multivariate regression methods to compare, before and after guideline implementation, clinical outcomes (length of stay, complications, readmissions) in consecutive elective colorectal patients 18 or more years of age and in colon cancer and non-cancer patients treated at the Peter Lougheed Centre and the Grey Nuns Hospital between February 2013 and December 2014. We then used the differences in clinical outcomes for colon cancer patients, together with the average cost per hospital day, to estimate cost impacts. Results The analysis considered 790 patients (398 cancer and 392 non-cancer patients). Mean guideline compliance increased to 60% in cancer patients and 57% in non-cancer patients after eras implementation from 37% overall before eras implementation. From pre- to post-eras, mean length of stay declined to 8.4 ± 5 days from 9.5 ± 7 days in cancer patients, and to 6.4 ± 4 days from 8.8 ± 5.5 days in non-cancer patients (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0041 respectively). Complications declined significantly in the renal, hepatic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal groups (difference in proportions: 13% in cancer patients; p < 0.05). No significant change in the risk of readmission was observed. The net cost savings attributable to eras implementation ranged from $1,096 to $2,771 per cancer patient and from $3,388 to $7,103 per non-cancer patient. Conclusions Implementation of eras not only resulted in clinical outcome improvements, but also had a significant beneficial impact on scarce health system resources. The effect for cancer patients was different from that for non-cancer patients, representing an opportunity for further refinement and study. PMID:27330358

  2. Endoscopic laser scalpel for head and neck cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Snehal; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Kirov, Stefan; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, such as laparoscopic surgery and endoscopy, provide reliable disease control with reduced impact on the function of the diseased organ. Surgical lasers can ablate, cut and excise tissue while sealing small blood vessels minimizing bleeding and risk of lymphatic metastases from tumors. Lasers with wavelengths in the IR are readily absorbed by water causing minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ideal for surgery near critical anatomical structures. MIS techniques have largely been unable to adopt the use of lasers partly due to the difficulty in bringing the laser into the endoscopic cavity. Hollow waveguide fibers have been adapted to bring surgical lasers to endoscopy. However, they deliver a beam that diverges rapidly and requires careful manipulation of the fiber tip relative to the target. Thus, the principal obstacle for surgical lasers in MIS procedures has been a lack of effective control instruments to manipulate the laser in the body cavity and accurately deliver it to the targeted tissue. To overcome this limitation, we have designed and built an endoscopic laser system that incorporates a miniature dual wedge beam steering device, a video camera, and the control system for remote and /or robotic operation. The dual wedge Risley device offers the smallest profile possible for endoscopic use. Clinical specifications and design considerations will be presented together with descriptions of the device and the development of its control system.

  3. [Cases of Obstructive Colon Cancer for Which Elective Surgery Was Performed after Colonic Stent Placement].

    PubMed

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Koike, Kota; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the short-term outcomes of 20 patients with obstructive colon cancer who underwent colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery (BTS) during the 3-year period between April 2012 and March 2015. Subjects comprised 13 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 68.3 years. Placement and decompression were successfully achieved in all of the patients. Oral ingestion became possible from a mean of 2.7 days after placement. No serious complications associated with placement were encountered. Total colonoscopy was performed after placement in 17 patients (85%), and independent advanced cancer was seen in the proximal portion of the colon in 1 patient. Elective surgery was performed for all of the patients after placement. Excluding the 2 patients for whom preoperative chemotherapy or treatment of another disease was prioritized, the mean interval to surgery for the remaining 18 patients was 23.2 days. The operative procedure performed was laparoscopic surgery in 8 patients (40%). Although minor leakage (n=1) and abdominal wall abscess (n=1) were observed as postoperative complications, the patients generally had an uneventful course. Colonic stent placement for obstructive colon cancer is relatively easy and safe, and may be considered as an effective treatment method that enables favorable intestinal decompression preoperatively and one-stage resection. PMID:26805323

  4. Feasibility of MR metabolomics for immediate analysis of resection margins during breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Bathen, Tone F; Geurts, Brigitte; Sitter, Beathe; Fjøsne, Hans E; Lundgren, Steinar; Buydens, Lutgarde M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Postma, Geert; Giskeødegård, Guro F

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of high resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of small tissue biopsies to distinguish between tumor and non-involved adjacent tissue was investigated. With the current methods, delineation of the tumor borders during breast cancer surgery is a challenging task for the surgeon, and a significant number of re-surgeries occur. We analyzed 328 tissue samples from 228 breast cancer patients using HR MAS MRS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to discriminate between tumor and non-involved adjacent tissue. Using proper double cross validation, high sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 93%, respectively was achieved. Analysis of the loading profiles from both principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS-DA showed the choline-containing metabolites as main biomarkers for tumor content, with phosphocholine being especially high in tumor tissue. Other indicative metabolites include glycine, taurine and glucose. We conclude that metabolic profiling by HR MAS MRS may be a potential method for on-line analysis of resection margins during breast cancer surgery to reduce the number of re-surgeries and risk of local recurrence. PMID:23613877

  5. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Polom, Karol; Roviello, Giandomenico; Generali, Daniele; Marano, Luigi; Petrioli, Roberto; Marsili, Stefania; Caputo, Edda; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), a strategy combining maximal cytoreductive surgery and maximal regional chemotherapy, has been applied to treat ovarian cancer resulting in long-term survival rates in selected patients. However, the status of HIPEC in ovarian cancer remains an experimental procedure, given the many variables among the data and trials reviewed, to enable us to derive strong conclusions about its role from this overview. In this review we discuss treatment with HIPEC in patients with ovarian cancer and future prospective of its use in clinical setting. HIPEC is an effective tool in the treatment of selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, due to the lack of randomised trials, the evidence of HIPEC is very limited. Future randomised studies are awaited to define the role and clinical impact of HIPEC in ovarian cancer. PMID:26984715

  6. [Radical trachelectomy -- surgery for preserving woman's fertility in patients with invasive cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Kostov, I; Vasilev, N; Nacheva, A; Lazarov, I

    2013-01-01

    For the past 15 years gynecological oncologists have been seeking ways to preserve woman's fertility when treating invasive cervical cancer. Many cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in young woman who wish to preserve their fertility. As more women are delaying childbearing, fertility preservation has become an important consideration. The standard surgical treatment for stage IA2-IB1 cervical cancer is a radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. This surgery includes removal of the uterus and cervix, radical resection of the parametrial tissue and upper vagina, and complete pelvic lymphadenectomy. Obviously, the standard treatment does not allow future childbearing. For some women with small localized invasive cervical cancers, there is hope for pregnancy after treatment. Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-sparing surgical approach developed in France in 1994 by Dr. Daniel Dargent for the treatment of early invasive cervical cancer. The radical trachelectomy operation has been described and performed abdominally, assisted vaginally by laparoscopy and robotically. PMID:24505637

  7. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Verla, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    ‘Failure to rescue’ is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  8. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Verla, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    'Failure to rescue' is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  9. Impact of Type of Surgery on Survival Outcome in Patients With Early Gallbladder Cancer in the Era of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jin-Young; Heo, Jin Seok; Han, Youngmin; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted as a feasible and safe treatment modality in many cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. However, most guidelines on gallbladder cancer (GBC) regard laparoscopic surgery as a contraindication, even for early GBC. This study aims to evaluate and compare recent surgical outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery for T1(a,b) GBC and to determine the optimal surgical strategy for T1 GBC. The study enrolled 197 patients with histopathologically proven T1 GBC and no history of other cancers who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2014 at 3 major tertiary referral hospitals with specialized biliary-pancreas pathologists and optimal pathologic handling protocols. Median follow-up was 56 months. The effects of depth of invasion and type of surgery on disease-specific survival and recurrence patterns were investigated. Of the 197 patients, 116 (58.9%) underwent simple cholecystectomy, including 31 (15.7%) who underwent open cholecystectomy and 85 (43.1%) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The remaining 81 (41.1%) patients underwent extended cholecystectomy. Five-year disease-specific survival rates were similar in patients who underwent simple and extended cholecystectomy (96.7% vs 100%, P = 0.483), as well as being similar in patients in the simple cholecystectomy group who underwent open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (100% vs 97.6%, P = 0.543). Type of surgery had no effect on recurrence patterns. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for T1 gallbladder cancer can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open surgery. Considering less blood loss and shorter hospital stay with better cosmetic outcome, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be justified as a standard treatment for T1b as well as T1a gallbladder cancer when done by well-experienced surgeons based on exact pathologic diagnosis. PMID:27258495

  10. Risk factors predictive of atrial fibrillation after lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takekazu; Nagato, Kaoru; Nakajima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidemi; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), the most frequent arrhythmia after pulmonary resection, is a cause of both morbidity and mortality. Being able to predict the risk of POAF before surgery would help us evaluate the surgical risk and plan prophylaxis. We investigated the reported preoperative risk factors associated with the incidence of POAF and found that the recommended predictive factors were quite variable. Therefore, we evaluated the previously reported preoperative risk factors for POAF using our institutional data. We discuss our findings in this short review. Male gender, resected lung volume, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and left ventricular early transmitral velocity/mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') calculated by echocardiography were suggested as independent predictors for POAF, but the predictive values of each individual parameter were not high. The lack of definitive predictors for POAF warrants further investigations by gathering the reported knowledge, to establish an effective preoperative examination strategy. PMID:26471506

  11. Cytoreductive surgery plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galaal, Khadra; Naik, Raj; Bristow, Robert E; Patel, Amit; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Most women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer will ultimately develop recurrent disease after completion of initial treatment with primary surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Secondary cytoreductive surgery may have survival benefits in selected patients. However, a number of chemotherapeutic agents are active in recurrent ovarian cancer and the standard treatment of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer remains poorly defined. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of secondary surgical cytoreduction and chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, (CENTRAL) Issue 1 2009, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to February 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of review articles and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We searched for RCTs, quasi-randomised trials and non-randomised studies that compared secondary cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy to chemotherapy alone in women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Data collection and analysis Three reviewers independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. No trials were found and therefore no data were analysed. Main results The search strategy identified 1431 unique references of which all were excluded on the basis of title and abstract. Authors’ conclusions We found no evidence from RCTs to inform decisions about secondary surgical cytoreduction and chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Ideally, a large randomised controlled trial or, at the very least, well designed non-randomised studies that use multivariate analysis to adjust for baseline imbalances are needed to compare these treatment modalities. The results of the ongoing RCT AGO

  12. Conformal 3D planned radiotherapy for pelvic lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Stefan; Käsmann, Lukas; Cegla, Robert; Rades, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome and toxicity of 3D conformal radiotherapy (RT) for persistent lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer. A total of 6 patients with bladder (n=1) and prostate cancer (n=5), with persistent lymphoceles following surgery for a primary tumor were treated with total doses of 10–12 Gy (1 Gy single dose) after computed tomography (CT) based 3D planning in order to suspend secretion. No acute or chronic toxicities were observed. In 5 patients, secretion of lymph fluid resolved after RT and in 1 patient RT had no effect. After a mean follow-up of 21 months (range, 5–47 months), no patient suffered from any symptoms concerning his former lymphoceles. This is the first analysis, to the best of our knowledge, to evaluate a homogenous patient collective of urological cancer patients with persistent lymphoceles after surgery for the initial tumor. RT to lymphoceles in urological cancer patient is effective, very well-tolerated and should be offered to patients with persistent secretion following drainage.

  13. Psychosocial Adaptationand Cellular Immunity in Breast Cancer Patients in the Weeks After Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Alvarez, Juan P.; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria G.; Lechner, Suzanne; Carver, Charles S.; Holly, Heather; Antoni, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The period just after surgery for breast cancer requires psychosocial adaptation and is associated with elevated distress. Distress states have been associated with decreased cellular immune functioning in this population, which could have negative effects on physical recovery. However little is known about relations between psychological status (negative and positive mood states and overall quality of life) and cellular signaling cytokines that could account for these associations in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Methods The present study examined associations between psychological adaptation indicators (mood, quality of life) and T-helper cell-type 1 (Th1) cytokine production from stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells in women who had recently undergone surgery for early-stage breast cancer but had not yet begun adjuvant therapy. These associations were evaluated while controlling for relevant disease/treatment, sociodemographic and health behavior covariates. Results Lower anxiety related to greater production of the Th1 cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) while greater positive mood (affection) related to greater production of the Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Better quality of life (QOL) related to greater production of the Th1 cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Conclusion Individual differences in psychosocial adaptation in women with breast cancer during the period after surgery relate to biological parameters that may be relevant for health and well-being as they move through treatment. PMID:19837199

  14. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor. PMID:26720879

  15. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  16. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yunseon; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heunglae; Ahn, Ki Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) in local control was evaluated. Results: The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m2 as a cutoff value. Conclusion: Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted. PMID:27306771

  17. [A Case of Long-Term Survival after Surgeries for Gastric Cancer and Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuya; Wajima, Naoki; Akasaka, Harue; Sakuraba, Shingo; Muroya, Takahiro; Kubo, Norihito; Okano, Kensuke; Uchida, Chiaki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman. In October 2011, she underwent distal gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for gastric cancer (pT4a, pN3b, Stage ⅢC [JCGC 14th Edition]). She then received S-1 plus CDDP combination therapy and S-1 monotherapy as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies for 1 year, and was followed up as an outpatient. In April 2013, a significant increase in the CA19-9 level was noted, and CT indicated a right ovarian tumor. Ovarian metastasis from the gastric cancer was diagnosed, and the response to 3 courses of weekly PTX was stable disease. No findings indicated metastasis to other organs. In July 2013, a salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, after which her CA19-9 level returned to the normal range. Follow-up was adopted as the postoperative strategy in part due to the desires of the patient. Presently, 3 years and 6 months after the initial surgery and 1 year and 9 months after the last surgery, no recurrence has been detected. Generally, ovarian metastasis from gastric cancer is considered to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, our patient showed long-term survival after surgeries for gastric cancer and asynchronous ovarian metastasis. Here, we report the details of our case and review the relevant literature. PMID:26805246

  18. Risk Factors for Gallstone Formation after Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of gallstones after gastrectomy for gastric cancer is higher than in the general population. However, the causes and mechanisms of post-gastrectomy gallstones are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of gallstone formation and the risk factors for their development after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Materials and Methods Of 1,744 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between January 2010 and December 2012, 1,284 were included in this study and retrospectively reviewed. Patients' age, sex, body mass index (BMI), tumor location, stage, type of gastrectomy, type of reconstruction, and extent of node dissection were evaluated. Results The incidence of gallstones after gastrectomy for gastric cancer was significantly higher in men than in women (P=0.019). Exclusion of the duodenum during reconstruction was associated with a significantly higher incidence of gallstones (P=0.003). Overweight and obese patients with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 had significantly higher incidence of gallstones than those with a lower BMI (P=0.006). Multivariate analysis showed that obesity (hazard ratio, HR=1.614; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.135~2.296; P=0.008), male sex (HR=1.515, 95% CI: 1.029~2.231, P=0.033), and exclusion of the duodenum (HR=1.648, 95% CI: 1.192~2.280, P=0.003) were significant, independent risk factors for gallstones after gastrectomy. Conclusions The cumulative incidence of gallstones for 5 years after gastrectomy was 15.3%. Male sex, obesity, and exclusion of the duodenum were risk factors for gallstone formation after gastrectomy. Careful surveillance will be required for these patient groups after gastrectomy.

  19. Surgery for rare aneurysm associated with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Hua; Tao, Guo-Qing; Shen, Wei; Cai, Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Yang; Sun, Jian

    2009-12-14

    The occurrence of concomitant aortic aneurysm and colorectal cancer is a rare medical entity, and controversy surrounds its optimal treatment. We report a case of rectal cancer and concomitant aneurysm from the ascending aorta to the common iliac artery. As with DeBakey type I aortic dissecting aneurysm, our patient was treated by rectal cancer resection, with preservation of the anus (Dixon operation) under controlled hypotension. Blood pressure was maintained at 80-90/50-60 mmHg and the pulse at 70-90 beats/min. The pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed a poorly differentiated T3N0 tumor. The patient had an uneventful recovery without aneurysm rupture, and was discharged from hospital on postoperative day 15 after 3 d adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin combined with calcium folinate and fluorouracil. The patient was given six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy in 6 mo, without recurrence or metastasis, and the aneurysm was still stable after 2 years follow-up. PMID:19998515

  20. Palliative surgery versus medical management for bowel obstruction in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kucukmetin, Ali; Naik, Raj; Galaal, Khadra; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Bowel obstruction is a common feature of advanced or recurrent ovarian cancer. Patients with bowel obstruction are generally in poor physical condition with a limited life expectancy. Therefore, maintaining their QoL with effective symptom control is the main purpose of the management of bowel obstruction. Objectives To compare the effectiveness and safety of palliative surgery (surgery performed to control the cancer, reduce symptoms and improve quality of life for those whose cancer is not able to be entirely removed) and medical management for bowel obstruction in women with ovarian cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), Issue 1 2009, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to February 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Studies that compared palliative surgery and medical interventions, in adult women diagnosed with ovarian cancer who had either full or partial obstruction of the bowel. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs that used multivariable statistical adjustment for baseline case mix were eligible. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. One non-randomised study was identified so no meta-analyses were performed. Main results The search strategy identified 183 unique references of which 22 were identified as being potentially eligible on the basis of title and abstract. Only one study met our inclusion criteria and was included in the review. It analysed retrospective data for 47 women who received either palliative surgery (n = 27) or medical management

  1. Improving quality of breast cancer surgery through development of a national breast cancer surgical outcomes (BRCASO) research database

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common measures of surgical quality are 30-day morbidity and mortality, which poorly describe breast cancer surgical quality with extremely low morbidity and mortality rates. Several national quality programs have collected additional surgical quality measures; however, program participation is voluntary and results may not be generalizable to all surgeons. We developed the Breast Cancer Surgical Outcomes (BRCASO) database to capture meaningful breast cancer surgical quality measures among a non-voluntary sample, and study variation in these measures across providers, facilities, and health plans. This paper describes our study protocol, data collection methods, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of these data. Methods We included 4524 women ≥18 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2003-2008. All women with initial breast cancer surgery performed by a surgeon employed at the University of Vermont or three Cancer Research Network (CRN) health plans were eligible for inclusion. From the CRN institutions, we collected electronic administrative data including tumor registry information, Current Procedure Terminology codes for breast cancer surgeries, surgeons, surgical facilities, and patient demographics. We supplemented electronic data with medical record abstraction to collect additional pathology and surgery detail. All data were manually abstracted at the University of Vermont. Results The CRN institutions pre-filled 30% (22 out of 72) of elements using electronic data. The remaining elements, including detailed pathology margin status and breast and lymph node surgeries, required chart abstraction. The mean age was 61 years (range 20-98 years); 70% of women were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, 20% with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 10% with invasive lobular carcinoma. Conclusions The BRCASO database is one of the largest, multi-site research resources of meaningful breast cancer surgical quality data in the United States

  2. True Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early–Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Christopher Q.; Stine, Munkholm-Larsen; Yan, Tristan D.

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception, minimally invasive surgery has made a dramatic impact on all branches of surgery. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first described in the early 1990s and has since become popular in a number of tertiary referral centers. Proponents of this relatively new procedure cite a number of potentially favorable perioperative outcomes, possibly due to reduced surgical trauma and stress. However, a significant proportion of the cardiothoracic community remains skeptical, as there is still a paucity of robust clinical data on long-term survival and recurrence rates. The definition of ‘true’ VATS has also been under scrutiny, with a number of previous studies being considered ‘mini-thoracotomy lobectomy’ rather than VATS lobectomy. We hereby examine the literature on true VATS lobectomy, with a particular focus on comparative studies that directly compared VATS lobectomy with conventional open lobectomy. PMID:22263000

  3. Survival Impact of Secondary Cytoreductive Surgery for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer in an Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani Akhil; Chia, Yin Nin; Lim, Yong Kuei; Yam, Kwai Lam; Lim, Cindy; Teo, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery in Asian patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and to assess prognostic variables on overall post-recurrence survival time. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who underwent secondary cytoreduction at the Gynaecological Cancer Center at the KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, between 1999 and 2009. Eligible patients included those who had been firstly treated by primary cytoreductive surgery and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and had a period of clinical remission of at least six months and subsequently underwent secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrence. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate various variables influencing the overall survival. Results Twenty-five patients met our eligibility criteria. The median age was 52 years (range=31–78 years). The median time from completion of primary treatment to recurrence was 25.1 months (range=6.4–83.4). Secondary cytoreduction was optimal in 20 of 25 patients (80%). The median follow-up duration was 38.9 months (range=17.8–72.4) and median overall survival time was 33.1 months (95% confidence interval, 15.3–undefined.). Ten (40.0%) patients required bowel resection, but no end colostomy was performed. One (4.0%) patient had wedge resection of the liver, one (4.0%) had a distal pancreatectomy, one (4.0%) had a unilateral nephrectomy, and one (4.0%) had adrenalectomy. There were no operative deaths. The overall survival of patients who responded to secondary cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly longer than those patients who did not respond to the treatment. Of those patients who responded to the surgical management, patients with clear cell carcinoma fared well compared to those with the endometrioid, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and papillary serous type (p<0.001). Complete secondary cytoreductive surgery appeared to

  4. [Role of surgery for lung cancer in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Benko, István; Horváth, Ors Péter; Nagy, Klára; Sárosi, Veronika; Balikó, Zoltán; Potó, László; Molnár, F Tamás

    2008-02-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in the civilised world. Surgical resection, which play a crucial role in the complex oncological treatment, has to be offered in older ages than it was done before, due to an ageing population. Results of surgical treatment of patients older than 75 years are investigated retrospectively in the present paper. A retrospectively analysis was carried out of 54 from a total of 884 lung resections for primary lung cancer performed for patients older than 75 years between 1995-2005. Twelve of these patients were above 80 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to calculate survival and multifactor analysis for the risk factors. Average age was 77.5 years (75-85). Two pneumonectomies, two bilobectomies, 41 lobectomies, seven sublobar resections and two lobectomies with chest wall resections were performed. The average hospital stay was 11.4 days (8-36). Mortality: 7.4% (n = 4), morbidity: 52% (n = 28) including: sputum retention: 43%, arrhythmia 33%, atelectasia: 15%. There were two bronchial stump insufficiencies (4%) and three reoperations were performed (5%). The average follow up was: 32 months and the five year survival 33.7% (median 43 months). Multifactorial analysis show that extended resection, male gender, age above 80 years are risk factors for adverse outcome. Female gender, stage Ia and lobectomy are considered as predictive factors for long survival. We conclude, that with proper patient selection (below ASA3, early stage) and with carefully conducted postoperative care (physiotherapy, monitoring) surgical resection should be offered to elderly lung cancer patients as well. PMID:18296283

  5. Primary surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Machens, A

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are malignancies of follicular cell derivation. Histopathologically and oncologically, DTC fall into two broad tumor categories: papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). These major tumor categories, based on clinical manifestation and biological behavior, are further subdivided into low-risk [papillary microcarcinoma (mPTC); minimally invasive follicular cancer (MIFTC)] and high-risk DTC [PTC>1 cm or metastatic; MIFTC with histopathological angioinvasion; widely invasive FTC (WIFTC)]. Recently, a surgical approach has been adopted that differentiates between low-risk and high-risk DTC. The rationale behind this new concept is to better balance oncologic risk (high vs low) with the surgical morbidity attendant to the procedure (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism). This surgical risk is larger with routine total thyroidectomy (TT) and central node dissection (CND) than with less than TT or TT without CND.Whereas TT with CND remains the treatment of choice for high-risk DTC with metastases, the extent of thyroid resection and lymph node dissection can be reduced in low-risk PTC and FTC without demonstrable loss of oncological benefit. In the new millennium, the surgical approach to DTC, especially low-risk PTC and FTC, has undergone considerable change, resulting in less extensive procedures. This risk-adapted strategy relies not only on the skillful histopathologic detection of multifocality in PTC and vascular invasion in MIFTC, but likewise necessitates diligent follow-up to spot and adequately treat local recurrences and distant metastases as they become clinically apparent. PMID:23014068

  6. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  7. Safer Wards: reducing violence on older people's mental health wards.

    PubMed

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Kwesi, Solomon; Joyce, Maggie; Dusoye, Jenny; Mohamudbucus, Yasin; Shah, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Through the Safer Wards project we aimed to reduce the number of incidents of physical violence on older people's mental health wards. This was done using quality improvement methods and supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Violence can be an indicator of unmet needs in this patient population, with a negative effect on patient care and staff morale. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust. We established a multi-disciplinary group who led on the project on each ward and used a Pareto diagram to establish the focus of our work. We established a dashboard of measures based on our incident reporting system Datix, including number of incidents of violence, days between incidents, days of staff sickness, days between staff injury, use of restraint, and use of rapid tranquilisation (the last two being balancing measures in the reduction of violence). Each team identified factors driving physical violence on the wards, under headings of unmet patient needs, staff needs and staff awareness, which included lack of activity and a safe and therapeutic environment. Using driver diagrams, we identified change ideas that included hourly rounding (proactive checks on patient well-being), the addition of sensory rooms, flexible leave for patients, and a structured activity programme. We also introduced exercise to music, therapeutic groups led by patients, and focused on discharge planning and pet therapy, each of which starting sequentially over the course of a one year period from late 2013 and subject to a cycle of iterative learning using PDSA methods. The specific aim was a 20% decrease in violent incidents on three wards in City and Hackney, and Newham. Following our interventions, days between violent incidents increased from an average of three to an average of six. Days between staff injury due to physical violence rose from an average of

  8. Safer Wards: reducing violence on older people's mental health wards

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Kwesi, Solomon; Joyce, Maggie; Dusoye, Jenny; Mohamudbucus, Yasin; Shah, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Through the Safer Wards project we aimed to reduce the number of incidents of physical violence on older people's mental health wards. This was done using quality improvement methods and supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Violence can be an indicator of unmet needs in this patient population, with a negative effect on patient care and staff morale. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust. We established a multi-disciplinary group who led on the project on each ward and used a Pareto diagram to establish the focus of our work. We established a dashboard of measures based on our incident reporting system Datix, including number of incidents of violence, days between incidents, days of staff sickness, days between staff injury, use of restraint, and use of rapid tranquilisation (the last two being balancing measures in the reduction of violence). Each team identified factors driving physical violence on the wards, under headings of unmet patient needs, staff needs and staff awareness, which included lack of activity and a safe and therapeutic environment. Using driver diagrams, we identified change ideas that included hourly rounding (proactive checks on patient well-being), the addition of sensory rooms, flexible leave for patients, and a structured activity programme. We also introduced exercise to music, therapeutic groups led by patients, and focused on discharge planning and pet therapy, each of which starting sequentially over the course of a one year period from late 2013 and subject to a cycle of iterative learning using PDSA methods. The specific aim was a 20% decrease in violent incidents on three wards in City and Hackney, and Newham. Following our interventions, days between violent incidents increased from an average of three to an average of six. Days between staff injury due to physical violence rose from an average of

  9. Rehabilitation Nutrition for Possible Sarcopenic Dysphagia After Lung Cancer Surgery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Uwano, Rimiko

    2016-06-01

    Sarcopenic dysphagia is characterized by the loss of swallowing muscle mass and function associated with generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this report, the authors describe a patient with possible sarcopenic dysphagia after lung cancer surgery and was treated subsequently by rehabilitation nutrition. A 71-year-old man with lung cancer experienced complications of an acute myocardial infarction and pneumonia after surgery. He was ventilated artificially, and a tracheotomy was performed. The patient received diagnoses of malnutrition, severe sarcopenia, and possible sarcopenic dysphagia. His dysphagia was improved by a combination of dysphagia rehabilitation including physical and speech therapy and an improvement in nutrition initiated by a nutrition support team. Finally, he no longer had dysphagia and malnutrition. Sarcopenic dysphagia should be considered in patients with sarcopenia and dysphagia. Rehabilitation nutrition using a combination of both rehabilitation and nutritional care management is presumptively useful for treating sarcopenic dysphagia. PMID:26829095

  10. The Role of VATS in Lung Cancer Surgery: Current Status and Prospects for Development

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Dariusz; Orlowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of anatomic lung resection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) 20 years ago, VATS has experienced major advances in both equipment and technique, introducing a technical challenge in the surgical treatment of both benign and malignant lung disease. The demonstrated safety, decreased morbidity, and equivalent efficacy of this minimally invasive technique have led to the acceptance of VATS as a standard surgical modality for early-stage lung cancer and increasing application to more advanced disease. Formerly there was much debate about the feasibility of the technique in cancer surgery and proper lymph node handling. Although there is a lack of proper randomized studies, it is now generally accepted that the outcome of a VATS procedure is at least not inferior to a resection via a traditional thoracotomy. PMID:26294970

  11. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  12. Current status of robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A bird's eye view

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ajit; Melich, George; Marecik, Slawomir J; Park, John J; Prasad, Leela M

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer is now widely performed via the laparoscopic approach and has been validated in randomized controlled trials to be oncologically safe with better perioperative outcomes than open surgery including shorter length of stay, earlier return of bowel function, better cosmesis, and less analgesic requirement. Laparoscopic surgery, however, has inherent limitations due to two-dimensional vision, restricted instrument motion and a very long learning curve. Robotic surgery with its superb three-dimensional magnified optics, stable retraction platform and 7 degrees of freedom of instrument movement offers significant benefits during Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) including ease of operation, markedly lower conversion rates and better quality of the specimen in addition to shorter (steeper) learning curves. This review summarizes the current evidence for the adoption of robotic TME for rectal cancer with supporting data from the literature and from the authors’ own experience. All relevant articles from PubMed using the search terms listed below and published between 2000 and 2014 including randomized trials, meta-analyses, prospective studies, and retrospective reviews with substantial numbers were included. PMID:25598596

  13. Development of a screening instrument for risk factors of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sipilä, R; Estlander, A-M; Tasmuth, T; Kataja, M; Kalso, E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain can have a significant effect on the quality of life of women being treated for breast cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to develop a screening tool to identify presurgical demographic, psychological and treatment-related factors that predict persistence of significant pain in the operated area after 6 months from surgery. Methods: Background and self-reported questionnaire data were collected the day before surgery and combined with treatment-related data. Pain in the operated area was assessed 6 months after surgery with a questionnaire. The Bayesian model was used for the development of a screening tool. Results: Report of preoperative chronic pain, more than four or more previous operations, preoperative pain in the area to be operated, high body mass index, previous smoking and older age were included in the six-factor model that best predicted significant pain at the follow-up in the 489 women studied. Conclusion: A six-factor risk index was developed to estimate the risk of developing significant pain after breast cancer surgery. Neither treatment- nor mood-related variables were included in the model. Identification of risk factors may lead to prevention of persistent postsurgery pain. This tool could be used for target prevention to those who are at the highest risk of developing persistent postsurgery pain. PMID:23093294

  14. Surgery and radiation therapy of triple-negative breast cancers: From biology to clinics.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Jacques; Poortmans, Philip M P

    2016-08-01

    Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours. The objective of this review is to provide an insight into the biological and clinical behaviour of triple-negative breast cancers and revisit the most recent advances in their management, focussing on local-regional treatments. PMID:27318170

  15. Cost-effectiveness of palliative surgery versus nonsurgical procedures in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bradford J; Aloia, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    Palliative care is an essential component to multidisciplinary cancer care. Improved symptom control, quality of life (QOL), and survival have resulted from its utilization. Cost-effectiveness and utility analyses are significant variables that should be considered in comparing benefits and costs of medical interventions to determine if certain treatments are economically justified. This is a review on the cost-effectiveness of palliative surgery compared to other nonsurgical palliative procedures in patients with unresectable gastrointestinal cancers. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:316-322. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132654

  16. The timing of breast and axillary surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilli, Zahraa; Boughey, Judy C

    2016-06-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has traditionally been used in locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer, allowing for a reduction in disease volume and therefore optimizing surgical resection of disease in the breast. NAC impacts both the tumor in the breast and the lymph nodes and may allow for the option of breast-conserving surgery and avoiding an axillary dissection. The aim of this review is to discuss the considerations and timing of surgical treatment of the breast and the axilla following NAC in patients with breast cancer. PMID:27164853

  17. Techniques and Outcome of Surgery for Locally Advanced and Local Recurrent Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Renehan, A G

    2016-02-01

    Locally advanced primary rectal cancer is variably defined, but generally refers to T3 and T4 tumours. Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment for these tumours but there is a high-risk for local recurrence. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2011) guidelines recommend that patients with these tumours be considered for preoperative chemoradiotherapy and this is the starting point for any discussion, as it is standard care. However, there are many refinements of this pathway and these are the subject of this overview. In surgical terms, there are two broad settings: (i) patients with tumours contained within the mesorectal envelope, or in the lower rectum, limited to invading the sphincter muscles (namely some T2 and most T3 tumours); and (ii) patients with tumours directly invading or adherent to pelvic organs or structures, mainly T4 tumours - here referred to as primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision (PRC-bTME). Major surgical resection using the principles of TME is the mainstay of treatment for the former. Where anal sphincter sacrifice is indicated for low rectal cancers, variations of abdominoperineal resection - referred to as tailored excision - including the extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE), are required. There is debate whether or not plastic reconstruction or mesh repair is required after these surgical procedures. To achieve cure in PRC-bTME tumours, most patients require extended multivisceral exenterative surgery, carried out within specialist multidisciplinary centres. The surgical principles governing the treatment of recurrent rectal cancer (RRC) parallel those for PRC-bTME, but typically only half of these patients are suitable for this type of major surgery. Peri-operative morbidity and mortality are considerable after surgery for PRC-bTME and RRC, but unacceptable levels of variation in clinical practice and outcome exist globally. To address this, there are now major efforts to standardise

  18. Association between Image Characteristics on Chest CT and Severe Pleural Adhesion during Lung Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kwang Nam; Sung, Yong Won; Oh, Se Jin; Choi, Ye Ra; Cho, Hyoun; Choi, Jae-Sung; Moon, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between image characteristics on preoperative chest CT and severe pleural adhesion during surgery in lung cancer patients. We included consecutive 124 patients who underwent lung cancer surgeries. Preoperative chest CT was retrospectively reviewed to assess pleural thickening or calcification, pulmonary calcified nodules, active pulmonary inflammation, extent of emphysema, interstitial pneumonitis, and bronchiectasis in the operated thorax. The extent of pleural thickening or calcification was visually estimated and categorized into two groups: localized and diffuse. We measured total size of pulmonary calcified nodules. The extent of emphysema, interstitial pneumonitis, and bronchiectasis was also evaluated with a visual scoring system. The occurrence of severe pleural adhesion during lung cancer surgery was retrospectively investigated from the electrical medical records. We performed logistic regression analysis to determine the association of image characteristic on chest CT with severe pleural adhesion. Localized pleural thickening was found in 8 patients (6.5%), localized pleural calcification in 8 (6.5%), pulmonary calcified nodules in 28 (22.6%), and active pulmonary inflammation in 22 (17.7%). There was no patient with diffuse pleural thickening or calcification in this study. Trivial, mild, and moderate emphysema was found in 31 (25.0%), 21 (16.9%), and 12 (9.7%) patients, respectively. Severe pleural adhesion was found in 31 (25.0%) patients. The association of localized pleural thickening or calcification on CT with severe pleural adhesion was not found (P = 0.405 and 0.107, respectively). Size of pulmonary calcified nodules and extent of emphysema were significant variables in a univariate analysis (P = 0.045 and 0.005, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, moderate emphysema was significantly associated with severe pleural adhesion (odds ratio of 11.202, P = 0.001). In conclusion, severe

  19. Discussion: 'Tumor diameter as a predictor in endometrial cancer surgery' by Yanazume et al.

    PubMed

    Van Le, Linda; Ko, Emily; Gehrig, Paola; DiFurio, Megan; Bae-Jump, Vicki; Rossi, Emma

    2011-06-01

    In the roundtable that follows, clinicians discuss a study published in this issue of the Journal in light of its methodology, relevance to practice, and implications for future research. Article discussed: Yanazume S, Saito T, Eto T, et al. Reassessment of the utility of frozen sections in endometrial cancer surgery using tumor diameter as an additional factor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:531.e1-7. PMID:21752746

  20. Identifying the educational needs and concerns of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer after surgery.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Patrice A; Osowski, Maryjo; Fidale, Mary Sue; Spagnoli, Cathy

    2008-04-01

    Many factors may interfere with the ability of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer to cope with treatment. Nurses should be aware of patients' needs during this critical time. The purpose of this study was to identify the educational needs and concerns of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer after surgery. A phone interview with patients was conducted approximately one week after breast cancer surgery. A convenience sample of 200 patients was recruited from four hospitals within a large midwestern healthcare system. The subjects were interviewed by breast health specialists and navigators involved in their education and support and were asked to participate in a short interview during a surgical follow-up phone call. Study results indicate that fear of recurrence and anxiety regarding postoperative treatments accounted for more than 65% of the responses to the question "What concerns you most about your new diagnosis?" Emotional, social, and physical limitations were identified as most important in dealing with a breast cancer diagnosis. As breast health specialists and navigators, nurses can improve the quality of care for women with breast cancer and their families by providing additional support services and post-treatment information during the initial education and follow-up call. PMID:18390461

  1. A novel spectral imaging system for use during pancreatic cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peller, Joseph; Shipley, A. E.; Trammell, Susan R.; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Farahi, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most pancreatic cancer patients will die within the first year of diagnosis, and just 6% will survive five years. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure for pancreatic cancer patients. Accurately identifying the tumors margins in real time is a significant difficulty during pancreatic cancer surgery and contributes to the low 5-year survival rate. We are developing a hyperspectral imaging system based on compressive sampling for real-time tumor margin detection to facilitate more effective removal of diseased tissue and result in better patient outcomes. Recent research has shown that optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue and will likely become an important minimally invasive diagnostic tool for a range of diseases. Reflectance spectroscopy provides information about tissue morphology, while laser-induced autofluorescence spectra give accurate information about the content and molecular structure of the emitting tissue. We are developing a spectral imaging system that targets emission from collagen and NAD(P)H as diagnostics for differentiating healthy and diseased pancreatic tissue. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of our camera system to acquire hyperspectral images and its potential application for imaging autofluorescent emission from pancreatic tissue.

  2. Wait Time from Suspicion to Surgery for Breast Cancer in Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter-Kellett, Tara; Lambert, Pascal; Musto, Grace; Turner, Donna; Cooke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women. The pathway for its diagnosis and treatment is relatively standardized. Nevertheless, there can be significant delays affecting the journey. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the BC wait times (WT) from suspicion to first surgery in Manitoba and to examine factors associated with WT variability. Methods: The cohort is composed of patients with stages I-III breast cancer who were diagnosed between September 1, 2009, and August 31, 2010, and referred to a cancer center. Patients’ journeys were tracked and divided into three sequential intervals from suspicion to first diagnostic test, from first diagnostic test to diagnosis and from diagnosis to first surgery. Results: Four hundred and four patients were included of whom 134 presented through the screening program. There was no difference between the study cohort and population data from the provincial Cancer Registry concerning the distribution of age, stage of cancer or residence. The median WT from suspicion to surgery was 78 days. In the screen-detected group (SD), a difference in median WT from suspicion to first diagnostic test was found for distance. This finding was first to test location, where those who travel less had longer WT than those who have longer journeys. Patients who went to centers that offer both imaging and biopsy services, even if the required test is imaging only, had to wait longer than those who went to centers that provide imaging only. SD patients needing more than one diagnostic test had a longer WT from the first test to pathological diagnosis if the first test did not include a biopsy. Patients who were seen by surgeons before final pathological diagnosis had a shorter WT from diagnosis to first surgery than those who had the surgical consult after tissue diagnosis was made. A delay to surgery was observed in the whole cohort if a plastic surgeon is required in addition to the surgical oncologist

  3. 45 CFR 46.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the state or any other agency, institution, or entity can be included in research approved under § 46.406 or § 46.407 only if such research is: (1) Related to their status as wards; or (2) Conducted in...

  4. Complex reconstructions in head and neck cancer surgery: decision making

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Defects in head and neck after tumor resection often provide significant functional and cosmetic deformity. The challenge for reconstruction is not only the aesthetic result, but the functional repair. Cancer may involve composite elements and the in sano resection may lead to an extensive tissue defect. No prospective randomized controlled studies for comparison of different free flaps are available. There are many options to cover defects and restore function in the head and neck area, however we conclude from experience that nearly all defects in head and neck can be closed by 5 different free flaps: radial forearm flap, free fibula flap, anterior lateral thigh flap, lateral arm flap and parascapular flap. PMID:21385421

  5. Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Varsos, G.; Yahalom, J. )

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended.

  6. The early days of surgery for cancer of the rectum.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2012-03-01

    Long before being aware of tumours elsewhere along the alimentary canal, surgeons from the earliest days of the profession were all too familiar with cancer of the rectum. The vivid local symptoms of rectal bleeding and mucous discharge, bowel disturbance and then intractable local pain, and the ready detection of the growth by a finger inserted into the fundament made diagnosis all too easy and with it, of course, a hopeless outlook for the poor sufferer. Until quite recent times, treatment was entirely palliative, with the use of hot baths, emollient enemas and dilatations of the constricting growth with bougies. Opium and laudanum, (opium dissolved in alcohol), would be prescribed in advanced cases. Some bold surgeons would use the cautery--an iron heated to red heat--to burn down a fungating growth presenting at the anal margin. PMID:22493878

  7. Lymphatic mapping and lymphedema surgery in the breast cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Oscar; Sosin, Michael; Hashmi, Mahjabeen Aftab; Poysophon, Poysophon; Henderson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb lymphedema can be an unfortunate sequela following the oncologic treatment of breast cancer. The surgical treatment of lymphedema has had a recent renewed clinical interest paralleling innovative descriptions of surgical techniques and imaging modalities. In addition, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of lymphedema has allowed improved translation to the clinical condition. Various surgical options exist to decrease the symptom-burden of upper limb lymphedema, including vascularized lymph node (VLN) transfer, lymphovenous bypass (LVB), liposuction, lymphatic grafting, and excisional procedures. Modern imaging techniques help to improve the consistency and accuracy of these surgical treatment options. A multi-modal treatment plan utilizing non-operative and surgical therapies has the potential to improve various factors related to overall patient quality of life. This review details all of the current operative treatment strategies and modern imaging modalities used in the treatment of lymphedema. PMID:26161309

  8. [The principles of differentiated thyroid cancer surgery and anesthesia in pregnancy: three case reports].

    PubMed

    Bayır, Ömer; Polat, Reyhan; Saylam, Güleser; Öcal, Bülent; Çakal, Erman; Delibaşı, Tuncay; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Development of thyroid nodule during pregnancy is rare, however the cancer rate of this nodule is high. Herein, we present medical outcomes of three pregnant women who were operated with the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the light of literature. As sonographic findings of three cases showed malignant characteristics, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed. Cytological examination result was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Surgery was performed in the second trimester in all cases. One case underwent total thyroidectomy with neck dissection at level III and VI and two cases underwent total thyroidectomy with neck dissection at level VI. Pathological examination result was also reported as PTC. Lymph node metastases in the dissected materials were detected. During the intraoperative and early postoperative period, no complications occurred and no findings of recurrence or residues were observed during one-year follow-up following surgery. In conclusion, as the first trimester has an increased risk of congenital malformations, elective surgery should be performed at the second trimester, if applicable. In pregnants with malignant sonographic features and PTC confirmed by FNAB, surgery can be applied safely by taking precautions during pre-/peri- and postoperative period. These patients should not be given premedication for anesthesia, should be properly positioned and teratogenic agents should be avoided. After surgery, mother and fetus should be monitored closely. PMID:26572180

  9. Learning curve: the surgeon as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Renzulli, Pietro; Laffer, Urban T

    2005-01-01

    The individual surgeon is an independent prognostic factor for outcome in colorectal cancer surgery. The surgeon's learning curve is therefore directly related to the patient's outcome. The exact shape of the learning curve, however, is unknown. The present study reviewed supervision, training/teaching, specialization, surgeon's caseload, and hospital's caseload as the five main surgeon- and hospital-related confounding factors for outcome, and examined their influence on the learning curve as well as their interactions and prognostic significance. All five confounding factors were related to outcome. The highest degree of evidence, however, was found for training/teaching (introduction of total mesorectal excision), specialization in colorectal surgery (special interest, board-certification, specialized colorectal cancer units), and the surgeon's caseload. Five surgeon- and hospital-related factors directly influence the surgeon's learning curve and are therefore rightly considered predictors of outcome in colorectal cancer surgery. Improvements in supervision, training/teaching, specialization, the surgeon's caseload, and the hospital's caseload will therefore translate into enhanced patient outcome. PMID:15865024

  10. Primary Surgery or Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer: The Debate Continues….

    PubMed

    Leary, Alexandra; Cowan, Renee; Chi, Dennis; Kehoe, Sean; Nankivell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Primary debulking surgery (PDS) followed by platinum-based chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for advanced ovarian cancer for decades. Primary debulking surgery has been repeatedly identified as one of the key factors in improving survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer, especially when minimal or no residual disease is left behind. Achieving these results sometimes requires extensive abdominal and pelvic surgical procedures and consultation with other surgical teams. Some clinicians who propose a primary chemotherapy approach reported an increased likelihood of leaving no macroscopic disease after surgery and improved patient-reported outcomes and quality-of-life (QOL) measures. Given the ongoing debate regarding the relative benefit of PDS versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), tumor biology may aid in patient selection for each approach. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy offers the opportunity for in vivo chemosensitivity testing. Studies are needed to determine the best way to evaluate the impact of NACT in each individual patient with advanced ovarian cancer. Indeed, the biggest utility of NACT may be in research, where this approach provides the opportunity for the investigation of predictive markers, mechanisms of resistance, and a forum to test novel therapies. PMID:27249696

  11. Airway management and postoperative length of hospital stay in patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali Sarfraz; Dogar, Samie Asghar; Lal, Shankar; Akhtar, Shabbir; Khan, Fauzia Anis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: General anesthesia and airway management of patients for head and neck cancer surgery is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Appropriate assessment and planning are essential for successful airway management. Our objectives were to review airway management strategies in patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery in our tertiary care institution and also to observe the effect of airway management techniques on postoperative length of hospital stay (PLOS). Material and Methods: A retrospective medical record review of 400 patients who underwent major head and neck cancer surgery in our institution was conducted. A special form was used, and records were searched for airway and anesthetic management in the operating room and recovery room, and for PLOS. Results: 289 (72.25%) of the patients were male, and 111 (27.75%) female. 49.8% of patients had Mallampati score of 3 and 4. Airway was managed with tracheostomy in 81 (20.25%) patients; nasal intubation was performed in 177 (44.25%) and oral intubation in 142 (35.5%) patients. Postoperative emergency tracheostomy was not done in any of the patients. Conclusion: Median postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer (P = 0.0005) in patients who had a tracheostomy performed compared with those where the airway was managed without it. PMID:27006541

  12. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  13. Definition of compartment-based radical surgery in uterine cancer: radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer as ‘total mesometrial resection (TMMR)’ by M Höckel translated to robotic surgery (rTMMR)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radical hysterectomy has been developed as a standard treatment in Stage I and II cervical cancers with and without adjuvant therapy. However, there have been several attempts to standardize the technique of radical hysterectomy required for different tumor extension with variable success. Total mesometrial resection as ontogenetic compartment-based oncologic surgery - developed by open surgery - can be standardized identically for all patients with locally defined tumors. It appears to be promising for patients in terms of radicalness as well as complication rates. Robotic surgery may additionally reduce morbidity compared to open surgery. We describe robotically assisted total mesometrial resection (rTMMR) step by step in cervical cancer and present feasibility data from 26 patients. Methods Patients (n = 26) with the diagnosis of cervical cancer were included. Patients were treated by robotic total mesometrial resection (rTMMR) and pelvic or pelvic/periaortic robotic therapeutic lymphadenectomy (rtLNE) for FIGO stage IA-IIB cervical cancer. Results No transition to open surgery was necessary. No intraoperative complications were noted. The postoperative complication rate was 23%. Within follow-up time (mean: 18 months) we noted one distant but no locoregional recurrence of cervical cancer. There were no deaths from cervical cancer during the observation period. Conclusions We conclude that rTMMR and rtLNE is a feasible and safe technique for the treatment of compartment-defined cervical cancer. PMID:23972128

  14. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hao-Yun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Liang, Tyng-Yeu; Lee, King-The; Hou, Ming-Feng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL) outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery. Methods This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23) at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery. Results All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05). During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of

  15. Quality of life in rectal cancer surgery: What do the patient ask?

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Luglio, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer surgery has dramatically changed with the introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME), which has demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of local recurrence. The combination of TME with radiochemotherapy has led to a reduction of local failure to less than 5%. On the other hand, surgery for rectal cancer is also impaired by the potential for a significant loss in quality of life. This is a new challenge surgeons should think about nowadays: If patients live more, they also want to live better. The fight against cancer cannot only be based on survival, recurrence rate and other oncological endpoints. Patients are also asking for a decent quality of life. Rectal cancer is probably a paradigmatic example: Its treatment is often associated with the loss or severe impairment of faecal function, alteration of body anatomy, urogenital problems and, sometimes, intractable pain. The evolution of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the last decades is an important example, which emphasizes the importance that themes like scar, recovery, pain and quality of life might play for patients. The attention to quality of life from both patients and surgeons led to several surgical innovations in the treatment of rectal cancer: Sphincter saving procedures, reservoir techniques (pouch and coloplasty) to mitigate postoperative faecal disorders, nerve-sparing techniques to reduce the risk for sexual dysfunction. Even more conservative procedures have been proposed alternatively to the abdominal-perineal resection, like the local excisions or transanal endoscopic microsurgery, till the possibility of a wait and see approach in selected cases after radiation therapy. PMID:26730279

  16. Recurrence and Five -Year Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients After Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Seyed Reza; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Asadi, Farshad; Vahedi, Mohsen; Pasha, Sara; Alizadeh, Leila; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancyworldwide and its outcome is most closely related to the extent of disease at presentation. Early diagnosis of an asymptomatic recurrence increases the likelihood of a complete surgical resection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of colorectal cancer recurrence and survival rate within 5 years, after surgery. Patients and Methods: During the 9-year period since 21st Mar, 2004 to 20th Mar, 2013, patients whose primary colorectal cancer were resected in Taleghani hospital, Tehran, Iran were selected in a historical cohort. The necessary data such as demographic, age, gender, family history of CRC, site and size of tumor, stage of tumor, operation details, histological results, treatment method, histopathologic, etc. were collected. Then the recurrence and survival of colorectal cancer within 5 years after operation and their risk factors were evaluated. P value less than 0.05 were considered significant. All analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: A total of 107 patients underwent resection for colorectal cancer during the study period, with mean age of 53.50 ± 12.68 years (range 24 - 76 years), survival rate of 73.8% (rectum 70.0% and colon 75.9%), and mean survival time of 142.17 ± 21.60 month. The recurrence rate of CRC patients, during five years after surgery was 5.7%. Regional lymph nodes, Distance metastasis and Adjuvant therapy were significant prognosis factors of survival after surgery. Conclusions: The rate of recurrence in Iranian patients was low, which could be due to improvement of exactness and expertise of surgeons or better adjuvant therapy. The significant association between survival and adjuvant therapy clarifies this finding. Early diagnosis and primary detection could increase the rate of survival. PMID:26478796

  17. Function and appearance following surgery for intraoral cancer.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, F C

    1976-07-01

    Operations for intraoral carcinoma do produce deformities and loss of function. Historically, surgeons have constantly tried to correct or improve these deficiencies. The tendency on the part of the surgeon is to replace each bit of tissue removed, hoping that if the site appears normal the patient will be normal. The appearance of the patient has as a rule been given more attention than the functional result. Dysfunction is related to the alteration of certain anatomic and physiologic conditions identified as: (1) inability to obliterate the anterior oral cavity, (2) defects in the palate, (3) inability to close off the oropharyngeal space, and (4) disturbance of normal channels to bypass the larynx. Lateral mandibulectomy and radical neck dissection performed for cancer of the retromolar area, lower gum, lateral tongue, or floor of the mouth will in most instances result in very acceptable cosmetic and functional results. These patients look well, speak well, eat and swallow well, and can assume their usual role in society. Further surgical attempts to improve any deficiencies are discouraged. Patients sometimes ask about bone grafting or devices to replace the resected mandible and our recommendations are very emphatic on the negative side. PMID:963952

  18. Postoperative complications and mortality after surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Viste, A; Haùgstvedt, T; Eide, G E; Søreide, O

    1988-01-01

    Complication rates and postoperative mortality were studied in 1010 consecutive patients entered into the Norwegian Stomach Cancer Trial. Twenty-eight per cent of the patients had one or more complications (31% of the men and 21% of the women). General complications (pneumonia, thromboembolic, and cardiac) were most frequent. The postoperative mortality rate for resected patients was 8.3% (63 of 763). Complication and mortality rates were highest for proximal resections (52% and 16%) followed by total gastrectomy (38% and 8%), subtotal resection (28% and 10%), and distal resection (19% and 7%). By logistic regression analysis it was found that age, sex, operative procedure, prophylactic antibiotics, and splenectomy were significantly related to postoperative complications. The odds ratio for complication for men versus women was 1.75: for no antibiotics versus antibiotic prophylaxis it was 2.5. Relative to distal resection the odds ratio for complications after subtotal resection was 2.2, for total gastrectomy was 3.9, and for proximal resection was 7.6. Age and sex were the only factors that affected operative mortality. The odds ratio for mortality for men versus women was 2.3. The odds ratio for operative mortality was 2.2 when the age of the patient increased with 10 years. PMID:3337564

  19. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life-saving care.

  20. Current trends in initial management of oropharyngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery.

    PubMed

    Haigentz, Missak; Silver, Carl E; Corry, June; Genden, Eric M; Takes, Robert P; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2009-12-01

    The widespread availability of novel primary treatment approaches against oropharyngeal cancers has provided several potentially curative surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for patients, generating both hope and controversy. As treatment is usually curative in intent, management considerations must include consideration of primary tumor and nodal disease control as well as long-term toxicities and functional outcomes. Anatomical and functional organ preservation (speech and deglutition) remains of paramount importance to patients with oropharyngeal cancer and the physicians involved in their care, accounting for the growing popularity of chemoradiotherapy and transoral surgical techniques for this indication. These novel approaches have greatly diminished the role of open surgery as initial therapy for oropharyngeal cancers. Open surgery which is often reserved for salvage on relapse, may still be an appropriate therapy for certain early stage primary lesions. The growing treatment armamentarium requires careful consideration for optimal individualized care. The identification of oncogenic human papillomavirus as a predictive and prognostic marker in patients with oropharyngeal cancer has great potential to further optimize the choice of treatment. In this review, novel primary therapies against oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma are presented in the context of anatomical, quality of life, and emerging biological considerations. PMID:19866522

  1. Psychiatric wards: places of safety?

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Nolan, P; Bowers, L; Simpson, A; Whittington, R; Hackney, D; Bhui, K

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the purpose and quality of provision delivered in acute inpatient psychiatric settings have been increasingly questioned. Studies from a service user perspective have reported that while some psychiatric inpatients feel safe and cared for, others feel their time in hospital is neither safe nor therapeutic. This paper explores the experiences of service users on acute inpatient psychiatric wards in England, with a particular focus on their feelings of safety and security. Interviews were conducted with 60 psychiatric inpatients in England. The majority of service users felt safe in hospital and felt supported by staff and other service users. However, anything that threatened their sense of security such as aggression, bullying, theft, racism and the use of alcohol and drugs on the ward, made some respondents feel insecure and unsafe. Psychiatric wards are still perceived by many as volatile environments, where service users feel forced to devise personal security strategies in order to protect themselves and their property. It would appear that there remains much to do before research findings and policies are implemented in ways that facilitate all service users to derive the maximum benefit from their inpatient experience. PMID:20465757

  2. Retraction Note: Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Wu; Li, Peng-Zhou; Zhu, Li-Yong; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-01-01

    In the article entitled, "Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis" which was published in Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 1350-1357, sections in the text have been directly copied from a previously published article, entitled, "The Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Sorena Afshar, Seamus B. Kelly, Keith Seymour, Jose Lara, Sean Woodcock, John C. Mathers  in Obesity Surgery 2014; 24(10):1793-1799. Thus owing to duplicity of text, the article is being retracted. Reference: 1. Xiang-wu Yang, Peng-zhou Li, Li-yong Zhu, Shaihong Zhu Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 1350-1357 DOI: 10.12659/MSM.893553. PMID:27215479

  3. Blood transfusion requirement for gastric cancer surgery: reasonable preparation for transfusion in the comprehensive health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Hoya, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Tomoko; Saitoh, Ryouta; Anan, Tadashi; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Inagaki, Takuya; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the necessity of preparation for blood transfusion in gastric cancer surgery to save costs for blood typing, antibody screening, cross-matching, and disposal of the blood product. The subjects of the study were 52 patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery at our department between 2000 and 2004. The requirement for blood transfusion during surgery was investigated in terms of patient characteristics, hemoglobin before surgery, and performance status as well as treatment regimen. Furthermore, economic effects were investigated when typing and screening (T&S) were performed instead of typing and cross-matching (T&X). Of 9 patients who received blood transfusion, 8 had gastric cancer of stage IIIB or higher, or underwent combined resection. Blood transfusion was not used in surgery for patients with early gastric cancer. The volumes of blood prepared, lost, and disposed of in 28 patients who underwent T&X were 831.3+/-249.4, 219.3+/-228.5 and 600+/-333.1 ml, respectively, whereas the blood loss in 24 patients who underwent T&S was 161.1+/-95.6 ml; this difference had a major economic effect. The practice of T&S for patients undergoing gastric surgery in the absence of combined resection for early gastric cancer seems to be a safe and cost-effective practice that abrogates disposal of blood in hospital management. PMID:18555758

  4. Health-related quality of life after laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer in a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, J; Angenete, E; Gellerstedt, M; Angerås, U; Jess, P; Rosenberg, J; Fürst, A; Bonjer, J; Haglind, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical techniques have reported improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). This analysis compared HRQL 12 months after laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a subset of a randomized trial. Methods The setting was a multicentre randomized trial (COLOR II) comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer. Involvement in the HRQL study of COLOR II was optional. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38, and EuroQol – 5D (EQ-5D™) before surgery, and 4 weeks, 6, 12 and 24 months after operation. Analysis was done according to the manual for each instrument. Results Of 617 patients in hospitals participating in the HRQL study of COLOR II, 385 were included. The HRQL deteriorated to moderate/severe degrees after surgery, gradually returning to preoperative values over time. Changes in EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38, and EQ-5D™ were not significantly different between the groups regarding global health score or any of the dimensions or symptoms at 4 weeks, 6 or 12 months after surgery. Conclusion In contrast to previous studies in patients with colonic cancer, HRQL after rectal cancer surgery was not affected by surgical approach. Registration number: NCT0029779 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:23640671

  5. Lymphadenectomy and health-related quality of life after oesophageal cancer surgery: a nationwide, population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schandl, Anna; Johar, Asif; Lagergren, Jesper; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to clarify whether more extensive surgical lymph node resection during oesophageal cancer surgery influences patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Setting This was a nationwide Swedish population-based study. Participants A total of 616 patients who underwent curatively intended oesophageal cancer surgery in 2001–2005 were followed up at 6 months and 5 years after surgery. Outcome measures HRQOL was assessed with the validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the oesophageal cancer-specific module (EORTC QLQ-OES18). The number of removed lymph nodes in relation to HRQOL was analysed using multivariable linear regression, providing mean score differences in HRQOL scores with 95% CIs. The results were adjusted for age, comorbidity, body mass index, tumour stage, tumour histology, postoperative complications and surgeon volume. Results The study included 382 and 136 patients who completed the EORTC questionnaires at 6 months and 5 years following surgery, respectively. In general, HRQOL remained stable over time, with only improvements in role function and appetite loss. A larger number of removed lymph nodes did not decrease the HRQOL measure at 6 months or 5 years after surgery. Conclusions More extensive lymphadenectomy during oesophageal cancer surgery might not decrease patients' short-term or long-term HRQOL, but larger studies are needed to establish this potential lack of association. PMID:27566643

  6. The validity of hospital administrative data in monitoring variations in breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, L H; Blustein, J; Arons, R R; Yee, R; Shea, S

    1996-01-01

    To assess the validity of using hospital administrative data to measure variations in surgery for early-stage breast cancer, ICD-9-CM coded information was compared with corresponding tumor registry data for 1293 breast cancer patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy at a tertiary referral center from January 1989 to October 1993. Relative to "gold standard" tumor registry data, the administrative data proved 83.4% sensitive and 80.4% specific in identifying women with localized disease who would be potential candidates for lumpectomy. The proportion of women with localized disease undergoing lumpectomy in groups defined by race and insurance status was nearly identical, whichever data were used. Administrative data, which is often readily and publicly available, may be useful in studying variations in breast cancer treatment in key demographic groups. PMID:8633744

  7. [A Case of Lateral Lymph Node Recurrence Five-Years after Curative Surgery for Rectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Kiyotaka; Miyake, Masakazu; Uemura, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Michihiko; Ikeda, Masataka; Maeda, Sakae; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Hama, Naoki; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Omiya, Hideyasu; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Hirao, Motohiro; Takami, Koji; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2015-11-01

    A 62-year-old woman had undergone laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer in February 2008. The pathological diagnosis was pT2, pN0, M0, pStageⅠ. At her request, she took UFT for 5 years as adjuvant chemotherapy. A CT examination revealed lateral lymph node swelling in January 2014. She was referred to our hospital after a diagnosis of lateral lymph node recurrence. She was administered 6 courses of FOLFIRI plus Cmab as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, after which the tumor size reduced by 62%. The treatment effect was rated as a PR. Laparoscopic right intrapelvic lymph node dissection was performed in July 2014, and the pathological diagnosis was recurrence of rectal cancer in the lateral lymph nodes. We report a case of dissection of lymph node recurrence 5 years after curative surgery for rectal cancer, along with a literature review. PMID:26805111

  8. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood loss during head and neck cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Atul P; Chaukar, Devendra A; Patil, Vijaya P; Metgudmath, Rajendra B; Hawaldar, Rohini W; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transfusion of blood and blood products poses several hazards. Antifibrinolytic agents are used to reduce perioperative blood loss. We decided to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TA) on blood loss and the need for transfusion in head and neck cancer surgery. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 240 patients undergoing supramajor head and neck cancer surgeries were prospectively randomised to either TA (10 mg/kg) group or placebo (P) group. After induction, the drug was infused by the anaesthesiologist, who was blinded to allocation, over 20 min. The dose was repeated every 3 h. Perioperative (up to 24 h) blood loss, need for transfusion and fluid therapy was recorded. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed at fixed intervals in the first 100 patients. Patients were watched for post-operative complications. Results: Two hundred and nineteen records were evaluable. We found no difference in intraoperative blood loss (TA - 750 [600–1000] ml vs. P - 780 [150–2600] ml, P = 0.22). Post-operative blood loss was significantly more in the placebo group at 24 h (P - 200 [120–250] ml vs. TA - 250 [50–1050] ml, P = 0.009), but this did not result in higher number of patients needing transfusions (TA - 22/108 and P - 27/111 patients, P = 0.51). TEG revealed faster clot formation and minimal fibrinolysis. Two patients died of causes unrelated to study drug. Incidence of wound complications and deep venous thrombosis was similar. Conclusion: In head and neck cancer surgery, TA did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or need for transfusions. Perioperative TEG variables were similar. This may be attributed to pre-existing hypercoagulable state and minimal fibrinolysis in cancer patients. PMID:26962250

  9. Robotic Compartment-Based Radical Surgery in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toptas, Tayfun; Uysal, Aysel; Ureyen, Isin; Erol, Onur; Simsek, Tayup

    2016-01-01

    A radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the recommended treatment option in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Although various classifications were developed in order to define the resection margins of this operation, no clear standardization could be achieved both in the nomenclature and in the extent of the surgery. Total mesometrial resection (TMMR) is a novel procedure which aims to remove all components of the compartment formed by Müllerian duct in which female reproductive organs develop. TMMR differs from the conventional radical hysterectomy techniques in that its surgical philosophy, terminology, and partly resection borders are different. In this paper, a TMMR with therapeutic pelvic lymphadenectomy operation that we performed for the first time with robot-assisted laparoscopic (robotic) approach in an early-stage cervical cancer patient was presented. This procedure has already been described in open surgery by Michael Höckel and translated to the robotic surgery by Rainer Kimmig. Our report is the second paper, to our knowledge, to present the initial experience regarding robotic TMMR in the English literature. PMID:27195167

  10. Surgery for gallbladder cancer in the US: a need for greater lymph node clearance

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Often identified incidentally after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for presumably benign biliary disease, reoperation with partial hepatic resection and periportal lymph node dissection (LND) is frequently performed. The impact of lymph node (LN) clearance for GBC remains unclear. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried for patients diagnosed with GBC between 1988 and 2009. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of survival. Results A total of 11,815 patients diagnosed with GBC were identified. Cancer-directed surgery was performed in 8,436 (71.3%) patients. Optimal LN clearance (defined as ≥4 LNs) is associated with young age, advanced T-stage, no radiation therapy, and radical surgery (all <0.001). Greater LND improves survival for all stages (P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariable analysis of patients with node-negative disease demonstrated that early stage, greater LND, and radical surgery were strong independent predictors of survival. Conclusions Extensive lymphadenectomy correlates with longer survival even in node negative patients. Extensive LND should be performed in patients with GBC as many patients in the USA are undertreated. PMID:26487937

  11. Effects of state-level medicaid policies and patient characteristics on time to breast cancer surgery among medicaid beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Michael T; Schrag, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Medicaid beneficiaries with cancer are less likely to receive timely and high-quality care. This study examined whether differences in state-level Medicaid policies affect delays in time to surgery (TTS) among women diagnosed with breast cancer. Using 2006-2008 Medicaid data, we identified women aged 18-64 enrolled in Medicaid diagnosed with breast cancer. Analyses examined associations of state-specific Medicaid surgery reimbursements, Medicaid eligibility recertification period (annually vs. shorter) and required patient copayment on time from breast cancer diagnosis to receipt of breast surgery. Patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. Separate multivariable regression analyses controlling for patient demographic characteristics and clustering by state were performed for breast conserving surgery (BCS), inpatient mastectomy, and outpatient mastectomy. The study included 7542 Medicaid beneficiaries with breast cancer: 3272 received BCS, 2156 outpatient mastectomy, and 2115 inpatient mastectomy. Higher Medicaid reimbursements for BCS were associated with decreased time from diagnosis to surgery. A 12-month (vs. <12 month) Medicaid eligibility recertification period was associated with decreased TTS for BCS and outpatient mastectomy. Black Medicaid beneficiaries (compared with non-Hispanic White beneficiaries) were more likely to experience delays for all three types of surgery, while Hispanic beneficiaries were more likely to experience delays only for outpatient mastectomy. State-level Medicaid policies and patient characteristics can affect receipt of timely surgery among Medicaid beneficiaries with breast cancer. As delays in surgery can increase morbidity and mortality, changes to state Medicaid policies and health system programs are needed to improve access to care for this vulnerable population. PMID:27422241

  12. Comparison of Robotic Surgery with Laparoscopy and Laparotomy for Treatment of Endometrial Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Longke; Jin, Jing; Xu, Yan; Bu, Youquan; Song, Fangzhou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the relative merits among robotic surgery, laparoscopy, and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods The MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Studies clearly documenting a comparison between robotic surgery and laparoscopy or between robotic surgery and laparotomy for endometrial cancer were selected. The outcome measures included operating time (OT), number of complications, length of hospital stay (LOHS), estimated blood loss (EBL), number of transfusions, total lymph nodes harvested (TLNH), and number of conversions. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results Twenty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved a total of 4420 patients, 3403 of whom underwent both robotic surgery and laparoscopy and 1017 of whom underwent both robotic surgery and laparotomy. The EBL (p = 0.01) and number of conversions (p = 0.0008) were significantly lower and the number of complications (p<0.0001) was significantly higher in robotic surgery than in laparoscopy. The OT, LOHS, number of transfusions, and TLNH showed no significant differences between robotic surgery and laparoscopy. The number of complications (p<0.00001), LOHS (p<0.00001), EBL (p<0.00001), and number of transfusions (p = 0.03) were significantly lower and the OT (p<0.00001) was significantly longer in robotic surgery than in laparotomy. The TLNH showed no significant difference between robotic surgery and laparotomy. Conclusions Robotic surgery is generally safer and more reliable than laparoscopy and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer. Robotic surgery is associated with significantly lower EBL than both laparoscopy and laparotomy; fewer conversions but more complications than laparoscopy; and shorter LOHS, fewer complications, and fewer

  13. Current Reconstructive Techniques Following Head and Neck Cancer Resection Using Microvascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Sarukawa, Shunji; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Takeoda, Shoji; Kusaka, Gen; Ichimura, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques have been developed to reconstruct head and neck defects following surgery to restore function and cosmetics. Free tissue transfer using microvascular anastomosis has transformed surgical outcomes and the quality of life for head and neck cancer patients because this technique has made it possible for surgeons to perform more aggressive ablative surgery, but there is room for improvement to achieve a satisfactory survival rate. Reconstruction using the free tissue transfer technique is closely related to cardiovascular surgery because the anastomosis techniques used by head and neck surgeons are based on those of cardiovascular surgeons; thus, suggestions from cardiovascular surgeons might lead to further development of this field. The aim of this article is to present the recent general concepts of reconstruction procedures and our experiences of reconstructive surgeries of the oral cavity, mandible, maxilla, oropharynx and hypopharynx to help cardiovascular surgeons understand the reconstructions and share knowledge among themselves and with neck surgeons to develop future directions in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:23555452

  14. Voice Outcome in Patients Treated With Endoscopic Laryngopharyngeal Surgery for Superficial Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Morita, Shuko; Ishikawa, Seiji; Muto, Manabu; Hirano, Shigeru; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Ito, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endoscopic laryngopharyngeal surgery (ELPS) is a minimally invasive transoral surgery that was developed to treat superficial larygo-pharyngeal cancer, in which a mucosal lesion is resected transorally while preserving deeper structures by subepithelial injection. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate voice outcome in patients who underwent ELPS for superficial hypopharyngeal cancer. As important structures in producing voice, such as intrinsic laryngeal muscles, their fascia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve, are located in the medial side of the piriform sinus and the postcricoid region of the hypopharynx, we focused on patients with cancer lesions involving these regions. Methods From April 2010 to March 2011, 25 consecutive patients with superficial laryngopharyngeal cancer were treated with ELPS at Kyoto University Hospital. Among the 25 patients, 11 patients with cancer lesions on the medial side of the piriform sinus or the postcricoid area were studied. Preoperative and postoperative voice functions including maximum phonation time (MPT), mean flow rate (MFR), jitter, shimmer, soft phonation index (SPI), and noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), were compared retrospectively. Results Five of 11 cancer lesions had submucosal invasion and no lesion had invaded the muscular layer pathologically. T stage was classified as Tis in 5 cases, T1 in 4 cases, and T2 in 2 cases. All lesions involved the medial side of the piriform sinus and 2 also involved the postcricoid area. Vocal fold movement was normal in all cases after the surgery. Average preoperative and postoperative values for MPT, MFR, jitter, shimmer, SPI, and NHR, were 22.7 seconds and 23.4 seconds, 165 mL/sec and 150 mL/sec, 1.53% and 1.77%, 3.82% and 5.17%, 35.5 and 36.6, and 0.13% and 0.14%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between preoperative and postoperative data for all values examined. Conclusion ELPS is useful in preserving voice function in the treatment of

  15. [A case of esophageal cancer with sigmoid colon tumor treated by laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Arita, Tomohiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Kokuba, Yukihito; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kazuma; Ishii, Hiromichi; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Sakakura, Chohei; Sonoyama, Teruhisa; Otsuji, Eigo

    2010-11-01

    We performed a subtotal esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction by hand assisted laparoscopic surgery and laparoscopic sigmoidectomy simultaneously for the patient with middle thoracic esophageal cancer and lateral spreading tumor in the sigmoid colon. Upper abdominal and transumbilical incisions were made and Lap Discs (regular, mini) were set respectively. Two 12 mm ports were inserted in the right flank and lower quadrant, and two 5 mm ports were inserted in the left flank and lower quadrant. First, by using video-scope from upper Lap Disc, laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was performed. Anastomosis was performed via lower Lap Disc. For the gastric tube reconstruction, upper Lap Disc was used for hand assistance, and video-scope was inserted from lower Lap Disc. The patient was discharged at 26 days after surgery without complications. In conclusion, our surgical procedure provided a good surgical view and decreased a surgical stress. PMID:21224582

  16. [Modified posterior exenteration (radical oophorectomy type II) as a part of an extensive surgery of ovarian cancer--case report].

    PubMed

    Knapp, Paweł; Łukaszewicz, Jerzy; Knapp, Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains to be the most deadly gynecologic cancer among the female population. Carcinogenesis and abdomen extension are the reasons why ovarian cancer is still examined in advances stages. Ovarian cancer frequent metastasizes to the uterus, rectosigmoid colon, and other pelvic structures by intraperitoneal seeding of tumor deposits, as well as direct extension. Multiple modalities of therapy are utilized in the management of the disease. Numerous medical trials and research programs have demonstrated the most important role of surgery in the treatment of this disease. A vast majority of authors are of the opinion that the surgical interventions have a major influence on the overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in ovarian cancer cases. The paper presents a case of a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer who underwent modified posterior exenteration as a part of extensive cytoreductive surgery PMID:24032266

  17. Present state of the Mini-Invasive Surgery (MIS) in esophageal and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Azagra, J S; Goergen, M; Lens, V; Ibáñez-Aguirre, J F; Schiltz, M; Siciliano, I

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to stress the role of the Mini-Invasive Surgery (MIS) in the treatment of the esophagogastric malignant illnesses, supporting ourselves on the most relevant publications of the literature as well as on our own experience in this subject. In short, although no randomised prospective study has proven the MIS advantages in relation to the traditional surgery in the esophagectomy due to cancer, some authors preferently indicate this approach to selected and informed enough patients, who present the following: - High grade dysplasia, preferently choosing from laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (LTE). - Carcinoma in situ, preferently choosing the LTE vs thoracoscopy. - Esophageal tumour locally advanced, in resectable patients with contraindication for a thoracotomy or, in initially non-resectable patients with tumoral reduction after neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. The arguments given by the authors are the postoperative spectacular improvement in relation to the comfort and quality of life and, the absence of oncological negative effects in the long-term followup. Concerning gastric cancer, the MIS, as exeresis surgical tool in the so-called gastric forms, is such a definite and oncological approach as the traditional approach, and superior to this as far as quality of life is concerned. When the MIS is used for treating locally advanced forms of gastric cancer, it is as safe as the laparotomic way and it seems to obtain the same oncological outcomes in the long-term. PMID:16648116

  18. [Immunogenetic prognosis and long-term results of surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Korotkova, I Iu; Egorov, D N; Solov'eva, I G; Cherenkova, M M; Vardosanidze, K V; Abramov, V V; Konenkov, V I

    2005-01-01

    A link between HLA allelic variants and long-term results of surgery for gastric tumors was established on the basis of a 10-years follow-up of 112 cancer patients (stage I-II--37.9, III-IV--62.1%; radical surgery--44.6%). HLA class I was studied in a lymphocytotoxic test; HLA class II--gene DRBI specificity using polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood cell DNA. The control group included healthy subjects living in the city of Novosibirsk (n = 341). High frequency of antigens HLA-B41, -DR1, -DR7 (p < 0.01) co-occurred with HLA-A2, -B12, -B13 and -B18 presence (p < 0.05) in breast cancer patients. Clinical manifestations of cancer were shown to develop in HLA-A1, -B8, -B15, -DR3 and -DR5 carriers at early stages. Tumor development at later stages (III-IV) was associated with HLA-A2, -B12, -B17, -B35, -B41 and -DR7. A link was registered between lethality rate, on the one hand, and HLA-A3, -B22, and, in particular, DR4, on the other, while remission of more than 7-years--with HLA-A11, -B13, -B21 and -DR5. HLA-B22/DR3 phenotype involved worse prognosis in radically-treated patients whereas that of HLA-B8/DR3--a better one. PMID:17037033

  19. Incidence and types of complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary microvascular free flap reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lodders, Johannes N.; Parmar, Satyesh; Stienen, Niki LM.; Martin, Timothy J.; Karagozoglu, K. Hakki; Heymans, Martijn W.; Nandra, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the incidence and types of postoperative complications after ablative oral cancer surgery with primary free flap reconstruction and 2) identify prognostic variables for postoperative complications. Material and Methods Desired data was retrieved from a computer database at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Queen Elisabeth hospital Birmingham, United Kingdom, between June 2007 and October 2012. Logistic regression was used to study relationships between preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes. Results The study population consisted 184 patients, comprising 189 composite resections with reconstruction. Complications developed in 40.2% of the patients. Three patients (1.6%) died, 11.1% returned to the operating room, 5.3% developed donor site complications and 6.9% flap complications of which 3.2% total flap failure. In the multivariable analysis systemic complications were associated with anaesthesia time and hospital stay with red cell transfusion. Conclusions A significant proportion of the patients with primary free flap reconstructions after oral cancer surgery develops postoperative complications. Prolonged anaesthesia time and red cell transfusion are possible predictors for systemic complications and hospital stay respectively. Preoperative screening for risk factors is advocated for patient selection and to have realistic information and expectations. Key words:Free flap, complications, oral cancer, risk factors, reconstruction. PMID:26116846

  20. Preoperative Biliary Drainage in Cases of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Shimizu, Akinori; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Kawamura, Ryota; Tsushima, Ken; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To elucidate the optimum preoperative biliary drainage method for patients with pancreatic cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Material and Methods. From January 2010 through December 2014, 20 patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer underwent preoperative biliary drainage and NAC with a plastic or metallic stent and received NAC at Hiroshima University Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed delayed NAC and complication rates due to biliary drainage, effect of stent type on perioperative factors, and hospitalization costs from diagnosis to surgery. Results. There were 11 cases of preoperative biliary drainage with plastic stents and nine metallic stents. The median age was 64.5 years; delayed NAC occurred in 9 cases with plastic stent and 1 case with metallic stent (p = 0.01). The complication rates due to biliary drainage were 0% (0/9) with metallic stents and 72.7% (8/11) with plastic stents (p = 0.01). Cumulative rates of complications determined with the Kaplan-Meier method on day 90 were 60% with plastic stents and 0% with metallic stents (log-rank test, p = 0.012). There were no significant differences between group in perioperative factors or hospitalization costs from diagnosis to surgery. Conclusions. Metallic stent implantation may be effective for preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer treated with NAC. PMID:26880897

  1. Breast Cancer Preoperative Staging: Does Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Mammography Modify Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Perono Biacchiardi, Chiara; Brizzi, Davide; Genta, Franco; Zanon, Eugenio; Camanni, Marco; Deltetto, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer may have lesions undetected by conventional imaging. Recently contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (CE-MRM) showed higher sensitivity in breast lesions detection. The present analysis was aimed at evaluating the benefit of preoperative CE-MRM in the surgical planning. From 2005 to 2009, 525 consecutive women (25–75 years) with breast cancer, newly diagnosed by mammography, ultrasound, and needle-biopsy, underwent CE-MRM. The median invasive tumour size was 19 mm. In 144 patients, CE-MRM identified additional lesions. After secondlook, 119 patients underwent additional biopsy. CE-MRM altered surgery in 118 patients: 57 received double lumpectomy or wider excision (41 beneficial), 41 required mastectomy (40 beneficial), and 20 underwent contra lateral surgery (18 beneficial). The overall false-positive rate was 27.1% (39/144). CE-MRM contributed significantly to the management of breast cancer, suggesting more extensive disease in 144/525 (27.4%) patients and changing the surgical plan in 118/525 (22.5%) patients (99/525, 18.8% beneficial). PMID:22295233

  2. Burden of Emergency and Non-emergency Colorectal Cancer Surgeries in West Virginia and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Halverson, Joel; Madhavan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Elective surgical resection is the curative treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). Up to 30 % of patients present as surgical emergencies. The objective was to determine the association between presenting with an emergency condition and consequent outcomes of CRC surgery in the Appalachian state of West Virginia (WV) in comparison to the rest of the USA. Methods Patients diagnosed with CRC who underwent a surgical procedure from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 were selected, and those with a diagnosis requiring emergency surgery were identified. Primary outcome measures were length of stay (LOS), total hospital charges, and inpatient death. Results Mean LOS was higher for WV. Mean charges were higher for the USA than for WV. Inpatient deaths in WV were greater than the rest of the USA. Those undergoing emergency surgery spent 51.9 % (β=0.40) more days in the hospital than those who did not. For WV, LOS was 7.6 % (β=0.07) higher than that of the US. Hospital charges for those that underwent emergency resection were 68.3 % (β= 0.52) higher than those who did not. The odds of in-hospital death were 1.68 (95 % CI=1.42–1.98) times greater in WV than in the USA. Those that underwent emergency surgery had a nearly four times (OR 3.88; 95 % CI=3.74–4.03) greater chance of in-hospital death. Conclusions The study stresses the ongoing burden of emergency surgeries in many states around the nation and the need to increase awareness about CRC screening practices, especially in patients who are at increased risk of the disease. PMID:23143866

  3. Total mesorectal excision for mid and low rectal cancer: Laparoscopic vs robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Feroci, Francesco; Vannucchi, Andrea; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Cantafio, Stefano; Garzi, Alessia; Formisano, Giampaolo; Scatizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic and robotic surgery for middle and low rectal cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database containing 111 patients who underwent minimally invasive rectal resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) with curative intent between January 2008 and December 2014 (robot, n = 53; laparoscopy, n = 58). The patients all had a diagnosis of middle and low rectal adenocarcinoma with stage I-III disease. The median follow-up period was 37.4 mo. Perioperative results, morbidity a pathological data were evaluated and compared. The 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Patients were comparable in terms of preoperative and demographic parameters. The median surgery time was 192 min for laparoscopic TME (L-TME) and 342 min for robotic TME (R-TME) (P < 0.001). There were no differences found in the rates of conversion to open surgery and morbidity. The patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery stayed in the hospital two days longer than the robotic group patients (8 d for L-TME and 6 d for R-TME, P < 0.001). The pathologic evaluation showed a higher number of harvested lymph nodes in the robotic group (18 for R-TME, 11 for L-TME, P < 0.001) and a shorter distal resection margin for laparoscopic patients (1.5 cm for L-TME, 2.5 cm for R-TME, P < 0.001). The three-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Both L-TME and R-TME achieved acceptable clinical and oncologic outcomes. The robotic technique showed some advantages in rectal surgery that should be validated by further studies. PMID:27053852

  4. Single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer: State of art

    PubMed Central

    Cianchi, Fabio; Staderini, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer resection provides the same oncologic results as open surgery along with all clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery. During the last years, a great effort has been made to research for minimizing parietal trauma, yet for cosmetic reasons and in order to further reduce surgery-related pain and morbidity. New techniques, such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) have been developed in order to reach the goal of “scarless” surgery. Although NOTES may seem not fully suitable or safe for advanced procedures, such as colectomies, SIL is currently regarded as the next major advance in the progress of minimally invasive surgical approaches to colorectal disease that is more feasible in generalized use. The small incision through the umbilicus allows surgeons to use familiar standard laparoscopic instruments and thus, perform even complex procedures which require extraction of large surgical specimens or intestinal anastomosis. The cosmetic result from SIL is also better because the only incision is made through the umbilicus which can hide the wound effectively after operation. However, SIL raises a number of specific new challenges compared with the laparoscopic conventional approach. A reduced capacity for triangulation, the repeated conflicts between the shafts of the instruments and the difficulties to achieve a correct exposure of the operative field are the most claimed issues. The use therefore of this new approach for complex colorectal procedures might understandingly be viewed as difficult to implement, especially for oncologic cases. PMID:24876729

  5. Analysis of laser surgery in non-melanoma skin cancer for optimal tissue removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Laser surgery is a commonly used technique for tissue ablation or the resection of malignant tumors. It presents advantages over conventional non-optical ablation techniques, like a scalpel or electrosurgery, such as the increased precision of the resected volume, minimization of scars and shorter recovery periods. Laser surgery is employed in medical branches such as ophthalmology or dermatology. The application of laser surgery requires the optimal adjustment of laser beam parameters, taking into account the particular patient and lesion. In this work we present a predictive tool for tissue resection in biological tissue after laser surgery, which allows an a priori knowledge of the tissue ablation volume, area and depth. The model employs a Monte Carlo 3D approach for optical propagation and a rate equation for plasma-induced ablation. The tool takes into account characteristics of the specific lesion to be ablated, mainly the geometric, optical and ablation properties. It also considers the parameters of the laser beam, such as the radius, spatial profile, pulse width, total delivered energy or wavelength. The predictive tool is applied to dermatology tumor resection, particularly to different types of non-melanoma skin cancer tumors: basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative carcinoma. The ablation volume, area and depth are calculated for healthy skin and for each type of tumor as a function of the laser beam parameters. The tool could be used for laser surgery planning before the clinical application. The laser parameters could be adjusted for optimal resection volume, by personalizing the process to the particular patient and lesion.

  6. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast

  7. Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Heui; Lim, Sungwon; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Robotic surgery (RS) overcomes the limitations of previous conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS). Although meta-analyses have been published recently, our study evaluated the latest comparative surgical, urologic, and sexual results for rectal cancer and compares RS with CLS in patients with rectal cancer only. Methods We searched three foreign databases (Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, and Cochrane Library) and five Korean databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, RISS, and KisTi) during July 2013. The Cochrane Risk of Bias and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized were utilized to evaluate quality of study. Dichotomous variables were pooled using the risk ratio (RR), and continuous variables were pooled using the mean difference (MD). All meta-analyses were conducted with Review Manager, V. 5.3. Results Seventeen studies involving 2,224 patients were included. RS was associated with a lower rate of intraoperative conversion than that of CLS (RR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.54). Time to first flatus was short (MD, -0.13; 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.01). Operating time was longer for RS than that for CLS (MD, 49.97; 95% CI, 20.43-79.52, I2 = 97%). International Prostate Symptom Score scores at 3 months better RS than CLS (MD, -2.90; 95% CI, -5.31 to -0.48, I2 = 0%). International Index of Erectile Function scores showed better improvement at 3 months (MD, -2.82; 95% CI, -4.78 to -0.87, I2 = 37%) and 6 months (MD, -2.15; 95% CI, -4.08 to -0.22, I2 = 0%). Conclusion RS appears to be an effective alternative to CLS with a lower conversion rate to open surgery, a shorter time to first flatus and better recovery in voiding and sexual function. RS could enhance postoperative recovery in patients with rectal cancer. PMID:26448918

  8. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole MA; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing “blind” surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant

  9. 4GL ward management system.

    PubMed Central

    Brandejs, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    After many years of extensive research of computerized information systems for nursing, inpatient care, clinics and HMOs, laboratories, diagnostic imaging, pharmacy and other services, an integrated Ward Patient Management system was developed. A mature, relational data base management system (RDBMS) ORACLE was selected as the design tool. The system is running under VMS, DOS and UNIX operating systems and ORACLE version 6 on nearly all computer platforms, although multiprocessors are preferred. A host of potentials and pitfalls is associated with the implementation of this new approach to Patient Management. PMID:1807662

  10. Minimally invasive surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: Our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Koichi; Nakauchi, Masaya; Inaba, Kazuki; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, characterized by minimal access, has been increasingly performed worldwide. It not only results in better cosmetic outcomes, but also reduces intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, leading to faster recovery; however, endoscopically enhanced anatomy and improved hemostasis via positive intracorporeal pressure generated by CO2 insufflation have not contributed to reduction in early postoperative complications or improvement in long-term outcomes. Since 1995, we have been actively using MIS for operable patients with resectable upper GI cancer and have developed stable and robust methodology in conducting totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer and prone thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer using novel technology including da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). We have recently demonstrated that use of DVSS might reduce postoperative local complications including pancreatic fistula after gastrectomy and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after esophagectomy. In this article, we present the current status and future perspectives on MIS for gastric and esophageal cancer based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:27217695

  11. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    PubMed

    Stanek-Widera, A; Biskup-Frużyńska, M; Zembala-Nożyńska, E; Śnietura, M; Lange, D

    2016-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE). We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO) there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100%) cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100%) provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100%) specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment) indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary. PMID:27179270

  12. Patient factors predisposing to complications following laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patient factors contributing to complications after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancers. A total of 333 colorectal cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection between January 2007 and December 2012 were enrolled. The association between patient factors and the incidence of complications were analyzed. Postoperative complications were divided into 2 categories: infectious complications and noninfectious complications. The overall complication rate was 13% and mortality rate 0%. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index >25 kg/m [odds ratio (OR)=3.02, P=0.0254] and tumor location (right colon cancer/rectal cancer: OR=0.11, P=0.0083) were risk factors for infectious complications; in addition, male sex (OR=3.91, P=0.0102) and cancer stage (stage 2/stage 4: OR=0.17, P=0.0247) were risk factors for noninfectious complications. This study shows that different patient factors are associated with the risk of different types of complications. PMID:25383941

  13. Breast Cancer Surgery Decision-Making and African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Schubart, Jane R; Farnan, Michelle A; Kass, Rena B

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has used focus group methodology to investigate cultural factors impacting the breast cancer experience of women of various ethnicities including African-Americans; however, this work has not specifically addressed treatment decision-making. This study identifies key issues faced by African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding treatment decisions. We used an interpretive-descriptive study design based on qualitative data from three focus groups (n = 14) representing a population of African-American women in central Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to think back to when they were diagnosed with breast cancer and their visit with the breast surgeon. Questions were asked about the actual visit, treatment choices offered, sources of information, and whether the women felt prepared for the surgery and subsequent treatments. The prompts triggered memories and encouraged open discussion. The most important themes identified were fear across the breast cancer disease trajectory, a preference for visual information for understanding the diagnosis and surgical treatment, and support systems relying on family and friends, rather than the formal health-care system. Our results have implications for practice strategies and development of educational interventions that will help breast cancer patients better understand their diagnosis and treatment options, encourage their participation in treatment decision-making, and provide psychosocial support for those at high risk for emotional distress. PMID:25200948

  14. Minimally invasive surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: Our experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi; Nakauchi, Masaya; Inaba, Kazuki; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-05-21

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, characterized by minimal access, has been increasingly performed worldwide. It not only results in better cosmetic outcomes, but also reduces intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, leading to faster recovery; however, endoscopically enhanced anatomy and improved hemostasis via positive intracorporeal pressure generated by CO2 insufflation have not contributed to reduction in early postoperative complications or improvement in long-term outcomes. Since 1995, we have been actively using MIS for operable patients with resectable upper GI cancer and have developed stable and robust methodology in conducting totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer and prone thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer using novel technology including da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). We have recently demonstrated that use of DVSS might reduce postoperative local complications including pancreatic fistula after gastrectomy and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after esophagectomy. In this article, we present the current status and future perspectives on MIS for gastric and esophageal cancer based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:27217695

  15. Supportive nursing care around breast cancer surgery: an evaluation of the 1997 status in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Thijs-Boer, F M; de Kruif, A T; van de Wiel, H B

    1999-04-01

    This study aimed to assess nurses' involvement in the supportive care of patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer in Dutch hospitals. A questionnaire used to evaluate various aspects of nursing care for breast cancer patients was sent to the surgical nursing teams in all 120 Dutch hospitals that provide surgical treatment for these patients. Nursing care was defined to be optimal if it met the following criteria: (a) Specialized nursing support is provided to all patients during admission and in the outpatient departments both before and after surgery. (b) A protocol is in place outlining standard nursing procedures for breast cancer patients. (c) Formal communication about each breast cancer patient exists between the nurses involved. On the basis of this definition, it was found that optimal nursing care was provided in only 6% of the hospitals. Nursing care fell short mainly in the outpatient setting. This shortcoming also was recognized by most respondents, and many were already planning improvements. Nurses had varying opinions about their responsibility to provide the patient with information about the disease and its treatment, and consensus was lacking. In summary, nursing care for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Dutch hospitals needs improvement, especially in the outpatient setting. PMID:10217034

  16. Prevention of nausea and vomiting: methods and utility after surgery in cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Most cancer patients experience nausea and vomiting after surgery. Today, many methods of treatment have been developed and used for the control of such symptoms. The most important are drug therapy, relaxation, oxygen therapy and gas therapy. In addition, dexamethasone, massage therapy and using a Venturi mask have also proven effective. Due to the nature of gas consumption which leads to nausea it is recommended that use of N2O in the operating room be avoided or applied in combination with oxygen or other gases with fewer complications. PMID:25854338

  17. Microscopic sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed by histopathological examination after lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent surgery for lung cancer. Although preoperative computed tomography did not reveal a tiny nodule, pathological examination of the background lung showed that type II pneumocyte-like tumor cells grew papillary in an area of approximately 2.3 × 1.2 mm. This lesion exhibited hemorrhage, hemosiderosis, calcification, and varying degrees of fibrosis, leading to the diagnosis of sclerosing hemangioma. This is the first reported case of microscopic sclerosing hemangioma undetectable by chest computed tomography. PMID:21881377

  18. Is surgery still the optimal treatment for stage I non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Moghanaki, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is debate about what is the optimal treatment for operable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although surgery has been the standard of care for centuries, recent retrospective and prospective randomized studies indicated that stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) could be an option for this group of patients with similar survival and less toxicities. However, to change the standard of care, more studies are needed and participating ongoing larger randomized studies is the best approach to resolve this controversy. PMID:27183993

  19. Coping Strategies of Southern Italian Women Predict Distress Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    De Feudis, Rossana; Lanciano, Tiziana; Rinaldi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the role of coping strategies in predicting emotional distress following breast cancer, over and above the illness severity, operationalized in terms of the type of surgery performed. In order to achieve this goal, two groups of newly diagnosed breast cancer women were selected and compared on the basis of the type of surgical treatment received. A subsample of 30 women with quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy (SLNB) and a subsample of 31 patients with mastectomy and axillary dissection (MAD) filled in the Brief Cope scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Summarizing, results showed that emotional support, venting, and humor explained a statistically significant increment of variance in psychological distress indices. Implication for clinical practice and future research were discussed. PMID:27247657

  20. Image guided surgery in the management of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hassan; Pan, Quintin

    2016-06-01

    Complete resection of head and neck tumors relies on palpation and visual inspection. Achieving a negative margin in remote locations in the head and neck region, especially in close proximity to critical structures, is often difficult to achieve. Positive resection margins in head and neck cancer are at high risk to develop recurrent disease and associated with poor prognosis. Near-infrared fluorescence-guided optical imaging is an emerging technology with the potential to move the surgical field forward and facilitate surgeons to visualize tumors in real-time intra-operatively. In this review, our focus is to discuss the recent advances and the potential application of near infrared (NIR) fluorescent-guided surgery in the management of head and neck cancer. PMID:27208842

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Navigation Surgery for Early Gastric Cancer: Is It a Safe Procedure in Countries with Non-Endemic Gastric Cancer Levels? A Preliminary Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Elizabeth Gomes; Victer, Felipe Carvalho; Neves, Marcelo Soares; Pinto, Márcia Ferreira; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo De Souza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early diagnosis of gastric cancer is still the exception in Western countries. In the East, as in Japan and Korea, this disease is an endemic disorder. More conservative surgical procedures are frequently performed in early gastric cancer cases in these countries where sentinel lymph node navigation surgery is becoming a safe option for some patients. This study aims to evaluate preliminary outcomes of patients with early gastric cancer who underwent sentinel node navigation surgeries in Brazil, a country with non-endemic gastric cancer levels. Materials and Methods From September 2008 to March 2014, 14 out of 205 gastric cancer patients underwent sentinel lymph node navigation surgeries, which were performed using intraoperative, endoscopic, and peritumoral injection of patent blue dye. Results Antrectomies with Billroth I gastroduodenostomies were performed in seven patients with distal tumors. The other seven patients underwent wedge resections. Sentinel basin resections were performed in four patients, and lymphadenectomies were extended to stations 7, 8, and 9 in the other 10. Two patients received false-negative results from sentinel node biopsies, and one of those patients had micrometastasis. There was one postoperative death from liver failure in a cirrhotic patient. Another cirrhotic patient died after two years without recurrence of gastric cancer, also from liver failure. All other patients were followed-up for 13 to 79 months with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery appears to be a safe procedure in a country with non-endemic levels of gastric cancer. PMID:27104022

  2. MTHFR genotypes and breast cancer survival after surgery and chemotherapy: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Niu, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-05-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates the intracellular folates pool for DNA synthesis and methylation. Sequence variations in MTHFR (nucleotides 677 (C-->T) and 1298 (A-->C)) result in allozymes with decreased activity. The 677TT genotype is associated with increased toxicity of methotrexate and increased clinical response to 5-fluorouracil in treatment of cancers including breast cancer. We evaluated MTHFR genotypes and breast cancer survival in a cohort of 1067 Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 1998 who received surgery and chemotherapy. Life table method was used to calculate 5-year survival rates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Median follow-up time was 5.2 years; 5-year survival was 84.6%. Sixty-six percent carried a 677T allele and 31% carried a 1298 C allele. We found that overall 5-year breast cancer survival did not differ significantly across all genotypes (85.3% for 677 CC and 83.8% for 677TT; 83.8% for 1298 AA and 79.1% for 1298 CC). However, carrying the 677T allele was associated with non-significant increased risk of death for subjects with late stage disease (stages III-IV) (HR=1.80, 95% CI: 0.79-4.14 for TT vs. CC, p for trend=0.15), particularly among those who had survived past the second year (HR=2.97, 95% CI: 1.10-7.98, p for trend=0.04). The A1298C genotypes were not significantly associated with risk of death. This study suggests that the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may affect long-term survival from advanced breast cancer. PMID:15868433

  3. Gao’s double-way approach for laparoscopic D2 radical surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yong-Shun; Sun, Jian-Gang; Huang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic D2 radical surgery for gastric cancer is minimally invasive but complex. In this path: (1) Repeated operation of lesser curvature side; (2) The gastrohepatic ligament is relatively fixed. Hence, it is not easy to expose the suprapancreatic area; and (3) It is not easy to dissect No. 1, 12 lymph nodes. This area may not be sufficiently cleaned or surrounding vessels may be injured during a resection. So it is critical to choose position fixing, and a clear, fast and convenient operation path. The author, based on his experience, has established a set of procedural steps called “Gao’s double-way”, lesser omentum approach and traditional greater omentum approach, which are described in detail in this article. The path of this first approach is described as a “W” type of dissection. The second way is the traditional greater omentum approach, whose path is described as a “M” type of dissection. This will enable laparoscopic surgeons to select a suitable path. This new approach not only simplifies the surgery but also provides more space for the subsequent operation, thereby making the surgery more simple, safe and easy. PMID:27358674

  4. Hybrid Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery with Sentinel Lymph Node Navigation for Deep Early Gastric Cancer in the Fundic Region

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Suk; Kim, Seong Hwan; Ryu, Hee Yun; Cho, Young Kwan; Jo, Yun Ju; Son, Tae il; Hong, Young Ok

    2016-01-01

    For patients refusing surgical treatment for deep early gastric cancer, hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery with sentinel lymph node navigation is a potential treatment option, particularly when the anatomic location of the cancer has low probability of lymph node metastasis. We report a case of deep early gastric cancer of the fundus beyond the endoscopic submucosal dissection indication that was treated by hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery with sentinel lymph node navigation. In a conventional approach, a total gastrectomy would have been needed; however, the patient refused surgical intervention. In this case, since the patient showed no positivity of the sentinel lymph node on intraoperative navigation, laparoscopic basin lymph node dissection was not performed. Hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery might be considered for specific regions such as the safety zone where lymph node metastases are less likely to occur. PMID:27020308

  5. Surgery versus stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: less is not more.

    PubMed

    White, Abby; Swanson, Scott J

    2016-04-01

    High level evidence from randomized studies comparing surgery to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is lacking and available retrospective cohort and case control studies are highly variable in how thoroughly they define and stage lung cancer, in how they determine operability, and in the offered surgical approaches to operable lung cancer (open vs. video-assisted). This makes it difficult to compare best radiotherapy and best surgery approaches to treatment and to be confident in conclusions of equipoise between the two modalities. What has become clear from the controversy surrounding surgery versus SABR for early stage lung cancer is the desire to optimize treatment efficacy while minimizing invasiveness and morbidity. This review highlights the ongoing debate in light of these goals. PMID:27195137

  6. Surgery versus stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: less is not more

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    High level evidence from randomized studies comparing surgery to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is lacking and available retrospective cohort and case control studies are highly variable in how thoroughly they define and stage lung cancer, in how they determine operability, and in the offered surgical approaches to operable lung cancer (open vs. video-assisted). This makes it difficult to compare best radiotherapy and best surgery approaches to treatment and to be confident in conclusions of equipoise between the two modalities. What has become clear from the controversy surrounding surgery versus SABR for early stage lung cancer is the desire to optimize treatment efficacy while minimizing invasiveness and morbidity. This review highlights the ongoing debate in light of these goals. PMID:27195137

  7. Fluorescence-guided surgery, but not bright-light surgery, prevents local recurrence in a pancreatic cancer patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Zhang, Yong; Murakami, Takashi; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with gemcitabine (GEM) in combination with fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) on a pancreatic cancer patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. A PDOX model was established from a CEA-positive tumor from a patient who had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice were randomized to 4 groups: bright light surgery (BLS) only; BLS + NAC; FGS only; and FGS + NAC. An anti-CEA antibody conjugated to DyLight 650 was administered intravenously via tail vein of mice with a pancreatic cancer PDOX 24 hours before surgery. The PDOX was clearly labeled with fluorophore-conjugated anti-CEA antibody. Only one out of 8 mice had local recurrence in the FGS only group and zero out of 8 mice had local recurrence in the FGS + NAC which was significantly lower than BLS only or BLS +NAC mice, where local disease recurred in 6 out of 8 mice in each treatment group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.007, respectively). NAC did not significantly reduce recurrence rates when combined with either FGS or BLS. These results indicate that FGS can significantly reduce local recurrence compared to BLS in pancreatic cancer resistant to NAC. PMID:25800176

  8. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Willigen, Danny M.; Stammes, Marieke A.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M.; Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Beekman, Freek J.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Frangioni, John V.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  9. Therapeutic effects of cytoprotective agent on breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wei; Yu, Zhuang; Wang, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Most patients will choose breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery, while radiotherapy will damage skin and soft tissue so that will have adverse effect on reconstruction. In this study, we assume that the usage of Amifostine can reduce the incidence of complications after breast reconstruction so that provides more choices of reconstruction operation. Dividing SD rats into surgical placement expansion material group (include 15 ml normal saline) and simple operation group. Then further divide the former into non intervention group , radiation group and Radiation therapy combined with Amie amifostine treatment group. The decubation is 45 days after operation. Macroscopic evaluate the complications of skin and soft tissue by ImageJ. There is no obvious complications of skin and soft tissue for control group, radiotherapy alone group and radiotherapy with application of Amifostine group by macroscopic evaluation. The animals that are in expanded object group, damage probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is lower than that of radiotherapy alone group (30% vs. 69%, P=0.041). ImageJ shows the necrosis probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is obvious lower than radiotherapy alone group (6.96% vs. 12.94%, P=0.019). In conclusion, prevention and treatment of Amifostine can significantly reduce the complications of skin and soft tissue which is helpful to breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery. PMID:26885163

  10. Therapeutic effects of cytoprotective agent on breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wei; Yu, Zhuang; Wang, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Most patients will choose breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery, while radiotherapy will damage skin and soft tissue so that will have adverse effect on reconstruction. In this study, we assume that the usage of Amifostine can reduce the incidence of complications after breast reconstruction so that provides more choices of reconstruction operation. Dividing SD rats into surgical placement expansion material group (include 15 ml normal saline) and simple operation group. Then further divide the former into non intervention group , radiation group and Radiation therapy combined with Amie amifostine treatment group. The decubation is 45 days after operation. Macroscopic evaluate the complications of skin and soft tissue by ImageJ. There is no obvious complications of skin and soft tissue for control group, radiotherapy alone group and radiotherapy with application of Amifostine group by macroscopic evaluation. The animals that are in expanded object group, damage probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is lower than that of radiotherapy alone group (30% vs. 69%, P=0.041). ImageJ shows the necrosis probability of skin and soft tissue when use Amifostine is obvious lower than radiotherapy alone group (6.96% vs. 12.94%, P=0.019). In conclusion, prevention and treatment of Amifostine can significantly reduce the complications of skin and soft tissue which is helpful to breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery. PMID:26885163

  11. uPAR-targeted multimodal tracer for pre- and intraoperative imaging in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Martin C; van Driel, Pieter B A A; van Willigen, Danny M; Stammes, Marieke A; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Tummers, Quirijn R J G; Mazar, Andrew P; Beekman, Freek J; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Frangioni, John V; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Sier, Cornelis F M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2015-06-10

    Pre- and intraoperative diagnostic techniques facilitating tumor staging are of paramount importance in colorectal cancer surgery. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in the development of cancer, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis and over-expression is found in the majority of carcinomas. This study aims to develop the first clinically relevant anti-uPAR antibody-based imaging agent that combines nuclear (111In) and real-time near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging (ZW800-1). Conjugation and binding capacities were investigated and validated in vitro using spectrophotometry and cell-based assays. In vivo, three human colorectal xenograft models were used including an orthotopic peritoneal carcinomatosis model to image small tumors. Nuclear and NIR fluorescent signals showed clear tumor delineation between 24h and 72h post-injection, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.0 ± 1.3 at 72h using fluorescence and 4.2 ± 0.1 at 24h with radioactivity. 1-2 mm sized tumors could be clearly recognized by their fluorescent rim. This study showed the feasibility of an uPAR-recognizing multimodal agent to visualize tumors during image-guided resections using NIR fluorescence, whereas its nuclear component assisted in the pre-operative non-invasive recognition of tumors using SPECT imaging. This strategy can assist in surgical planning and subsequent precision surgery to reduce the number of incomplete resections. PMID:25895028

  12. [Ingenuity of Lymph Node Dissection Reduction for Minimally Invasive Lung Cancer Surgery].

    PubMed

    Konno, Hayato; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Systematic lymph node dissection in radical operation for lung cancer is recognized as an operative procedure which is accurate staging. In clinical early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), if the nodes are negative, complete mediastinal lymph node dissection might be omitted. Selective mediastinal dissection for clinico-surgical stage I NSCLC proved to be as effective as complete dissection. When lymph node metastasis was observed, segmentectomy was converted to lobectomy. Sentinel node( SN) identification is useful to determine the final indication of minimally invasive surgery by targeting the lymph nodes needed for intraoperative frozen section diagnosis. Many evidences suggest that prognosis of NSCLC with lymph node micrometastases (LNMM) is poor compared with those without LNMM. Evaluation of micrometastases of all dissected lymph nodes may be substituted by evaluating micrometastases of SNs. SN identification is important to the efficiency of micrometastases detection of intraoperative diagnosis. To perform a minimally invasive surgery, evaluation of lymph nodes micrometastases in SN is required. PMID:27440033

  13. Dealing with robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer: Current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Roberto; Luca, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Cenciarelli, Sabina; Petz, Wanda; Monsellato, Igor; Valvo, Manuela; Cossu, Maria Laura; Ghezzi, Tiago Leal; Shmaissany, Kassem

    2016-01-01

    The laparoscopic approach for treatment of rectal cancer has been proven feasible and oncologically safe, and is able to offer better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures, mainly in terms of reduced length of hospital stay and time to return to working activity. In spite of this, the laparoscopic technique is usually practised only in high-volume experienced centres, mainly because it requires a prolonged and demanding learning curve. It has been estimated that over 50 operations are required for an experienced colorectal surgeon to achieve proficiency with this technique. Robotic surgery enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, thus promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. It has high-definition three-dimensional vision, it translates the surgeon’s hand movements into precise movements of the instruments inside the patient, the camera is held and moved by the first surgeon, and a fourth robotic arm is available as a fixed retractor. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on short- and long-term results, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:26811606

  14. [Laparoscopic Surgery for Adult Intussusception Due to Rectal Cancer--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Higuchi, Ichiro; Akiyama, Yosuke; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Hasuike, Yasunori

    2015-11-01

    An 87-year-old woman with the chief complaint of bloody stool was referred to our hospital from an institution for the aged. The abdomen was soft and flat, and a tumor was not palpable on digital rectal examination. Tumor markers were within normal ranges. Abdominal enhanced CT scan showed a multiple concentric ring sign at the rectum. Colonoscopic and barium examination led to a diagnosis of rectal intussusception due to rectal cancer. We first tried to reposition it preoperatively, but it was impossible. She fortunately had no symptoms of ileus; therefore, we chose to perform laparoscopic surgery. We achieved the reposition intraoperatively and performed Hartmann's operation with D2 lymph node dissection because she was a very elderly patient with high-risk comorbidities. The pathological diagnosis was as follows: RS, 40×40 mm, type 2, tub2, pT3 (SS), pN0, ly0, v0, pStageⅡ, R0, Cur A. Adult intussusception due to rectal cancer is extremely rare. We report that in this case that laparoscopic surgery was possible, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26805342

  15. Trismus Secondary Release Surgery and Microsurgical Free Flap Reconstruction After Surgical Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yang-Ming; Deek, Nidal Farhan Al; Wei, Fu-Chan

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses trismus following head and neck cancer ablation and free flap reconstruction whether or not radiotherapy has been utilized. The focus is to achieve durable and favorable outcomes and avoid untoward results. To aid surgeons in fulfilling these goals, key factors, including adequate release surgery, optimal free flap selection and reconstruction, long-lasting results, and the untoward outcomes specific to trismus release and reconstruction surgery and how to avoid them have been investigated and discussed based on the authors' experience in this surgery. PMID:27601398

  16. Detection methods and clinical significance of free peritoneal tumor cells found during colorectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sibio, Simone; Fiorani, Cristina; Stolfi, Carmine; Divizia, Andrea; Pezzuto, Roberto; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Bagaglini, Giulia; Sammartino, Paolo; Sica, Giuseppe Sigismondo

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal washing is now part of the standard clinical practice in several abdominal and pelvic neoplasias. However, in colorectal cancer surgery, intra-peritoneal free cancer cells (IFCC) presence is not routinely investigated and their prognostic meaning is still unclear. When peritoneal washing results are positive for the presence of IFCC a worse outcome is usually expected in these colorectal cancer operated patients, but it what is not clear is whether it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. It is authors’ belief that one of the main reasons why IFCC are not researched as integral part of the routine staging system for colon cancer is that there still isn’t a diagnostic or detection method with enough sensibility and specificity. However, the potential clinical implications of a routine research for the presence IFCC in colon neoplasias are enormous: not only to obtain a more accurate clinical staging but also to offer different therapy protocols, based on the presence of IFCC. Based on this, adjuvant chemotherapy could be offered to those patients found to be positive for IFCC; also, protocols of proactive intraperitoneal chemotherapy could be applied. Although presence of IFCC appears to have a valid prognostic significance, further studies are needed to standardize detection and examination procedures, to determine if there are and which are the stages more likely to benefit from routine search for IFCC. PMID:26425265

  17. Recurrent colorectal cancer after endoscopic resection when additional surgery was recommended

    PubMed Central

    Takatsu, Yukiko; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Ogura, Atsushi; Nagata, Jun; Nagasaki, Toshiya; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Nagayama, Satoshi; Ueno, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type of recurrence after endoscopic resection in colorectal cancer patients and whether rescue was possible by salvage operation. METHODS: Among 4972 patients who underwent surgical resection at our institution for primary or recurrent colorectal cancers from January 2005 to February 2015, we experienced eight recurrent colorectal cancers after endoscopic resection when additional surgical resection was recommended. RESULTS: The recurrence patterns were: intramural local recurrence (five cases), regional lymph node recurrence (three cases), and associated with simultaneous distant metastasis (three cases). Among five cases with lymphatic invasion observed histologically in endoscopic resected specimens, four cases recurred with lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. All cases were treated laparoscopically and curative surgery was achieved in six cases. Among four cases located in the rectum, three cases achieved preservation of the anus. Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (enteritis). CONCLUSION: For high-risk submucosal invasive colorectal cancers after endoscopic resection, additional surgical resection with lymphadenectomy is recommended, particularly in cases with lymphovascular invasion. PMID:26900295

  18. New trends in breast cancer surgery: a therapeutic approach increasingly efficacy and respectful of the patient

    PubMed Central

    FRANCESCHINI, G.; SANCHEZ, A. MARTIN; DI LEONE, A.; MAGNO, S.; MOSCHELLA, F.; ACCETTA, C.; MASETTI, R.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of breast cancer has undergone continuous and profound changes over the last 40 years. The evolution from aggressive and mutilating treatment to conservative approach has been long, but constant, despite the controversies that appeared every time a new procedure came to light. Today, the aesthetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients coupled with the oncological safety is the goal of the modern breast surgeon. Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the gold standard approach for patients with early stage breast cancer and the recent introduction of “oncoplastic techniques” has furtherly increased the use of breast-conserving procedures. Mastectomy remains a valid surgical alternative in selected cases and is usually associated with immediate reconstructive procedures. New surgical procedures called “conservative mastectomies” are emerging as techniques that combine oncological safety and cosmesis by entirely removing the breast parenchyma sparing the breast skin and nipple-areola complex. Staging of the axilla has also gradually evolved toward less aggressive approaches with the adoption of sentinel node biopsy and new therapeutic strategies are emerging in patients with a pathological positivity in sentinel lymph node biopsy. The present work will highlight the new surgical treatment options increasingly efficacy and respectful of breast cancer patients. PMID:26712068

  19. Update on the management of pancreatic cancer: Surgery is not enough

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Daniel; Gustafsson, Adam; Andersson, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of death in cancer and has a 5-year survival of < 5%. Only about 15% of the patients present with a resectable PDAC with potential to undergo “curative” surgery. After surgery, local and systemic recurrence, is though very common. The median survival of resected patients with adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery is only 20-23 mo. This underscores the significant need to improve PDAC management strategies. Increased survival rate is dependent on new breakthroughs in our understanding of not at least tumor biology. The aim of this review is to update and comment on recent knowledge concerning PDAC biology and new diagnostics and treatment modalities. One fundamental approach to improve survival rates is by earlier and improved diagnosis of the disease. In recent years, novel blood-based biomarkers have emerged based on genetic, epigenetic and protein changes in PDAC with very promising results. For biomarkers to enter clinical practice they need to have been developed using adequate control groups and provide high sensitivity and specificity and by this identify patients at risk already in a pre-symptomatic stage. Another way to improve outcomes, is by employing neoadjuvant treatments thereby increasing the number of resectable cases. Novel systemic treatment regimes like FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel have demonstrated improvements in prolonging survival in advanced cases, but long-term survival is still scarce. The future improved understanding of PDAC biology will inevitably render new treatment options directed against both the cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:25805920

  20. Correlation of ADRB1 rs1801253 Polymorphism with Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl After Cancer Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Chunlei; Sui, Zhifu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmin; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to explore the association between β1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1) rs1801253 polymorphism and analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgeries in Chinese Han populations. Material/Methods Postoperative fentanyl consumption of 120 patients for analgesia was recorded. Genotype distributions were detected by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) method. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Differences in postoperative VAS score and postoperative fentanyl consumption for analgesia in different genotype groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test was also performed to test the analgesic effect of fentanyl. Results Frequencies of Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg genotypes were 45.0%, 38.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, and passed the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) had no significant differences at different times. After surgery, the VAS score and fentanyl consumption in Arg/Arg group were significantly higher than in other groups at the postoperative 2nd hour, but the differences were not obvious at the 4th hour, 24th hour, and the 48th hour. The results suggest that the Arg/Arg homozygote increased susceptibility to postoperative pain. The preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test suggested that individuals with Arg/Arg genotype showed worse analgesic effect of fentanyl compared to other genotypes. Conclusions In Chinese Han populations, ADRB1 rs1801253 polymorphism might be associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgery. PMID:26694722

  1. Quality of Life in Patients with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema and Reconstructive Breast Surgery.

    PubMed

    Penha, Tiara R Lopez; Botter, Bente; Heuts, Esther M; Voogd, Adri C; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F; van der Hulst, René R

    2016-07-01

    Background To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of breast cancer survivors who have undergone breast reconstruction and have breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods Patients with a unilateral mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction were evaluated for BCRL and their QOL. Patients were divided into a non-BCRL and a BCRL group. Patients with subjective complaints of arm swelling and/or an interlimb volume difference of >200 mL, or undergoing treatment for arm lymphedema were defined as having BCRL. QOL was assessed using cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-B23) and disease specific (Lymph-ICF) questionnaires. Results In total, 253 patients with a mean follow-up time of 51.7 (standard deviation = 18.5) months since mastectomy completed the QOL questionnaires. Of these patients, 116 (46%) underwent mastectomy alone and 137 (54%) had additional breast reconstruction. A comparison of the QOL scores of 180 patients in the non-BCRL group showed a significantly better physical function (p = 0.004) for patients with reconstructive surgery compared with mastectomy patients. In the 73 patients with BCRL, a comparison of the QOL scores showed no significant differences between patients with mastectomy and reconstructive surgery. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analysis showed a significant impact of BCRL on physical function (β =  - 7.46; p = 0.009), role function (β =  - 15.75; p = 0.003), cognitive function (β =  - 11.56; p = 0.005), body vision (β =  - 11.62; p = 0.007), arm symptoms (β = 20.78; p = 0.000), and all domains of the Lymph-ICF questionnaire. Conclusions This study implies that BCRL has a negative effect on the QOL of breast cancer survivors, potentially negating the positive effects on QOL reconstructive breast surgery has. PMID:26919383

  2. Quality of life in rectal cancer patients after radical surgery: a survey of Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in disease-free survivors after radical surgery for rectal cancer in a Chinese mainland population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey from August 2002 to February 2011 by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires of 438 patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer. Patients who were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, had no relevant major comorbidities and whose disease had not recurred were asked to complete both questionnaires. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL were compared by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results In total, 285 patients responded to the survey (response rate, 65.1%). Psychological-related HRQoL variables such as emotional function (P = 0.021) and future perspectives (P = 0.044) were poorer for younger patients than for older patients; and physiological-related HRQoL was reflected by physical function (P = 0.039), which was poorer for older patients than for younger patients. In terms of physiologic function and symptoms concerning HRQoL, such as pain (P = 0.002) and insomnia (P = 0.018), females had lower values than males. Low education and unemployment were associated with a worse HRQoL. HRQoL was worse for patients with stomas compared to those without, especially in psychosocial areas such as role function (P = 0.025), social function (P <0.001) and body image (P = 0.004). Financial HRQoL was worse for younger patients and patients with stoma. Conclusions HRQoL aspects and degrees to which they were impaired after curative surgery for rectal cancer were different when compared by many sociodemographic and clinical factors in Chinese mainland patients. PMID:24886668

  3. Methods to improve rehabilitation of patients following breast cancer surgery: a review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Siew Yim; Musa, Aisya Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Context Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer amongst women but it has the highest survival rates amongst all cancer. Rehabilitation therapy of post-treatment effects from cancer and its treatment is needed to improve functioning and quality of life. This review investigated the range of methods for improving physical, psychosocial, occupational, and social wellbeing in women with breast cancer after receiving breast cancer surgery. Method A search for articles published in English between the years 2009 and 2014 was carried out using The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Search terms included: ‘breast cancer’, ‘breast carcinoma’, ‘surgery’, ‘mastectomy’, ‘lumpectomy’, ‘breast conservation’, ‘axillary lymph node dissection’, ‘rehabilitation’, ‘therapy’, ‘physiotherapy’, ‘occupational therapy’, ‘psychological’, ‘psychosocial’, ‘psychotherapy’, ‘exercise’, ‘physical activity’, ‘cognitive’, ‘occupational’, ‘alternative’, ‘complementary’, and ‘systematic review’. Study selection Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of rehabilitation methods in improving post-operative physical, and psychological outcomes for breast cancer were selected. Sixteen articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Data extraction Included review year, study aim, total number of participants included, and results. Data synthesis Evidence for exercise rehabilitation is predominantly in the improvement of shoulder mobility and limb strength. Inconclusive results exist for a range of rehabilitation methods (physical, psycho-education, nutritional, alternative-complementary methods) for addressing the domains of psychosocial, cognitive, and occupational outcomes. Conclusion There is good evidence for narrowly-focused exercise rehabilitation in improving physical outcome particularly for shoulder

  4. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other agency, institution, or entity may be included in research approved under § 97.406 or § 97.407 only if that research... research is approved under paragraph (a) of this section, the IRB shall require appointment of an...

  5. Prognostic and Predictive Model for Stage II Colon Cancer Patients With Nonemergent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Dong; Wang, Ji-Nan; Sui, Bai-Qiang; Zeng, Yong-Ji; Chen, Jun-Qing; Dai, Dong-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No ideal prognostic model has been applied to clearly identify which suitable high-risk stage II colon cancer patients with negative margins undergoing nonemergent surgery should receive adjuvant chemotherapy routinely. Clinicopathologic and prognostic data of 333 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent D2 or D3 lymphadenectomy during nonemergent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Four pathologically determined factors, including adjacent organ involvement (RR 2.831, P = 0.001), histologic differentiation (RR 2.151, P = 0.009), lymphovascular invasion (RR 4.043, P < 0.001), and number of lymph nodes retrieved (RR 2.161, P = 0.011), were identified as independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Importantly, a simple cumulative scoring system clearly categorizing prognostic risk groups was generated: risk score = ∑ coefficient’ × status (AOI + histological differentiated + lymphovascular invasion + LNs retrieved). Our new prognostic model may provide valuable information on the impact of lymphovascular invasion, as well as powerfully and reliably predicting prognosis and recurrence for this particular cohort of patients. This model may identify suitable patients with an R0 resection who should receive routine postoperative adjuvant therapy and may help clinicians to facilitate individualized treatment. In this study, we aim to provide an ideal and quantifiable method for clinical decision making in the nonemergent surgical treatment of stage II colon cancer. Our prognostic and predictive model should be applied in multicenter, prospective studies with large sample sizes, in order to obtain a more reliable clinical recommendation. PMID:26735527

  6. Positive margins prediction in breast cancer conservative surgery: Assessment of a preoperative web-based nomogram.

    PubMed

    Alves-Ribeiro, Lídia; Osório, Fernando; Amendoeira, Isabel; Fougo, José Luís

    2016-08-01

    Margin status of the surgical specimen has been shown to be a prognostic and risk factor for local recurrence in breast cancer surgery. It has been studied as a topic of intervention to diminish reoperation rates and reduce the probability of local recurrence in breast conservative surgery (BCS). This study aims to validate the Dutch BreastConservation! nomogram, created by Pleijhus et al., which predicts preoperative probability of positive margins in BCS. Patients with diagnosis of breast cancer stages cT1-2, who underwent BCS at the Breast Center of São João University Hospital (BC-CHSJ) in 2013-2014, were included. Association and correlation were evaluated for clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical variables. Multivariable logistic regression and ROC curves were used to assess nomogram parameters and discrimination. In our series of 253 patients, no associations were found between margin status and other studied variables (such as age or family history of breast cancer), except for weight (p-value = 0.045) and volume (p-value = 0.012) of the surgical specimen. Regarding the nomogram, a statistically significant association was shown between cN1 status and positive margins (p-value = 0.014). No differences were registered between the scores of patients with positive versus negative margins. Discrimination analysis showed an AUC of 0.474 for the basic and 0.508 for the expanded models. We cannot assume its external validation or its applicability to our cohort. Further studies are needed to determine the validity of this nomogram and achieve a broader view of currently available tools. PMID:27326978

  7. Octreotide as Palliative Therapy for Cancer-Related Bowel Obstruction That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Colorectal Cancer; Constipation, Impaction, and Bowel Obstruction; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  8. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Case report of two patients having successful surgery for lung cancer after treatment for Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuki; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Atari, Maiko; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgery for locally advanced lung cancer is carried out following chemoradiotherapy. However, there are no reports clarifying what the effects on the subsequent prognosis are when surgery is carried out in cases with radiation pneumonitis. In this paper, we report on 2 cases of non-small cell lung cancer with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis after induction chemoradiotherapy, in which we were able to safely perform radical surgery subsequent to the treatment for pneumonia. Presentation of cases Case 1 was a 68-year-old male with a diagnosis of squamous cell lung cancer cT2aN2M0, Stage IIIA. Sixty days after completion of the radiotherapy, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed. After administration of predonine, and upon checking that the radiation pneumonitis had improved, radical surgery was performed. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male. He was diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer cT2bN1M0, Stage IIB. One hundred and twenty days after completion of the radiotherapy, he was diagnosed with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. After administration of predonine, the symptoms disappeared, and radical surgery was performed. In both cases, the postoperative course was favorable, without complications, and the patients were discharged. Conclusion Surgery for lung cancer on patients with Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis should be deferred until the patients complete steroid therapy, and the clinical pneumonitis is cured. Moreover, it is believed that it is important to remove the resolved radiation pneumonitis without leaving any residual areas and not to cut into any areas of active radiation pneumonitis as much as possible. PMID:26793310

  10. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Hout, Bertha A. in 't; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; Hullu, Joanne A. de; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Nijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H.B.; Mourits, Marian J.E. . E-mail: m.j.e.mourits@og.umcg.nl

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery.

  11. Postoperative Irradiation for Rectal Cancer Increases the Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction After Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Nancy N.; Hartman, Lacey K.; Tepper, Joel E.; Ricciardi, Rocco; Durham, Sara B.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk of small bowel obstruction (SBO) after irradiation (RT) for rectal cancer Background: SBO is a frequent complication after standard resection of rectal cancer. Although the use of RT is increasing, the effect of RT on risk of SBO is unknown. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry data linked to Medicare claims data to determine the effect of RT on risk of SBO. Patients 65 years of age and older diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive rectal cancer treated with standard resection from 1986 through 1999 were included. We determined whether patients had undergone RT and evaluated the effect of RT and timing of RT on the incidence of admission to hospital for SBO, adjusting for potential confounders using a proportional hazards model. Results: We identified a total of 5606 patients who met our selection criteria: 1994 (36%) underwent RT, 74% postoperatively. Patients were followed for a mean of 3.8 years. A total of 614 patients were admitted for SBO over the study period; 15% of patients in the RT group and 9% of patients in the nonirradiated group (P < 0.001). After controlling for age, sex, race, diagnosis year, type of surgery, and stage, we found that patients who underwent postoperative RT were at higher risk of SBO, hazard ratio 1.69 (95% CI, 1.3–2.1). However, the long-term risk associated with preoperative irradiation was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.55–1.46). Conclusions: Postoperative but not preoperative RT after standard resection of rectal cancer results in an increased risk of SBO over time. PMID:17414603

  12. Secondary cytoreduction surgery improves prognosis in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the secondary cytoreduction surgery (CRS) in recurrent ovarian cancer patients. The present study aims to determine the value of secondary CRS and the eligible subgroup for this procedure. Methods 96 platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer patients were recruited from Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research between 1992 and 2011. Follow-up was conducted based on the surveillance protocol of MD Anderson Cancer Center. Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test were used to assess the associations between the survival durations and covariates. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore optimal secondary CRS related factors. Results Optimal secondary CRS was associated with time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in patients (p < 0.01 both). Optimal secondary CRS and asymptomatic recurrent were similarly associated with longer OS (median: 79.2 vs. 53.9 and 76.1 vs. 56.0 months with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) and TTP (median: 13.9 vs. 10.5 and 19.3 vs. 9.0 months with p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively) than counterparts. Optimal initial CRS (p = 0.01), asymptomatic recurrent (p = 0.02) and longer progression-free survival duration (p = 0.02) were the independent indicators of optimal secondary CRS. Conclusions Optimal secondary CRS had survival benefit for platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer. Asymptomatic recurrent was one of the recruited factors for this procedure. PMID:24059600

  13. Preliminary study of transoral robotic surgery for pharyngeal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya; Fujii, Taihei; Koyama, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Aigo; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-03-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with the da Vinci Surgical System has been used for the removal of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening survival. While TORS has been approved in many countries, Japan's FDA has not yet done so. Our hospital started using TORS with the approval of the Ethical Review Board and the Minimum Invasive Surgical Center Committee at Tottori University. No surgical outcomes of TORS for Japanese patients with head and neck cancer have been reported in Japan. This paper deals with the outcomes and feasibility of TORS for Japanese patients with pharyngeal cancer at our institution. TORS was performed for 10 patients with T1, T2, T3 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2013 and 2014. This is a single-institutional study. TORS could be completed for all cases, except one patient that was not candidate, and no intraoperative conversion to an open surgical procedure was required. Five patients underwent neck dissection, two of them concurrent and three staged. Of all patients, positive surgical margins were detected in two. The average blood loss including neck dissection was 21.5 ± 33.4 ml, the operation time was 183 ± 36 min and the console time was 103 ± 22 min. No tracheostomy had been performed either pre- or postoperatively, and there was no difference between preoperative and postoperative swallowing functions. In this single-institutional preliminary study, we demonstrated that TORS is a feasible and safe treatment. A clinical multi-institutional study of TORS for laryngopharyngeal cancer has been approved as an advanced medical system study and is under way. In the near future, it is expected that the efficacy and safety of TORS for laryngopharyngeal cancer will be confirmed as the result of this multiple-institutional clinical study in Japan. PMID:26645072

  14. PHOTOCOPY OF A 1942 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING TITLED: "STANDARD WARD, WARDJH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF A 1942 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING TITLED: "STANDARD WARD, WARD-J-H. FLOOR, FOUNDATION AND FRAMING PLANS." OCTOBER 31, 1942. - Madigan Hospital, Standard & Combination Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  15. Laparoscopy Versus Robotic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Center Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Francesco; Piagnerelli, Riccardo; Scheiterle, Maximilian; Di Mare, Giulio; Gnoni, Pasquale; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco

    2016-08-01

    Background Minimally invasive approach has gained interest in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences between laparoscopy and robotics for colorectal cancer in terms of oncologic and clinical outcomes in an initial experience of a single center. Materials and Methods Clinico-pathological data of 100 patients surgically treated for colorectal cancer from March 2008 to April 2014 with laparoscopy and robotics were analyzed. The procedures were right colonic, left colonic, and rectal resections. A comparison between the laparoscopic and robotic resections was made and an analysis of the first and the last procedures in the 2 groups was performed. Results Forty-two patients underwent robotic resection and 58 underwent laparoscopic resection. The postoperative mortality was 1%. The number of harvested lymph nodes was higher in robotics. The conversion rate was 7.1% for robotics and 3.4% for laparoscopy. The operative time was lower in laparoscopy for all the procedures. No differences were found between the first and the last procedures in the 2 groups. Conclusions This initial experience has shown that robotic surgery for the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma is a feasible and safe procedure in terms of oncologic and clinical outcomes, although an appropriate learning curve is necessary. Further investigation is needed to demonstrate real advantages of robotics over laparoscopy. PMID:26721500

  16. Neoadjuvant Treatment Does Not Influence Perioperative Outcome in Rectal Cancer Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Alexis; Weitz, Juergen Slodczyk, Matthias; Koch, Moritz; Jaeger, Dirk; Muenter, Marc; Buechler, Markus W.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing resection of primary rectal cancer, with a specific focus on the effect of neoadjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: This exploratory analysis of prospectively collected data included all patients who underwent anterior resection/low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary rectal cancer between October 2001 and October 2006. The study endpoints were perioperative surgical and medical morbidity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of potential risk factors were performed. Results: A total of 485 patients were included in this study; 425 patients (88%) underwent a sphincter-saving anterior resection/low anterior resection, 47 (10%) abdominoperineal resection, and 13 (2%) multivisceral resection. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 100 patients (21%), and 168 (35%) underwent neoadjuvant short-term radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy). Patient age and operative time were independently associated with perioperative morbidity, and operative time, body mass index >27 kg/m{sup 2} (overweight), and resection type were associated with surgical morbidity. Age and a history of smoking were confirmed as independent prognostic risk factors for medical complications. Neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with a worse outcome. Conclusion: The results of this prospective study have identified several risk factors associated with an adverse perioperative outcome after rectal cancer surgery. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy was not associated with increased perioperative complications.

  17. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided. PMID:25335724

  18. Emotional and sexual concerns in women undergoing pelvic surgery and associated treatment for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Cara; Gunn, Abigail; Sonoda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of gynecologic cancer can cause short- and long-term effects on sexuality, emotional well being, reproductive function, and overall quality of life (QoL). Fortunately, innovative approaches developed over the past several decades have improved oncologic outcomes and reduced treatment sequelae; however, these side effects of treatment are still prevalent. In this article, we provide an overview of the various standard-of-care pelvic surgeries and multimodality cancer treatments (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) by anatomic site and highlight the potential emotional and sexual consequences that can influence cancer survivorship and QoL. Potential screening tools that can be used in clinical practice to identify some of these concerns and treatment side effects and possible solutions are also provided. These screening tools include brief assessments that can be used in the clinical care setting to assist in the identification of problematic issues throughout the continuum of care. This optimizes quality of care, and ultimately, QoL in these women. Prospective clinical trials with gynecologic oncology populations should include patient-reported outcomes to identify subgroups at risk for difficulties during and following treatment for early intervention. PMID:26816823

  19. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. Of the 438 articles accessed, 20 qualified for inclusion, of which 16 and 4 were quantitative and qualitative articles, respectively, and mainly quality-of-life assessments. Time of measurement ranged from time of diagnosis to 9 years after the surgical procedure. The total number of patients included in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, with both early and late interrelated effects, and by the side effects of adjuvant therapy. PMID:26948021

  20. [Two patients having recurrent breast cancer with brain metastases well controlled with a gamma knife radio-surgery].

    PubMed

    Hojo, Shigeyuki; Maeura, Yoshiichi; Yoshioka, Setsuko; Fujie, Yujiro; Fukunaga, Hiroki; Okada, Yoshihiro; Ota, Hirofumi; Endo, Wakio

    2006-11-01

    We report two patients having recurrent breast cancer with brain metastases that was controlled well with a gamma knife radio-surgery. The patient is a 50-year-old woman. She underwent radical mastectomy for right breast cancer in September 1993. She suffered from multiple liver metastases in June 2000, so CEF therapy contained hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and extended right lobectomy of the liver were performed in December 2001. Afterward, pleurodesis was carried out to the carcinomatous pleurisy. Then she underwent simple total hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for torsion of the metastatic ovarian tumor. MRI study revealed brain metastases with a diameter of 1 cm in her right midbrain in April 2005, so a gamma knife radio-surgery was performed. After the radio-surgery, a weekly paclitaxel therapy followed by peroral chemotherapy with capecitabine was started, and she took the regimen continuously. Another patient is a 56-year-old woman. She underwent skin sparing mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for right breast cancer in November 2002. Metastases to the base of her skull were found in October 2004, so a gamma knife radio-surgery was carried out. After the radio-surgery, a weekly paclitaxel therapy with anastrozole was started. In both of the two patients, the metastatic brain tumors have not shown growth so far and are under good control as of March 2006. PMID:17212144

  1. Laparoscopic surgery for patients with colorectal cancer produces better short-term outcomes with similar survival outcomes in elderly patients compared to open surgery.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo Yun; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Soo Young; Han, Eon Chul; Kang, Sung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The number of operations on elderly colorectal cancer (CRC) patients has increased with the aging of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical outcomes in elderly patients who underwent laparoscopic or open surgery for CRC. We analyzed the data of 280 patients aged 80 or over who underwent surgery for CRC between January 2001 and December 2010. Seventy-one pairs were selected after propensity score matching for laparoscopic or open surgery. Operative time, return to normal bowel function, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and prognostic factors affecting survival were investigated. In matched cohorts, operative time in the laparoscopic group was longer than in the open group (P < 0.001). In the laparoscopic group, time to flatus passage (P < 0.001) and length of postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.037) were shorter than in the open group. The rate of operation-related morbidity was higher in the open group (P = 0.019). There was no difference in OS and RFS between two groups. This study suggests that laparoscopic surgery for CRC in elderly patients may be safe and feasible, with better short-term outcomes. OS and RFS, however, were not different in both groups. PMID:26923309

  2. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  3. Predictors of mortality within 1 year after primary ovarian cancer surgery: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ørskov, Mette; Iachina, Maria; Guldberg, Rikke; Mogensen, Ole; Mertz Nørgård, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify predictors of mortality within 1 year after primary surgery for ovarian cancer. Design Prospective nationwide cohort study from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2012. Setting Evaluation of data from the Danish Gynaecology Cancer Database and the Danish Civil Registration System. Participants 2654 women who underwent surgery due to a diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer. Outcome measures Overall survival and predictors of mortality within 0–180 and 181–360 days after the primary surgery. Examined predictors were age, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index (BMI), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumour tissue after surgery, perioperative blood transfusion and calendar year of surgery. Results The overall 1-year survival was 84%. Within 0–180 days after surgery, the 3 most important predictors of mortality from the multivariable model were residual tumour tissue >2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=4.58 (95% CI 3.20 to 6.59)), residual tumour tissue ≤2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=2.50 (95% CI 1.63 to 3.82)) and age >64 years versus age ≤64 years (HR=2.33 (95% CI 1.69 to 3.21)). Within 181–360 days after surgery, FIGO stages III–IV versus I–II (HR=2.81 (95% CI 1.75 to 4.50)), BMI<18.5 vs 18.5–25 kg/m2 (HR=2.08 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.66)) and residual tumour tissue >2 cm versus no residual tumour (HR=1.84 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.70)) were the 3 most important predictors. Conclusions The most important predictors of mortality within 1 year after surgery were residual tumour tissue (0–180 days after surgery) and advanced FIGO stage (181–360 days after surgery). However, our results suggest that the surgeon should not just aim at radical surgery, but also pay special attention to comorbidity, nutritional state, age >64 years and the need for perioperative blood transfusion. PMID:27103625

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF PATIENT SUBGROUPS AND RISK FACTORS FOR PERSISTENT ARM/SHOULDER PAIN FOLLOWING BREAST CANCER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Miaskowski, Christine; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce; West, Claudia; Levine, Jon D.; Elboim, Charles; Hamolsky, Deborah; Abrams, Gary; Luce, Judith; Dhruva, Anand; Langford, Dale J.; Merriman, John D.; Kober, Kord; Baggott, Christina; Leutwyler, Heather; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this prospective, longitudinal study, we extend our findings on persistent breast pain in patients (n=398) following breast cancer surgery and evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of persistent pain in the arm/shoulder In addition, differences in the severity of common symptoms and quality of life outcomes measured prior to surgery, among the arm pain classes, were evaluated. Methods and sample Patients were recruited from Breast Care Centers located in a Comprehensive Cancer Center, two public hospitals, and four community practices. Patients were assessed prior to and monthly for six months following breast cancer surgery. Results Using growth mixture modeling, patients were classified into no (41.6%), mild (23.6%), and moderate (34.8%) arm pain classes based on ratings of worst arm/shoulder pain. Compared to the no pain class, patients in the moderate pain class were significantly younger, had a higher body mass index, and were more likely to report preoperative breast pain and swelling in the affected breast. In addition, patients in the moderate pain class reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance than the no pain class. Conclusions Findings suggest that approximately 35% of women experience persistent levels of moderate arm/shoulder pain in the first six months following breast cancer surgery. Moderate arm/shoulder pain is associated with clinically meaningful decrements in functional status and quality of life. PMID:24485012

  5. A Prospective Randomized Study to Assess the Optimal Duration of Intravenous Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Elective Gastric Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Toru; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Tsuji, Yoshitaka; Miyazaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis in gastric cancer surgery is not yet established. This prospective randomized study was performed to confirm the noninferiority of single-dose versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis in terms of the incidence of surgical-site infection in gastric cancer surgery. Three hundred twenty-five patients undergoing elective resection for gastric cancer were randomized to receive only single-dose cefazolin (1 g) during surgery (single-dose group) or an additional 5 doses every 12 hours postoperatively (multiple-dose group). The overall incidence of surgical-site infections was 9.1% in the single-dose group and 6.2% in the multiple-dose group [difference (95% confidence interval): −2.9% (−5.9%–0.0%)]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified blood loss, being overweight, and advanced age as significant independent risk factors for surgical-site infection. Single-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis seemed to be acceptable, and choosing multiple-dose prophylaxis may have little impact on the prevention of surgical-site infections in elective gastric cancer surgery. PMID:23102084

  6. Combination chemotherapy followed by surgery or radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, F; Atkinson, K H; Coppleson, J V; Elliott, P M; Green, D; Houghton, R; Murray, J C; Russell, P; Solomon, H J; Friedlander, M

    1987-06-01

    Forty-seven patients with locally advanced cervical cancer at high risk of relapse received three cycles of chemotherapy with PVB (cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin) before definitive local treatment with either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Thirty-one of the 47 patients (66%) responded to initial chemotherapy, and 11 of them have relapsed compared with 13 of the 16 non-responders. Median time to recurrence was 31 weeks for PVB non-responders but has not yet been reached for PVB responders. After a median follow-up of 128 weeks, 14 of the 31 responders (45%) are alive and disease free compared with 3 of the 16 non-responders (19%). There was a positive correlation between response to chemotherapy and subsequent response to radiotherapy. PVB was in general well tolerated although one death is probably attributable to chemotherapy. A randomized study comparing radiotherapy alone with initial PVB chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy is in progress. PMID:2441736

  7. Cell proliferation measured by MIB1 and timing of surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, L. S.; Gillett, C. E.; Smith, P.; Fentiman, I. S.; Barnes, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the use of the antibody MIB1 as a proliferative and prognostic marker in breast cancer and whether changes in proliferative activity could account for differences in prognosis of premenopausal women operated on during different phases of the menstrual cycle. MIB1 expression was strongly correlated with S-phase fraction and histological grade. There was no difference in MIB1 scores between different phases of the menstrual cycle. Both MIB1 score and timing of surgery correlated significantly with duration of survival, while the two together were even stronger predictors of overall survival. Women with slowly proliferating tumours surgically removed in the luteal phase had a very good prognosis, whereas women with rapidly proliferating tumours excised at other times of the cycle had a worse prognosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9652769

  8. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-07

    Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  9. Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  10. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery in head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, V.A.; Pajak, T.F.

    1985-05-01

    Radiation therapy alone, surgery alone, or the combination of these two modalities, remain the accepted treatments in the management of epidermoid carcinomas of the mucosa of the head and neck. These modalities of therapy produce comparable results; but, radiotherapy alone has the advantage that it can conserve anatomy and function. Irradiation with teletherapy techniques, at times supplemented by interstitial brachytherapy, with doses ranging from 6600 to 8000 cGy, results in satisfactory tumor response (CR). The CR of T1N0 and T2N0 lesions will be 99% and 90% respectively, but only 29% in T4N3 tumors treated with radiation only. To improve on the limited CR rate achieved in the advanced stages, surgery is combined pre or post-irradiation, or reserved for the salvage of failures. In the oral cavity and oropharynx, these possible options give comparable tumor control and survival, but in the supraglottic larynx post-operative irradiation is superior to pre- operative radiotherapy. Tumor recurrence rates in the head and neck range from 15 to 34% depending on initial site, stage and type of therapy. Cancer control activities that emphasize prevention and early diagnosis should present a better future for these patients.

  11. Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications

    PubMed Central

    Roelants, Fabienne; Pospiech, Audrey; Momeni, Mona; Watremez, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS). Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology.

  12. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: survival outcomes and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is playing an ever increasing role in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) with peritoneal metastases (PM) as results approach those of surgical resection of liver metastases. Selection criteria for treatment type, sequence and timing of currently available therapies remain ill-defined. Methods We review the current published literature analyzing outcomes by treatments with surgery, systemic chemotherapy, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, and ongoing clinical trials. A clinical pathway that incorporates all currently available therapies, determining the timing and sequence of such therapies was constructed. Results Most of the literature on outcome data comes from studies reporting the results of CRS and HIPEC with large series showing a median survival of 32-47 months. Meanwhile, the vast majority of patients, over 90% in the United States, are being treated with palliative systemic therapies following the NCCN guidelines. Conclusions Cooperation between medical and surgical oncologists represents an unmet need in oncology when it comes to patients with CRC with PM. The presented clinical pathway constitutes a feasible and much needed first step to start this cooperation. PMID:26941985

  13. Oncological outcomes after fertility-sparing surgery for cervical cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Enrica; Gouy, Sebastien; Maulard, Amandine; Chargari, Cyrus; Leary, Alexandra; Morice, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Fertility preservation in young patients with cervical cancer is suitable only for patients with good prognostic factors and disease amenable to surgery without adjuvant therapy. Consequently, it is only offered to patients with early-stage disease (stage IB tumours <4 cm), negative nodes, and non-aggressive histological subtypes. To determine whether fertility preservation is suitable, the first step is pelvic-node dissection to establish nodal spread. Tumour size (≤2 cm vs >2 cm) and lymphovascular space invasion status are two main factors to determine the best fertility-sparing surgical technique. In this systematic Review, we assess six different techniques that are available to preserve fertility (Dargent's procedure, simple trachelectomy or cone resection, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with conservative surgery, and laparotomic, laparoscopic and robot-assisted abdominal radical trachelectomy). The choice between the six different fertility preservation techniques should be based on the experience of the team, discussion with the patient or couple, and, above all, objective oncological data to balance the best chance for cure with optimum fertility results for each procedure. PMID:27299280

  14. Retrospective cohort study of an enhanced recovery programme in oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, P A C; Shaw, C; Hine, C; Scholtes, S; Koutra, M; Andrew, H; Hacking, M; Allum, W H

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Enhanced recovery programmes have been established in some areas of elective surgery. This study applied enhanced recovery principles to elective oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery. Methods An enhanced recovery programme for patients undergoing open oesophagogastrectomy, total and subtotal gastrectomy for oesophageal and gastric malignancy was designed. A retrospective cohort study compared length of stay on the critical care unit (CCU), total length of inpatient stay, rates of complications and in-hospital mortality prior to (35 patients) and following (27 patients) implementation. Results In the cohort study, the median total length of stay was reduced by 3 days following oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy. The median length of stay on the CCU remained the same for all patients. The rates of complications and mortality were the same. Conclusions The standardised protocol reduced the median overall length of stay but did not reduce CCU stay. Enhanced recovery principles can be applied to patients undergoing major oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy as long as they have minimal or reversible co-morbidity. PMID:26414360

  15. Z skin incision in reduced-port surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    FUJINO, SHIKI; MIYOSHI, NORIKATSU; OHUE, MASAYUKI; NOURA, SHINGO; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; HIGASHIYAMA, MASAHIKO; YANO, MASAHIKO

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) has recently gained in popularity due to the fewer trocars and shorter incision, leading to reduced wound pain and improved cosmetic outcome. In July, 2013, reduced-port surgery (RPS) was introduced and has been performed thereafter in our hospital. An umbilical incision is used for a main port in RPS, through which the specimen is removed and the anastomosis is performed. In order to make the incision shorter, we introduced the Z skin incision in RPS. In this study, we aimed to discuss this method and evaluate the short-term outcome. Among CRC patients undergoing RPS, Z skin incision (n=14) was compared to conventional skin incision (n=15). The clinical and surgical factors were evaluated and there were no significant differences in terms of gender, age, body mass index, tumor site, procedure, operative time, blood loss or complications between the two groups. The median incision length at the umbilicus was significantly shorter in the Z incision group (P=0.004). Particularly in functional end-to-end anastomosis, the median incision length was 2.5 cm in the Z skin incision group and 4.0 cm in the conventional incision group (P=0.018). In conclusion, Z skin incision is a useful technique for achieving an effective length of skin incision in RPS for CRC. PMID:27073675

  16. Early Post Operative Enteral Versus Parenteral Feeding after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Mashhadi, Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Zilaee, Marzie; Rezaei, Reza; Maddah, Ghodratollah; Majidi, Mohamad Reza; Bahadornia, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is reported to be high. In particular, patients with esophageal cancer are prone to malnutrition, due to preoperative digestive system dysfunctions and short-term non-oral feeding postoperatively. Selection of an appropriate method for feeding in the postoperative period is important in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone esophagectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 were randomly assigned into either enteral feeding or parenteral feeding groups, with the same calorie intake in each group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C3, C4 and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as well as the rate of surgical complications, restoration of bowel movements and cost was assessed in each group. Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of serum albumin, prealbumin or transferrin. However, C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group compared with the parenteral group, while hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. Bowel movements were restored sooner and costs of treatment were lower in the enteral group. Postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. There was one death in the parenteral group 10 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that enteral feeding can be used effectively in the first days after surgery, with few early complications and similar nutritional outcomes compared with the parenteral method. Enteral feeding was associated with reduced inflammation and was associated with an improvement in immunological responses, quicker return of bowel movements, and reduced costs in comparison with parenteral feeding. PMID:26568935

  17. Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay to Predict Recurrence for Gastric Cancer Patients after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Choi, Min Gew; Lim, Do Hoon; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J.; Choi, Dong Il; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Das, Kakoli; Tan, Patrick; Jung, Sin Ho; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N = 432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N = 186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N = 216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N = 300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N = 216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence = 3.16, p = 0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio = 1.77, p = 0.0053). PMID:24598828

  18. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  19. Effect of Interval to Definitive Breast Surgery on Clinical Presentation and Survival in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Perera, Francisco; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Hammond, A.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of clinical presentation and interval to breast surgery on local recurrence and survival in early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The data from 397 patients with Stage T1-T2N0 breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and breast radiotherapy between 1985 and 1992 were reviewed at the London Regional Cancer Program. The clinical presentation consisted of a mammogram finding or a palpable lump. The intervals from clinical presentation to definitive breast surgery used for analysis were 0-4, >4-12, and >12 weeks. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival were determined for the three groups. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical presentation and interval to definitive surgery on survival. Results: The median follow-up was 11.2 years. No statistically significant difference was found in local recurrence as a function of the interval to definitive surgery (p = .424). A significant difference was noted in disease-free survival (p = .040) and cause-specific survival (p = .006) with an interval of >12 weeks to definitive breast surgery. However, the interval to definitive surgery was dependent on the presentation for cause-specific survival, with a substantial effect for patients with a mammographic presentation and a negligible effect for patients with a lump presentation (interaction p = .041). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an interval of >12 weeks to breast surgery might be associated with decreased survival for patients with a mammographic presentation, but it appeared to have no effect on survival for patients presenting with a palpable breast lump.

  20. Cryopreservation of in vitro matured oocytes after ex vivo oocyte retrieval from gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lee, In Ho; Lim, Kyung Teak; Lee, Ki Heon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report a case series of in vitro matured (IVM) oocyte freezing in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery under time constraints as an option for fertility preservation (FP). Methods Case series report. University-based in vitro fertilization center. Six gynecologic cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo radical surgery the next day were referred for FP. The patients had endometrial (n=2), ovarian (n=3), and double primary endometrial and ovarian (n=1) cancer. Ex vivo retrieval of immature oocytes from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue was followed by mature oocyte freezing after IVM or embryo freezing with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Results A total of 53 oocytes were retrieved from five patients, with a mean of 10.6 oocytes per patient. After IVM, a total of 36 mature oocytes were obtained, demonstrating a 67.9% maturation rate. With regard to the ovarian cancer patients, seven IVM oocytes were frozen from patient 3, who had stage IC cancer, whereas one IVM oocyte was frozen from patient 4, who had stage IV cancer despite being of a similar age. With regard to the endometrial cancer patients, 15 IVM oocytes from patient 1 were frozen. Five embryos were frozen after the fertilization of IVM oocytes from patient 6. Conclusion Immature oocytes can be successfully retrieved ex vivo from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue before radical surgery. IVM oocyte freezing provides a possible FP option in patients with advanced-stage endometrial or ovarian cancer without the risk of cancer cell spillage or time delays. PMID:27358831

  1. Preventive Analgesic Efficacy of Nefopam in Acute and Chronic Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyo-Seok; Oh, Ah-Young; Koo, Bon-Wook; Lim, Dae-Jin; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Han, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer surgery is known to cause severe acute postoperative pain, which can persist for a long time. We administered nefopam preventively to patients undergoing lumpectomy with axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy, and evaluated its efficacy on acute and chronic postoperative pain. Enrolled patients were assigned to the nefopam (n = 41) or the control (n = 42) group. Before initiating the operation, 20 mg of nefopam was given to the patients of the nefopam group, and normal saline was used in the control group. Ketorolac was given at the end of surgery, and meloxicam was prescribed in the postoperative period to all patients in both groups. Pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (NRS), and the rescue analgesic drug was given when the NRS was >5. Implementation of postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), or hormone therapy was evaluated. The NRS of postoperative pain was significantly lower in the nefopam than in the control group in the postanesthetic care unit (4.5 ± 2.2 vs 5.7 ± 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01), at postoperative 6 h (3.0 ± 1.6 vs 4.5 ± 1.3, respectively; P < 0.001), and at postoperative 24 h (3.1 ± 1.1 vs 3.8 ± 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01) with reduced use of rescue analgesic drugs. Significantly fewer patients suffered from chronic postoperative pain in the nefopam than in the control group at postoperative 3 months (36.6% vs 59.5%, P = 0.04). Considering only the cohort without postoperative adjuvant RT, the difference in the proportion of patients reporting chronic pain increased (23.5% in the nefopam group vs 61.5% in the control group, P = 0.04). Preventive nefopam was helpful in reducing the acute postoperative pain, with reduced use of rescue analgesic drugs, and it contributed to reduced occurrence of chronic pain at postoperative 3 months after breast cancer surgery. PMID:27196485

  2. Dosimetric Evaluation of Different Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques for Breast Cancer After Conservative Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Wang, Yadi; Xu, Weidong; Jiang, Huayong; Liu, Qingzhi; Gao, Junmao; Yao, Bo; Hou, Jun; He, Heliang

    2015-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) potentially leads to a more favorite dose distribution compared to 3-dimensional or conventional tangential radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer after conservative surgery or mastectomy. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) among helical tomotherapy (HT), inverse-planned IMRT (IP-IMRT), and forward-planned field in field (FP-FIF) IMRT techniques after breast-conserving surgery. Computed tomography scans from 20 patients (12 left sided and 8 right sided) previously treated with T1N0 carcinoma were selected for this dosimetric planning study. We designed HT, IP-IMRT, and FP-FIF plans for each patient. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as OARs dose and volume parameters. Both HI and CI of the PTV showed statistically significant difference among IP-IMRT, FP-FIF, and HT with those of HT were best (P < .05). Compared to FP-FIF, IP-IMRT showed smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and breast, while HT indicated smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung but larger exposed volumes of contralateral lung and breast as well as heart. In addition, HT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of ipsilateral lung (except for fraction of lung volume receiving >30 Gy and 20 Gy), heart, contralateral lung, and breast compared with IP-IMRT. For breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, HT provides better dose homogeneity and conformity of PTV compared to IP-IMRT and FP-FIF techniques, especially for patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes involved. Meanwhile, HT decreases the OAR volumes receiving higher doses with an increase in the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Hence, composite factors including dosimetric advantage

  3. Individualized Risk Estimation for Postoperative Complications After Surgery for Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Mahmoud I.; Palmer, Frank L.; Kou, Lei; Yu, Changhong; Montero, Pablo H.; Shuman, Andrew G.; Ganly, Ian; Shah, Jatin P.; Kattan, Michael W.; Patel, Snehal G.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative complications after head and neck surgery carry the potential for significant morbidity. Estimating the risk of complications in an individual patient is challenging. OBJECTIVE To develop a statistical tool capable of predicting an individual patient’s risk of developing a major complication after surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective case series derived from an institutional clinical oncologic database, augmented by medical record abstraction, at an academic tertiary care cancer center. Participants were 506 previously untreated adult patients with biopsy-proven oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgery between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was a major postoperative complication requiring invasive intervention (Clavien-Dindo classification grades III–V). Patients treated between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008 (354 of 506 [70.0%]) comprised the modeling cohort and were used to develop a nomogram to predict the risk of developing the primary end point. Univariable analysis and correlation analysis were used to prescreen 36 potential predictors for incorporation in the subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis. The variables with the highest predictive value were identified with the step-down model reduction method and included in the nomogram. Patients treated between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008 (152 of 506 [30.0%]) were used to validate the nomogram. RESULTS Clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 cohorts for most comparisons. Thirty-six patients in the modeling cohort (10.2%) and 16 patients in the validation cohort (10.5%) developed a major postoperative complication. The 6 preoperative variables with the highest individual predictive value were incorporated within the nomogram, including body mass index, comorbidity status, preoperative white blood cell count

  4. Outcome Disparities Between Medical Personnel and Nonmedical Personnel Patients Receiving Definitive Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disparities in quality of care have always been a major challenge in health care. Providing information to patients may help to narrow such disparities. However, the relationship between level of patient information and outcomes remains to be explored. More importantly, would better-informed patients have better outcomes through their choice of higher quality providers? We hypothesize that medical professionals may have better outcomes than nonmedical professionals following definitive surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC), and their choice of provider may mediate this relationship. We identified 61,728 patients with CRC receiving definitive surgery between 2005 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical professionals were identified via the registry for medical personnel. Indicators for surgical outcome such as emergency room (ER) visits within 30 days, medical expenses, length of hospital stay (LOS), and 5-year mortality were analyzed by using fixed and random effects multivariate regression models. Compared with nonmedical personnel CRC patients, a greater proportion of medical personnel received definitive surgery from higher volume surgeons (median 390 vs 311 within the study period) and/or in higher volume hospitals (median 1527 vs 1312 within the study period). CRC patients who are medical personnel had a shorter median LOS (12 vs 14 days), lower median medical expenses (112,687 vs 121,332 New Taiwan dollars), a lower ER visit rate within 30 days (11.3% vs 13.0%), and lower 5-year mortality. After adjusting for patient characteristics, medical personnel had a significantly lower hazard of 5-year mortality, and were significantly more likely to have a LOS shorter than 14 days than their nonmedical personnel counterparts. However, after adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, while medical personnel were significantly less likely to have a long LOS, no significant difference was observed in 5-year mortality

  5. Stage III and localized stage IV breast cancer: irradiation alone vs irradiation plus surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Bedwinek, J.; Rao, V.; Perez, C.; Lee, J.; Fineberg, B.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred forty-seven patients with non-inflammatory, Stage III and IV breast cancer were treated with irradiation alone (54 patients) or with a combination of irradiation and mastectomy (93 patients). In the T/sub 3/ category, the local failure rate was 45% (5/11) for the irradiation alone patients vs 12% (3/25) for the irradiation plus surgery patients; in the T/sub 4/ category these figures were 65% (28/43) vs 13% (9/68), respectively. Corresponding local failure rates by size of primary tumor were 50% (2/4) vs 15% (5/29) for tumors 0-5 cm, 43% (0/21) vs 14% (6/45) for 5-8 cm tumors, and 75% (22/29) vs 5% (1/20) for tumors greater than or equal to8 cm. The rates of regional failure for the two treatment methods were compared according to N stage; they were 9% (2/23) for irradiation alone vs 11% (8/76) for irradiation plus surgery in the N/sub 0//sub -//sub 1/ category, and 58% (18/31) vs 18% (3/17), respectively, for the N/sub 2//sub -//sub 3/ category. A dose response analysis for patients with tumors greater than 5 cm treated with irradiation alone did not show a decrease in local failure rate with increasing total tumor dose over a range of 4000 to 7000 rad, suggesting that doses in this range are too low for these large tumors. Since a significant late complication rate has been reported with doses higher than this, patients with non-inflammatory, but large (>5 cm) tumors, should be treated with a combination of surgery and irradiation whenever possible to achieve maximum local-regional control with a minimum probability of complications. In 36 patients with inflammatory carcinoma, the rates of local and regional failure were 52% (15/29) and 38% (11/29), respectively, for patients treated with irradiation alone, and 14% (1/7) and 29% (2/7), respectively, for patients receiving irradiation plus surgery.

  6. Risk Factors for Major Adverse Events of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Lobectomy for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Xia, Yan; Yang, Yang; Ni, Zheng-zheng; He, Wen-xin; Wang, Hai-feng; Xu, Xiao-xiong; Yang, Yu-ling; Fei, Ke; Jiang, Ge-ning

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for major adverse events of VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: 1806 Patients (1032 males, 57.1%) planned to undergo VATS lobectomy for stage IA-IIIA lung cancer from July 2007 to June 2012. The Thoracic Morbidity and Mortality Classification TM&M system was used to evaluate the presence and severity of complications. Postoperative complications were observed during a 30-day follow up. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze the independent risk factors for major adverse events. Results: Successful rate of VATS lobectomy was 97.6% (1763/1806). Major complications occurred in 129 patients (7.3%), with a mortality of 0.3% (5/1763). Pulmonary complications contribute up to 90.7% of the major complications and 80% of mortality. Logistic regression indicated that comorbidities, elder age ≥70y, operative time ≥240min and hybrid VATS were predictors for major adverse events (P<0.05). Hybrid and converted VATS lobectomy result in higher major adverse events compared with complete VATS, 15.1%, 20.9% and 7.4% respectively (P=0.013). Conclusions: The overall complication rate and mortality of VATS lobectomy are low, while major complications sometimes occur. Pulmonary complications are the most common major complications and cause of mortality. Age ≥70y, comorbidities, operative time ≥240min and Hybrid VATS are predictors of major adverse events. PMID:25013365

  7. The influence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells on angiogenesis and tumor growth after cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Su, Xiaosan; Yang, Liu; Qiao, Fei; Fang, Yu; Yu, Lu; Yang, Qian; Wang, Yiyin; Yin, Yanfeng; Chen, Rui; Hong, Zhipeng

    2016-06-01

    While myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been reported to participate in the promotion of angiogenesis and tumor growth, little is known about their presence and function during perioperative period. Here, we demonstrated that human MDSCs expressing CD11b(+), CD33(+) and HLA-DR(-) significantly increased in lung cancer patients after thoracotomy. CD11b(+) CD33(+) HLA-DR(-) MDSCs isolated 24 hr after surgery from lung cancer patients were more efficient in promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth than MDSCs isolated before surgical operation in allograft tumor model. In addition, CD11b(+) CD33(+) HLA-DR(-) MDSCs produced high levels of MMP-9. Using an experimental lung metastasis mouse model, we demonstrated that the numbers of metastases on lung surface and Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs at postoperative period were enhanced in proportion to the degree of surgical manipulation. We also examined that syngeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) significantly inhibited the induction and proliferation of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and further prevented lung metastasis formation in the mice undergoing laparotomy. Taken together, our results suggest that postoperatively induced MDSCs were qualified with potent proangiogenic and tumor-promotive ability and this cell population should be considered as a target for preventing postoperative tumor metastasis. PMID:26756887

  8. Treatment of invasive bladder cancer by cisplatin and radiation in patients unsuited for surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, W.U.; Prout, G.R. Jr.; Einstein, A.B.; Coombs, L.J.; Wajsman, Z.; Soloway, M.S.; Englander, L.; Barton, B.A.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1987-08-21

    Seventy patients with muscle-invading bladder carcinoma (clinical stages T2 to T4) who were not candidates for cystectomy were treated with combined cisplatin and full-dose external-beam radiation on a multi-institutional prospective protocol from 1980 through 1985. Thirty-six patients are alive, all but three without evidence of cancer. The complete response rate is 77% in the 62 patients completing planned irradiation and 70% for all patients. Among the complete responders, 73% are currently maintained, and this group has a significantly higher four-year survival than those not having a complete response and those with recurrence of disease - 57% vs 11%. The observed high complete response rates in patients in all stages and the high survival rates suggest irradiation plus cisplatin therapy offers an important therapeutic gain over radiation therapy alone for invasive cancer of the bladder. These results encourage further evaluation of combining cisplatin-based, multidrug chemotherapy with irradiation in patients with locally very-advanced bladder tumors who are not suited for surgery.

  9. Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Kundu, Ratul; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hazra, Bimal; Mitra, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h). Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1st, 2nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital. PMID:25276627

  10. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer is beneficial to elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has short or long-term benefits in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer compared with open surgery. Between June 2007 and December 2014, 579 patients older than 70 years underwent radical pulmonary resection for non-small-cell lung cancer, including 138 who received VATS and 441 who received open surgery. A retrospective pair-matched study was performed to compare 194 patients (97 pairs) who underwent either VATS or open resection. Patients were matched by age, sex, comorbidity, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, tumor location, clinical TNM stage, and extent of pulmonary resection. Short and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. The overall incidence of postoperative 30-day complications was significantly lower in the VATS group than in the open surgery group. The major postoperative 30-day complication trended lower in the VATS group but was not significantly different. The length of postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival was similar between the two groups. In summary, in surgical management of elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, VATS is associated with lower rates of morbidity as well as comparable disease-free survival and overall survival outcomes. PMID:26550301

  11. Prevention of Incisional Surgical Site Infection Using a Subcuticular Absorbable Suture in Elective Surgery for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bou, Hideki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Maejima, Kentarou; Uchida, Eiji; Tokunaga, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether subcuticular absorbable sutures actually reduce incisional SSI in patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Surgical site infection (SSI) is still a source of major complications in digestive tract surgery. Reportedly, incisional SSI can be reduced using subcuticular suturing. We performed subcuticular suturing using a 4-0 absorbable monofilament in patients undergoing elective surgery for GI cancer beginning in 2008. Using an interrupted technique, sutures were placed 1.5-2.0cm from the edge of the wound, with everted subcuticular sutures created at intervals of 1.5-2.0cm. The control group consisted of cases in which the common subcutaneous suture method using clip. One hundred cases were examined in the subcuticular group. The incidence of SSI was 0% in the subcuticular suture group, compared with 13.9% in the control group; this difference was significant. Incisional SSI can be prevented using the devised subcuticular absorbable sutures in patients undergoing elective surgery for GI cancer. PMID:26414820

  12. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  13. Comprehensive Patient Questionnaires in Predicting Complications in Older Patients With Gynecologic Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-07

    Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  14. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  15. Role of physiotherapy and patient education in lymphedema control following breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shiang-Ru; Hong, Rong-Bin; Chou, Willy; Hsiao, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether education in combination with physiotherapy can reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods We analyzed 1,217 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2011 who underwent tumor resection and axillary lymph node dissection. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A (n=415), who received neither education nor physiotherapy postsurgery; Group B (n=672), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery; and Group C (n=130), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery, followed by a physiotherapy program. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether BCRL developed. BCRL risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results During the follow-up, 188 patients (15.4%) developed lymphedema, including 77 (18.6%) in Group A, 101 (15.0%) in Group B, and 10 (7.7%) in Group C (P=0.010). The median period from surgery to lymphedema was 0.54 years (interquartile range =0.18–1.78). The independent risk factors for BCRL included positive axillary lymph node invasion, a higher (>20) number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, and having undergone radiation therapy, whereas receiving an educational program followed by physiotherapy was a protective factor against BCRL (hazard ratio =0.35, 95% confidence interval =0.18–0.67, P=0.002). Conclusion Patient education that begins within the first week postsurgery and is followed by physiotherapy is effective in reducing the risk of BCRL in women with breast cancer. PMID:25750536

  16. Survival implications of pretreatment pelvic CT in rectal cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chunyan; Zhang, Min; Tian, Li; Jiang, Wu; Zeng, Zhifang; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the correlation between pretreatment computed tomography (CT) data and survival duration after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and methods: 122 consecutive patients with advanced rectal cancer were assessed retrospectively. Pretreatment imaging and postoperative data were evaluated through Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results: Pretreatment CT identified 557 metastatic lymph nodes (mean, 4.55 per patient; median 4). Survival durations were measured during the period between the application of CT and death or the last follow-up examination. Univariate analysis showed that the following factors had a significant impact on survival: maximum tumor diameter (P = 0.019), distance from inferior tumor margin to anorectal ring (P <0.0001), number of lymph nodes involved in patients with short-axis, lymph node diameter ≥8 mm (P <0.0001) in pretreatment CT, distance from the anorectal ring (P = 0.027), ypN stage (P = 0.0008), ypM stage (P = 0.046) and number of metastatic lymph nodes (P <0.0001) in clinical assessment. Multivariate analysis showed that the following factors were significant: number of lymph nodes in patients with short-axis lymph node diameter ≥5 mm but <8 mm (P = 0.044) and in those with this diameter ≥8 mm (P = 0.028; pretreatment CT) and number of metastatic lymph nodes (assessed in histopathological examination). Conclusion: Pretreatment lymph node size and number can predict survival duration after treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. For patients with lymph nodes >8 mm (short-axis diameter) and/or >1, such lymph nodes tend to have a poor performance for prognosis. PMID:26550194

  17. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  18. Systematic review of laparoscopic vs open surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Shoichi; Tsukamoto, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Yoshihisa; Shimada, Ryu; Okamoto, Koichi; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Nozawa, Keijiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To verify the safety and validity of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer in elderly patients. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed of a systematic search of studies on an electronic database. Studies that compared laparoscopic colectomy (LAC) in elderly colorectal cancer patients with open colectomy (OC) were retrieved, and their short and long-term outcomes compared. Elderly people were defined as 65 years old or more. Inclusion criteria were set at: Resection of colorectal cancer, comparison between laparoscopic and OC and no significant difference in backgrounds between groups. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were identified for analysis. LAC was performed on 1436 patients, and OC performed on 1810 patients. In analyses of short-term outcomes, operation time for LAC was longer than for OC (mean difference = 34.4162, 95%CI: 17.8473-50.9851, P < 0.0001). The following clinical parameters were lower in LAC than in OC: Amount of estimated blood loss (mean difference = -93.3738, 95%CI: -132.3437 to -54.4039, P < 0.0001), overall morbidity (OR = 0.5427, 95%CI: 0.4425-0.6655, P < 0.0001), incisional surgical site infection (OR = 0.6262, 95%CI: 0.4310-0.9097, P = 0.0140), bowel obstruction and ileus (OR = 0.6248, 95%CI: 0.4519-0.8638, P = 0.0044) and cardiovascular complications (OR = 0.4767, 95%CI: 0.2805-0.8101, P = 0.0062). In analyses of long-term outcomes (median follow-up period: 36.4 mo in LAC, 34.3 mo in OC), there was no significant difference in overall survival (mean difference = 0.8321, 95%CI: 0.5331-1.2990, P = 0.4187) and disease specific survival (mean difference = 1.0254, 95%CI: 0.6707-1.5675, P = 0.9209). There was also no significant difference in the number of dissected lymph nodes (mean difference = -0.1360, 95%CI: -4.0553-3.7833, P = 0.9458). CONCLUSION: LAC in elderly colorectal cancer patients had benefits in short-term outcomes compared with OC except operation time. The long-term outcomes and oncological clearance of LAC

  19. Morbidity and mortality after radical and palliative pancreatic cancer surgery. Risk factors influencing the short-term results.

    PubMed Central

    Bakkevold, K E; Kambestad, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the morbidity and mortality after radical and palliative pancreatic cancer surgery in Norway, especially the risk factors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A prospective multicenter study between 1984-1987 including only histologically or cytologically verified adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (N = 442) or the papilla of Vater (N = 30); 84 patients (19%) with pancreatic carcinoma and 24 patients (80%) with papilla carcinoma underwent radical operations. A palliative procedure was performed in 252 patients (53%). METHODS: Clinical data, surgical procedures and the following morbidity and mortality were recorded on standardized forms. The risk factors were analyzed by a logistic multiple regression model. RESULTS: The morbidity, reoperation, and mortality rates were 43, 18, and 11% after radical surgery and 23, 4, and 14% after palliative surgery. Karnofsky's index was the sole independent risk factor for death after radical surgery. Splenectomy, age, and TNM stage influenced morbidity. Diabetes, Karnofsky's index, and liver metastases were risk factors in palliative surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity and mortality risks were comparable between total pancreatectomy and a Whipple's procedure and between biliary and a double bypass. Preoperative biliary drainage had no impact on the risks and may be abandoned. High age is a relative and a low Karnofsky's index an absolute contraindication for radical surgery. Nonsurgical palliation of jaundice should be considered according to the presence of independent risk factors. PMID:7682052

  20. Factors influencing the surgery intentions and choices of women with early breast cancer: the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women diagnosed with early breast cancer (stage I or II) can be offered the choice between mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy due to equivalence in survival rates. A wide variation in the surgical management of breast cancer and a lack of theoretically guided research on this issue highlight the need for further research into the factors influencing women’s choices. An extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) could provide a basis to understand and predict women’s surgery choices. The aims of this study were to understand and predict the surgery intentions and choices of women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer, examining the predictive utility of an extended TPB. Methods Sixty-two women recruited from three UK breast clinics participated in the study; 48 women, newly diagnosed with early breast cancer, completed online questionnaires both before their surgery and after accessing an online decision support intervention (BresDex). Questionnaires assessed views about breast cancer and the available treatment options using items designed to measure constructs of an extended TPB (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and anticipated regret), and women’s intentions to choose mastectomy or BCS. Objective data were collected on women’s choice of surgery via the clinical breast teams. Multiple and logistic regression analyses examined predictors of surgery intentions and subsequent choice of surgery. Results The extended TPB accounted for 69.9% of the variance in intentions (p <.001); attitudes and subjective norms were significant predictors. Including additional variables revealed anticipated regret to be a more important predictor than subjective norms. Surgery intentions significantly predicted surgery choices (p <.01). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the utility of an extended TPB in predicting and understanding women’s surgery intentions and choices for early breast cancer

  1. Preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients: video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Zong, Zhenfeng; Yuan, Jun; Song, Xiang; Ren, Mingming; Meng, Qingjun; Dai, Guoguang; Kong, Fanyi; Xie, Shumin; Cheng, Siying; Gao, Tianwen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients and differences in the psychological and social factors that influence treatment decision-making. Methods One hundred and forty patients with stage I lung cancer were recruited from Hebei Cangzhou Central Hospital. Before surgery, the patients completed a questionnaire that surveyed their preferences for treatment and the relevant influencing factors. Differences in psychological and social characteristics were compared between lung cancer patients who chose video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and those who opted for open thoracotomy. Results Among the 135 valid questionnaires, 79 patients preferred VATS and 56 patients chose open thoracotomy. Potential side effects, doctors’ recommendation, the prognosticated chance for cure, cosmesis, and financial burden influenced the patients’ decisions. Conclusion The minimally invasive advantages of VATS, including lesser trauma to the chest wall, earlier remission of postoperative pain, faster recovery, less bleeding, and improved cardiopulmonary function made VATS more attractive to patients needing lobectomy for lung cancer. However, the choice of VATS over open thoracotomy is still influenced by the degree of prognosticated cure and the feasibility of surgery. PMID:25336927

  2. Analysis of autonomic nerve preservation and pouch reconstruction influencing fragmentation of defecation after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, K; Sumi, T; Enomoto, M; Mori, Y; Aoki, T

    2010-01-01

    Our questionnaire survey on defecation disorders after rectal cancer surgery revealed that 66.7% of postoperative patients were most annoyed with fragmentation of defecation. Therefore, we performed a change-over-time analysis on the relationship of fragmentation and factors including location of rectal cancer, surgical technique, anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction, extent of lymph node dissection, and degree of pelvic and colonic nerve preservation surrounding the superior mesenteric artery. The fragmentation decreased over time at the postoperative time points of 6 months, 2 and 5 years. A statistical analysis of factors influencing fragmentation revealed that location of cancer, reconstruction technique, anastomosis method and degree of pelvic nerve preservation were significant factors for the entire patient population and that colonic nerve preservation was a significant factor 5 years after surgery. Analysis of patients with lower rectal cancer only showed that in addition to surgical technique and anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction was effective and autonomic nerve preservation was effective 5 years after surgery. As a result, when the anastomotic site was closer to the anus, the frequency of fragmentation increased; we concluded that pouch reconstruction was an effective surgical technique and colonic nerve preservation was effective in the longer term. PMID:21051900

  3. A longitudinal analysis of chronic arm morbidity following breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Boquiren, Virginia M; Hack, Thomas F; Thomas, Roanne L; Towers, Anna; Kwan, Winkle B; Tilley, Andrea; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Miedema, Baukje

    2016-06-01

    Arm morbidity (AM) arising from breast cancer (BC) treatment can detrimentally impact quality of life; often limiting a survivor's ability to participate in valued activities. The present study explored (a) the developmental time course of AM [restricted range of motion (ROM), pain, and arm volume changes], negative affect, and perceived disability in the immediate years post-surgery, and (b) the mediating role of perceived disability on the relationship between AM and negative affect over time. In this 5-year longitudinal study, BC survivors from four Canadian oncology clinics (n = 431) completed five annual clinical assessments, where differences in ROM (shoulder abduction, external rotation) and arm volume between the affected and non-affected arm were measured. The profile of mood states (POMS), disability of arm, shoulder, hand, and McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short form were completed. Results from general linear modeling showed that AM, negative affect, and perceived disability were greatest 1-year post-surgery, declined, and with the exception of arm volume changes, were significantly lower 5 years later. Negative affect was significantly associated with restrictions in shoulder abduction and external rotation (average r = -0.15; p < 0.05) and present arm pain (average r = 0.28, p < 0.01) at most assessments. The mediating role of perceived disability on the relationship between AM and negative affect was statistically significant in a majority of assessments. Perceived disability is the underlying factor driving the relationship between AM and mood disturbance over time. Rehabilitative therapy to improve survivors' functional well-being might mitigate the negative impacts of AM on emotional health. PMID:27194415

  4. Follow-up of thrombin generation after prostate cancer surgery: global test for increased hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Benyo, Matyas; Flasko, Tibor; Molnar, Zsuzsanna; Kerenyi, Adrienne; Batta, Zoltan; Jozsa, Tamas; Harsfalvi, Jolan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that evaluation of thrombin generation identifies patients at thrombotic risk. Thrombin generation has a central role in hemorrhage control and vascular occlusion and its measurement provides new metrics of these processes providing sufficient evaluation of an individual's hemostatic competence and response to anticoagulant therapy. The objective of the study is to assess a new measure of hypercoagulability that predisposes to venous thromboembolism in the postoperative period after radical prostatectomy. Pre- (day-1) and postoperative (hour 1, day 6, month 1 and 10) blood samples of 24 patients were tested for plasma thrombin generation (peak thrombin), routine hematology and hemostasis. Patients received low molecular weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis. Peak thrombin levels were higher in patients compared to controls at baseline (p<0.001), and elevated further in the early postoperative period (p<0.001). Longer general anesthesia and high body mass index were associated with increased thrombin generation after surgery (p = 0.024 and p = 0.040). D dimer and fibrinogen levels were higher after radical prostatectomy (p = 0.001 and p<0.001). Conventional clotting tests remained within the reference range. Our study contributed to the cognition of the hypercoagulable state in cancer patients undergoing pelvic surgery and revealed the course of thrombin generation after radical prostatectomy. Whilst it is unsurprising that thrombin generation increases after tissue trauma, further evaluation of this condition during the postoperative period would lead urologists to an international and well-supported consensus regarding thromboprophylaxis in order to provide better clinical outcome. Considering the routine evaluation of procoagulant activity and extending prophylactic anticoagulant therapy accordingly may potentially prevent late thrombotic events. PMID:23236465

  5. The Role of Palliative Surgery in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Axel; Porres, Daniel; Pfister, David

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues or antagonists represents the treatment of choice in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCA). Depending on the serum concentration of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir, the survival might vary between 11 and 78 months. In castration-resistant PCA (CRPC), all new medical treatment options can induce complete and partial remissions in metastatic foci, but they have no profound effect on the prostate itself, as has been shown recently. About one-third of all patients without local treatment of the primary will develop significant complications of the lower and upper urinary tract due to local progression of the PCA. In men with CRPC and lower urinary tract symptoms, palliative transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) can be performed with a 60-70% success rate. Infiltration of the pelvic floor, the bladder neck and trigone, and the external urethral sphincter can make palliative radical surgery necessary. Bladder neck closure with continent vesicostomy, radical cystoprostatectomy with an incontinent urinary diversion, and anterior and posterior exenteration are individual therapeutic options in men with a good performance status and a considerable life expectancy. Symptomatic involvement of the upper urinary tract can be managed by the placement of endoluminal stents or a percutaneous nephrostomy in men with poor performance. In men with a good response to ADT and a good performance status, reconstructive ureteral surgery might be considered and the options of ureteral reimplantation, ureter ileal replacement, and a subcutaneous pyelovesical bypass have to be discussed. The indication to perform one of the above-mentioned surgical approaches needs to be discussed in a multidisciplinary tumor board. PMID:26632812

  6. Pancreatic cancer surgery and nutrition management: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Afaneh, Cheguevara; Gerszberg, Deborah; Slattery, Eoin; Seres, David S; Chabot, John A; Kluger, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreaticobiliary tumors. These patients typically present in a malnourished state. Various screening tools have been employed to help with preoperative risk stratification. Examples include the subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and nutritional risk index (NRI). Adequate studies have not been performed to determine if perioperative interventions, based on nutrition risk assessment, result in less morbidity and mortality. The routine use of gastric decompression with nasogastric sump tubes may be unnecessary following elective pancreatic resections. Instead, placement should be selective and employed on a case-by-case basis. A wide variety of feeding modalities are available, oral nutrition being the most effective. Artificial nutrition may be provided by temporary nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, or combined nasogastrojejunal tube) or surgically placed tube [gastrostomy (GT), jejunostomy (JT), gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJT)], and intravenously (parenteral nutrition, PN). The optimal tube for enteral feeding cannot be determined based on current data. Each is associated with a specific set of complications. Dual lumen tubes may be useful in the presence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) as the stomach may be decompressed while feeds are delivered to the jejunum. However, all feeding tubes placed in the small intestine, except direct jejunostomies, commonly dislodge and retroflex into the stomach. Jejunostomies are associated with less frequent, but more serious complications. These include intestinal torsion and bowel necrosis. PN is associated with septic, metabolic, and access-related complications and should be the feeding strategy of last-resort. Enteral feeds are clearly preferred over parental nutrition. A sound understanding of perioperative nutrition may improve patient outcomes. Patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery should undergo multidisciplinary

  7. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  8. Multimodal analgesia with gabapentin and local anesthetics prevents acute and chronic pain after breast surgery for cancer.

    PubMed

    Fassoulaki, Argyro; Triga, Argyro; Melemeni, Aikaterini; Sarantopoulos, Constantine

    2005-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of multimodal analgesia on acute and chronic pain after breast surgery for cancer. Fifty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were blindly randomized to receive gabapentin, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream, and ropivacaine in the wound or three placebos. Pain (visual analog scale) and analgesics were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) 3, 6, and 9 h and 8 days after surgery. Three and 6 mo later, patients were assessed for chronic pain. The treatment group consumed less paracetamol in the PACU (469 versus 991 mg; P < 0.002) and less Lonalgal (1.0 versus 4.4 tablets; P = 0.003) than the controls, exhibited lower visual analog scale scores at rest in the PACU (P = 0.001) and on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 5 (P = 0.040, P = 0.015, and P = 0.045, respectively), and after movement in the PACU (P = 0.001) and on postoperative Days 2, 4, and 8 (P = 0.028, P = 0.007, and P = 0.032, respectively). Three and 6 mo after surgery, 18 of 22 (82%) and 12 of 21 (57%) of the controls reported chronic pain versus 10 of 22 (45%) and 6 of 20 (30%) in the treatment group (P = 0.028 and P = 0.424, respectively); 5 of 22 and 4 of 21 of the controls required analgesics versus 0 of 22 and 0 of 20 of those treated (P = 0.048 and P = 0.107, respectively). Multimodal analgesia reduced acute and chronic pain after breast surgery for cancer. PMID:16244006

  9. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  10. Robot-assisted surgery for kidney cancer increased access to a procedure that can reduce mortality and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amitabh; Snider, Julia Thornton; Wu, Yanyu; Jena, Anupam; Goldman, Dana P

    2015-02-01

    Surgeons increasingly use robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery for a variety of medical conditions. For hospitals, the acquisition and maintenance of a robot requires a significant investment, but financial returns are not linked to any improvement in long-term patient outcomes in the current reimbursement environment. Kidney cancer provides a useful case study for evaluating the long-term value that this innovation can provide. Kidney cancer is generally treated through partial or radical nephrectomy, with evidence favoring the former procedure for appropriate patients. We found that robot-assisted surgery increased access to partial nephrectomy and that partial nephrectomy reduced mortality and renal failure. The value of the benefits of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery to patients, in terms of quality-adjusted life-years gained, outweighed the health care and surgical costs to patients and payers by a ratio of five to one. In addition, we found no evidence that the availability of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery increased the likelihood that inappropriate patients received partial nephrectomy. PMID:25646101

  11. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer and other less common disease histologies: is it time?

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Paul L.; Kwong, Mei Li M.; Sabesan, Arvind; Sorber, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, and once spread to the peritoneum, has a 5-year survival of less than 5%. Recent years have demonstrated advances in the use of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) in combination with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis due to various malignancies. The frequent desmoplastic stroma and poor vascularization impeding drug delivery particularly in the diffuse form of gastric cancer is thought to provide a sound rationale for a regionalized treatment approach in this disease. Here, we seek to review the available data to define the role of CRS and HIPEC in gastric cancer metastatic to the peritoneal surface, and furthermore, analyze the use of CRS and HIPEC in malignancies less commonly treated with the regionalized perfusion approach. PMID:26941987

  12. Anaesthetic management of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer in patients of dilated cardiomyopathy with poor ejection fraction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yao-Hua; Hu, Liang; Xia, Jin; Hao, Quan-Shui; Feng, Li; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    A patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with poor ejection fraction posted for laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer which was successfully performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation was reported. Our observations strongly indicate that detailed preoperative assessment, watchful intraoperative monitoring, and skillful optimization of fluid status and hemodynamic play important role in the high risk patient under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. PMID:26309623

  13. A comprehensive assessment of the risk of bone morphogenetic protein use in spinal fusion surgery and postoperative cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kevin S; McCormick, Paul C; Levi, Allan D

    2015-07-01

    The risk of postoperative cancer following the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in spinal fusion is one potential complication that has received significant interest. Until recently, there has been little clinical evidence to support the assertion of potential cancer induction after BMP use in spinal surgery. This report aims to summarize the findings from clinical data available to date from the Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) project as well as more recently published large database studies regarding the association of BMP use in spinal fusion and the risk of postoperative cancer. A detailed review was based on online databases, primary studies, FDA reports, and bibliographies of key articles for studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of BMP in spinal fusion. In an analysis of the YODA project, one meta-analysis detected a statistically significant increase in cancer occurrence at 24 months but not at 48 months, and the other meta-analysis did not detect a significant increase in postoperative cancer occurrence. Analysis of 3 large health care data sets (Medicare, MarketScan, and PearlDiver) revealed that none were able to detect a significant increase in risk of malignant cancers when BMP was used compared with controls. The potential risk of postoperative cancer formation following the use of BMP in spinal fusion must be interpreted on an individual basis for each patient by the surgeon. There is no conclusive evidence that application of the common formulations of BMP during spinal surgery results in the formation of cancer locally or at a distant site. PMID:25860517

  14. High morbidity in myocardial infarction and heart failure patients after gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sang-Ho; Kim, Young-Woo; Yu, Wansik; Lee, Sang Ho; Park, Young Kyu; Park, Seong-Heum; Jeong, In Ho; Lee, Sang Eok; Park, Yongwhi; Lee, Young-Joon

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate to morbidity and mortality differences between 4 underlying heart diseases, myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris (Angina), heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation (AF), after radical surgery for gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 221 patients of a total of 15167 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy and were preoperatively diagnosed with a history of Angina, MI, HF, or AF in 8 hospitals. RESULTS: We find that the total morbidity rate is significantly higher in the MI group (44%) than the Angina (15.7%), AF (18.8%), and HF (23.1%) groups (P < 0.01). Moreover, we note that the risk for postoperative cardiac problems is higher in patients with a history of HF (23.1%) than patients with a history of Angina (2.2%), AF (4.3%), or MI (6%; P = 0.01). The HF and MI groups each have 1 case of cardiogenic mortality. CONCLUSION: We conclude that MI patients have a higher risk of morbidity, and HF patients have a higher risk of postoperative cardiac problems than Angina or AF. PMID:26074701

  15. Primary debulking surgery for advanced ovarian cancer: are you a believer or a dissenter?

    PubMed

    Schorge, John O; Clark, Rachel M; Lee, Susanna I; Penson, Richard T

    2014-12-01

    Nothing stirs the collective soul of primary debulking surgery (PDS) advocates like hard data suggesting equivalent outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). These opposing views have even metaphorically come to blows at the highly entertaining "SGO Fight Night" that took place during the 2008 Annual Meeting on Women's Cancer, replete with teams supporting each of the would-be gladiators. Decades of retrospective data supporting the clinical benefit of PDS has recently been challenged by the publication in 2010 of a randomized phase III trial conducted in Europe supporting the clinical efficacy of NAC. Naturally, a firestorm of criticism among believers ensued, yet practice patterns within the United States did slowly change, suggesting an emerging block of dissenters. Another randomized phase III European trial, as presented in abstract form in 2013, showed similar findings. Few other topics within the field of gynecologic oncology have participants so entrenched in the "corners" of their existing practice patterns. This review attempts to consolidate the current evidence supporting both sides so that the patient can be declared the winner. PMID:25316177

  16. Is the routine microscopic examination of proximal and distal resection margins in colorectal cancer surgery justified?

    PubMed

    Morlote, Diana M; Alexis, John B

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic examination of the proximal and distal resection margins is part of the routine pathologic evaluation of colorectal surgical specimens removed for adenocarcinoma. Anastomotic donuts are frequently received and microscopically examined. We examined 594 specimens received over a period of 10 years and found only 3 cases of definitive direct involvement of a longitudinal margin by carcinoma. All 3 cases also showed tumor at the margin grossly. One case of margin involvement by adenocarcinoma was found in which the tumor was grossly 1.7 cm away; however, this finding was likely a tumor deposit, as the patient had diffuse metastatic disease. All 242 anastomotic donuts examined were free of carcinoma. Our study suggests that the proximal and distal margins of colorectal cancer specimens need not be examined microscopically in order to accurately assess margin status in cases where the tumor is at least 2 cm away from the margin of resection. Also, in cases in which anastomotic donuts are included with the case, these should be considered the true margins of resection and may be microscopically examined in place of the bowel specimen margins when margin examination is needed. Anastomotic donuts need not be examined if the tumor is more than 2 cm away from the margin. An exception to this rule would be cases of rectal adenocarcinoma where neoadjuvant therapy is given prior to surgery. In these cases, mucosal evidence of malignancy may be absent and microscopic examination of the margins is the only way to assure complete excision. PMID:27402222

  17. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure. PMID:24980159

  18. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure. PMID:24980159

  19. Pneumonia after Major Cancer Surgery: Temporal Trends and Patterns of Care

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Vincent Q.; Ravi, Praful; Abd-El-Barr, Abd-El-Rahman M.; Jhaveri, Jay K.; Gervais, Mai-Kim; Meyer, Christian P.; Hanske, Julian; Sammon, Jesse D.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Pneumonia is a leading cause of postoperative complication. Objective. To examine trends, factors, and mortality of postoperative pneumonia following major cancer surgery (MCS). Methods. From 1999 to 2009, patients undergoing major forms of MCS were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) subset, resulting in weighted 2,508,916 patients. Measurements. Determinants were examined using logistic regression analysis adjusted for clustering using generalized estimating equations. Results. From 1999 to 2009, 87,867 patients experienced pneumonia following MCS and prevalence increased by 29.7%. The estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of mortality after MCS was −2.4% (95% CI: −2.9 to −2.0, P < 0.001); the EAPC of mortality associated with pneumonia after MCS was −2.2% (95% CI: −3.6 to 0.9, P = 0.01). Characteristics associated with higher odds of pneumonia included older age, male, comorbidities, nonprivate insurance, lower income, hospital volume, urban, Northeast region, and nonteaching status. Pneumonia conferred a 6.3-fold higher odd of mortality. Conclusions. Increasing prevalence of pneumonia after MCS, associated with stable mortality rates, may result from either increased diagnosis or more stringent coding. We identified characteristics associated with pneumonia after MCS which could help identify at-risk patients in order to reduce pneumonia after MCS, as it greatly increases the odds of mortality. PMID:27445554

  20. Pneumonia after Major Cancer Surgery: Temporal Trends and Patterns of Care.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Vincent Q; Ravi, Praful; Abd-El-Barr, Abd-El-Rahman M; Jhaveri, Jay K; Gervais, Mai-Kim; Meyer, Christian P; Hanske, Julian; Sammon, Jesse D; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Pneumonia is a leading cause of postoperative complication. Objective. To examine trends, factors, and mortality of postoperative pneumonia following major cancer surgery (MCS). Methods. From 1999 to 2009, patients undergoing major forms of MCS were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) subset, resulting in weighted 2,508,916 patients. Measurements. Determinants were examined using logistic regression analysis adjusted for clustering using generalized estimating equations. Results. From 1999 to 2009, 87,867 patients experienced pneumonia following MCS and prevalence increased by 29.7%. The estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of mortality after MCS was -2.4% (95% CI: -2.9 to -2.0, P < 0.001); the EAPC of mortality associated with pneumonia after MCS was -2.2% (95% CI: -3.6 to 0.9, P = 0.01). Characteristics associated with higher odds of pneumonia included older age, male, comorbidities, nonprivate insurance, lower income, hospital volume, urban, Northeast region, and nonteaching status. Pneumonia conferred a 6.3-fold higher odd of mortality. Conclusions. Increasing prevalence of pneumonia after MCS, associated with stable mortality rates, may result from either increased diagnosis or more stringent coding. We identified characteristics associated with pneumonia after MCS which could help identify at-risk patients in order to reduce pneumonia after MCS, as it greatly increases the odds of mortality. PMID:27445554

  1. Improved outcome in asymptomatic recurrence following curative surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Rojas-Flores, Miriam; Castro-Sánchez, Andrea; Villa, Antonio R; García-Aceituno, Luis; León-Rodríguez, Eucario

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome and resectability of patients with gastric cancer recurrence after curative surgery detected by follow-up endoscopy, according to the presence or absence of symptoms. All patients with gastric carcinoma, who underwent a curative gastrectomy, were retrospectively identified. We analyzed outcome and survival in patients compliant with routine follow-up who presented symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrence. Of the 119 resected patients, 63.0% had a recurrence, with an overall survival of 20.0 months. Fourteen patients were asymptomatic when recurrence was detected, whereas 61 patients were symptomatic. Median time to recurrence was 16.0 m for both groups. A local curative re-resection was possible in 2/14 (asymptomatic) and 1/61 (symptomatic). Asymptomatic patients had a longer median postrecurrence survival time of 9.0 months, compared with 2.0 months in the symptomatic patients (p=0.034). The median overall survival was greater in the asymptomatic vs symptomatic group (25.0 vs 20.0 months), although this did not reach statistical significance. The results from this study advocate that the presence or absence of symptoms is a good surrogate marker to assess biologic aggressiveness. The value of routine follow-up endoscopy to permit a higher rate of re-resection in asymptomatic patients remains to be established. PMID:20517658

  2. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. The Place of Extensive Surgery in Locoregional Recurrence and Limited Metastatic Disease of Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Berlière, M.; Duhoux, F. P.; Taburiaux, L.; Lacroix, V.; Galant, C.; Leconte, I.; Fellah, L.; Lecouvet, F.; Bouziane, D.; Piette, Ph.; Lengele, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were first to clearly define two different entities: locoregional recurrences and limited metastatic disease and secondly to evaluate the place of extensive surgery in these two types of recurrence. Material and Methods. Twenty-four patients were followed from June 2004 until May 2014. All patients underwent surgery but for 1 patient this surgery was stopped because the tumour was unresectable. Results. The median interval between surgery for the primary tumour and the locoregional recurrence or metastatic evolution was 129 months. Eight patients had pure nodal recurrences, 4 had nodal and muscular recurrences, 5 had muscular + skin recurrences, and 8 had metastatic evolution. Currently, all patients are still alive but 2 have liver metastases. Disease free survival was measured at 2 years and extrapolated at 5 years and was 92% at these two time points. No difference was observed for young or older women; limited metastatic evolution and locoregional recurrence exhibited the same disease free survival. Conclusion. Extensive surgery has a place in locoregional and limited metastatic breast cancer recurrences but this option must absolutely be integrated in the multidisciplinary strategy of therapeutic options and needs to be planned with a curative intent. PMID:25866810

  4. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Design Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Setting Academic cancer center oncology clinic. Participants 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Interventions Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Main Outcome Measure Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Results Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70–0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Conclusions Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation. PMID:26076031

  5. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer in a patient with tuberculous kyphosis and dwarfism: a rare case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Tada, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    With accumulated surgical experience, the contraindications to laparoscopic surgery have been decreasing. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery has been widely adopted for a variety of diseases. However, surgery in patients with anatomic deformities are still a challenge for surgeons, specifically abdominal surgery in patients with severe kyphosis. A 71-year-old man with a diagnosis of ascending colon cancer had severe kyphosis with extremely short stature, secondary to tuberculous spondylitis. Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was successfully performed with a single umbilical incision plus one port. This is the first reported case involving laparoscopic surgery in a patient with tuberculous kyphosis. The purpose of this report is to describe the surgical skills of reduced port laparoscopic surgery in a patient with altered habitus. With proper planning and a meticulous operation, minimally invasive surgery could be safely achieved. PMID:26240628

  6. Preoperative Nutritional Assessment in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery: MNA or PG-SGA?

    PubMed

    Dubhashi, S P; Kayal, Akshat

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the use of patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) as a preoperative nutritional assessment tool in elderly cancer patients. This was a prospective study carried out on 47 patients, 45 years and above suffering from cancer and admitted to Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune. The patients were evaluated with PG-SGA and MNA tools at the time of admission and baseline data were collected. All patients had undergone surgeries as per indications. Postoperatively, the surgical outcomes and adverse events were noted and statistically evaluated. The average age of the study sample was 61.46 years and 29 patients were females. The patients classified by PG-SGA were ten in group A and 37 in group B and C. The patients classified by MNA were five in no risk group and 42 in group with patients at risk and malnourished. When evaluated with PG-SGA in group B and C, wound infections and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 86.4 % patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 14.2 days and their average duration of stay was 29 days. On the other hand, the evaluation of patients with MNA, at risk and malnourished patients, wound infections, and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 81 % of patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 13.8 days and their average duration of stay was 27 days. The results were statistically significant. The mini nutritional assessment is more exhaustive in identifying patients at risk and is useful in screening populations to identify frail elderly persons allowing us to intervene earlier, thereby improving the patient prognosis. The patient-generated subjective global assessment is a more comprehensive tool for elderly cancer

  7. Intrusive thoughts and quality of life among men with prostate cancer before and three months after surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sudden, unwelcome and repetitive thoughts about a traumatic event – intrusive thoughts – could relate to how men assess their quality of life after prostate-cancer diagnosis. We aimed to study the prevalence of intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer and their association with quality-of-life outcomes before and after radical prostatectomy. Methods During the first year of the LAPPRO-trial, 971 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively included from 14 urological centers in Sweden. Of those, 833 men responded to two consecutive study-specific questionnaires before and three months after surgery (participation rate 86%). The association of intrusive thoughts with three quality-of-life outcomes, i.e. self-assessed quality of life, depressive mood and waking up with anxiety was estimated by prevalence ratios that were calculated, together with a 95% confidence interval, at the same time-point as well as over time. Fisher’s exact-test was used to analyze differences between respondents and non-respondents. Wilcoxon signed-ranks and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used for analysis of change over time. To validate new questions on intrusive thoughts, written answers to open-ended questions were read and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results Before surgery, 603 men (73%) reported negative intrusive thoughts about their cancer at some time in the past month and 593 men (59%) reported such thoughts three months after surgery. Comparing those reporting intrusive thoughts at least weekly or once a week before surgery with those who did not, the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval), three months after surgery, for waking up in the middle of the night with anxiety was 3.9 (2.7 to 5.5), for depressed mood 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1) and for impaired self-assessed quality of life 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5). Conclusion The prevalence of negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer at the time of surgery associates with studied quality

  8. Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Robotic-Assisted Surgery with Traditional Laparotomy for Rectal Cancer-Indian Study.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Ashwin, K R; Rajashekhar, Jaka; Zaveri, Shabber

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the common cancers in India. Surgical management is the mainstay of initial treatment for majority of patients. Minimally invasive surgery has gained acceptance for the surgical treatment of rectal cancer because, compared with laparotomy, it is associated with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization, and faster recovery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety, feasibility, technique, and outcomes (postoperative, oncological, and functional) of robotic-assisted rectal surgery in comparison with open surgery in the Indian population. A prospective randomized study was undertaken from August 2011 to December 2012. Fifty patients who presented with rectal carcinoma were randomized to either robotic arm (RA) or open arm (OA) group. Both groups were matched for clinical stage and operation type. Technique and feasibility of robotic-assisted surgery in terms of operating time, estimated blood loss, margins status, total number of lymph nodes retrieved, hospital stay, conversion to open procedure, complications, and functional outcomes were analyzed. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the RA than in the OA group (310 vs 246 min, P < 0.001) but was significantly reduced in the latter part of the robotic-assisted patients compared with the initial patients. The mean estimated blood loss was significantly less in the RA compared with the OA group (165.14 vs 406.04 ml, P < 0.001). None of the patients had margin positivity. The mean distal resection margin was significantly longer in the RA than in the OA group (3.6 vs 2.4 cm, P < 0.001). A total of 100 % of patients in the RA group had complete mesorectal excision while two patients in the OA group had incomplete mesorectal excision. The average number of retrieved lymph nodes was adequate for accurate staging. The number of lymph nodes removed by robotic method is slightly higher than the open method (16.88 vs 15.20) but with no statistical significance

  9. Developing a general ward nursing dashboard.

    PubMed

    Russell, Margot; Hogg, Maggie; Leach, Stuart; Penman, Mags; Friel, Susan

    2014-12-15

    The seventh and final article in the series on Leading Better Care explores some of the challenges in clinical practice relating to the use of data and making information meaningful to senior charge nurses and ward sisters. It describes the collaborative approach taken by NHS Lanarkshire, which involved nursing staff, programme leads and the eHealth team in the development of a general ward nursing dashboard as a means of ensuring safe, effective person-centred care. The article also illustrates how this web-based data-reporting programme is used to support clinical practice. PMID:25492791

  10. Role of Enteral Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Liang, Hui; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Zeng, Zi; Shuai, Ting; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of curative treatment for GC. Enteral immunonutrition (EIN) has been increasingly used to enhance host immunity and relieve inflammatory response of patients undergoing surgery for GC; however, conclusions across studies still remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of EIN for such patients. We searched some electronic databases including PubMed, EBSCO-Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and EMBASE to identify any latent studies which investigated the effects of EIN compared with standard EN on GC patients who undergoing surgery until the end of December 30, 2014. Relative risk (RR), mean difference (MD), or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and we also assessed heterogeneity by using Cochrane Q and I2 statistic combined with corresponding P-value. We included 9 eligible studies which included 785 patients eventually. The meta-analysis results shown that EIN increased level of IgA (MD, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12–0.51), IgG (MD, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.73–2.28), IgM (MD, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06–0.39), CD4+ (SMD, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.53–1.09), CD3+ (SMD, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.21–1.15), CD4+/CD8+ ratio (MD, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.12–1.01), and NK cell (MD, 2.35; 95% CI, 0.66–4.05); decreased IL-6 (MD, −98.22; 95% CI, −156.16 to −40.28) and TNF-α (MD, −118.29; 95% CI, −162.00 to −74.58), but not improve remained outcomes of interest involving postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, serum total protein, and CD8+. Descriptive analysis suggested that EIN also increased the concentration of IL-2 but not CRP. Impact on lymphocytes remains inconsistent. EIN is effective for enhancing host immunity and relieving the inflammatory response in GC patients undergoing gastrectomy, but clinical outcomes cannot be benefit from it. Heterogeneity caused by different

  11. Genomic Sequencing in Determining Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Cancer or Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Metastatic Neoplasm; Recurrent Neoplasm; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Unresectable Malignant Neoplasm

  12. Conservative mastectomies for breast cancer and risk-reducing surgery: the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center experience.

    PubMed

    Manning, Aidan T; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-02-01

    Demand for conservative mastectomies continues to increase as more patients choose to undergo breast reconstruction, often with simultaneous contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). In addition, the increasing use of risk-reducing surgery in high-risk groups has contributed to the increased use of these techniques. We have reviewed the indications and outcomes of a large group of patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) at this institution. In total, 728 nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSMs) were performed in 413 patients between 2000 and 2013, for treatment of breast cancer (n=269) or risk reduction (n=459). Of 728 NSMs performed, 177 (24.3%) were in patients known to have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation, or a genetic variant of uncertain significance. There was an incidental finding of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive carcinoma in 22 (4.8%) and 8 (1.7%) of 459 prophylactic NSMs, respectively. In addition, unexpected invasive carcinoma was found in 17 of 98 therapeutic NSMs (17.3%) performed for DCIS. At median follow-up of 49 months, there were no known cases of local recurrence and only one case of regional recurrence. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed in 409 patients, most of whom underwent tissue expander/implant based procedures (n=401). Although 273 breasts (37.5%) had some evidence of skin desquamation at follow-up, most resolved spontaneously with 47 breasts (6.5%) requiring debridement. Other complications included hematoma in seven breasts (1%) and wound infection in 31 breasts (4.3%). Expander/implant removal was required in 20 cases (2.8%). The nipple-areola complex (NAC) was subsequently excised in 10 of 728 breasts (1.4%) due to oncologic concerns following assessment of retroareolar tissue. NSM was successful in most patients with an acceptable complication rate and in few patients subsequently undergoing removal of the NAC. Patients requiring mastectomy for breast cancer or risk reduction may now benefit from

  13. Conservative mastectomies for breast cancer and risk-reducing surgery: the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center experience

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Aidan T.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for conservative mastectomies continues to increase as more patients choose to undergo breast reconstruction, often with simultaneous contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). In addition, the increasing use of risk-reducing surgery in high-risk groups has contributed to the increased use of these techniques. We have reviewed the indications and outcomes of a large group of patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) at this institution. In total, 728 nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSMs) were performed in 413 patients between 2000 and 2013, for treatment of breast cancer (n=269) or risk reduction (n=459). Of 728 NSMs performed, 177 (24.3%) were in patients known to have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation, or a genetic variant of uncertain significance. There was an incidental finding of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive carcinoma in 22 (4.8%) and 8 (1.7%) of 459 prophylactic NSMs, respectively. In addition, unexpected invasive carcinoma was found in 17 of 98 therapeutic NSMs (17.3%) performed for DCIS. At median follow-up of 49 months, there were no known cases of local recurrence and only one case of regional recurrence. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed in 409 patients, most of whom underwent tissue expander/implant based procedures (n=401). Although 273 breasts (37.5%) had some evidence of skin desquamation at follow-up, most resolved spontaneously with 47 breasts (6.5%) requiring debridement. Other complications included hematoma in seven breasts (1%) and wound infection in 31 breasts (4.3%). Expander/implant removal was required in 20 cases (2.8%). The nipple-areola complex (NAC) was subsequently excised in 10 of 728 breasts (1.4%) due to oncologic concerns following assessment of retroareolar tissue. NSM was successful in most patients with an acceptable complication rate and in few patients subsequently undergoing removal of the NAC. Patients requiring mastectomy for breast cancer or risk reduction may now benefit from

  14. Potential hospital cost-savings attributed to improvements in outcomes for colorectal cancer surgery following self-audit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the potential benefits of surgical audit is improved hospital cost-efficiencies arising from lower resource consumption associated with fewer adverse events. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential cost-savings for Australian hospitals from improved surgical performance for colorectal surgery attributed to a surgical self-audit program. Methods We used a mathematical decision-model to investigate cost differences in usual practice versus surgical audit and synthesized published hospital cost data with epidemiological evidence of adverse surgical events in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess post-operative outcomes from colorectal surgery and effectiveness of surgical audit. Results were subjected to both one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to address uncertainty in model parameters. Results If surgical self-audit facilitated the reduction of adverse surgical events by half those currently reported for colorectal cancer surgery, the potential cost-savings to hospitals is AU$48,720 (95% CI: $18,080-$89,260) for each surgeon treating 20 cases per year. A smaller 25% reduction in adverse events produced cost-savings of AU$24,960 per surgeon (95%CI: $1,980-$62,980). Potential hospital savings for all operative colorectal cancer cases was estimated at AU$30.3 million each year. Conclusions Surgical self-audit has the potential to create substantial hospital cost-savings for colorectal cancer surgery in Australia when considering the widespread incidence of this disease. The study is limited by the current availability and quality of data estimates abstracted from the published literature. Further evidence on the effectiveness of self-audit is required to substantiate these findings. PMID:20105290

  15. A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors for Patients Undergoing Surgery for Spinal Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sciubba, Daniel M.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Yurter, Alp; Ju, Derek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Fisher, Charles; Rhines, Laurence D.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Mendel, Ehud; Laufer, Ilya; Bettegowda, Chetan; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Rampersaud, Y. Raja; Sahgal, Arjun; Reynolds, Jeremy; Chou, Dean; Weber, Michael H.; Clarke, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Review of the literature. Objective  Surgery and cement augmentation procedures are effective palliative treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to describe the survival, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of surgery and cement augmentation procedures for breast cancer metastases to the spine. Methods  We performed a literature review using PubMed to identify articles that reported outcomes and/or prognostic factors of the breast cancer patient population with spinal metastases treated with any surgical technique since 1990. Results  The median postoperative survival for metastatic breast cancer was 21.7 months (8.2 to 36 months), the mean rate of any pain improvement was 92.9% (76 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic improvement was 63.8% (53 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic decline was 4.1% (0 to 8%), and the local tumor control rate was 92.6% (89 to 100%). Kyphoplasty studies reported a high rate of pain control in selected patients. Negative prognostic variables included hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor refractory tumor status, high degree of axillary lymph node involvement, and short disease-free interval (DFI). All other clinical or prognostic parameters were of low or insufficient strength. Conclusion  With respect to clinical outcomes, surgery consistently yielded neurologic improvements in patients presenting with a deficit with a minimal risk of worsening; however, negative prognostic factors associated with shorter survival following surgery include estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negativity, HER2 negativity, and a short DFI. PMID:27433433

  16. Laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery for early stage ovarian cancer: a single-centre case series and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is as yet limited evidence about fertility-sparing surgery for early ovarian cancer (EOC) carried out laparoscopically. We sought to analyze recurrence patterns and fertility outcome in a cohort of ovarian cancer patients who underwent fertility-saving laparoscopic surgical staging. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing fertility-sparing laparoscopic staging procedures for presumed EOC at a single gynecologic oncology service. Oncologic safety and reproductive outcome were the main outcome measures. The pertinent literature is reviewed. Results The study cohort consisted of 12 women. Cases included 5 invasive epithelial tumors and 7 nonepithelial tumors. The disease was reclassified to a higher stage in one woman. After a median follow up period of 38 months (range: 14–108), the overall survival was 100% and recurrence-free survival 90.9%. Five (100%) of patients who attempted pregnancy conceived spontaneously. Three of them had uneventful term pregnancy delivering healthy babies. The literature search yielded 62 cases of laparoscopic fertility conserving surgery for ovarian cancer. There were 4 (6.2%) recurrences. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rate were not estimable as earlier publications lack essential data. Conclusions Laparoscopic staging may represent a viable option for premenopausal women seeking fertility preservation in the setting of early ovarian cancer. More research is needed to determine whether laparoscopy may offer reproductive benefits to this particular population. PMID:24917888

  17. Combination Chemotherapy and Filgrastim Before Surgery in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  18. Definition of compartment-based radical surgery in uterine cancer: modified radical hysterectomy in intermediate/high-risk endometrial cancer using peritoneal mesometrial resection (PMMR) by M Höckel translated to robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The technique of compartment-based radical hysterectomy was originally described by M Höckel as total mesometrial resection (TMMR) for standard treatment of stage I and II cervical cancer. However, with regard to the ontogenetically-defined compartments of tumor development (Müllerian) and lymph drainage (Müllerian and mesonephric), compartments at risk may also be defined consistently in endometrial cancer. This is the first report in the literature on the compartment-based surgical approach to endometrial cancer. Peritoneal mesometrial resection (PMMR) with therapeutic lymphadenectomy (tLNE) as an ontogenetic, compartment-based oncologic surgery could be beneficial for patients in terms of surgical radicalness as well as complication rates; it can be standardized for compartment-confined tumors. Supported by M Höckel, PMMR was translated to robotic surgery (rPMMR) and described step-by-step in comparison to robotic TMMR (rTMMR). Methods Patients (n = 42) were treated by rPMMR (n = 39) or extrafascial simple hysterectomy (n = 3) with/without bilateral pelvic and/or periaortic robotic therapeutic lymphadenectomy (rtLNE) for stage I to III endometrial cancer, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification. Tumors were classified as intermediate/high-risk in 22 out of 40 patients (55%) and low-risk in 18 out of 40 patients (45%), and two patients showed other uterine malignancies. In 11 patients, no adjuvant external radiotherapy was performed, but chemotherapy was applied. Results No transition to open surgery was necessary. There were no intraoperative complications. The postoperative complication rate was 12% with venous thromboses, (n = 2), infected pelvic lymph cyst (n = 1), transient aphasia (n = 1) and transient dysfunction of micturition (n = 1). The mean difference in perioperative hemoglobin concentrations was 2.4 g/dL (± 1.2 g/dL) and one patient (2.4%) required

  19. The combination of FOLFOX4 and bevacizumab may enable salvage surgery of unresectable liver metastases in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sereno Moyano, María; Casado Sáenz, Enrique; de Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal

    2009-04-01

    Colorectal cancer treatment has experienced important advances in the last 5 years. New targeted therapies have been included in the classical regimens based on 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, or irinotecan. This new approach has brought great revolution in the treatment of this type of cancer. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a new antivascular endothelial growth factor drug, has been shown to improve overall survival in combination with chemotherapy in first-line and second-line settings as compared with standard chemotherapy regimens alone. This case report demonstrates our experience with bevacizumab in a colon cancer patient with liver, lung, and regional lymph node metastases who had a relapse in the liver after adjuvant treatment with capecitabine (Xeloda). The addition of bevacizumab to the FOLFOX4 regimen resulted in a partial response that provided an opportunity for salvage hepatic surgery. PMID:19352109

  20. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  1. Is adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for patients with microinvasive breast cancer after surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hai-Fei; Wei, Li-Juan; Yu, Jin-Pu; Lian, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Zi-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Survival and treatment of patients with microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) remain controversial. In this paper, we evaluated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for patients with MIBC to identify risk factors influencing its prognosis and decide the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, 108 patients with MIBC were recruited according to seventh edition of the staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). The subjects were divided into chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups. We compared the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between groups. Furthermore, we analyzed the factors related to prognosis for patients with MIBC using univariate and multivariate analyses. We also evaluated the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the prognostic factors by subgroup analysis after median follow-up time of 33 months (13-104 months). Results: The 5-year DFS and OS rates for the chemotherapy group were 93.7% and 97.5%, whereas those for the non-chemotherapy group were 89.7% and 100%. Results indicate that 5-year DFS was superior, but OS was inferior, in the former group compared with the latter group. However, no statistical significance was observed in the 5-year DFS (P=0.223) or OS (P=0.530) rate of the two groups. Most relevant poor-prognostic factors were Ki-67 overexpression and negative hormonal receptors. Cumulative survival was 98.2% vs. 86.5% between low Ki-67 (≤20%) and high Ki-67 (>20%). The hazard ratio of patients with high Ki-67 was 16.585 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.969-139.724; P=0.010]. Meanwhile, ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC had cumulative survival of 79.3% compared with 97.5% for ER(+) or PR(+) patients with MIBC. The hazard ratio for ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC was 19.149 (95% CI, 3.702-99.057; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chemotherapy could improve the outcomes of ER(-)/PR(-) patients (P=0.014), but not those who overexpress Ki-67

  2. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p < 0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<40 years), large tumor size (>20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the local recurrences after BCS in our study were true recurrences, which resulted in a poorer outcome as compared to new primary tumors. Moreover, younger age (<40), large tumor size (>2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy

  3. Clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Toshio; Iitsuka, Chiaki; Nomura, Hidetaka; Abe, Akiko; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Takizawa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery (IDS) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 124 advanced EOC patients and analyzed the details of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), IDS, postoperative treatment, and prognoses. Results Following IDS, 98 patients had no gross residual disease (NGRD), 15 had residual disease sized <1 cm (optimal), and 11 had residual disease sized ≥1 cm (suboptimal). Two-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 88.8% and 39.8% in the NGRD group, 40.0% and 13.3% in the optimal group (p<0.001 vs. NGRD for both), and 36.3% and 0% in the suboptimal group, respectively. Five-year OS and 2-year PFS rates were 62% and 56.1% in the lymph node-negative (LN-) group and 26.2% and 24.5% in the lymph node-positive (LN+) group (p=0.0033 and p=0.0024 vs. LN-, respectively). Furthermore, survival in the LN+ group, despite surgical removal of positive nodes, was the same as that in the unknown LN status group, in which lymphadenectomy was not performed (p=0.616 and p=0.895, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified gross residual tumor during IDS (hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 10.33 vs. NGRD) as the only independent predictor of poor OS. Conclusion NGRD after IDS improved prognosis in advanced EOC patients treated with NACT-IDS. However, while systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during IDS may predict outcome, it does not confer therapeutic benefits. PMID:26197771

  4. The role of surgery for pancreatic cancer: a 12-year review of patient outcome

    PubMed Central

    Badger, SA; Brant, JL; Jones, C; McClements, J; Loughrey, MB; Taylor, MA; Diamond, T; McKie, LD

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis with <5% alive at 5 years, despite active surgical treatment. The study aim was to review patients undergoing pancreatic resection and assess the effect of clinical and pathological parameters on survival. Patients and methods All patients who had undergone radical pancreatic surgery, January 1996 to December 2008, were identified from the unit database. Additional information was retrieved from the patient records. The demographic, clinical, and pathological records were recorded using Microsoft Excel. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and predictors of survival determined by multinominal logistic regression and log rank test. Results 126 patients were identified from the database. The majority (106) had a Whipple's procedure, 14 had a distal pancreatectomy and 6 had local periampullary excision. The average age of the Whipple's group of patients was 61.7 years (± 11.7) with most procedures performed for malignancy (n=100). Survival was worse with adenocarcinoma compared to all other pathologies (p=0.013), while periampullary tumours had a better prognosis compared to other locations (p=0.019). Survival decreased with poorer differentiation (p=0.001), increasing pT (p<0.001) and pN stage (p<0.001). Survival was worse with perineural (p=0.04) or lymphovascular invasion (p=0.05). A microscopic postive resection margin (R1) was associated with a worse survival (p=0.007). Tumour differentiation (p=0.001) and positive nodal status (p<0.001) were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion Tumour differentiation and nodal status are important predictors of outcome. A positive resection margin is associated with a poorer survival. PMID:21116422

  5. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lingos, T.I.; Recht, A.; Vicini, F.; Abner, A.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The likelihood of radiation pneumonitis and factors associated with its development in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy have not been well established. To assess these, the authors retrospectively reviewed 1624 patients treated between 1968 and 1985. Median follow-up for patients without local or distant failure was 77 months. Patients were treated with either tangential fields alone (n = 508) or tangents with a third field to the supraclavicular (SC) or SC-axillary (AX) region (n = 1116). Lung volume treated in the tangential fields was generally limited by keeping the perpendicular distance (demagnified) at the isocenter from the deep field edges to the posterior chest wall (CLD) to 3 cm or less. Seventeen patients with radiation pneumonitis were identified (1.0%). Radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed when patients presented with cough (15/17, 88%), fever (9/17, 53%), and/or dyspnea (6/17, 35%) and radiographic changes (17/17) following completion of RT. Radiographic infiltrates corresponded to treatment portals in all patients, and in 12 of the 17 patients, returned to baseline within 1-12 months. Five patients had permanent scarring on chest X ray. No patient had late or persistent pulmonary symptoms. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was correlated with the combined use of chemotherapy (CT) and a third field. Three percent (11/328) of patients treated with a 3-field technique who received chemotherapy developed radiation pneumonitis compared to 0.5% (6 of 1296) for all other patients (p = 0.0001). When patients treated with a 3-field technique received chemotherapy concurrently with radiation therapy, the incidence of radiation pneumonitis was 8.8% (8/92) compared with 1.3% (3/236) for those who received sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p = 0.002).

  6. How to select elderly colorectal cancer patients for surgery: a pilot study in an Italian academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Giampaolo; Pasini, Francesco; Ghignone, Federico; Zattoni, Davide; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Parlanti, Daniele; Montroni, Isacco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cancer is one of the most common diagnoses in elderly patients. Of all types of abdominal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) is undoubtedly the most frequent. Median age at diagnosis is approximately 70 years old worldwide. Due to the multiple comorbidities affecting elderly people, frailty evaluation is very important in order to avoid over- or under-treatment. This pilot study was designed to investigate the variables capable of predicting the long-term risk of mortality and living situation after surgery for CRC. Methods Patients with 70 years old and older undergoing elective surgery for CRC were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were preoperatively screened using 11 internationally-validated-frailty-assessment tests. The endpoints of the study were long-term mortality and living situation. The data were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis to verify the predictive value of score indices in order to identify possible risk factors. Results Forty-six patients were studied. The median follow-up time after surgery was 4.6 years (range, 2.9-5.7 years) and no patients were lost to follow-up. The overall mortality rate was 39%. Four of the patients who survived (4/28, 14%) lost their functional autonomy. The preoperative impaired Timed Up and Go (TUG), Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG PS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) scoring systems were significantly associated with increased long term mortality risk. Conclusion Simplified frailty-assessing tools should be routinely used in elderly cancer patients before treatment in order to stratify patient risk. The TUG, ECOG-PS, IADLs and VES-13 scoring systems are potentially able to predict long-term mortality and disability. Additional studies will be needed to confirm the preliminary data in order to improve management strategies for oncogeriatric surgical patients. PMID:26779367

  7. "Ward v. Wilbanks": Counselor Educators Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, David; Hall, Stephanie F.; Burkholder, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated 71 counselor educators' perspectives and pedagogical practices related to "Ward v. Wilbanks" (2009) and the American Counseling Association (ACA) response to the case. The authors used qualitative content analysis to identify 6 themes from survey data: (a) views on gatekeeping and student training; (b)…

  8. Dealing with Scabies in a Hospital Ward.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    A case of scabies has been diagnosed in the Medical Ward where Sophie works, and the hospital is having to take appropriate measures. Scabies mites can spread quickly, and staff who are in contact with the infected patient risk catching the parasites and contaminating their own family in turn. One of the night nurses is probably infected. PMID:26365648

  9. Limits of Freedom: The Ward Churchill Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nell, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Ward Churchill is but the latest in a long line of professors whose volatile statements have created controversy for themselves and their universities. Specific personnel matters in the case have been meticulously addressed in Boulder, but several larger questions have been curiously neglected. One might well ask, for…

  10. Henry Ward Beecher: A Nation's Tribune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    Henry Ward Beecher was America's most prominent 19th century liberal preacher and a major spokesperson for New England Transcendentalism. His philosophy integrated four fundamental themes: the creation of a moral code based on the internalization of values and peer group pressures, the establishment of the reform ideal of the impartial nonpartisan…

  11. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery*: A Prospective Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-12-01

    Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery.This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study.A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  12. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors Associated With the Nonreversal Ileostomy Following Sphincter-Preserving Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Gil Jae; Park, Sung Won; Lee, Won-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A loop ileostomy is used to protect an anastomosis after anal sphincter-preserving surgery, especially in patients with low rectal cancer, but little information is available concerning risk factors associated with a nonreversal ileostomy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors of ileostomy nonreversibility after a sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. Methods Six hundred seventy-nine (679) patients with rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery between January 2004 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 679, 135 (19.9%) underwent a defunctioning loop ileostomy of temporary intent, and these patients were divided into two groups, that is, a reversal group (RG, 112 patients) and a nonreversal group (NRG, 23 patients) according to the reversibility of the ileostomy. Results In 23 of the 135 rectal cancer patients (17.0%) that underwent a diverting ileostomy, stoma reversal was not possible for the following reasons; stage IV rectal cancer (11, 47.8%), poor tone of the anal sphincter (4, 17.4%), local recurrence (2, 8.7%), anastomotic leakage (1, 4.3%), radiation proctitis (1, 4.3%), and patient refusal (4, 17.4%). The independent risk factors of the nonreversal group were anastomotic leakage or fistula, stage IV cancer, local recurrence, and comorbidity. Conclusion Postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage or fistula, advanced primary disease (stage IV), local recurrence and comorbidity were identified as risk factors of a nonreversal ileostomy. These factors should be considered when drafting prudential guidelines for ileostomy closure. PMID:26161377

  13. Lymph nodes regression grade is a predictive marker for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy and radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Jiatian; Liu, Hao; Yin, Jie; Liu, Sai; Du, Feng; Hu, Junjie; Li, Ci; Niu, Xiangke; Lv, Bo; Xing, Shasha

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy (NT) for rectal cancer (RC) reduces primary tumors and involved lymph nodes. While a prognostic value of tumor regression grade (TRG) has been identified, involved lymph node regression grade (LRG) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we evaluated the association of LRG with oncologic outcomes of RC patients after NT followed by radical surgery. 347 patients with locally advanced RC who received NT and then underwent radical surgery were retrospectively recruited between 2004 and 2011. Response to NT was evaluated by a 3-tier LRG and TRG based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. LRG was assessed in all patients (LRG 0, 170 patients [49.0%]; LRG 1, 100 patients [28.8%]; and LRG 2, 77 patients [22.2%]). LRG correlated with 5-year distant metastasis and 5-year disease free survival (p=0.029 and 0.023, respectively). LRG also correlated with TRG (p=0.017). We conclude that the LRG system may be an independent predictive factor of long-term oncologic outcomes of rectal cancer patients after NT and radical surgery. PMID:26934651

  14. Post operative stereotactic radiosurgery for positive or close margins after preoperative chemoradiation and surgery for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dagoglu, Nergiz; Nedea, Elena; Poylin, Vitaliy; Nagle, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of positive margins after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and adequate surgery is very low. However, when patients do present with positive or close margins, they are at a risk of local failure and local therapy options are limited. We evaluated the role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with positive or close margins after induction chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision. Methods This is a retrospective evaluation of patients treated with SBRT after induction chemoradiation and surgery for positive or close margins. Seven evaluable patients were included. Fiducial seeds were place at surgery. The CyberknifeTM system was used for planning and treatment. Patients were followed 1 month after treatment and 3-6 months thereafter. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meir method was used to repot the findings. Results Seven patients (3 men and 4 women) were included in the study with a median follow-up of 23.5 months. The median initial radiation dose was 5,040 cGy (in 28 fractions) and the median SBRT dose was 2,500 cGy (in 5 fractions). The local control at 2 years was 100%. The overall survival at 1 and 2 years was 100% and 71% respectively. There was no Grade III or IV toxicity. Conclusions SBRT reirradiation is an effective and safe method to address positive or close margins after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery for rectal cancer. PMID:27284461

  15. Breast conservative surgery: is it appropriate for locally advanced breast cancer following downstaging by neoadjuvant chemotherapy? A pathological assessment.

    PubMed

    Moneer, M; El-Didi, M; Khaled, H

    1999-12-01

    The application of breast conserving surgery to down-staged cases with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is still a controversial issue with a variable incidence of locoregional failures. In this study, the response of LABC to NACT was assessed pathologically and the eligible candidates for breast conserving surgery were identified retrospectively. The efficacy of preoperative clinical examination and mammography in detecting these pathological changes were also evaluated. The study included 41 LABC cases. They received NACT (FAC) and were then subjected to a mastectomy. The cases were examined clinically and by mammography before starting treatment and immediately before surgery. Residual tumours in the mastectomy specimens were correlated with the pretreatment and preoperative clinical and mammographic findings in order to assess the efficacy of these tools for detection of NACT-induced changes. After 3 cycles of NACT, 78% of women showed an objective response. However, only 25% of them would have been eligible for breast conserving surgery. The remaining responders had an increased incidence of either multifocality and or peritumoural in situ carcinoma. Both clinical examination and mammography were inadequate for detection of these chemotherapy-induced changes and hence for selecting suitable candidates for breast conservation. This study has shown that tumour regression by NACT is probably induced by a process of tumour segmentation and is associated with an increased incidence of ductal in situ lesions in the original tumour bearing area. PMID:14731459

  16. Retrospective study of surgery versus non-surgical management in limited-disease small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Shaolei; Chen, Xiaoling; Han, Jindi; Nie, Jun; Dai, Ling; Hu, Weiheng; Tian, Guangming; Ma, Xiangjuan; Han, Sen; Wu, Di; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yang, Yue; Fang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of surgery in limited small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still controversial. To assess the role of surgery in SCLC we performed a retrospective analysis of survival in a group of limited stage patients, who were managed with trimodal therapy including surgery, or with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods We performed a retrospective survival analysis in a series of 153 limited stage SCLC patients treated between 1995 and 2013. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the overall survival of the surgical and non-surgical groups. Results Median survival in all patients was 21.5 months. Median survival for surgical and non-surgical patients was 30.5 months and 16.9 months, respectively. The survival curves for the two arms are significantly different (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, the benefit of surgical treatment and thoracic radiotherapy varied in a time-dependent fashion. Conclusions Our results suggest that surgery added to chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be associated with a therapeutic benefit in limited SCLC. PMID:26767031

  17. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase: no effect on 3-year prognosis: The ITS Study

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, H; Brown, S R; Sainsbury, J R; Perren, T J; Hiley, V; Dowsett, M; Nejim, A; Brown, J M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of breast cancer surgery timing during the menstrual cycle on prognosis remains controversial. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to establish whether timing of interventions influences prognosis. We report 3-year overall and disease-free survival (OS/DFS) results for ‘primary analysis' patients (regular cycles, no oral contraceptives within previous 6 months). Data were collected regarding timing of interventions in relation to patients' last menstrual period (LMP) and first menstrual period after surgery (FMP). Hormone profiles were also measured. Cox's proportional hazards model incorporated LMP in continuous form. Exploratory analyses used menstrual cycle categorisations of Senie, Badwe and Hrushesky. Hormone profiles with LMP and FMP data were also used to define menstrual cycle phase. Four hundred and twelve ‘primary analysis' patients were recruited. Three-year OS from first surgery was 90.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [87.9, 93.6%]. Menstrual cycle according to LMP was not statistically significant (OS: hazard ratio (HR)=1.02, 95%CI [0.995,1.042], P=0.14; DFS: HR=1.00, 95%CI [0.980,1.022], P=0.92). Timing of surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase had no significant impact on 3-year survival. This may be due to 97% of patients receiving some form of adjuvant therapy. Survival curves to 10 years indicate results may remain true for longer-term survival. PMID:18087287

  18. Associations Between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Genes and Breast Pain in Women Prior to Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Birha; Miaskowski, Christine; Koetters, Theresa; Baggott, Christina; West, Claudia; Levine, Jon D.; Elboim, Charles; Abrams, Gary; Hamolsky, Deborah; Dunn, Laura; Rugo, Hope; Dodd, Marylin; Paul, Steven M.; Neuhaus, John; Cooper, Bruce; Schmidt, Brian; Langford, Dale; Cataldo, Janine; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    Study purposes were to determine the occurrence rate for preoperative breast pain; describe the characteristics of this pain; evaluate for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics; and evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between women who did and did not report pain. Patients (n=398) were recruited prior to surgery and completed self-report questionnaires on a number of pain characteristics. Genotyping was done using a custom genotyping array. Women (28.2%) who reported breast pain were significantly younger (p < 0.001); more likely to be non-white (p= 0.032); reported significantly lower Karnofsky Performance Status scores (p = 0.008); were less likely to be post menopausal (p = 0.012), and had undergone significantly more biopsies (p=0.006). Carriers of the minor allele for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in interleukin (IL)1-receptor 1 (IL1R1) (rs2110726) were less likely to report breast pain prior to surgery (p = 0.007). Carriers of the minor allele for a SNP in IL13 (rs1295686) were more likely to report breast pain prior to surgery (p= 0.019). Findings suggest that breast pain occurs in over a quarter of women who are about to undergo breast cancer surgery. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics found, inflammatory mechanisms contribute to preoperative breast pain. PMID:22515947

  19. Time-programmed DCA and oxaliplatin release by multilayered nanofiber mats in prevention of local cancer recurrence following surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyun; Liu, Shi; Qi, Yanxin; Zhou, Dongfang; Xie, Zhigang; Jing, Xiabin; Chen, Xuesi; Huang, Yubin

    2016-08-10

    Local recurrence following surgery in cancer treatment remains a major clinical challenge. To increase antitumor activity but maintain toxicity in an acceptable level in prevention of local cancer recurrence, we demonstrated a dual drug-loaded multilayered fiber mats strategy, in which DCA and oxaliplatin were co-electrospun into the distinct layer of resultant fabrics and the oxaliplatin-loaded fibers layer was sealed between the basement film layer and other two fibers layers. The dual drug-loaded multilayered fiber mats exhibit time-programmed dual release behavior and synergistic effect upon cancer cells. Nontoxic DCA selectively promotes apoptosis of cancer cells through modulating cellular metabolism, and oxaliplatin subsequently kills the remained cancer cells in a low concentration. After implantation on the resection margin of cervical carcinoma on a murine model, the dual drug-loaded multilayered fiber mats displayed enhanced anti-recurrence efficacy and decreased side toxic effects over 30days compared with drug-loaded monolayered fiber mats. The time-programmed combination of DCA and oxaliplatin within multilayered nanofiber mats appears to be a promising strategy for local cancer treatment following resection. PMID:27221069

  20. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy for lung cancer versus thoracotomy: a less decrease in sVEGFR2 level after surgery

    PubMed Central

    An, Su; Wang, Hui-Ping; Chen, Xin-Long; Ning, Xian-Gu; Liu, Jun; Yu, Xu-Ya; Mao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors play an important role in tumor biology and tumor recurrence after surgical resection. Antiangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) and sVEGFR2, two soluble form receptor proteins of VEGF, are critical for angiogenesis. VEGF can be sequestered by soluble forms of these receptors, which result in decreasing VEGF amount available to bind to its receptor on vascular endothelial cell surface. This study aimed to investigate the influences of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy and open by thoracotomy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on postoperative circulating sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 levels. Methods Forty-eight lung cancer patients underwent lobectomy through either VATS (n=26) or thoracotomy (n=22). Blood samples were collected from all patients preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 3 and 7. ELISA analysis was used to determine the plasma levels of sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2. Data are reported as means and standard deviations, and were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-Rank test (P<0.05). Results For all patients undergoing lobectomy, postoperative sVEGFR1 levels on days 1 and 3 were markedly increased, while postoperative sVEGFR2 levels on days 1 and 3 were significantly decreased. Moreover, VATS group had significantly higher plasma level of sVEGFR2 postoperative in comparison with open thoracotomy (OT) on day 1 (VATS 6,953±1,535 pg/mL; OT 5,874±1,328 pg/mL, P<0.05). Conclusions Major pulmonary resection for early stage NSCLC resulted in the increased sVEGFR1 and decreased sVEGFR2 productions. VATS is associated with enhanced anti-angiogenic response with higher circulating sVEGFR2 levels compared with that with OT. Such differences in anti-angiogenic response may have an important effect on cancer biology and recurrence after surgery. PMID:27076926

  1. 3. PSYCHIATRIC WARD IN 24' X 60' QUONSET HUT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PSYCHIATRIC WARD IN 24' X 60' QUONSET HUT, VIEW OF SOUTH FACE - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  2. Cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (SOCceR trial): a multicenter randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvement in treatment for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer is needed. Standard therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer consists of platinum-based chemotherapy. Median overall survival is reported between 18 and 35 months. Currently, the role of surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer is not clear. In selective patients a survival benefit up to 62 months is reported for patients undergoing complete secondary cytoreductive surgery. Whether cytoreductive surgery in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer is beneficial remains questionable due to the lack of level I-II evidence. Methods/Design Multicentre randomized controlled trial, including all nine gynecologic oncologic centres in the Netherlands and their affiliated hospitals. Eligible patients are women, with first recurrence of FIGO stage Ic-IV platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer or fallopian tube cancer, who meet the inclusion criteria. Participants are randomized between the standard treatment consisting of at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy and the experimental treatment which consists of secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by at least six cycles of intravenous platinum based chemotherapy. Primary outcome measure is progression free survival. In total 230 patients will be randomized. Data will be analysed according to intention to treat. Discussion Where the role of cytoreductive surgery is widely accepted in the initial treatment of ovarian cancer, its value in recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer has not been established so far. A better understanding of the benefits and patients selection criteria for secondary cytoreductive surgery has to be obtained. Therefore the 4th ovarian cancer consensus conference in 2010 stated that randomized controlled phase 3 trials evaluating the role of surgery in platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer are urgently needed. We

  3. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  4. VARIATIONS IN POTASSIUM CHANNEL GENES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BREAST PAIN IN WOMEN PRIOR TO BREAST CANCER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Dale J.; West, Claudia; Elboim, Charles; Cooper, Bruce A.; Abrams, Gary; Paul, Steven M.; Schmidt, Brian L.; Levine, Jon D.; Merriman, John D.; Dhruva, Anand; Neuhaus, John; Leutwyler, Heather; Baggott, Christina; Sullivan, Carmen Ward; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative breast pain in women with breast cancer may result from a number of causes. Previous work from our team found that breast pain occurred in 28.2% of women (n=398) who were about to undergo breast cancer surgery. The occurrence of preoperative breast pain was associated with a number of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as variation in two cytokine genes. Given that ion channels regulate excitability of sensory neurons, we hypothesized that variations in potassium channel genes would be associated with preoperative breast pain in these patients. Therefore, in this study we evaluated for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and inferred haplotypes among 10 potassium channel genes and the occurrence of preoperative breast pain in patients scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify those genetic variations that were associated with the occurrence of preoperative breast pain while controlling for age and genomic estimates of and self-reported race/ethnicity. Variations in four potassium channel genes: 1) potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed rectifier, subfamily S, member 1 (KCNS1); 2) potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 (KCNJ3); 3) KCNJ6; and 4) potassium channel, subfamily K, member 9 (KCNK9) were associated with the occurrence of breast pain. Findings from this study warrant replication in an independent sample of women who report breast pain following one or more breast biopsies. PMID:24392765

  5. [A Case of Stage Ⅳ Rectal Cancer with No Evidence of Disease after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Megumi; Shibasaki, Yukari; Miyazaki, Koji; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Higuchi, Katsuyoshi; Koseki, Keita; Kitago, Kuniaki; Nishi, Naoto; Nihei, Zenro; Ito, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    A 46-year-old man presented with hematochezia in October 2012. A circumferential type 2 rectal cancer was detected with colonoscopy. Contrast-enhanced CT showed multiple liver and lung metastases. Chemotherapy was administered after the diagnosis of cStage Ⅳ rectal cancer. After 1 course of XELOX plus Bmab, the treatment was changed to XELOX plus Cmab for 21 courses. An infusion reaction occurred during the 21st course. Because a complete response of the liver metastases and a reduction in size of the primary tumor had been achieved, we performed a low anterior resection in April 2014. The final pathological diagnosis was type 2, 10×25 mm, tub1, pMP, int, INF b, pN1 (251). There was no evidence of disease (NED) after the surgery. We are closely following up this patient with no postoperative chemotherapy, and as of July 2015, there is no sign of recurrence. We describe a case of a Stage Ⅳ rectal cancer that was resected with radical surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also include a brief review of the literature. PMID:26805126

  6. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Rautiainen, Noora; Sellman, Jaana; Saarilahti, Kauko; Mäkitie, Antti; Rihkanen, Heikki; Laranne, Jussi; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Wigren, Tuija; Sala, Eeva; Lindholm, Paula; Grenman, Reidar; Joensuu, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO{sub 2} laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option.

  7. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  8. The Cognitive and Psychological Impact of BRCA Genetic Counseling in Before and After Definitive Surgery Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Juliette; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Malo, Teri; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xiuhua; McIntyre, Jessica; Brzosowicz, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined changes in cancer-related knowledge, distress, and decisional conflict from pretest- to post-genetic counseling (GC) in before definitive surgery (BDS) and after definitive surgery (ADS) breast cancer (BC) patients. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected at baseline; primary outcome data were collected before (T1) and after (T2) pretest GC. Within group changes for cancer-related knowledge, distress, and decisional conflict over GT were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Of 103 BC patients, 87 were ADS and 16 were BDS patients. Analyses revealed that both groups reported significant increases in knowledge between T1 and T2 (median change = 4.2, p = .004, and 2.7, p < .001, for BDS and ADS patients, respectively). Overall cancer-related distress showed a downward trend between T1 and T2 for both groups and was significant for BDS patients (p = .041). Reports of BDS patients trended toward overall and subscale-specific increases in decisional conflict, with the exception of the uncertainty which trended downward, but did not reach significance. Overall decisional conflict decreased in ADS patients, approaching marginal significance (p = .056), with significant improvements in informed decision making (median change = -12.6, p < .001; i.e., pretest GC yielded improved knowledge of benefits, risks, and side effects of available options). Conclusions These pilot data suggest that pretest GC increases cancer-related knowledge for both BDS and ADS patients, decreases distress in BDS, and improves informed decision making in ADS patients. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to replicate these results. PMID:22766984

  9. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS) and non-conservative (NCS) procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate) and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold), whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC), explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70). Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:21504577

  11. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  12. Minimally invasive (robotic assisted thoracic surgery and video-assisted thoracic surgery) lobectomy for the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao-Xian; Woo, Kaitlin M.; Sima, Camelia S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on the results of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) traditionally approached by thoracotomy. The use of telerobotic surgical systems may allow for greater utilization of MIS approaches to locally advanced disease. We will review the existing literature on MIS for locally advanced disease and briefly report on the results of a recent study conducted at our institution. Methods We performed a retrospective review of a prospective single institution database to identify patients with clinical stage II and IIIA NSCLC who underwent lobectomy following induction chemotherapy. The patients were classified into two groups (MIS and thoracotomy) and were compared for differences in outcomes and survival. Results From January 2002 to December 2013, 428 patients {397 thoracotomy, 31 MIS [17 robotic and 14 video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)]} underwent induction chemotherapy followed by lobectomy. The conversion rate in the MIS group was 26% (8/31) The R0 resection rate was similar between the groups (97% for MIS vs. 94% for thoracotomy; P=0.71), as was postoperative morbidity (32% for MIS vs. 33% for thoracotomy; P=0.99). The median length of hospital stay was shorter in the MIS group (4 vs. 5 days; P<0.001). The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 48.3% in the MIS group and 56.6% in the thoracotomy group (P=0.84); the corresponding 3-year DFS were 49.0% and 42.1% (P=0.19). Conclusions In appropriately selected patients with NSCLC, MIS approaches to lobectomy following induction therapy are feasible and associated with similar disease-free and OS to those following thoracotomy. PMID:27195138

  13. Missed Opportunities for Nutritional Rehabilitation in Children Admitted to Surgical Wards

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Pooja; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Phatak, Ajay; Desai, Rajendra; Srivastava, Shirish

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition in children has serious health and economic consequences. We studied documentation of malnutrition, actual prevalence, and treatment given in children admitted to surgical wards. Methods. Retrospective study of 154 patients aged <5 yrs admitted to general surgical, orthopedic, and otorhinolaryngology wards. Records were evaluated for completeness of data, way of documentation, and data quality. Descriptive analysis was done. If malnutrition was not identified and/or proper action was not taken, it was defined as a “missed opportunity.” Results. Of 154 records audited, 100 (64.94%) were males, 108 (70.13%) were from general surgery ward, and 78 (50.65%) were residing in suburban area. The mean (SD) age of the study population was 2.32 (1.16) years whereas mean (SD) duration of stay was 5.84 (6.29) days. Weight and height were mentioned in 116 (75.32%) and 8 (5.19%) records, respectively, mostly by nonsurgical personnel. Documentation and treatment of malnutrition were poor. Out of 106 apparently correct weight records, 19 (17.93%) children were severely undernourished and 30 (28.30%) were moderately undernourished whereas 20 (18.87%) children were not undernourished but required nutritional attention. Conclusion. There is poor documentation of nutritional indicators of children admitted to surgical wards. From data that was available, it is apparent that malnutrition is at high levels. “Identification” and hence management of malnutrition need more attention. PMID:27429836

  14. Is preoperative physical activity related to post-surgery recovery? A cohort study of patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Hanna; Angerås, Ulf; Bock, David; Börjesson, Mats; Onerup, Aron; Fagevik Olsen, Monika; Gellerstedt, Martin; Haglind, Eva; Angenete, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to assess the association between preoperative level of activity and recovery after breast cancer surgery measured as hospital stay, length of sick leave and self-assessed physical and mental recovery. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Patients included were those scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery, between February and November 2013, at two participating hospitals in the Western Region of Sweden. Participants Patients planned for breast cancer surgery filled out a questionnaire before, as well as at 3 and 6 weeks after the operation. The preoperative level of activity was self-assessed and categorised into four categories by the participants using the 4-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS). Main outcome measure Our main outcome was postoperative recovery measured as length of sick leave, in-hospital stay and self-assessed physical and mental recovery. Results 220 patients were included. Preoperatively, 14% (31/220) of participants assessed themselves to be physically inactive, 61% (135/220) to exert some light physical activity (PA) and 20% (43/220) to be more active (level 3+4). Patients operated with mastectomy versus partial mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection versus sentinel node biopsy were less likely to have a short hospital stay, relative risk (RR) 0.88 (0.78 to 1.00) and 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96). More active participants (level 3 or 4) had an 85% increased chance of feeling physically recovered at 3 weeks after the operation, RR 1.85 (1.20 to 2.85). No difference was seen after 6 weeks. Conclusions The above study shows that a higher preoperative level of PA is associated with a faster physical recovery as reported by the patients 3 weeks post breast cancer surgery. After 6 weeks, most patients felt physically recovered, diminishing the association above. No difference was seen in length of sick leave or self-assessed mental recovery between inactive or more active

  15. POSTOPERATIVE FUNCTION FOLLOWING RADICAL SURGERY IN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER PATIENTS OVER 80 YEARS OF AGE―AN OBJECTION TO “AGEISM”―

    PubMed Central

    FUKATA, SHINJI; ANDO, MASAHIKO; AMEMIYA, TAKESHI; KUROIWA, KOJIRO; ODA, KOJI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: With rapid growth in the elderly population, the number of elderly cancer patients who should be offered life-prolonging radical surgery has been increasing. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the outcome of elective radical surgery for gastric or colorectal cancer patients 80 years of age or older, including the natural course of recovery of functional independence, in order to avoid the negative attitude held toward surgery that is due only to patients’ high chronological age. METHODS: Physical condition, ADL, and QOL of 108 patients 80 years of age or older with gastric or colorectal cancer were evaluated preoperatively and at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th postoperative months. RESULTS: There were no operative deaths, and the morbidity rate was 27.9%. Only 6% of the patients showed a decrease in ADL at the 6th postoperative month. This decrease typically occurred following discharge from the hospital. Patient QOL showed recovery to an extent equal to or better than average preoperative scores. CONCLUSIONS: Of the patients who underwent elective surgery for gastric or colorectal cancer, only a few showed a protracted decline in ADL, and most exhibited better QOL after surgery. Surgical treatment should therefore be considered, whenever needed, for elderly patients 80 years of age or older with gastric or colorectal cancer. PMID:23092097

  16. Endoscopy vs surgery in the treatment of early gastric cancer: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, André; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; de Moura, Diogo Turiani Hourneaux; de Moura, Eduardo Turiani Hourneaux; Bravo, José Gonçalves Pereira; Yamazaki, Kendi; Sakai, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report a systematic review, establishing the available data to an unpublished 2a strength of evidence, better handling clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, LILACS, Scopus and CINAHL databases. Information of the selected studies was extracted on characteristics of trial participants, inclusion and exclusion criteria, interventions (mainly, mucosal resection and submucosal dissection vs surgical approach) and outcomes (adverse events, different survival rates, mortality, recurrence and complete resection rates). To ascertain the validity of eligible studies, the risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The analysis of the absolute risk of the outcomes was performed using the software RevMan, by computing risk differences (RD) of dichotomous variables. Data on RD and 95%CIs for each outcome were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel test and inconsistency was qualified and reported in χ2 and the Higgins method (I2). Sensitivity analysis was performed when heterogeneity was higher than 50%, a subsequent assay was done and other findings were compiled. RESULTS: Eleven retrospective cohort studies were selected. The included records involved 2654 patients with early gastric cancer that filled the absolute or expanded indications for endoscopic resection. Three-year survival data were available for six studies (n = 1197). There were no risk differences (RD) after endoscopic and surgical treatment (RD = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.02-0.05, P = 0.51). Five-year survival data (n = 2310) showed no difference between the two groups (RD = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.01-0.03, P = 0.46). Recurrence data were analized in five studies (1331 patients) and there was no difference between the approaches (RD = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.00-0.02, P = 0.09). Adverse event data were identified in eight studies (n = 2439). A significant difference was detected (RD = -0.08, 95%CI: -0.10--0.05, P < 0.05), demonstrating

  17. A miniaturized imaging system for optical guided surgery of head and neck cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Ihab; Milet, Clément; Dorval, Paul; Gayet, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Henry, Maxime; Reyt, Emile; Josserand, Véronique; Hurbin, Amandine; Righini, Christian; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery, FIGS, has lately shown a huge potential in oncologic and lymphatic related surgeries. In some indications such as liver or heart surgery, fluorescence-reachable anatomic structures are limited by the access to the surgical field. Nevertheless, most of the systems available on the market are too large to image the sides of cavities. Small devices are clearly required to improve workability of fluorescence imaging systems. The current work describes the evaluation of Fluostick a CE med certified instrument dedicated to narrow area imaging. This small size device is made of an optical head connected to a control box. We tested this instrumentation at the preclinical level for the optical-guided surgery of head and neck tumors.

  18. [The role definition of lateral arm free flap in reconstruction after head and neck cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Li, C; Cai, Y C; Wang, W; He, Y X; Lan, X J; Li, Q L; Zhou, Y Q; Liu, J F; Zhu, G Q; Liu, K; Wang, S X; Wang, K; Fan, J C; Sun, R H

    2016-02-01

    Application of free flap is one of the important repair means in head and neck surgery. A variety of free flaps, such as anterolateral thigh flap, have showed unique advantages in repair for tissue defects after resection of head and neck tumor, and have became increasing popularity. Lateral arm flee flap is an important repair means in plastic surgery, which has developed more than 30 years, but the application of this flap for reconstruction in head and neck surgery is relatively backward, with few reports. This review focuses on the creativity and innovation, the relationship between anatomy and clinical application, and the application status and prospects for lateral arm flee flap in individual head and neck reconstruction surgery. PMID:26898882

  19. Control of infection in hospital wards

    PubMed Central

    Blowers, Robert

    1961-01-01

    Some of the problems of ward management are reviewed. Methods suggested for dealing with them are probably not the ideals that should ultimately be attained but minimum standards to serve as immediate objectives. They concern indications for and methods of isolation, control of infection from staff, environmental contamination, and a few technical procedures. A new type of dressing towel for wounds is described. Images PMID:16810967

  20. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study