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Sample records for candidate antiviral compounds

  1. Antiviral effect of cationic compounds on bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai H.; Moussaoui, Saliha; Vera, Annabelle; Rigobello, Véronique; Demarigny, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of several cationic compounds – cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), chitosan, nisin, and lysozyme – was investigated on the bacteriophage c2 (DNA head and non-contractile tail) infecting Lactococcus strains and the bacteriophage MS2 (F-specific RNA) infecting E. coli. Firstly, these activities were evaluated in a phosphate buffer pH 7 – 10 mM. The CTAB had a virucidal effect on the Lactococcus bacteriophages, but not on the MS2. After 1 min of contact with 0.125 mM CTAB, the c2 population was reduced from 6 to 1.5 log(pfu)/mL and completely deactivated at 1 mM. On the contrary, chitosan inhibited the MS2 more than it did the bacteriophages c2. No antiviral effect was observed for the nisin or the lysozyme on bacteriophages after 1 min of treatment. A 1 and 2.5 log reduction was respectively observed for nisin and lysozyme when the treatment time increased (5 or 10 min). These results showed that the antiviral effect depended both on the virus and structure of the antimicrobial compounds. The antiviral activity of these compounds was also evaluated in different physico-chemical conditions and in complex matrices. The antiviral activity of CTAB was impaired in acid pH and with an increase of the ionic strength. These results might be explained by the electrostatic interactions between cationic compounds and negatively charged particles such as bacteriophages or other compounds in a matrix. Milk proved to be protective suggesting the components of food could interfere with antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23487495

  2. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. PMID:21116410

  3. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  4. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  5. In Vitro Efficacy of Antiviral Compounds against Enterovirus D68

    PubMed Central

    Rhoden, Eric; Zhang, Mingyu; Nix, W. Allan

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the United States experienced a large outbreak of severe respiratory illness associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). We used a homogeneous, cell-based assay to assess the antiviral activity of compounds developed for EV/rhinovirus infection or other indications. Three of 15 compounds were highly active against all four strains tested (the prototype and three 2014 strains), with 50% effective concentrations of 0.0012 to 0.027 μM. Additional studies are needed to assess their in vivo efficacy against EV-D68. PMID:26149998

  6. Isolation of the anthropogenic compound fluoranthene in a screening of Chinese medicinal plants for antiviral compounds.

    PubMed

    Yip, L; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    1995-04-01

    Thirty-one species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of diseases of viral origin in Yunnan Province of China were assayed for inhibition of Sindbis and murine cytomegalovirus in mammalian cell cultures. Sixteen species displayed antiviral activity. A compound, which exhibited long wavelength UV-mediated antiviral activity, was isolated from leaves and twigs of Elsholtzia ciliata (Lamiaceae) using bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene. The discovery of an anthropogenic photosensitizer with antiviral activity in a plant has implications in studies of plants as sources of bioactive constituents. PMID:7753931

  7. Hepatitis C Virus and Natural Compounds: a New Antiviral Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Calland, Noémie; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves; Séron, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden with an estimated 160 million infected individuals worldwide. This long-term disease evolves slowly, often leading to chronicity and potentially to liver failure. There is no anti-HCV vaccine, and, until recently, the only treatment available, based on pegylated interferon and ribavirin, was partially effective, and had considerable side effects. With recent advances in the understanding of the HCV life cycle, the development of promising direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has been achieved. Their use in combination with the current treatment has led to encouraging results for HCV genotype 1 patients. However, this therapy is quite expensive and will probably not be accessible for all patients worldwide. For this reason, constant efforts are being made to identify new antiviral molecules. Recent reports about natural compounds highlight their antiviral activity against HCV. Here, we aim to review the natural molecules that interfere with the HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:23202460

  8. Chemical Space Mapping and Structure-Activity Analysis of the ChEMBL Antiviral Compound Set.

    PubMed

    Klimenko, Kyrylo; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2016-08-22

    Curation, standardization and data fusion of the antiviral information present in the ChEMBL public database led to the definition of a robust data set, providing an association of antiviral compounds to seven broadly defined antiviral activity classes. Generative topographic mapping (GTM) subjected to evolutionary tuning was then used to produce maps of the antiviral chemical space, providing an optimal separation of compound families associated with the different antiviral classes. The ability to pinpoint the specific spots occupied (responsibility patterns) on a map by various classes of antiviral compounds opened the way for a GTM-supported search for privileged structural motifs, typical for each antiviral class. The privileged locations of antiviral classes were analyzed in order to highlight underlying privileged common structural motifs. Unlike in classical medicinal chemistry, where privileged structures are, almost always, predefined scaffolds, privileged structural motif detection based on GTM responsibility patterns has the decisive advantage of being able to automatically capture the nature ("resolution detail"-scaffold, detailed substructure, pharmacophore pattern, etc.) of the relevant structural motifs. Responsibility patterns were found to represent underlying structural motifs of various natures-from very fuzzy (groups of various "interchangeable" similar scaffolds), to the classical scenario in medicinal chemistry (underlying motif actually being the scaffold), to very precisely defined motifs (specifically substituted scaffolds). PMID:27410486

  9. Discovery of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Compound That Inhibits Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Establishes a Type 1 Interferon-Independent Antiviral State.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Golden, Jennifer E; Adcock, Robert S; Schroeder, Chad E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sotsky, Julie B; Cramer, Daniel E; Chilton, Paula M; Song, Chisu; Anantpadma, Manu; Davey, Robert A; Prodhan, Aminul I; Yin, Xinmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Viral emergence and reemergence underscore the importance of developing efficacious, broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we report the discovery of tetrahydrobenzothiazole-based compound 1, a novel, broad-spectrum antiviral lead that was optimized from a hit compound derived from a cytopathic effect (CPE)-based antiviral screen using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Compound 1 showed antiviral activity against a broad range of RNA viruses, including alphaviruses, flaviviruses, influenza virus, and ebolavirus. Mechanism-of-action studies with metabolomics and molecular approaches revealed that the compound inhibits host pyrimidine synthesis and establishes an antiviral state by inducing a variety of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Notably, the induction of the ISGs by compound 1 was independent of the production of type 1 interferons. The antiviral activity of compound 1 was cell type dependent with a robust effect observed in human cell lines and no observed antiviral effect in mouse cell lines. Herein, we disclose tetrahydrobenzothiazole compound 1 as a novel lead for the development of a broad-spectrum, antiviral therapeutic and as a molecular probe to study the mechanism of the induction of ISGs that are independent of type 1 interferons. PMID:27185801

  10. Computational assessment of organic photovoltaic candidate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borunda, Mario; Dai, Shuo; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are emerging as a possible renewable alternative to petroleum based resources and are needed to meet our growing demand for energy. Although not as efficient as silicon based cells, OPV cells have as an advantage that their manufacturing cost is potentially lower. The Harvard Clean Energy Project, using a cheminformatic approach of pattern recognition and machine learning strategies, has ranked a molecular library of more than 2.6 million candidate compounds based on their performance as possible OPV materials. Here, we present a ranking of the top 1000 molecules for use as photovoltaic materials based on their optical absorption properties obtained via time-dependent density functional theory. This computational search has revealed the molecular motifs shared by the set of most promising molecules.

  11. 6-azacytidine--compound with wide spectrum of antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Alexeeva, I; Dyachenko, N; Nosach, L; Zhovnovataya, V; Rybalko, S; Lozitskaya, R; Fedchuk, A; Lozitsky, V; Gridina, T; Shalamay, A; Palchikovskaja, L; Povnitsa, O

    2001-01-01

    6-azacytidine demonstrates activity against adenoviruses types 1, 2, 5. It inhibit synthesis of viral DNA and proteins. 6-AC shows antiherpetic and antiinfluenza action during experimental infection in mice. 6-AC is prospective for drug development as an antiviral substance with a wide spectrum of activity. PMID:11562975

  12. Phenolic Compounds from the Flowers of Bombax malabaricum and Their Antioxidant and Antiviral Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Bo; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Xia, Chao; Li, Guo-Qiang; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Yao-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Three new phenolic compounds 1-3 and twenty known ones 4-23 were isolated from the flowers of Bombax malabaricum. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and chemical reactions. The antioxidant capacities of the isolated compounds were tested using FRAP and DPPH radical-scavenging assays, and compounds 4, 6, 8, 12, as well as the new compound 2, exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than ascorbic acid. Furthermore, all of compounds were tested for their antiviral activities against RSV by the CPE reduction assay and plaque reduction assay. Compounds 4, 10, 12 possess in vitro antiviral activities, and compound 10 exhibits potent anti-RSV effects, comparable to the positive control ribavirin. PMID:26556329

  13. Identification of a series of compounds with potent antiviral activity for the treatment of enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Angus M; Mitchell, Dale R; Palmer, Nicholas J; Van de Poël, Hervé; Conrath, Katja; Andrews, Martin; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

    2013-07-11

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIIIβ. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  14. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the compounds from Euphorbia kansui.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W F; Cui, Z; Zhu, Q

    1998-12-01

    Eleven compounds including four triterpenes, one sterol, and six diterpenes from E kansui had been assayed for their cytotoxicity and activiral activity. The relations between structures and bioactivities have also been noted. PMID:9933994

  15. Antiviral actions of flavanoid-derived compounds on dengue virus type-2.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Mudiana; Kee, Lee Yean; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viruses, mosquito-borne members of the Flaviviridae family, are the causative agents of dengue fever and its associated complications, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. To date, more than 2.5 billion people in over 100 countries are at risk of infection, and approximately 20 million infections were reported annually. There is currently no treatment or vaccine available for dengue infection. This study employed a whole-cell organism model or in vitro methods to study the inhibitory property of the flavanoid-derived compounds against DENV2 activity. Results showed that at concentration not exceeding the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD), these compounds completely prevented DENV2 infection in HepG2 cells as indicated by the absence of cytophatic effects. The in vitro antiviral activity assessed in HepG2 cells employing virus inhibition assay showed high inhibitory activity in a dose dependent manner. At concentration below MNTD, compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against DENV2 with a range of potency strengths of 72% to 100%. The plaque forming unit per ml (pfu/ml) was reduced prominently with a maximum reduction of 98% when the infected HepG2 cells were treated with the highest non-toxic dose of compounds. The highly potent activity of the compounds against DENV2 infection strongly suggests their potential as a lead antiviral agent for dengue. PMID:20567498

  16. Susceptibilities of enterovirus D68, enterovirus 71, and rhinovirus 87 strains to various antiviral compounds.

    PubMed

    Smee, Donald F; Evans, W Joseph; Nicolaou, K C; Tarbet, E Bart; Day, Craig W

    2016-07-01

    Compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells against a recent 2014 clinical isolate of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), a 1962 strain of EV-68D, rhinovirus 87 (RV-87, serologically the same as EV-D68), and enterovirus 71 (EV-71). Test substances included known-active antipicornavirus agents (enviroxime, guanidine HCl, pirodavir, pleconaril, and rupintrivir), nucleobase/nucleoside analogs (3-deazaguanine and ribavirin), and three novel epidithiodiketopiperazines (KCN-2,2'-epi-19, KCN-19, and KCN-21). Of these, rupintrivir was the most potent, with 50% inhibition of viral cytopathic effect (EC50) and 90% inhibition (EC90) of virus yield at 0.0022-0.0053 μM against EV-D68. Enviroxime, pleconaril and the KCN compounds showed efficacy at 0.01-0.3 μM; 3-deazaguanine and pirodavir inhibited EV-D68 at 7-13 μM, and guanidine HCl and ribavirin were inhibitory at 80-135 μM. Pirodavir was active against EV-71 (EC50 of 0.78 μM) but not against RV-87 or EV-D68, and all other compounds were less effective against EV-71 than against RV-87 and EV-D68. The most promising compound inhibiting both virus infections at low concentrations was rupintrivir. Antiviral activity was confirmed for the ten compounds in virus yield reduction (VYR) assays in RD cells, and for enviroxime, guanidine HCl, and pirodavir by cytopathic effect (CPE) assays in A549, HeLa-Ohio-1, and RD cells. These studies may serve as a basis for further pre-clinical discovery of anti-enterovirus inhibitors. Furthermore, the antiviral profiles and growth characteristics observed herein support the assertion that EV-D68 should be classified together with RV-87. PMID:27063860

  17. A review of antiviral drugs and other compounds with activity against feline herpesvirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Thomasy, Sara M; Maggs, David J

    2016-07-01

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is a common and important cause of ocular surface disease, dermatitis, respiratory disease, and potentially intraocular disease in cats. Many antiviral drugs developed for the treatment of humans infected with herpesviruses have been used to treat cats infected with FHV-1. Translational use of drugs in this manner ideally requires methodical investigation of their in vitro efficacy against FHV-1 followed by pharmacokinetic and safety trials in normal cats. Subsequently, placebo-controlled efficacy studies in experimentally inoculated animals should be performed followed, finally, by carefully designed and monitored clinical trials in client-owned animals. This review is intended to provide a concise overview of the available literature regarding the efficacy of antiviral drugs and other compounds with proven or putative activity against FHV-1, as well as a discussion of their safety in cats. PMID:27091747

  18. Novel Indole-2-Carboxamide Compounds Are Potent Broad-Spectrum Antivirals Active against Western Equine Encephalitis Virus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Delekta, Phillip C.; Dobry, Craig J.; Sindac, Janice A.; Barraza, Scott J.; Blakely, Pennelope K.; Xiang, Jianming; Kirchhoff, Paul D.; Keep, Richard F.; Irani, David N.; Larsen, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurotropic alphaviruses, including western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, cause serious and potentially fatal central nervous system infections in humans for which no currently approved therapies exist. We previously identified a series of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole derivatives as novel inhibitors of neurotropic alphavirus replication, using a cell-based phenotypic assay (W. Peng et al., J. Infect. Dis. 199:950–957, 2009, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/597275), and subsequently developed second- and third-generation indole-2-carboxamide derivatives with improved potency, solubility, and metabolic stability (J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 55:3535–3545, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300214e; J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:9222–9241, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401330r). In this report, we describe the antiviral activity of the most promising third-generation lead compound, CCG205432, and closely related analogs CCG206381 and CCG209023. These compounds have half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of ∼1 μM and selectivity indices of >100 in cell-based assays using western equine encephalitis virus replicons. Furthermore, CCG205432 retains similar potency against fully infectious virus in cultured human neuronal cells. These compounds show broad inhibitory activity against a range of RNA viruses in culture, including members of the Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Although their exact molecular target remains unknown, mechanism-of-action studies reveal that these novel indole-based compounds target a host factor that modulates cap-dependent translation. Finally, we demonstrate that both CCG205432 and CCG209023 dampen clinical disease severity and enhance survival of mice given a lethal western equine encephalitis virus challenge. These studies demonstrate that indole-2-carboxamide compounds are viable candidates for continued preclinical development as inhibitors of

  19. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  20. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively. PMID:26983677

  1. An antiviral disulfide compound blocks interaction between arenavirus Z protein and cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, C.C.; Topisirovic, I.; Djavani, M.; Borden, K.L.B.; Damonte, E.B.; Salvato, M.S.

    2010-03-19

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) forms nuclear bodies (NB) that can be redistributed by virus infection. In particular, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) influences disruption of PML NB through the interaction of PML with the arenaviral Z protein. In a previous report, we have shown that the disulfide compound NSC20625 has antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses, inducing unfolding and oligomerization of Z without affecting cellular RING-containing proteins such as the PML. Here, we further studied the effect of the zinc-finger-reactive disulfide NSC20625 on PML-Z interaction. In HepG2 cells infected with LCMV or transiently transfected with Z protein constructs, treatment with NSC20625 restored PML distribution from a diffuse-cytoplasmic pattern to punctate, discrete NB which appeared identical to NB found in control, uninfected cells. Similar results were obtained in cells transfected with a construct expressing a Z mutant in zinc-binding site 2 of the RING domain, confirming that this Z-PML interaction requires the integrity of only one zinc-binding site. Altogether, these results show that the compound NSC20625 suppressed Z-mediated PML NB disruption and may be used as a tool for designing novel antiviral strategies against arenavirus infection.

  2. Docking studies towards exploring antiviral compounds against envelope protein of yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Amineni; Kumar, Manne Muni; Pradhan, Dibyabhaba; Marisetty, Hemanthkumar

    2011-03-01

    Yellow fever is among one of the most lethal viral diseases for which approved antiviral therapies were yet to be discovered. Herein, functional assignment of complete YFV proteome was done through support vector machine. Major envelope (E) protein that mediates entry of YFV into host cell was selected as a potent molecular target. Three dimensional structure of the molecular target was predicted using Modeller9v7. The model was optimized in Maestro9.0 applying OPLS AA force field and was evaluated using PROCHECK, ProSA, ProQ and Profile 3D. The BOG pocket residues Val48, Glu197, Thr200, Ile204, Thr265, Thr268 and Gly278 were located in YFV E protein using SiteMap2.3. More than one million compounds of Ligandinfo Meta database were explored using a computational virtual screening protocol targeting BOG pocket of the E protein. Finally, ten top ranked lead molecules with strong binding affinity to BOG pocket of YFV E protein were identified based on XP Gscore. Drug likeliness and comparative bioactivity analysis for these leads using QikProp3.2 had shown that these molecules would have the potential to act as better drug. Thus, the 10 lead molecules suggested in the present study would be of interest as promising starting point for designing antiviral compound against yellow fever. PMID:21369890

  3. Spermicides, microbicides and antiviral agents: recent advances in the development of novel multi-functional compounds.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marta; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-11-01

    Non-ionic surfactants have been proposed as dual action anti-viral and spermicidal agents to tackle viral infections, namely HIV. Given very promising in vitro results, nonoxynol-9 has been widely used. However, toxic effects were reported, paradoxically increasing the incidence of transmission of HIV/Sexually Transmitted Diseases in vivo. Thus, there has been a growing interest in identifying and evaluating a new generation of accessible and easy-to-use molecules with simultaneous spermicidal and microbicide action. Different biochemical compounds and mechanisms of action are currently being studied. This article reviews the diverse strategies and mechanisms of action of these novel compounds, as well the necessary systematic studies needed to evaluate their possible toxicity. PMID:20205637

  4. Comparison of the antiviral effect of solid-state copper and silver compounds.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Masafumi; Lu, Yue; Kimura, Takuto; Nakano, Ryuichi; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Sunada, Kayano

    2016-07-15

    Antiviral activities of insoluble solid-state and soluble ionic copper and silver compounds were evaluated against influenza A virus (A/PR8/H1N1) possessing a viral envelope and bacteriophage Qβ lacking an envelope. The viral solutions were exposed on glass samples uniformly loaded with copper and silver compounds. Exposure to solid-state cuprous oxide (Cu2O) efficiently inactivated both influenza A virus and bacteriophage Qβ, whereas solid-state cupric oxide (CuO) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) showed little antiviral activity. Copper ions from copper chloride (CuCl2) had little effect on the activity of bacteriophage Qβ in spite of the fact that copper ions strongly inactivate influenza A in previous studies. Silver ions from silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver(I) oxide (Ag2O) in solution showed strong inactivation of influenza A and weak inactivation of bacteriophage Qβ. We also investigated the influence of the compounds on the function of two influenza viral proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Silver ions from AgNO3 and Ag2O remarkably decreased enzymatic activity of neuraminidase through the breakage of disulfide (SS) bonds, corresponding to the selective inactivation of influenza A virus. By contrast, exposure to Cu2O markedly reduced the activity of hemagglutinin rather than neuraminidase. These findings suggest that solid-state Cu2O disrupts host cell recognition by denaturing protein structures on viral surfaces, leading to the inactivation of viruses regardless of the presence of a viral envelope. PMID:27015373

  5. Transport mechanisms of a novel antileukemic and antiviral compound 9-norbornyl-6-chloropurine.

    PubMed

    Plačková, Pavla; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Nencka, Radim; Elbert, Tomáš; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2015-02-01

    6-Chloropurines substituted at the position 9 with variously modified bicyclic skeletons represent promising antiviral and anticancer agents. This work aimed to investigate the transport mechanisms of 9-[(1R*,2R*,4S*)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-6-chloro-9H-purine (9-norbornyl-6-chloropurine, NCP) and their relationship to the metabolism and biological activity of the compound. Transport experiments were conducted in CCRF-CEM cells using radiolabeled compound ([(3)H]NCP). The pattern of the intracellular uptake of [(3)H]NCP in CCRF-CEM cells pointed to a combination of passive and facilitated diffusion as prevailing transport mechanisms. NCP intracellular metabolism was found to enhance its uptake by modifying NCP concentration gradient. The transport kinetics reached steady state under the conditions of MRP and MDR proteins blockade, indicating that NCP is a substrate for these efflux pumps. Their inhibition also increased the cytotoxicity of NCP. Our findings suggest that the novel nucleoside analog NCP has potential to become a new orally available antileukemic agent due to its rapid membrane permeation. PMID:24679051

  6. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Preliminary Clinical Trials of a New Adamantane Compound

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Asha; Beare, A. S.; Reed, Sylvia E.

    1973-01-01

    A compound, 1′-methyl spiro (adamantane-2,3′-pyrrolidine) maleate, chemically related to the antiviral drug amantadine, was tested for activity in vitro against a number of human respiratory viruses. By a variety of techniques, it was shown to be active against a wide range of human and animal influenza A viruses. The effect was, however, variable and ranged from high activity against two 1957 Asian strains to no observable activity against a 1971 strain. Like amantadine, the drug did not inhibit the growth of influenza B viruses. It was also inactive against a number of paramyxoviruses. Unlike amantadine, the drug did inhibit rhinoviruses, but to a lesser extent than myxoviruses. The coronavirus 229E was also sensitive to the action of the drug in vitro. Although an earlier trial in volunteers showed that, when given orally from 2 days before until 5 days after virus challenge, the drug was protective against infection with influenza A/Hong Kong/68 virus, a similar trial in volunteers challenged with rhinoviruses 2 and 9 revealed no useful activity against rhinoviruses in man. PMID:4364762

  7. Antiviral activity of chemical compound isolated from Artemisia morrisonensis against hepatitis B virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Liu, Shu-Heng; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Wen; Chou, Shen-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    The compound p-hydroxyacetophenone (PHAP) isolated from Artemisia morrisonensis was found to have potential anti-HBV effects in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. We clarified its antiviral mode further and HBV-transfected Huh7 cells were used as the platform. During viral gene expression, treatment with PHAP had no apparent effects on the viral precore/pregenomic RNA. However, the 2.4-kb preS RNA of viral surface gene increased significantly relative to the 2.1-kb S RNA with PHAP. Promoter activity analysis demonstrated that PHAP had a potent effect on augmenting the viral preS promoter activity. The subsequent increase in the large surface protein and induce endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress has been reported previously. Interestingly, PHAP specifically reduced ER stress related GRP78 RNA/protein levels, but not those of GRP94, in treated Huh7 cells while PHAP also led to the significant intracellular accumulation of virus. Moreover, treatment with the ER chaperone inducer thapsigargin relieved the inhibitory effect of PHAP based on the supernatant HBV DNA levels of HBV-expressed cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that the mechanism of HBV inhibition by PHAP might involve the regulation of viral surface gene expression and block virion secretion by interference with the ER stress signaling pathway. PMID:24269476

  8. The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna T; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2016-09-01

    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9-99% for anti-tuberculotics; <52% for antivirals (except with 3TC 75.6%) and <50% for antibiotics. In assays with amendments, the reductions were all <50%. Faeces amendment resulted in similar or lower reduction than without it even though bacterial activity should have increased. The urease inhibitor prevented ureolysis and pH rise but did not affect pharmaceutical removal. In conclusion, removal during storage might not be enough to reduce risks associated with the studied pharmaceuticals, in which case other feasible treatment practises or urine utilization means should be considered. PMID:26804243

  9. Arenavirus Z protein as an antiviral target: virus inactivation and protein oligomerization by zinc finger-reactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    García, Cybele C.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Topisirovic, Ivan; Borden, Katherine L. B.; Salvato, María S.; Damonte, Elsa B.

    2008-01-01

    Several disulfide-based and azoic compounds have shown antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses in virus yield-inhibition and inactivation assays, respectively. The most effective virucidal agent, the aromatic disulfide NSC20625, was able to inactivate two strains of the prototype arenavirus species Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Inactivated viral particles retained the biological functions of the virion envelope glycoproteins in virus binding and uptake, but were unable to perform viral RNA replication. Furthermore, in inactivated virions, the electrophoretic profile of the Z protein was altered when analysed under non-reducing conditions, whereas the patterns of the proteins NP and GP1 remained unaffected. Treatment of a recombinant LCMV Z protein with the virucidal agents induced unfolding and oligomerization of Z to high-molecular-mass aggregates, probably due to metal-ion ejection and the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds through the cysteine residues of the Z RING finger. NSC20625 also exhibited antiviral properties in LCMV-infected cells without affecting other cellular RING-motif proteins, such as the promyelocytic leukaemia protein PML. Altogether, the investigations described here illustrate the potential of the Z protein as a promising target for therapy and the prospects of the Z-reactive compounds to prevent arenavirus dissemination. PMID:16603524

  10. The SARS-coronavirus papain-like protease: structure, function and inhibition by designed antiviral compounds.

    PubMed

    Báez-Santos, Yahira M; St John, Sarah E; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the deadly human coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) emerged from the Guangdong Province of China. Despite the fact that the SARS-CoV pandemic infected over 8500 individuals, claimed over 800 lives and cost billions of dollars in economic loss worldwide, there still are no clinically approved antiviral drugs, vaccines or monoclonal antibody therapies to treat SARS-CoV infections. The recent emergence of the deadly human coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) is a sobering reminder that new and deadly coronaviruses can emerge at any time with the potential to become pandemics. Therefore, the continued development of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures to potentially deadly coronaviruses is warranted. The coronaviral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), are attractive antiviral drug targets because they are essential for coronaviral replication. Although the primary function of PLpro and 3CLpro are to process the viral polyprotein in a coordinated manner, PLpro has the additional function of stripping ubiquitin and ISG15 from host-cell proteins to aid coronaviruses in their evasion of the host innate immune responses. Therefore, targeting PLpro with antiviral drugs may have an advantage in not only inhibiting viral replication but also inhibiting the dysregulation of signaling cascades in infected cells that may lead to cell death in surrounding, uninfected cells. This review provides an up-to-date discussion on the SARS-CoV papain-like protease including a brief overview of the SARS-CoV genome and replication followed by a more in-depth discussion on the structure and catalytic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLpro, the multiple cellular functions of SARS-CoV PLpro, the inhibition of SARS-CoV PLpro by small molecule inhibitors, and the prospect of inhibiting papain-like protease from other coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of

  11. Fungus Cerrena unicolor as an effective source of new antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Mizerska-Dudka, Magdalena; Jaszek, Magdalena; Błachowicz, Adriana; Rejczak, Tomasz Piotr; Matuszewska, Anna; Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Stefaniuk, Dawid; Janusz, Grzegorz; Sulej, Justyna; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2015-08-01

    In the report, three bioactive fractions from Cerrena unicolor: laccase (LAC), endopolysaccharides (c-EPL), and low molecular weight (ex-LMS) were tested for the first time towards their antiviral, immunostimulatory, cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect. The immunomodulatory activity was studied by means of THP-1-derived macrophages able to synthesize and secrete IL-6 and TNF-α. We used cervical carcinoma cell lines SiHa (ATCC, HTB-35) and CaSki (ATCC, CRL 1550) to determine antitumor activity and human skin fibroblasts (HSF) as a control. SiHa and L929 cell lines were used in the antiviral activity assay to propagate HHV-1 and EMCV, respectively. LAC was the most active against HSV at an early stage of viral replication, whereas the activity of laccase against EMCV was evident after incubation of the virus with LAC before and after the adsorption step. Moreover, the investigations showed that the fungal c-EPL fraction stimulated the production and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 by THP-1-derived macrophages up to a level of 2000 pg/ml and 400 pg/ml, respectively. It was indicated for the first time that the LAC and ex-LMS fractions exhibited anticancer activity. This resulted from their cytotoxic or antiproliferative action against the investigated tumor cells at concentrations above 250 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:26003302

  12. Use of Organosilicon Compounds towards the Rational Design of Antiparasitic and Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Déléris, Gérard

    1995-01-01

    One of the major problems met for the conception of antiviral or antiparasitic drugs is to reach a high level of selectivity towards the pathogenic agent versus the host. We shall describe two synthetic approaches where main group organometallics have been used towards this goal. A series of nucleoside sila-analogues was synthesized as potential therapeutic agents designed to inhibit HIV Reverse Transcriptase. In a second approach novel organosilicon derivatives have been synthesized as mimics of antisense oligonucleotides. Infectious agents, namely viruses or parasites, more or less use cellular machinery. Therefore therapeutic agents must interfere with biochemical mechanisms or possess high affinity towards specific molecular cellular components, to reach selectivity. We thought that main group organometallics could show many advantages for designing biologically active molecules in this field. They allow a high synthetic flexibility for the modulations of physico-chemical properties and they show a mechanistic behaviour which may be close to the one of several heteroelements present in living organisms such as sulfur or phosphorus. We tried to use this approach towards two directions involving the synthesis of organosilicon derivatives i.e: -the synthesis of organosilicon derivatives as inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase, -the synthesis of organosilicon precursors of modified antisense oligonucleotides. PMID:18472760

  13. Rat and human STINGs profile similarly towards anticancer/antiviral compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Han, Min-Jie; Tao, Jianli; Ye, Zhao-Yang; Du, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) and antitumor/antiviral agents (DMXAA and CMA) trigger STING-dependent innate immunity activation. Accumulative evidences have showed that DMXAA and CMA selectively activate mouse, but not human STING signaling. The mechanism underlying this species selectivity remains poorly understood. In this report, we have shown that human and rat STINGs display more similar signaling profiles toward DMXAA and CMA than that of human and mouse STINGs, suggesting that rat is more suitable for preclinical testing of STING-targeted drugs. We have also determined the crystal structures of both apo rat STING and its complex with cyclic GMP-AMP with 2′5′ and 3′5′ phosphodiester linkage (2′3′-cGAMP), a human endogenous CDN. Structure-guided biochemical analysis also revealed the functional importance of the connecting loop (A140-N152) between membrane and cytosolic domains in STING activation. Taken together, these findings reveal that rat STING is more closely related to human STING in terms of substrate preference, serving as a foundation for the development of STING-targeted drugs. PMID:26669264

  14. Antiviral Activity of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Inhibiting Intracellular Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Hua; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Ching-Ying; Ping, Chia-Fong; Lin, Yu-Fong; Huang, An-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study. CW-33 exhibited the less cytotoxicity to Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human medulloblastoma (TE761) cells. CW-33 dose-dependently reduced the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. Supernatant virus yield assay pinpointed CW-33 as having potential anti-JEV activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.7 to 38.5 μM. Time-of-addition assay with CW-33 indicated that simultaneous and post-treatment had no plaque reduction activity, but continuous and simultaneous treatments proved to have highly effective antiviral activity, with IC50 values of 32.7 and 48.5 μM, respectively. CW-33 significantly moderated JEV-triggered Ca(2+) overload, which correlated with the recovery of mitochondria membrane potential as well as the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals in treated infected cells. Phosphopeptide profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed that CW-33 upregulated proteins from the enzyme modulator category, such as protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2), Rho GTPase-activating protein 35, ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2, and putative 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2. These enzyme modulators identified were associated with the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals. Meanwhile, I-2 treatment substantially inhibited the apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. The results demonstrated that CW-33 exhibited a significant potential in the development of anti-JEV agents. PMID:27563890

  15. Normal reproductive capacity of heifers that originated from in vitro fertilized embryos cultured with an antiviral compound.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Marley, Mylissa S D; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can associate with in vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos despite washing and trypsin treatment. An antiviral compound, DB606 (2-(4-[2-imidazolinyl]phenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)furan), inhibits the replication of BVDV in bovine uterine tubal epithelial cells, Madin Darby bovine kidney cells, and fetal fibroblast cells. As well, DB606 in in vitro culture medium does not affect embryonic development. Antiviral-treated-IVF embryos placed into recipients developed into clinically normal calves. The objective of this project was to determine if these resultant heifer calves were capable of reproducing. Seven heifers from each of the treatment groups (natural breeding, IVF embryo, and IVF embryo cultured in DB606) of the previous study were used. At 20-27 months of age, the heifers were exposed to a fertile bull in a single pasture during a 63 d breeding season. Five of the seven heifers originating from natural breeding were pregnant 35 d after removal of the bull and calved. All of the heifers resulting from transfer of untreated IVF embryos were pregnant at 35 d; however, one aborted the fetus at 5-7 months of gestation. All of the heifers derived from transfer of IVF embryos cultured in DB606 were pregnant and calved. Offspring from dams of all treatment groups were clinically normal at birth. Adjusted 205 d weaning weights were not significantly different among the offspring of the treated and untreated dams. These results indicate that culture of bovine-IVF embryos in DB606 does not impair future reproductive capacity of resulting heifers. PMID:18691836

  16. Efficacy of a novel antiviral compound to inhibit replication of multiple pestivirus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pestiviruses are economically important pathogens of livestock. An aromatic cationic compound (DB772) has previously been shown to inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in vitro at concentrations lacking cytotoxic side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the scope of anti...

  17. USE OF QSPRS IN IMPROVING CARBON ADSORPTION MODELING OF EPA CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated carbon adsorption of EPA contaminant candidate list (CCL) compounds is under investigation as a treatment technology for contaminated drinking water. Historically, EPA, in support of drinking water regulations, has used a number of techniques to calculate field-scale c...

  18. Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) Expressing Firefly Luciferase Effectively Screened for CRISPR/Cas9 Single Guide RNAs and Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Ji-Ting; Fang, Qiong-Qiong; Wang, Tong-Yun; Sun, Ming-Xia; An, Tong-Qing; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui

    2016-04-01

    A Pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has emerged in China since 2011 that is not protected by commercial vaccines, and has not been well studied. The PRV genome is large and difficult to manipulate, but it is feasible to use clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology. However, identification of single guide RNA (sgRNA) through screening is critical to the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and is traditionally time and labor intensive, and not suitable for rapid and high throughput screening of effective PRV sgRNAs. In this study, we developed a recombinant PRV strain expressing firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter virus for PRV-specific sgRNA screens and rapid evaluation of antiviral compounds. Luciferase activity was apparent as soon as 4 h after infection and was stably expressed through 10 passages. In a proof of the principle screen, we were able to identify several PRV specific sgRNAs and confirmed that they inhibited PRV replication using traditional methods. Using the reporter virus, we also identified PRV variants lacking US3, US2, and US9 gene function, and showed anti-PRV activity for chloroquine. Our results suggest that the reporter PRV strain will be a useful tool for basic virology studies, and for developing PRV control and prevention measures. PMID:27043610

  19. Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) Expressing Firefly Luciferase Effectively Screened for CRISPR/Cas9 Single Guide RNAs and Antiviral Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Ji-Ting; Fang, Qiong-Qiong; Wang, Tong-Yun; Sun, Ming-Xia; An, Tong-Qing; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A Pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has emerged in China since 2011 that is not protected by commercial vaccines, and has not been well studied. The PRV genome is large and difficult to manipulate, but it is feasible to use clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology. However, identification of single guide RNA (sgRNA) through screening is critical to the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and is traditionally time and labor intensive, and not suitable for rapid and high throughput screening of effective PRV sgRNAs. In this study, we developed a recombinant PRV strain expressing firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter virus for PRV-specific sgRNA screens and rapid evaluation of antiviral compounds. Luciferase activity was apparent as soon as 4 h after infection and was stably expressed through 10 passages. In a proof of the principle screen, we were able to identify several PRV specific sgRNAs and confirmed that they inhibited PRV replication using traditional methods. Using the reporter virus, we also identified PRV variants lacking US3, US2, and US9 gene function, and showed anti-PRV activity for chloroquine. Our results suggest that the reporter PRV strain will be a useful tool for basic virology studies, and for developing PRV control and prevention measures. PMID:27043610

  20. Synthesis and antiviral activity of a series of novel N-phenylbenzamide and N-phenylacetophenone compounds as anti-HCV and anti-EV71 agents

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi; Wang, Huiqiang; Li, Yanping; Peng, Zonggen; Li, Yuhuan; Li, Zhuorong

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel N-phenylbenzamide and N-phenylacetophenone compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activity against HCV and EV71 (strain SZ-98). The biological results showed that three compounds (23, 25 and 41) exhibited considerable anti-HCV activity (IC50=0.57–7.12 μmol/L) and several compounds (23, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 42) displayed potent activity against EV71 with the IC50 values lower than 5.00 μmol/L. The potency of compound 23 (IC50=0.57 μmol/L) was superior to that of reported compounds IMB-1f (IC50=1.90 μmol/L) and IMB-1g (IC50=1.00 μmol/L) as anti-HCV agents, and compound 29 possessed the highest anti-EV71 activity, comparable to the comparator drug pirodavir. The efficacy in vivo and antiviral mechanism of these compounds warrant further investigations. PMID:26579447

  1. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, An-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Chen, I-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN)-α/β receptor 1 (IFNAR1) to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s) of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-β Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-β were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 µM in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-β exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 µM in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease IC50 = 53.1 µM). Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2\\',5\\'-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection. PMID:26090728

  2. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  3. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano) essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pilau, Marciele Ribas; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Weiblen, Rudi; Arenhart, Sandra; Cueto, Ana Paula; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha

    2011-01-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3–4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI) of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1), acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2), and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), respectively. The human rotavirus (RV) and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies. PMID:24031796

  4. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano) essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Pilau, Marciele Ribas; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Weiblen, Rudi; Arenhart, Sandra; Cueto, Ana Paula; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha

    2011-10-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI) of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1), acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2), and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), respectively. The human rotavirus (RV) and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies. PMID:24031796

  5. The yjdF riboswitch candidate regulates gene expression by binding diverse azaaromatic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sanshu; Hwang, Xue Ying; Stav, Shira; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    The yjdF motif RNA is an orphan riboswitch candidate that almost exclusively associates with the yjdF protein-coding gene in many bacteria. The function of the YjdF protein is unknown, which has made speculation regarding the natural ligand for this putative riboswitch unusually challenging. By using a structure-probing assay for ligand binding, we found that a surprisingly broad diversity of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles, or “azaaromatics,” trigger near-identical changes in the structures adopted by representative yjdF motif RNAs. Regions of the RNA that undergo ligand-induced structural modulation reside primarily in portions of the putative aptamer region that are highly conserved in nucleotide sequence, as is typical for riboswitches. Some azaaromatic molecules are bound by the RNA with nanomolar dissociation constants, and a subset of these ligands activate riboswitch-mediated gene expression in cells. Furthermore, genetic elements most commonly adjacent to the yjdF motif RNA or to the yjdF protein-coding region are homologous to protein regulators implicated in mitigating the toxic effects of diverse phenolic acids or polycyclic compounds. Although the precise type of natural ligand sensed by yjdF motif RNAs remains unknown, our findings suggest that this riboswitch class might serve as part of a genetic response system to toxic or signaling compounds with chemical structures similar to azaaromatics. PMID:26843526

  6. A Refined Guinea Pig Model of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection for Assessing the Efficacy of Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, A R; Lefebvre, D J; Willems, T; Paul, G; Billiet, A; Murao, L E; Neyts, J; Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2016-04-01

    An antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in Europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. Recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit FMD virus (FMDV) replication in vitro. For the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined FMDV-infection model in guinea pigs (GP) is herewith described. This GP model was validated by demonstrating the antiviral effect of T-1105 (an influenza virus inhibitor with reported activity against FMDV). Sixteen animals were orally administered with T-1105 twice daily (400 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days and inoculated intraplantarly with 100 GPID50 of the GP-adapted FMDV strain O1 Manisa 1 h after the first administration. The efficacy of T-1105 was compared with that of prophylactic vaccination with a highly potent double-oil emulsion-inactivated O1 Manisa vaccine. Ten animals received a single, full (2 ml) cattle vaccine dose and were inoculated 3 weeks later. Fourteen T-1105-treated and all vaccinated GP were completely protected from generalization of vesicular lesions. At 2 dpi, viral RNA was detected in serum of 9/16 T-1105-treated and of 6/10 vaccinated animals. At 4 dpi, viral RNA was detected in serum, organs and oral swabs of half of the T-1105-treated animals and only in the serum of 1/10 of the vaccinated animals. Mean viral RNA levels in serum and organs of T-1105-treated and vaccinated animals were reduced compared to untreated controls (P < 0.01). T-1105 conferred a substantial clinical and virological protection against infection with O1 Manisa, similar to the protection afforded by vaccination. These results validate the suitability of the enhanced GP model for the purpose of initial evaluation of inhibitors of FMDV replication and illustrate the potential of selective inhibitors of viral

  7. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Azin; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations. PMID:26484353

  8. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. PMID:24777097

  9. Candidate anti-Aβ fluorene compounds selected from analogs of amyloid imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyun-Seok; Maezawa, Izumi; Budamagunta, Madhu; Rana, Sandeep; Shi, Aibin; Vassar, Robert; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.; Cheng, R. Holland; Hua, Duy H.; Voss, John C.; Jin, Lee-Way

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by depositions of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates as amyloid in the brain. To facilitate diagnosis of AD by radioligand imaging, several highly specific small-molecule amyloid ligands have been developed. Because amyloid ligands display excellent pharmacokinetics properties and brain bioavailability, and because we have previously shown that some amyloid ligands bind the highly neurotoxic Aβ oligomers (AβO) with high affinities, they may also be valuable candidates for anti-Aβ therapies. Here we identified two fluorene compounds from libraries of amyloid ligands, initially based on their ability to block cell death secondary to intracellular AβO. We found that the lead fluorenes were able to reduce the amyloid burden including the levels of AβO in cultured neurons and in 5xFAD mice. To explain these in vitro and in vivo effects, we found that the lead fluorenes bind and destabilize AβO as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, and block the harmful AβO-synapse interaction. These fluorenes and future derivatives, therefore, have a potential use in AD therapy and research. PMID:19022536

  10. Volatile compounds from the integument of white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus L.): candidate attractants of ornithophilic mosquito species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidate kairomones of ornithophilic mosquito species are reported from GC/MS analysis of compounds from the skin, feet, and feathers of White Leghorn chickens. Hexane and ether solvent collections of chicken emanations produce fractions that differ significantly in their ability to attract Culex ...

  11. In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E

    2009-12-01

    Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings. PMID:19435637

  12. Magnesium lithospermate B and rosmarinic acid, two compounds present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, have potent antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 infections.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Ching-Ting; Tang, Nou-Ying; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-EV71 activity produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts. A pGS-EV71 IRES-based bicistronic reporter assay platform was used for rapid analysis of compounds that could specifically inhibit EV71 viral IRES-mediated translation. The analysis identified 2 caffeic acid derivatives, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) and rosmarinic acid (RA), which suppressed EV71 IRES-mediated translation at concentrations of 30μg/ml. We also found that MLB and RA inhibited EV71 infection when they were added to RD cells during the viral absorption stage. MLB had a low IC50 value of 0.09mM and a high TI value of 10.52. In contrast, RA had an IC50 value of 0.50mM with a TI value of 2.97. MLB and RA (100µg/ml) also reduced EV71 viral particle production and significantly decreased VP1 protein production. We propose that these two derivatives inhibit EV71 viral entry into cells and viral IRES activity, thereby reducing viral particle production and viral RNA expression and blocking viral VP1 protein translation. This study provides useful information for the development of anti-EV71 assays and reagents by demonstrating a convenient EV71 IRES-based bicistronic assay platform to screen for anti-EV71 IRES activity, and also reports 2 compounds, MLB and RA, which are responsible for the anti-EV71 activity of S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:25773498

  13. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES IN THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL) COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current (2nd) Contaminant Candidate List was completed in 2005 by the United States EPA as an update to the Safe Drinking Water Act. The list of 42 chemical contaminants spans a wide array of classes, from pesticides to pharmaceuticals to elements, all of which are anticipate...

  14. Technical description of candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a nuclear smuggling deterrence tag (IL500E)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials; (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials; and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The tagging system uses four types of tagging materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. Currently, 18 long-lived radioisotopes, 38 short-live radioisotopes and 10 fluorescent compounds have been selected as candidate materials for the tagging system.

  15. Triazole-Based Compound as a Candidate To Develop Novel Medicines To Treat Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Paneth, Agata; Plech, Tomasz; Pawełczyk, Jakub; Węglińska, Lidia; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This article reports anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of 3-(thiophen-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione. The compound displayed significant and reproducible antiparasitic effects at nontoxic concentrations for the host cells, with an experimentally determined 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) at least 30 times better than that of the known chemotherapeutic agent sulfadiazine. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was defined as the probable target for anti-Toxoplasma activity of the tested compound. These results provide the foundation for future work to develop a new class of medicines to better treat toxoplasmosis. PMID:25288090

  16. Cross-study and cross-omics comparisons of three nephrotoxic compounds reveal mechanistic insights and new candidate biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Matheis, Katja A.; Com, Emmanuelle; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Guerreiro, Nelson; Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans; Sposny, Alexandra; Hewitt, Philip; Amberg, Alexander; Boernsen, Olaf; Riefke, Bjoern; Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela; Kalkuhl, Arno; Suter, Laura; Dieterle, Frank; Staedtler, Frank

    2011-04-15

    The European InnoMed-PredTox project was a collaborative effort between 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 small and mid-sized enterprises, and 3 universities with the goal of delivering deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of kidney and liver toxicity and to identify mechanism-linked diagnostic or prognostic safety biomarker candidates by combining conventional toxicological parameters with 'omics' data. Mechanistic toxicity studies with 16 different compounds, 2 dose levels, and 3 time points were performed in male Crl: WI(Han) rats. Three of the 16 investigated compounds, BI-3 (FP007SE), Gentamicin (FP009SF), and IMM125 (FP013NO), induced kidney proximal tubule damage (PTD). In addition to histopathology and clinical chemistry, transcriptomics microarray and proteomics 2D-DIGE analysis were performed. Data from the three PTD studies were combined for a cross-study and cross-omics meta-analysis of the target organ. The mechanistic interpretation of kidney PTD-associated deregulated transcripts revealed, in addition to previously described kidney damage transcript biomarkers such as KIM-1, CLU and TIMP-1, a number of additional deregulated pathways congruent with histopathology observations on a single animal basis, including a specific effect on the complement system. The identification of new, more specific biomarker candidates for PTD was most successful when transcriptomics data were used. Combining transcriptomics data with proteomics data added extra value.

  17. A novel candidate compound with urethane structure for anticancer drug development.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Isama, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Kohno, Michiaki; Yamori, Takao

    2007-08-01

    Diethyl-4,4'-methylenebis(N-phenylcarbamate) (MDU) is a urethane compound that we originally synthesized, along with three other compounds, to investigate how polyurethane is hydrolysed. We tested the four compounds for cytotoxicity in two Chinese hamster cell lines (CHL and V79) and a human cancer cell line (HeLa S3). MDU showed the strongest cytotoxicity in all the cell lines with an IC50 of around 0.1 microg/ml. We further investigated MDU for its ability to induce chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in CHL cells. MDU induced around 100% polyploid cells at 0.5 microg/ml after 24- and 48-h treatment in the CA test and a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei, polynuclear cells, and mitotic cells in the MN test, suggesting that it may induce numerical CAs. MDU's ability to cause mitotic arrest in CHL cells was greater than that of taxol and colchicine. Based on a COMPARE analysis using JFCR39, a panel of cancer cell lines, we predicted MDU to be a tubulin inhibitor. We confirmed this possibility in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells as well as in HT1080 cells, in which MDU exhibited the activity to inhibit tubulin polymerization. MDU is simpler in structure than existing anticancer drugs taxol and vincristine and can be synthesized relatively easily. Here we offer MDU as a potential new type of anticancer drug, stable even at room temperature, and inexpensive. PMID:17691911

  18. Approaches towards rational antiviral chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Present epidemic influenza is uncontrolled by immuno- or chemoprophylaxis. Mutants of varying antigenic composition arise with relatively high frequency in nature and are able to circumvent herd, or induced, immunity. Also, drug-resistant viruses can be selected in vitro and this resistance can be exchanged to other viruses by gene reassortment. Combined immuno- and chemoprophylaxis may provide a more effective approach to the ultimate control of the disease. Most antiviral compounds have been selected by random screening in the laboratory. Application of more specific enzyme assays such as the virion-associated RNA transcriptase assays may produce other compounds with a defined mode of action - semi-rational chemotherapy. RNA and polypeptide sequence studies are in progress elsewhere to define transcription and translation initiation sites or virus adsorption sites. Such knowledge could lead to a new generation of antiviral compounds. Specific delivery of virus inhibitory compounds is an interesting problem. Liposomes are lipid spheres, and these have been used for the delivery of antiviral compounds. Images Fig. 3a. Fig. 3b. Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:461275

  19. Generation of Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Drug Candidates from the Natural Product Compound Aureobasidin A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The natural product aureobasidin A (AbA) is a potent, well-tolerated antifungal agent with robust efficacy in animals. Although native AbA is active against a number of fungi, it has little activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, an important human pathogen, and attempts to improve the activity against this organism by structural modifications have to date involved chemistries too complex for continued development. This report describes novel chemistry for the modification of AbA. The key step involves functionalization of the phenylalanine residues in the compound by iridium-catalyzed borylation. This is followed by displacement of the pinacol boron moiety to form the corresponding bromide or iodide and substitution by Suzuki biaryl coupling. The approach allows for synthesis of a truly wide range of derivatives and has produced compounds with A. fumigatus minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of <0.5 μg/mL. The approach is readily adaptable to large-scale synthesis and industrial production. PMID:26101567

  20. Replication-Competent Influenza Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Luciferase Reporter Strains Engineered for Co-Infections Identify Antiviral Compounds in Combination Screens.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Weisshaar, Marco; Lamb, Kristen; Chung, Hokyung K; Lin, Michael Z; Plemper, Richard K

    2015-09-15

    Myxoviruses such as influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major human pathogens, mandating the development of novel therapeutics. To establish a high-throughput screening protocol for the simultaneous identification of pathogen- and host-targeted hit candidates against either pathogen or both, we have attempted co-infection of cells with IAV and RSV. However, viral replication kinetics were incompatible, RSV signal window was low, and an IAV-driven minireplicon reporter assay used in initial screens narrowed the host cell range and restricted the assay to single-cycle infections. To overcome these limitations, we developed an RSV strain carrying firefly luciferase fused to an innovative universal small-molecule assisted shut-off domain, which boosted assay signal window, and a hyperactive fusion protein that synchronized IAV and RSV reporter expression kinetics and suppressed the identification of RSV entry inhibitors sensitive to a recently reported RSV pan-resistance mechanism. Combined with a replication-competent recombinant IAV strain harboring nanoluciferase, the assay performed well on a human respiratory cell line and supports multicycle infections. Miniaturized to 384-well format, the protocol was validated through screening of a set of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection (NCC) in quadruplicate. These test screens demonstrated favorable assay parameters and reproducibility. Application to a LOPAC library of bioactive compounds in a proof-of-concept campaign detected licensed antimyxovirus therapeutics, ribavirin and the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir, and identified two unexpected RSV-specific hit candidates, Fenretinide and the opioid receptor antagonist BNTX-7. Hits were evaluated in direct and orthogonal dose-response counterscreens using a standard recRSV reporter strain expressing Renilla luciferase. PMID:26307636

  1. Hydrogen bonds and antiviral activity of benzaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    We have obtained the Fourier transform IR spectra of solutions of benzaldehyde derivatives having different antiviral activities against a herpes virus. We observe a correlation between the presence of hydrogen bonds in the benzaldehyde molecules and the appearance of antiviral properties in the compounds. For compounds having antiviral activity, we have obtained spectral data suggesting the existence of hydrogen bonds of the type C=OṡṡṡH-O and O-HṡṡṡO in the molecules. When the hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl groups are replaced by a methyl group, no intramolecular hydrogen bonds are formed and the compounds lose their antiviral activity.

  2. In vitro evaluation of candidate pretreatment and treatment compounds against sulfur mustard (HD) -induced human mononuclear leukocyte toxicity using a dye exclusion cell viability assay

    SciTech Connect

    Starner, R.A.; Blank, J.A.; Hobson, D.W.; Menton, R.G.; Meier, H.L.

    1993-05-13

    An assay measuring propidium iodide (PI) incorporation into nonviable human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) was established at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD), and the technology transferred and implemented at Battelle's Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) for use as a screen to evaluate candidate compounds for direct cytotoxicity as well as for efficacy in preventing HD-induced cytotoxicity. For assay transition, studies were performed to establish a fixed HD challenge concentration; to develop a positive and negative control dataset; and to establish the reproducibility in obtaining an EC50 (concentration of candidate compound required to provide 50 percent protection against the fixed HD concentration) for niacinamide (NM). Various concentrations of candidate compounds were preincubated for 15 to 30 min with PBML prior to adding the fixed HD challenge. At 24 hr after exposure, PI was added to the cultures and the number of nonviable (PI positive) cells was determined by flow cytometry. Positive (NM pretreated) and negative (HD only) controls were examined concurrently and used to maintain data quality. From this dataset, candidate compounds were evaluated for direct cytotoxic effects and for efficacy in preventing HD-induced cytotoxicity. EC50 values for effective candidate compounds were estimated and reported for ranking compound effectiveness. Results from these studies demonstrate assay function and reproducibility during routine screening operations.

  3. Improving drug candidates by design: a focus on physicochemical properties as a means of improving compound disposition and safety.

    PubMed

    Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2011-09-19

    The development of small molecule drug candidates from the discovery phase to a marketed product continues to be a challenging enterprise with very low success rates that have fostered the perception of poor productivity by the pharmaceutical industry. Although there have been significant advances in preclinical profiling that have improved compound triaging and altered the underlying reasons for compound attrition, the failure rates have not appreciably changed. As part of an effort to more deeply understand the reasons for candidate failure, there has been considerable interest in analyzing the physicochemical properties of marketed drugs for the purpose of comparing with drugs in discovery and development as a means capturing recent trends in drug design. The scenario that has emerged is one in which contemporary drug discovery is thought to be focused too heavily on advancing candidates with profiles that are most easily satisfied by molecules with increased molecular weight and higher overall lipophilicity. The preponderance of molecules expressing these properties is frequently a function of increased aromatic ring count when compared with that of the drugs launched in the latter half of the 20th century and may reflect a preoccupation with maximizing target affinity rather than taking a more holistic approach to drug design. These attributes not only present challenges for formulation and absorption but also may influence the manifestation of toxicity during development. By providing some definition around the optimal physicochemical properties associated with marketed drugs, guidelines for drug design have been developed that are based largely on calculated parameters and which may readily be applied by medicinal chemists as an aid to understanding candidate quality. The physicochemical properties of a molecule that are consistent with the potential for good oral absorption were initially defined by Lipinski, with additional insights allowing further

  4. The role of the anaesthetised guinea-pig in the preclinical cardiac safety evaluation of drug candidate compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Louise; Borland, Samantha; Philp, Karen; Ewart, Lorna; Lainée, Pierre; Skinner, Matthew; Kirk, Sarah; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Despite rigorous preclinical and clinical safety evaluation, adverse cardiac effects remain a leading cause of drug attrition and post-approval drug withdrawal. A number of cardiovascular screens exist within preclinical development. These screens do not, however, provide a thorough cardiac liability profile and, in many cases, are not preventing the progression of high risk compounds. We evaluated the suitability of the anaesthetised guinea-pig for the assessment of drug-induced changes in cardiovascular parameters. Sodium pentobarbitone anaesthetised male guinea-pigs received three 15 minute intravenous infusions of ascending doses of amoxicillin, atenolol, clonidine, dobutamine, dofetilide, flecainide, isoprenaline, levosimendan, milrinone, moxifloxacin, nifedipine, paracetamol, verapamil or vehicle, followed by a 30 minute washout. Dose levels were targeted to cover clinical exposure and above, with plasma samples obtained to evaluate effect/exposure relationships. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, contractility function (left ventricular dP/dt{sub max} and QA interval) and lead II electrocardiogram were recorded throughout. In general, the expected reference compound induced effects on haemodynamic, contractility and electrocardiographic parameters were detected confirming that all three endpoints can be measured accurately and simultaneously in one small animal. Plasma exposures obtained were within, or close to the expected clinical range of therapeutic plasma levels. Concentration–effect curves were produced which allowed a more complete understanding of the margins for effects at different plasma exposures. This single in vivo screen provides a significant amount of information pertaining to the cardiovascular risk of drug candidates, ultimately strengthening strategies addressing cardiovascular-mediated compound attrition and drug withdrawal. -- Highlights: ► Evaluation of the anaesthetised guinea-pig to determine cardiac liability.

  5. Task 89-07: Evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of candidate pretreatment and treatment (pt) compounds against vesicants and nerve agents. Final report, January 1990-January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, D.W.; Blank, J.A.; Starner, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    MREF Task 89-07 encompassed four vesicant assays and four nerve agent assays. The four vesicant assays evaluated the candidate P and T compound solubility limitations, direct cytotoxic effects, efficacy against HD-induced cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion, and efficacy against HD-induced cytotoxicity. Normal human epidermal cells (NHEKs) were used to evaluate candidate PT compound efficacy against HD-induced NAD+ depletion, and peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) were used in direct cytotoxicity and HD-induced cytotoxicity assays. The four nerve agent assays assessed candidate PT compound direct inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, candidate PT compound efficacy in reactivating Tabun (GA) - and O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX)-inhibited A ThE, and candidate PT compound efficacy in slowing the aging rate of Soman (GD) inhibited AChE. All nerve agent and vesicant assays with the exception of the direct cytotoxicity and HD-induced cytotoxicity assays were initially established under MREF Task 88-36. The direct cytotoxicity and HD-induced cytotoxicity assays were transitioned to the MREF from USAMRICD and validated for use in routine screening procedures, including the generation of control database values, under Task 89-07. Solubility data were obtained for 37 compounds submitted for evaluation in the vesicant assays. Thirty-five of these compounds were evaluated for direct cytotoxicity, and their effect against HD-induced cytotoxicity, while 13 compound is were evaluated for efficacy against HD-induced NAD+ depletion. AChE reactivation, ACHE aging, ACHE inhibition, In vitro, Cytotoxicity , Vesicant assays, Nerve ag.

  6. From β-amino-γ-sultone to unusual bicyclic pyridine and pyrazine heterocyclic systems: synthesis and cytostatic and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Sonia; Familiar, Olga; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Balzarini, Jan; Camarasa, María-José; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2011-04-01

    Herein we describe the first successful application of the β-amino-γ-sultone system as an intermediate for the synthesis of hitherto virtually unknown 3H-[1,2]-oxathiole [4,3-b]pyridine and pyrazine 1,1-dioxide bicyclic heterocyclic systems. All novel compounds were evaluated for their antiviral and cytostatic activities. Compounds 3 a, 15 a, and 21 a inhibited HIV-1-induced cytopathicity. Compound 7 showed remarkable cytostatic activity, and can be regarded as a potential antitumor candidate for further exploration. PMID:21370477

  7. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  8. Dual Myxovirus Screen Identifies a Small-Molecule Agonist of the Host Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Krumm, Stefanie A.; Sun, Aiming; Steinhauer, David A.; Luo, Ming; Moore, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    As we are confronted with an increasing number of emerging and reemerging viral pathogens, the identification of novel pathogen-specific and broad-spectrum antivirals has become a major developmental objective. Targeting of host factors required for virus replication presents a tangible approach toward obtaining novel hits with a broadened indication range. However, the identification of developable host-directed antiviral candidates remains challenging. We describe a novel screening protocol that interrogates the myxovirus host-pathogen interactome for broad-spectrum drug candidates and simultaneously probes for conventional, pathogen-directed hits. With resource efficiency and pan-myxovirus activity as the central developmental parameters, we explored coscreening against two distinct, independently traceable myxoviruses in a single-well setting. Having identified a pair of unrelated pathogenic myxoviruses (influenza A virus and measles virus) with comparable replication kinetics, we observed unimpaired coreplication of both viruses, generated suitable firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter constructs, respectively, and validated the protocol for up to a 384-well plate format. Combined with an independent counterscreen using a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus luciferase reporter, implementation of the protocol identified candidates with a broadened antimyxovirus profile, in addition to pathogen-specific hits. Mechanistic characterization revealed a newly discovered broad-spectrum lead that does not block viral entry but stimulates effector pathways of the innate cellular antiviral response. In summary, we provide proof of concept for the efficient discovery of broad-spectrum myxovirus inhibitors in parallel to para- and orthomyxovirus-specific hit candidates in a single screening campaign. The newly identified compound provides a basis for the development of a novel broad-spectrum small-molecule antiviral class. PMID:23926334

  9. Antiviral activity of silymarin against chikungunya virus

    PubMed Central

    Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chiam, Chun Wei; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Rausalu, Kai; Merits, Andres; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection. PMID:26078201

  10. Antiviral activity of silymarin against chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Lani, Rafidah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Chiam, Chun Wei; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Rausalu, Kai; Merits, Andres; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection. PMID:26078201

  11. Determining Mechanism of Action of Antivirals for Respiratory Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Irma; Dobrovolny, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Viral infections in the respiratory tract are common in humans and can cause serious illness and death. Drug treatment is the principal line of protection against many of these illnesses and many compounds are tested as antivirals. Often the efficacy of these antivirals are determined before a mechanism of action is understood. We use mathematical models to represent the evolution of these diseases and establish which experiments can help determine the mechanism of action of antivirals.

  12. Dioscin's antiviral effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaohong; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Pei, Rongjuan; Song, Jianhua; Chen, Shiyun; Chen, Xinwen

    2013-03-01

    Dioscin is chemical compound obtained from an extract from a medical plant, air potato that is a yam species. Its potential antiviral properties were analyzed in this study. In this study, dioscin's antiviral effects were tested against several viruses including adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). By time-of-addition assay, dioscin not only blocked the initial stage of adenovirus infection, but also affected the host cell's response for viral infection. In addition, 293 cells treated with dioscin displayed decreased mRNA levels for adenovirus receptor (CAR). Over expression of CAR in 293 cells pretreated with dioscin restored the infectivity of adenovirus. The inhibitory effect of dioscin against VSV infection was observed only in 293 cells pretreated with dioscin prior to infection. Finally, dioscin's inhibitory effect on secretion of HBeAg and HBsAg in HBV positive cell line HepG2 2.215 was observed by ELISA assay. PMID:23238077

  13. Marine pharmacology in 2005–6: Marine Compounds with Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The review presents the 2005–2006 peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature, and follows a similar format to the authors’ 1998–2004 reviews. The preclinical pharmacology of chemically characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is systematically presented. RESULTS Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 78 marine chemicals. Additionally 47 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 58 marine compounds were shown to bind to a variety of molecular targets, and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. CONCLUSIONS Marine pharmacology research during 2005–2006 was truly global in nature, involving investigators from 32 countries, and the United States, and contributed 183 marine chemical leads to the research pipeline aimed at the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE Continued preclinical and clinical research with marine natural products demonstrating a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity and will probably result in novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:19303911

  14. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  15. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Nikzad, Sonia; Kadir, Habsah Abdul; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  16. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Nikzad, Sonia; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  17. Marine pharmacology in 2003-4: Marine Compounds with Anthelminthic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    The current marine pharmacology review that covers the peer-reviewed literature during 2003 and 2004 is a sequel to the authors' 1998-2002 reviews, and highlights the preclinical pharmacology of 166 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 67 marine chemicals. Additionally 45 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possessing anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 54 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2003-2004, research on the pharmacology of marine natural products which involved investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States, contributed numerous chemical leads for the continued global search for novel therapeutic agents with broad spectrum activity. PMID:17392033

  18. Marine pharmacology in 2001–2002: Marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2001–2002, research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals continued to be global in nature involving investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current article, a sequel to the authors’ 1998, 1999 and 2000 marine pharmacology reviews, classifies 106 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, on the basis of peer-reviewed preclinical pharmacology. Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 56 marine chemicals. An additional 19 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Finally, 31 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2001–2002 pharmacological research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads for the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:15919242

  19. Marine Pharmacology in 2000: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune, and Nervous Systems and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2000 research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals involved investigators from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Phillipines, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current review, a sequel to the authors’ 1998 and 1999 reviews, classifies 68 peer-reviewed articles on the basis of the reported preclinical pharmacologic properties of marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi, and bacteria. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antituberculosis, or antiviral activity was reported for 35 marine chemicals. An additional 20 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system, and to possess anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant properties. Finally, 23 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacologic classes. Thus, as in 1998 and 1999, during 2000 pharmacologic research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads to the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents in the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:14583811

  20. Antiviral activity of constituents of Tamus communis.

    PubMed

    Aquino, R; Conti, C; De Simone, F; Orsi, N; Pizza, C; Stein, M L

    1991-10-01

    The antiviral activity of the phenanthrene derivatives 1-6, of the spyrostane triglycosides dioscin (7) and gracillin (8), of the furostanol tetraglycosides methylprotodioscin (9), its (25S) epimer methylprotoneodioscin (10), and methylprotogracillin 11, have been tested towards two RNA viruses: vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 1B. All these products were extracted from the rizomes of Tamus communis L; compound 11 was isolated also from Asparagus cochinchinesis, together with pseudoprotodioscin (12), a 20 (22)-unsaturated furostanoside, which was also investigated for antiviral activity. The results were of some interest mainly for the phenanthrene derivatives. PMID:1667189

  1. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Cristina; Eisenhut, Michael; Krausse, Rea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Pellati, Donatella; Armanini, Decio; Bielenberg, Jens

    2008-02-01

    Historical sources for the use of Glycyrrhiza species include ancient manuscripts from China, India and Greece. They all mention its use for symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections and hepatitis. Randomized controlled trials confirmed that the Glycyrrhiza glabra derived compound glycyrrhizin and its derivatives reduced hepatocellular damage in chronic hepatitis B and C. In hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was reduced. Animal studies demonstrated a reduction of mortality and viral activity in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and influenza A virus pneumonia. In vitro studies revealed antiviral activity against HIV-1, SARS related coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Mechanisms for antiviral activity of Glycyrrhiza spp. include reduced transport to the membrane and sialylation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, reduction of membrane fluidity leading to inhibition of fusion of the viral membrane of HIV-1 with the cell, induction of interferon gamma in T-cells, inhibition of phosphorylating enzymes in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and reduction of viral latency. Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:17886224

  2. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents. PMID:26727903

  3. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  4. Specific Inhibitors of HIV Capsid Assembly Binding to the C-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein: Evaluation of 2-Arylquinazolines as Potential Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    Machara, Aleš; Lux, Vanda; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Kotora, Martin; Parkan, Kamil; Pávová, Marcela; Glass, Bärbel; Sehr, Peter; Lewis, Joe; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-28

    Assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) represents an attractive target for antiretroviral therapy which is not exploited by currently available drugs. We established high-throughput screening for assembly inhibitors based on competition of small molecules for the binding of a known dodecapeptide assembly inhibitor to the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA (capsid). Screening of >70000 compounds from different libraries identified 2-arylquinazolines as low micromolecular inhibitors of HIV-1 capsid assembly. We prepared focused libraries of modified 2-arylquinazolines and tested their capacity to bind HIV-1 CA to compete with the known peptide inhibitor and to prevent the replication of HIV-1 in tissue culture. Some of the compounds showed potent binding to the C-terminal domain of CA and were found to block viral replication at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:26685880

  5. An antiviral furanoquinone from Paulownia tomentosa Steud.

    PubMed

    Kang, K H; Huh, H; Kim, B K; Lee, C K

    1999-11-01

    A methanol extract of the stem bark of Paulownia tomentosa showed antiviral activity against poliovirus types 1 and 3. Sequential liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, chloroform and water, and a silicagel column chromatography resulted in the purification of a compound. The compound was identified as methyl-5-hydroxy-dinaphthol[1,2-2',3']furan-7,12-dione-6-carbox yla te on the basis of spectroscopic data. The component caused a significant reduction of viral cytopathic effect when it was subjected to a standard antiviral assay by using HeLa cells. The EC(50) of the compound against poliovirus type 1 strain Brunhilde, and type 3 strain Leon were 0.3 microg/mL and 0.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:10548761

  6. New neplanocin analogues. 1. Synthesis of 6'-modified neplanocin A derivatives as broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Shuto, S; Obara, T; Toriya, M; Hosoya, M; Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1992-01-24

    Novel neplanocin A analogues modified at the 6'-position, i.e., 6'-deoxy analogues (2, 3, 6, 9, 20), 6'-O-methylneplanocin A (15), and 6'-C-methylneplanocin A's (22a and 22b) have been synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activity in a wide variety of DNA and RNA virus systems. These compounds showed an activity spectrum that conforms to that of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors. They were particularly active against pox- (vaccinia), paramyxo-(parainfluenza, measles, respiratory syncytial), arena- (Junin, Tacaribe), rhabdo- (vesicular stomatitis), reo-, and cytomegalovirus. In order of (increasing) antiviral activity, the compounds ranked as follows: 3 less than 15 approximately 20 less than 6 less than 9 approximately 2 less than 22a. Of the two diastereomeric forms of 22, only 22a was active; 22a surpassed neplanocin A both in antiviral potency and selectivity. Compound 22a appears to be a promising candidate drug for the treatment of pox-, paramyxo-, arena-, rhabdo-, reo-, and cytomegalovirus infections. PMID:1732550

  7. Antiviral Drug Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Milpied-Homsi, Brigitte; Moran, Ellen M.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral drugs used to treat HIV and hepatitis C are common causes of delayed drug hypersensitivities for which many of the more severe reactions have been recently shown to be immunogenetically mediated such as abacavir hypersensitivity where HLA-B*57:01 is now used routinely as a screening test to exclude patients carrying this allele from abacavir prescription. Most antiviral drug allergies consist of mild to moderate delayed rash without other serious features (e.g. fever, mucosal involvement, blistering rash, organ impairment. In these cases treatment can be continued with careful observation and symptomatic management and the discontinuation rate is low. PMID:25017682

  8. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Tajima, Shigeru; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS IN THREE SPECIES OF FALSE ROSEMARY (CONRADINA SP.) NATIVE TO FLORIDA AS CANDIDATE MOSQUITO REPELLENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Bloodsucking flies and mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases such as Leishmaniasis, malaria, and West Nile fever. One method of reducing disease risk is through the use of topical or spatial repellents. Natural compounds from plants and animals that exhibit repe...

  10. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 5'-deoxypyrazofurin.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Schneller, S W; Ikeda, S; Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1993-11-12

    In searching for derivatives of pyrazofurin that could display antiviral properties by means that do not require C-5' phosphorylation, 5'-deoxypyrazofurin (3) has been synthesized in six steps from methyl5-deoxy-2,3-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-ribofuranoside (4). Compound 3 was evaluated for antiviral activity against a large number of viruses including herpes-, pox-, myxo-, toga-, arena-, rhabdo-, picorna-,reo-, and retroviruses. Compound 3 proved active against respiratory syncytial virus (in HeLa cells), vaccinia virus (in embryonic skin-muscle fibroblast cells), vesicular stomatitis virus (in HeLa cells), and influenza A virus (in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells) at concentrations (ranging from 4 to 20 micrograms/mL) that were nontoxic to the confluent host cell cultures. PMID:8246242

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants of Laos toward the discovery of bioactive compounds as potential candidates for pharmaceutical development

    PubMed Central

    Soejarto, D.D.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Kadushin, M.R.; Southavong, B.; Sydara, K.; Bouamanivong, S.; Xaiveu, M.; Zhang, H.-J.; Franzblau, S.G.; Tan, Ghee T.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Riley, M.C.; Elkington, B.G.; Waller, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Context An ethnobotany-based approach in the selection of raw plant materials to study was implemented. Objective To acquire raw plant materials using ethnobotanical field interviews as starting point to discover new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Methods Using semi-structured field interviews with healers in the Lao PDR, plant samples were collected, extracted, and bio-assayed to detect bioactivity against cancer, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria. Plant species demonstrating activity were recollected and the extracts subjected to a bioassay-guided isolation protocol to isolate and identify the active compounds. Results Field interviews with 118 healers in 15 of 17 provinces of Lao PDR yielded 753 collections (573 species) with 955 plant samples. Of these 955, 50 extracts demonstrated activity in the anticancer, 10 in the anti-HIV, 30 in the anti-TB, and 52 in the antimalarial assay. Recollection of actives followed by bioassay-guided isolation processes yielded a series of new and known in vitro-active anticancer and antimalarial compounds from 5 species. Discussion Laos has a rich biodiversity, harboring an estimated 8000–11,000 species of plants. In a country highly dependent on traditional medicine for its primary health care, this rich plant diversity serves as a major source of their medication. Conclusions Ethnobotanical survey has demonstrated the richness of plant-based traditional medicine of Lao PDR, taxonomically and therapeutically. Biological assays of extracts of half of the 955 samples followed by in-depth studies of a number of actives have yielded a series of new bioactive compounds against the diseases of cancer and malaria. PMID:22136442

  12. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  13. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-11-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  14. Glycodendritic structures: promising new antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides. PMID:15308605

  15. Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Hickey, Anthony; Mountfort, Douglas; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    The natural chemical compounds radicicol, polygodial and ubiquinone-10 (Q10) have previously been identified as inhibitors of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae. Accordingly, they have potential as a specific remedy for the costly problem of fouling ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. In this study, these compounds were screened for their effects on the physiological health of an aquaculture species, the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Gmelin, at or above the 99% effective dose (IC(99)) in ascidians. Three physiological biomarkers of mussel health were screened: growth (increases in shell height and wet weight), condition (condition index) and mitochondrial respirational function (Complex I-mediated respiration, Complex II-mediated respiration, maximum uncoupled respiration, leak respiration, respiratory control ratios and phosphorylation system control ratios). While polygodial and Q10 had no effect on mussel growth or the condition index, radicicol retarded growth and decreased the condition index. Mitochondrial respirational function was unaffected by radicicol and polygodial. Conversely, Q10 enhanced Complex I-mediated respiration, highlighting the fundamental role of this compound in the electron transport system. The present study suggests that polygodial and Q10 do not negatively affect the physiological health of P. canaliculus at the IC(99) in ascidians, while radicicol is toxic. Moreover, Q10 is of benefit in biomedical settings as a cellular antioxidant and therefore may also benefit P. canaliculus. Accordingly, polygodial and Q10 should be progressed to the next stage of testing where possible negative effects on bivalves will be further explored, followed by development of application techniques and testing in a laboratory and aquaculture setting. PMID:23194394

  16. Antiviral immunity in marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Raftos, David; Speck, Peter; Montagnani, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Marine molluscs, like all living organisms, are constantly exposed to viruses and have evolved efficient antiviral defences. We review here recent developments in molluscan antiviral immunity against viruses belonging to the order Herpesvirales. Emerging results suggest an interferon-like response and autophagy are involved in the antiviral defence of bivalves to viral infection. Multi-functional plasma proteins from gastropods and bivalves have been identified to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity against mammalian viruses. The antiviral defences present in molluscs can be enhanced by genetic selection, as shown by the presence of oyster strains specifically resistant to ostreid herpesvirus type 1. Whether varying amounts or different isoforms of these antiviral plasma proteins contributes to genetic resistance is worthy of further research. Other evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanisms, such as RNA interference and apoptosis, still need further characterization. PMID:26297577

  17. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations. PMID:24024688

  18. Novel antiviral activity of bromocriptine against dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kato, Fumihiro; Ishida, Yuki; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Watanabe, Satoru; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Youichi; Ichiyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Miura, Tomoyuki; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Hishiki, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infectious disease is a major public health problem worldwide; however, licensed vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against this infection are not available. To identify novel anti-DENV compounds, we screened 1280 pharmacologically active compounds using focus reduction assay. Bromocriptine (BRC) was found to have potent anti-DENV activity and low cytotoxicity (half maximal effective concentration [EC50], 0.8-1.6 μM; and half maximal cytotoxicity concentration [CC50], 53.6 μM). Time-of-drug-addition and time-of-drug-elimination assays suggested that BRC inhibits translation and/or replication steps in the DENV life cycle. A subgenomic replicon system was used to verify that BRC restricts RNA replication step. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution (N374H) was detected in the NS3 protein that conferred resistance to BRC. In summary, BRC was found to be a novel DENV inhibitor and a potential candidate for the treatment of DENV infectious disease. PMID:27181378

  19. Cyclopalladated Compound 7a Induces Apoptosis- and Autophagy-Like Mechanisms in Paracoccidioides and Is a Candidate for Paracoccidioidomycosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Denise C.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Silva, Luiz S.; Real, Fernando; Leitão, Natanael P.; Pires, Jhon H. S.; Caires, Antonio Carlos F.; Garcia, Daniel M.; Cunha, Fernanda F. M.; Longo, Larissa V. G.

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides species, is the main cause of death due to systemic mycoses in Brazil and other Latin American countries. Therapeutic options for PCM and other systemic mycoses are limited and time-consuming, and there are high rates of noncompliance, relapses, toxic side effects, and sequelae. Previous work has shown that the cyclopalladated 7a compound is effective in treating several kinds of cancer and parasitic Chagas disease without significant toxicity in animals. Here we show that cyclopalladated 7a inhibited the in vitro growth of Paracoccidioides lutzii Pb01 and P. brasiliensis isolates Pb18 (highly virulent), Pb2, Pb3, and Pb4 (less virulent) in a dose-response manner. Pb18 was the most resistant. Opportunistic Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were also sensitive. BALB/c mice showed significantly lighter lung fungal burdens when treated twice a day for 20 days with a low cyclopalladated 7a dose of 30 μg/ml/day for 30 days after intratracheal infection with Pb18. Electron microscopy images suggested that apoptosis- and autophagy-like mechanisms are involved in the fungal killing mechanism of cyclopalladated 7a. Pb18 yeast cells incubated with the 7a compound showed remarkable chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, superoxide anion production, and increased metacaspase activity suggestive of apoptosis. Autophagy-related killing mechanisms were suggested by increased autophagic vacuole numbers and acidification, as indicated by an increase in LysoTracker and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining in cyclopalladated 7a-treated Pb18 yeast cells. Considering that cyclopalladated 7a is highly tolerated in vivo and affects yeast fungal growth through general apoptosis- and autophagy-like mechanisms, it is a novel promising drug for the treatment of PCM and other mycoses. PMID:26349827

  20. Cyclopalladated Compound 7a Induces Apoptosis- and Autophagy-Like Mechanisms in Paracoccidioides and Is a Candidate for Paracoccidioidomycosis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Denise C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Silva, Luiz S; Real, Fernando; Leitão, Natanael P; Pires, Jhon H S; Caires, Antonio Carlos F; Garcia, Daniel M; Cunha, Fernanda F M; Puccia, Rosana; Longo, Larissa V G

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides species, is the main cause of death due to systemic mycoses in Brazil and other Latin American countries. Therapeutic options for PCM and other systemic mycoses are limited and time-consuming, and there are high rates of noncompliance, relapses, toxic side effects, and sequelae. Previous work has shown that the cyclopalladated 7a compound is effective in treating several kinds of cancer and parasitic Chagas disease without significant toxicity in animals. Here we show that cyclopalladated 7a inhibited the in vitro growth of Paracoccidioides lutzii Pb01 and P. brasiliensis isolates Pb18 (highly virulent), Pb2, Pb3, and Pb4 (less virulent) in a dose-response manner. Pb18 was the most resistant. Opportunistic Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were also sensitive. BALB/c mice showed significantly lighter lung fungal burdens when treated twice a day for 20 days with a low cyclopalladated 7a dose of 30 μg/ml/day for 30 days after intratracheal infection with Pb18. Electron microscopy images suggested that apoptosis- and autophagy-like mechanisms are involved in the fungal killing mechanism of cyclopalladated 7a. Pb18 yeast cells incubated with the 7a compound showed remarkable chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, superoxide anion production, and increased metacaspase activity suggestive of apoptosis. Autophagy-related killing mechanisms were suggested by increased autophagic vacuole numbers and acidification, as indicated by an increase in LysoTracker and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining in cyclopalladated 7a-treated Pb18 yeast cells. Considering that cyclopalladated 7a is highly tolerated in vivo and affects yeast fungal growth through general apoptosis- and autophagy-like mechanisms, it is a novel promising drug for the treatment of PCM and other mycoses. PMID:26349827

  1. Existing antiviral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Creed, Rosella; Mendoza, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. The first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. This article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. PMID:19335723

  2. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, CY; Yang, H; Wei, CL; Yu, O; Zhang, ZZ; Sun, J; Wan, XC

    2011-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A){sup +} RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real

  3. VivaGel™ (SPL7013 Gel): A candidate dendrimer – microbicide for the prevention of HIV and HSV infection

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Richard; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2007-01-01

    Microbicides are compounds that applied vaginally or rectally, protect the user from sexually transmitted infections. Although no commercial product is yet available, many candidates are under development. A leading candidate, VivaGel™ (SPL7013 Gel) is the product of nanotechnology. The active ingredient is SPL7013, a dendrimer that was designed specifically with HIV and HSV antiviral activity and human safety in mind. SPL7013 has demonstrated efficacy against human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus in in vitro and animal models. VivaGel™ appears to be well tolerated in both animals and humans. This review summarizes the studies of VivaGel™ and its active ingredient, SPL7013. PMID:18203424

  4. Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Field, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially important differences, the clinical trials, and the clinical experience through two decades. Some possible areas for further investigation are suggested. The focus shifts to new approaches and novel compounds, in particular, the combination of ACV with hydrocortisone, known as ME609 or zovirax duo, an HSV helicase-primase inhibitor, pritelivir (AIC316), and CMX001, the cidofovir prodrug for treating resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Letermovir has established that the human cytomegalovirus terminase enzyme is a valid target and that similar compounds could be sought for HSV. We discuss the difficulties facing the progression of new compounds. In our concluding remarks, we summarize the present situation including a discussion on the reclassification of FCV from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely? We conclude that HSV research is emerging from a quiescent phase. PMID:23885997

  5. Antiviral agents against equid alphaherpesviruses: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vissani, María A; Thiry, Etienne; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Barrandeguy, María

    2016-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus infections cause respiratory, neurological and reproductive syndromes. Despite preventive and control measures and the availability of vaccines and immunostimulants, herpesvirus infections still constitute a major threat to equine health and for the equine industry worldwide. Antiviral drugs, particularly nucleoside analogues and foscarnet, are successfully used for the treatment of human alphaherpesvirus infections. In equine medicine, the use of antiviral medications in alphaherpesvirus infections would decrease the excretion of virus and diminish the risk of contagion and the convalescent time in affected horses, and would also improve the clinical outcome of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. The combined use of antiviral compounds, along with vaccines, immune modulators, and effective preventive and control measures, might be beneficial in diminishing the negative impact of alphaherpesvirus infections in horses. The purpose of this review is to analyse the available information regarding the use of antiviral agents against alphaherpesviruses, with particular emphasis on equine alphaherpesvirus infections. PMID:26654843

  6. Dengue Virus Entry as Target for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alen, Marijke M. F.; Schols, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infections are expanding worldwide and, because of the lack of a vaccine, the search for antiviral products is imperative. Four serotypes of DENV are described and they all cause a similar disease outcome. It would be interesting to develop an antiviral product that can interact with all four serotypes, prevent host cell infection and subsequent immune activation. DENV entry is thus an interesting target for antiviral therapy. DENV enters the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several cellular receptors have been proposed, and DC-SIGN, present on dendritic cells, is considered as the most important DENV receptor until now. Because DENV entry is a target for antiviral therapy, various classes of compounds have been investigated to inhibit this process. In this paper, an overview is given of all the putative DENV receptors, and the most promising DENV entry inhibitors are discussed. PMID:22529868

  7. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    The data on the antiviral action of the Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus brasiliensis and other basidiomycetes metabolites are summurized. The metabolites of these species of basidiomycetes exhibit a direct antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus types I and II, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and others. Moreover, metabolites of basidiomycetes increased antiviral immunity. PMID:25975107

  8. Transformation of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL3) compounds during ozonation and advanced oxidation processes in drinking water: Assessment of biological effects.

    PubMed

    Mestankova, Hana; Parker, Austa M; Bramaz, Nadine; Canonica, Silvio; Schirmer, Kristin; von Gunten, Urs; Linden, Karl G

    2016-04-15

    The removal of emerging contaminants during water treatment is a current issue and various technologies are being explored. These include UV- and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this study, AOPs were explored for their degradation capabilities of 25 chemical contaminants on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List 3 (CCL3) in drinking water. Twenty-three of these were found to be amenable to hydroxyl radical-based treatment, with second-order rate constants for their reactions with hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the range of 3-8 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The development of biological activity of the contaminants, focusing on mutagenicity and estrogenicity, was followed in parallel with their degradation using the Ames and YES bioassays to detect potential changes in biological effects during oxidative treatment. The majority of treatment cases resulted in a loss of biological activity upon oxidation of the parent compounds without generation of any form of estrogenicity or mutagenicity. However, an increase in mutagenic activity was detected by oxidative transformation of the following CCL3 parent compounds: nitrobenzene (OH, UV photolysis), quinoline (OH, ozone), methamidophos (OH), N-nitrosopyrolidine (OH), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (OH), aniline (UV photolysis), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (UV photolysis). Only one case of formation of estrogenic activity was observed, namely, for the oxidation of quinoline by OH. Overall, this study provides fundamental and practical information on AOP-based treatment of specific compounds of concern and represents a framework for evaluating the performance of transformation-based treatment processes. PMID:26900972

  9. Progress in the development of poliovirus antiviral agents and their essential role in reducing risks that threaten eradication.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, Mark A; Collett, Marc S; Hincks, Jeffrey R; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sutter, Roland W; Modlin, John F; Dowdle, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Chronic prolonged excretion of vaccine-derived polioviruses by immunodeficient persons (iVDPV) presents a personal risk of poliomyelitis to the patient as well as a programmatic risk of delayed global eradication. Poliovirus antiviral drugs offer the only mitigation of these risks. Antiviral agents may also have a potential role in the management of accidental exposures and in certain outbreak scenarios. Efforts to discover and develop poliovirus antiviral agents have been ongoing in earnest since the formation in 2007 of the Poliovirus Antivirals Initiative. The most advanced antiviral, pocapavir (V-073), is a capsid inhibitor that has recently demonstrated activity in an oral poliovirus vaccine human challenge model. Additional antiviral candidates with differing mechanisms of action continue to be profiled and evaluated preclinically with the goal of having 2 antivirals available for use in combination to treat iVDPV excreters. PMID:25316866

  10. A candidate anti-HIV reservoir compound, auranofin, exerts a selective ‘anti-memory' effect by exploiting the baseline oxidative status of lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chirullo, B; Sgarbanti, R; Limongi, D; Shytaj, I L; Alvarez, D; Das, B; Boe, A; DaFonseca, S; Chomont, N; Liotta, L; III Petricoin, E; Norelli, S; Pelosi, E; Garaci, E; Savarino, A; Palamara, A T

    2013-01-01

    Central memory (TCM) and transitional memory (TTM) CD4+ T cells are known to be the major cellular reservoirs for HIV, as these cells can harbor a transcriptionally silent form of viral DNA that is not targeted by either the immune system or current antiretroviral drug regimens. In the present study, we explored the molecular bases of the anti-HIV reservoir effects of auranofin (AF), a pro-oxidant gold-based drug and a candidate compound for a cure of AIDS. We here show that TCM and TTM lymphocytes have lower baseline antioxidant defenses as compared with their naive counterpart. These differences are mirrored by the effects exerted by AF on T-lymphocytes: AF was able to exert a pro-differentiating and pro-apoptotic effect, which was more pronounced in the memory subsets. AF induced an early activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) followed by mitochondrial depolarization and a final burst in intracellular peroxides. The pro-differentiating effect was characterized by a downregulation of the CD27 marker expression. Interestingly, AF-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pyruvate, a well-known peroxide scavenger, but pyruvate did not inhibit the pro-differentiating effect of AF, indicating that the pro-apoptotic and pro-differentiating effects involve different pathways. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that AF selectively targets the TCM/TTM lymphocyte subsets, which encompass the HIV reservoir, by affecting redox-sensitive cell death pathways. PMID:24309931

  11. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

  12. Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500 μg/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18 µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0 h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1 h and 2 h postinfection, albeit at 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

  13. 5α-reductase inhibitors, antiviral and anti-tumor activities of some steroidal cyanopyridinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Abdalla, Mohamed M; Amr, Abdel-Galil E

    2012-01-01

    We herein report the 5α-reductase inhibitors, antiviral and anti-tumor activities of some synthesized heterocyclic cyanopyridone and cyanothiopyridone derivatives fused with steroidal structure. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD(50). All the compounds, except 3b, were interestingly less toxic than the reference drug (Prednisolone(®)). Seventeen heterocyclic derivatives containing a cyanopyridone or cyanothiopyridone rings fused to a steroidal moiety were synthesized and screened for their 5α-reductase inhibitors, antiviral and anti-tumor activities comparable to that of Anastrozole, Bicalutamide, Efavirenz, Capravirine, Ribavirin, Oseltamivir and Amantadine as the reference drugs. Some of the compounds exhibited better 5α-reductase inhibitors, antiviral and anti-tumor activities than the reference drugs. The detailed 5α-reductase inhibitors, antiviral and anti-tumor activities of the synthesized compounds were reported. PMID:22057085

  14. RNA silencing: an antiviral mechanism.

    PubMed

    Csorba, T; Pantaleo, V; Burgyán, J

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved sequence-specific gene-inactivation system that also functions as an antiviral mechanism in higher plants and insects. To overcome antiviral RNA silencing, viruses express silencing-suppressor proteins which can counteract the host silencing-based antiviral process. After the discovery of virus-encoded silencing suppressors, it was shown that these viral proteins can target one or more key points in the silencing machinery. Here we review recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism and function of antiviral RNA silencing in plants, and on the virus's counterattack by expression of silencing-suppressor proteins. We also discuss emerging evidence that RNA silencing and expression of viral silencing-suppressor proteins are tools forged as a consequence of virus-host coevolution for fine-tuning host-pathogen coexistence. PMID:20109663

  15. Development of antiviral agents toward enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Pourianfar, Hamid Reza; Grollo, Lara

    2015-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection remains a public health problem at a global level, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The infection normally manifests as hand-foot-mouth disease; however, it is capable of developing into potentially fatal neurological complications. There is currently no approved vaccine or antiviral substance available for the prevention or treatment of EV71 infection. This paper, thus, reviews efforts to develop or discover synthetic as well as naturally occurring compounds directed against EV71 infection. The recent achievements in cellular receptors of EV71 are also highlighted, and their contribution to the development of antiviral drugs against EV71 is discussed in this article. PMID:24560700

  16. Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) and studies supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program on Task 89-01: Screening of candidate pretreatment and therapeutic compounds in in vivo models. Final report Jul 89-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.T.; Kiser, R.C.; Dill, G.S.

    1992-02-01

    This task was a continuation of Task 86-29 initiated for Contract D. It provided in vivo screens for evaluating the efficacy of candidate pretreatment and treatment compounds submitted by the Drug Assessment Division of U.S. Army Medical Research of Chemical Defense against soman, tabun, and/or cyanide. A total of 578 compounds were received for testing and their maximum solubility in-vehicles comparable with in vivo testing in mice was determined. Range-finding and median lethal dose determinations following IM and/or oral administrations were conducted for 436 compounds submitted for nerve agent screening and range finding and median lethal dose determinations following IP administration were conducted for up to 142 compounds submitted for cyanide screening. Of 332 compounds evaluated, 154 passed the GD treatment efficacy evaluation, and 90 of 156 compounds submitted passed the GA treatment efficacy evaluation. For pretreatment studies against a GD challenge, 224 of 379 compounds submitted passed the IM efficacy evaluation and 96 of 143 compounds submitted passed the oral efficacy evaluation. Only 12 of 133 compounds evaluated as cyanide pretreatment compounds passed the efficacy evaluations. The mission of Task 89-01 was combined under Task 91-20 for the duration of Contract DAMD17-89-C-9050.

  17. A candidate anti-HIV reservoir compound, auranofin, exerts a selective 'anti-memory' effect by exploiting the baseline oxidative status of lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chirullo, B; Sgarbanti, R; Limongi, D; Shytaj, I L; Alvarez, D; Das, B; Boe, A; DaFonseca, S; Chomont, N; Liotta, L; Petricoin, E Iii; Norelli, S; Pelosi, E; Garaci, E; Savarino, A; Palamara, A T

    2013-01-01

    Central memory (T(CM)) and transitional memory (T(TM)) CD4(+) T cells are known to be the major cellular reservoirs for HIV, as these cells can harbor a transcriptionally silent form of viral DNA that is not targeted by either the immune system or current antiretroviral drug regimens. In the present study, we explored the molecular bases of the anti-HIV reservoir effects of auranofin (AF), a pro-oxidant gold-based drug and a candidate compound for a cure of AIDS. We here show that T(CM) and T(TM) lymphocytes have lower baseline antioxidant defenses as compared with their naive counterpart. These differences are mirrored by the effects exerted by AF on T-lymphocytes: AF was able to exert a pro-differentiating and pro-apoptotic effect, which was more pronounced in the memory subsets. AF induced an early activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) followed by mitochondrial depolarization and a final burst in intracellular peroxides. The pro-differentiating effect was characterized by a downregulation of the CD27 marker expression. Interestingly, AF-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pyruvate, a well-known peroxide scavenger, but pyruvate did not inhibit the pro-differentiating effect of AF, indicating that the pro-apoptotic and pro-differentiating effects involve different pathways. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that AF selectively targets the T(CM)/T(TM) lymphocyte subsets, which encompass the HIV reservoir, by affecting redox-sensitive cell death pathways. PMID:24309931

  18. Discovering novel direct acting antiviral agents for HBV using in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiki; Hayakawa, Michiyo; Yano, Yoshihiko; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi; Iwadate, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are interferon and nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. Because both treatments are less than ideal, we conducted to identify novel anti-viral agents for HBV-reverse transcriptase (HBV-RT). We determined the ligand-binding site of the HBV-RT by conducting a homological search of the amino acid sequence and then we also determined not only structural arrangement of the target protein but the target protein-binding site of the ligand using known protein-ligand complexes in registered in the protein data bank (PDB). Finally we simulated binding between the ligand candidates and the HBV-RT and evaluated the degree of binding (in silico screening). PXB cells derived from human-mouse chimeric mouse liver, infected with HBV were administrated with the candidates, and HBVDNA in the culture medium was monitored by realtime qPCR. Among compounds from the AKosSamples database, twelve candidates that can inhibit RT were also identified, two of which seem to have the potential to control HBV replication in vitro. PMID:25446116

  19. Emerging antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2008-09-01

    Foremost among the newly described antiviral agents that may be developed into drugs are, for the treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, cPrPMEDAP; for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, BAY 57-1293; for the treatment of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections, FV-100 (prodrug of Cf 1743); for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, maribavir; for the treatment of poxvirus infections, ST-246; for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (which in the meantime has already been approved in the EU); for the treatment of various DNA virus infections, the hexadecyloxypropyl (HDP) and octadecyloxyethyl (ODE) prodrugs of cidofovir; for the treatment of orthomyxovirus infections (i.e., influenza), peramivir; for the treatment of hepacivirus infections (i.e., hepatitis C), the protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir, the nucleoside RNA replicase inhibitors (NRRIs) PSI-6130 and R1479, and various non-nucleoside RNA replicase inhibitors (NNRRIs); for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, integrase inhibitors (INIs) such as elvitegravir, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) such as apricitabine, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) such as rilpivirine and dapivirine; and for the treatment of both HCV and HIV infections, cyclosporin A derivatives such as the non-immunosuppressive Debio-025. PMID:18764719

  20. Novel antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a serious arboviral disease currently with no effective antiviral therapy or approved vaccine available. Therefore, finding the effective compound against dengue virus (DENV) replication is very important. Among the natural compounds, bioflavonoids derived mainly from plants are of interest because of their biological and medicinal benefits. Methods In the present study, antiviral activity of a bioflavonoid, baicalein, was evaluated against different stages of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) replication in Vero cells using focus forming unit reduction assay and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Baicalein inhibited DENV-2 replication in Vero cells with IC50= 6.46 μg/mL and SI= 17.8 when added after adsorption to the cells. The IC50 against DENV-2 was 5.39 μg/mL and SI= 21.3 when cells were treated 5 hours before virus infection and continuously up to 4 days post infection. Baicalein exhibited direct virucidal effect against DENV-2 with IC 50= 1.55 μg/mL and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 7.14 μg/mL. Conclusions Findings presented here suggest that baicalein exerts potent antiviral activity against DENV. Baicalein possesses direct virucidal activity against DENV besides its effects against dengue virus adsorption and intracellular replication of DENV-2. Baicalein, hence, should be considered for in vivo evaluation in the development of an effective antiviral compound against DENV. PMID:23140177

  1. The role of antifungal and antiviral agents in primary dental care.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mike

    2014-11-01

    In comparison to the range of antibiotics used in medicine, the spectrum of antifungal and antiviral drugs used in primary dental care is relatively limited. In practical terms, there are only three antifungal agents and two antiviral agents that have a role. This paper will describe the clinical presentation of orofacial candidal and viral infections and the use of antimicrobial drugs in their management. PMID:25668378

  2. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  3. Antiviral properties from plants of the Mediterranean flora.

    PubMed

    Sanna, G; Farci, P; Busonera, B; Murgia, G; La Colla, P; Giliberti, G

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are a successful source in drug discovery, playing a significant role in maintaining human health. We investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of extracts from 18 traditionally used Mediterranean plants. Noteworthy antiviral activity was found in the extract obtained from the branches of Daphne gnidium L. against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (EC50 = 0.08 μg/mL) and coxsackievirus B5 (EC50 = 0.10 μg/mL). Other relevant activities were found against BVDV, YFV, Sb-1, RSV and HSV-1. Interestingly, extracts from Artemisia arborescens L. and Rubus ulmifolius Schott, as well as those from D. gnidium L., showed activities against two different viruses. This extensive antiviral screening allowed us to identify attractive activities, offering opportunities to develop lead compounds with a great pharmaceutical potential. PMID:25613403

  4. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Tingting; Jin, Yue; Cheng, Jianpin; Wan, Changbiao; Qian, Weihe; Xing, Fei; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways. PMID:26295407

  5. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of

  6. Litsea Species as Potential Antiviral Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yifu; Wang, Dongying; Tan, Ghee T; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Pezzuto, John M; Fong, Harry H S; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    Litsea verticillata Hance (Lauraceae), a Chinese medicine used to treat swelling caused by injury or by snake bites, was the first plant identified by our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) project to exhibit anti-HIV activities. From this plant, we discovered a class of 8 novel litseane compounds, prototypic sesquiterpenes, all of which demonstrated anti-HIV activities. In subsequent studies, 26 additional compounds of different structural types were identified. During our continuing investigation of this plant species, we identified two new litseanes, litseaverticillols L and M, and a new sesquiterpene butenolide, litseasesquibutenolide. Litseaverticillols L and M were found to inhibit HIV-1 replication, with an IC[Formula: see text] value of 49.6[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M. To further determine the antiviral properties of this plant, several relatively abundant isolates, including a litseane compound, two eudesmane sesquiterpenes and three lignans, were evaluated against an additional 21 viral targets. Lignans 8 and 9 were shown to be active against the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), with EC[Formula: see text] values of 22.0[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M ([Formula: see text]) and 16.2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M ([Formula: see text]), respectively. Since many antiviral compounds have been discovered in L. verticillata, we further prepared 38 plant extracts made from the different plant parts of 9 additional Litsea species. These extracts were evaluated for their anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities, and four of the extracts, which ranged across three different species, displayed 97-100% inhibitory effects against HIV replication without showing cytotoxicity to a panel of human cell lines at a concentration of 20[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL. PMID:27080941

  7. Discovery of Potent Broad Spectrum Antivirals Derived from Marine Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Raveh, Avi; Delekta, Phillip C.; Dobry, Craig J.; Peng, Weiping; Schultz, Pamela J.; Blakely, Pennelope K.; Tai, Andrew W.; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Irani, David N.; Sherman, David H.; Miller, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable target for the

  8. An epimer of 5'-noraristeromycin and its antiviral properties.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, S M; Chen, X; Schneller, S W; Ikeda, S; Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1994-04-29

    A derivative of 5'-noraristeromycin epimeric at the 5'-nor center ((-)-3) has been prepared enantiospecifically in three steps from (+)-((1R,4S)-4-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten- 1-yl acetate. Compound (-)-3 was evaluated for antiviral activity against a large number of viruses and found to display marked activity against varicella-zoster virus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, parainfluenza virus, reovirus, and cytomegalovirus. A similar antiviral activity spectrum was shown by the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors neplanocin A and carbocyclic 3-deazaadenosine. While equally potent as neplanocin A against most of the viruses tested, compound (-)-3 was significantly less cytotoxic. The results of this study suggest that (-)-3 should be pursued for the treatment of those virus infections [that is, pox (VV), rhabdo (VSV), paramyxo (parainfluenza), and reo] that appear to be exquisitively sensitive to the compound. PMID:8176716

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  10. Small molecules with antiviral activity against the Ebola virus

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Nadia; Lipinski, Christopher; Ekins, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the clear shortage of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs for emerging viruses. There are numerous FDA approved drugs and other small molecules described in the literature that could be further evaluated for their potential as antiviral compounds. These molecules are in addition to the few new antivirals that have been tested in Ebola patients but were not originally developed against the Ebola virus, and may play an important role as we await an effective vaccine. The balance between using FDA approved drugs versus novel antivirals with minimal safety and no efficacy data in humans should be considered. We have evaluated 55 molecules from the perspective of an experienced medicinal chemist as well as using simple molecular properties and have highlighted 16 compounds that have desirable qualities as well as those that may be less desirable. In addition we propose that a collaborative database for sharing such published and novel information on small molecules is needed for the research community studying the Ebola virus. PMID:25713700

  11. Small molecules with antiviral activity against the Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Litterman, Nadia; Lipinski, Christopher; Ekins, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the clear shortage of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs for emerging viruses. There are numerous FDA approved drugs and other small molecules described in the literature that could be further evaluated for their potential as antiviral compounds. These molecules are in addition to the few new antivirals that have been tested in Ebola patients but were not originally developed against the Ebola virus, and may play an important role as we await an effective vaccine. The balance between using FDA approved drugs versus novel antivirals with minimal safety and no efficacy data in humans should be considered. We have evaluated 55 molecules from the perspective of an experienced medicinal chemist as well as using simple molecular properties and have highlighted 16 compounds that have desirable qualities as well as those that may be less desirable. In addition we propose that a collaborative database for sharing such published and novel information on small molecules is needed for the research community studying the Ebola virus. PMID:25713700

  12. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  13. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Luis P.

    2011-01-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  14. Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant's known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  15. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  16. Novel antiviral activity of chemokines

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Takashi; Shirane, Jumi; Hieshima, Kunio; Shibano, Michiko; Watanabe, Masayasu; Jin, Zhe; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Saito, Takuya; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Yoshie, Osamu . E-mail: o.yoshie@med.kindai.ac.jp

    2006-07-05

    Antimicrobial peptides are a diverse family of small, mostly cationic polypeptides that kill bacteria, fungi and even some enveloped viruses, while chemokines are a group of mostly cationic small proteins that induce directed migration of leukocytes through interactions with a group of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Recent studies have shown that antimicrobial peptides and chemokines have substantially overlapping functions. Thus, while some antimicrobial peptides are chemotactic for leukocytes, some chemokines can kill a wide range of bacteria and fungi. Here, we examined a possible direct antiviral activity of chemokines against an enveloped virus HSV-1. Among 22 human chemokines examined, chemokines such as MIP-1{alpha}/CCL3, MIP-1{beta}/CCL4 and RANTES/CCL5 showed a significant direct antiviral activity against HSV-1. It is intriguing that these chemokines are mostly known to be highly expressed by effector CD8{sup +} T cells. The chemokines with a significant anti-HSV-1 activity commonly bound to HSV-1 virions via envelope glycoprotein gB. Electron microscopy revealed that the chemokines with a significant anti-HSV-1 activity were commonly capable of generating pores in the envelope of HSV-1. Thus, some chemokines have a significant direct antiviral activity against HSV-1 in vitro and may have a potential role in host defense against HSV-1 as a direct antiviral agent.

  17. Antiviral activities of isometric dideoxynucleosides of D- and L-related stereochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, V; Jahnke, T S

    1995-01-01

    In summary, many isomeric analogs of ddNs of both D-related and L-related absolute stereochemistries have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activities. A few of these compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity and, interestingly, belong to both the D and L families. The synthetic methodologies developed will allow accessibility to many more novel modified nucleosides. While some structure-activity relationships are emerging from this work, it is clear that these chiral isomeric nucleosides have opened a new chapter in the field of antiviral nucleosides. PMID:7625783

  18. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses.

    PubMed

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound. PMID:26693226

  19. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound. PMID:26693226

  20. Antiviral Activity of Carbobenzoxy Di- and Tripeptides on Measles Virus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, F. A.; Dixon, G. J.; Arnett, G.; Dice, J. R.; Rightsel, W. A.; Schabel, F. M.; Mclean, I. W.

    1968-01-01

    A series of simple carbobenzoxy peptides showed high and consistent antiviral chemotherapeutic activity in cell culture. In general, greatest activity was found against the measles-distemper or herpesvirus groups, or both, but various representatives of the series had quantitatively and qualitatively different antiviral activities. Several of the compounds, showing the highest antimeasles activity, were investigated extensively. In human cell culture plaque assays, these compounds were active against measles virus at levels of from 15 to 500 μg/ml. At single doses of about 250 to 500 mg/kg, orally in three animal species, significant serum levels of drugs were detected in virus cell culture assays. The mode of action appeared to be therapeutic, as an effect was seen in cell systems infected for at least 24 hr before treatment. PMID:4971720

  1. Antiviral activity of extracts from Morinda citrifolia leaves and chlorophyll catabolites, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Ratnoglik, Suratno Lulut; Aoki, Chie; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Komoto, Mari; Deng, Lin; Shoji, Ikuo; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hotta, Hak

    2014-03-01

    The development of complementary and/or alternative drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still needed. Antiviral compounds in medicinal plants are potentially good targets to study. Morinda citrifolia is a common plant distributed widely in Indo-Pacific region; its fruits and leaves are food sources and are also used as a treatment in traditional medicine. In this study, using a HCV cell culture system, it was demonstrated that a methanol extract, its n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from M. citrifolia leaves possess anti-HCV activities with 50%-inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 20.6, 6.1, and 6.6 μg/mL, respectively. Bioactivity-guided purification and structural analysis led to isolation and identification of pheophorbide a, the major catabolite of chlorophyll a, as an anti-HCV compound present in the extracts (IC(50) = 0.3 μg/mL). It was also found that pyropheophorbide a possesses anti-HCV activity (IC(50) = 0.2 μg/mL). The 50%-cytotoxic concentrations (CC(50)) of pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a were 10.0 and 7.2 μg/mL, respectively, their selectivity indexes being 33 and 36, respectively. On the other hand, chlorophyll a, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and pheophytin a barely, or only marginally, exhibited anti-HCV activities. Time-of-addition analysis revealed that pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a act at both entry and the post-entry steps. The present results suggest that pheophorbide a and its related compounds would be good candidates for seed compounds for developing antivirals against HCV. PMID:24438164

  2. A Mechanistic Paradigm for Broad-Spectrum Antivirals that Target Virus-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hollmann, Axel; Tanner, Lukas B.; Akyol Ataman, Zeynep; Yun, Tatyana; Shui, Guanghou; Aguilar, Hector C.; Zhang, Dong; Meriwether, David; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Robinson, Lindsey R.; Juelich, Terry L.; Buczkowski, Hubert; Chou, Sunwen; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.; Wolf, Mike C.; Smith, Jennifer K.; Banyard, Ashley; Kielian, Margaret; Reddy, Srinivasa; Wenk, Markus R.; Selke, Matthias; Santos, Nuno C.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Jung, Michael E.; Lee, Benhur

    2013-01-01

    LJ001 is a lipophilic thiazolidine derivative that inhibits the entry of numerous enveloped viruses at non-cytotoxic concentrations (IC50≤0.5 µM), and was posited to exploit the physiological difference between static viral membranes and biogenic cellular membranes. We now report on the molecular mechanism that results in LJ001's specific inhibition of virus-cell fusion. The antiviral activity of LJ001 was light-dependent, required the presence of molecular oxygen, and was reversed by singlet oxygen (1O2) quenchers, qualifying LJ001 as a type II photosensitizer. Unsaturated phospholipids were the main target modified by LJ001-generated 1O2. Hydroxylated fatty acid species were detected in model and viral membranes treated with LJ001, but not its inactive molecular analog, LJ025. 1O2-mediated allylic hydroxylation of unsaturated phospholipids leads to a trans-isomerization of the double bond and concurrent formation of a hydroxyl group in the middle of the hydrophobic lipid bilayer. LJ001-induced 1O2-mediated lipid oxidation negatively impacts on the biophysical properties of viral membranes (membrane curvature and fluidity) critical for productive virus-cell membrane fusion. LJ001 did not mediate any apparent damage on biogenic cellular membranes, likely due to multiple endogenous cytoprotection mechanisms against phospholipid hydroperoxides. Based on our understanding of LJ001's mechanism of action, we designed a new class of membrane-intercalating photosensitizers to overcome LJ001's limitations for use as an in vivo antiviral agent. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies led to a novel class of compounds (oxazolidine-2,4-dithiones) with (1) 100-fold improved in vitro potency (IC50<10 nM), (2) red-shifted absorption spectra (for better tissue penetration), (3) increased quantum yield (efficiency of 1O2 generation), and (4) 10–100-fold improved bioavailability. Candidate compounds in our new series moderately but significantly (p≤0.01) delayed the

  3. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanol extract from Polygonum minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Noor Zarina Abd; Bunawan, Hamidun; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    A study was carried out to test the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of methanolic extracts from the leaves and stem of Polygonum minus or kesum. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Vero cells indicates the LC50 value for leaf extract towards the Vero cells was 875 mg/L and the LC50 value for stem extract was 95 mg/L. The LC50 values indidcate the non-cytotoxic effect of the extracts and worth for further testing. Antiviral test were carried out towards herpes simplex virus infected Vero cells using three concentration of extract which were equivalent to 1.0 LC50, 0.1 LC50 and 0.01 LC50. Three different treatments to detect antiviral activity were used. Mild antiviral activity of the stem extract was detected when cells were treated for 24 hours with plant extract before viral infection. This demonstrates the capability of the test compound to protect the cells from viral attachment and of the possible prophylactic effect of the P. minus stem methanol extract.

  4. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy.

    PubMed

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Diefenbach, Russell J; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G; Cunningham, Anthony L; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  5. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  6. Current and emerging antivirals for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis: an update on recent patents.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D; Vadlapatla, Ramya K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common ocular opportunistic complication and a serious cause of vision loss in immunocompromised patients. Even though, a rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals seems to be a major factor responsible for the prevalence of CMV retinitis, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CMV retinitis. Thorough evaluation of the patient's immune status and an exact classification of the retinal lesions may provide better understanding of the disease etiology, which would be necessary for optimizing the treatment conditions. Current drugs such as ganciclovir, valganciclovir, cidofovir and foscarnet have been highly active against CMV, but prolonged therapy with these approved drugs is associated with dose-limiting toxicities thus limiting their utility. Moreover development of drug-resistant mutants has been observed particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Continuous efforts by researchers in the industry and academia have led to the development of newer candidates with enhanced antiviral efficacy and apparently minimal side effects. These novel compounds can suppress viral replication and prevent reactivation in the target population. Though some of the novel therapeutics possess potent viral inhibitory activity, these compounds are still in stages of clinical development and yet to be approved. This review provides an overview of disease etiology, existing anti-CMV drugs, advances in emerging therapeutics in clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of CMV retinitis. PMID:22044356

  7. Competitive coexistence in antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Arnaout, R A; Nowak, M A

    2000-06-01

    Adaptive immunity to viruses in vertebrates is mediated by two distinct but complementary branches of the immune system: the cellular response, which eliminates infected cells, and the humoral response, which eliminates infectious virus. This leads to an interesting contest, since the two responses compete, albeit indirectly, for proliferative stimuli. How can a host mount a coordinated antiviral campaign? Here we show that competition may lead to a state of "competitive coexistence" in which, counterintuitively, each branch complements the other, with clinical benefit to the host. The principle is similar to free-market economics, in which firms compete, but the consumer benefits. Experimental evidence suggests this is a useful paradigm in antiviral immunity. PMID:10816366

  8. Henipavirus pathogenesis and antiviral approaches.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Horvat, Branka

    2015-03-01

    Hendra virus and Nipah virus are closely related, recently emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses, belonging to the Henipavirus genus. Both viruses induce generalized vasculitis affecting particularly the respiratory tract and CNS. The exceptionally broad species tropism of Henipavirus, the high case fatality rate and person-to-person transmission associated with Nipah virus outbreaks emphasize the necessity of effective antiviral strategies for these intriguing threatening pathogens. Current therapeutic approaches, validated in animal models, target early steps in viral infection; they include the use of neutralizing virus-specific antibodies and blocking membrane fusion with peptides that bind the viral fusion protein. A better understanding of Henipavirus pathogenesis is critical for the further advancement of antiviral treatment, and we summarize here the recent progress in the field. PMID:25634624

  9. In vitro antiviral activity of germacrone against porcine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Dong, Yunxia; Jiao, Yiren; Hou, Lianjie; Shi, Yuzhen; Gu, Ting; Zhou, Pei; Shi, Zhongyuan; Xu, Lulu; Wang, Chong

    2015-06-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infections can lead to significant losses to the swine industry by causing reproductive failure in pigs. Germacrone has been reported to efficiently suppress the replication of influenza virus. In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy. PMID:25813663

  10. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity of novel quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziwen; Wang, Mingxiao; Yao, Xue; Li, Yue; Tan, Juan; Wang, Lizhong; Qiao, Wentao; Geng, Yunqi; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a validated therapeutic target for antiviral drug design. However, the emergence of viral strains resistant to clinically studied IN inhibitors demands the discovery of novel inhibitors that are structurally as well as mechanistically different. Herein, a series of quinazolinones were designed and synthesized as novel HIV-1 inhibitors. The new synthetic route provides a practical method for the preparation of 5-hydroxy quinazolinones. Primary bioassay results indicated that most of the quinazolinones possess anti-HIV activity, especially for compound 11b with 77.5% inhibition rate at 10 μM emerged as a new active lead. Most of the synthesized compounds were also found to exhibit good anti-TMV activity, of which compo und 9a showed similar in vivo anti-TMV activity to commercial plant virucide Ribavirin. This work provides a new and efficient approach to evolve novel multi-functional antiviral agents by rational integration and optimization of previously reported antiviral agents. PMID:22546200

  11. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Uzair, Bushra; Mahmood, Zahra; Tabassum, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and preclinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine. PMID:23678429

  12. Direct Acting Antivirals for the Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karayiannis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The development and evaluation of antiviral agents through carefully designed clinical trials over the last 25 years have heralded a new dawn in the treatment of patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B and C viruses, but not so for the D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV). The introduction of direct acting antivirals (DDAs) for the treatment of HBV carriers has permitted the long-term use of these compounds for the continuous suppression of viral replication, whilst in the case of HCV in combination with the standard of care [SOC, pegylated interferon (PegIFN), and ribavirin] sustained virological responses (SVRs) have been achieved with increasing frequency. Progress in the case of HDV has been slow and lacking in significant breakthroughs.This paper aims to summarise the current state of play in treatment approaches for chonic viral hepatitis patients and future perspectives. PMID:24278700

  13. Functionalization, cyclization and antiviral activity of A-secotriterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Grishko, Victoria V; Galaiko, Natalia V; Tolmacheva, Irina A; Kucherov, Igor I; Eremin, Vladimir F; Boreko, Eugene I; Savinova, Olga V; Slepukhin, Pavel A

    2014-08-18

    Triterpene derivatives with an α,β-alkenenitrile moiety in the five-membered ring A have been synthesized by nitrile anion cyclizations of 1-cyano-2,3-secotriterpenoids. Oxime-containing precursors, 2,3-secointermediates and five-membered ring A products of cyclizations were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against enveloped viruses - influenza A virus and human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Lupane ketoxime and the 2,3-secolupane C-3 aldoxime which possess antiviral activities against both influenza A virus (EC50 12.9-18.2 μM) and HIV-1 (EC50 0.06 μM) were the most promising compounds. PMID:24997292

  14. [Acyclic analogs of ribavirin. Synthesis and antiviral activity].

    PubMed

    Tsilevich, T L; Shchaveleva, I L; Nosach, L N; Zhovnovataia, V L; Smirnov, I P

    1988-05-01

    Activity of several ribavirin analogues, viz.1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)-, 1-(3-hydroxypropoxymethyl)-, 1-(4-hydroxybutoxymethyl)- and 1-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-1,2,4-triazole 5- and 3-carboxamides, against human adenovirus type 2 in the Hep-2 cell culture has been studied. The ether oxygen atom imitating the ribose O4' was shown to be essential for the antiviral activity. 1-(2-Hydroxyethoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazole 3-carboxamide, a structural analogue of ribavirin in which the hydroxyl group is apparently equivalent to the ribose 5'-OH, possesses the highest activity among the compounds studied. Lengthening of the alkyl side chain reduces essentially the antiviral activity. PMID:3422011

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro Discriminates Compounds with Pro-Inflammatory and Mucosa-Altering Properties: Novel Biomarkers for Preclinical Testing of HIV Microbicide Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Joseph, Theresa; Bavarva, Jasmin; Yousefieh, Nazita; Jackson, Suzanne S.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Settlage, Robert; Fichorova, Raina N.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation and immune activation of the cervicovaginal mucosa are considered factors that increase susceptibility to HIV infection. Therefore, it is essential to screen candidate anti-HIV microbicides for potential mucosal immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects prior to further clinical development. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro method for preclinical evaluation of the inflammatory potential of new candidate microbicides using a microarray gene expression profiling strategy. Methods To this end, we compared transcriptomes of human vaginal cells (Vk2/E6E7) treated with well-characterized pro-inflammatory (PIC) and non-inflammatory (NIC) compounds. PICs included compounds with different mechanisms of action. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data processing was performed using GeneSpring 11.5 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Results Microarraray comparative analysis allowed us to generate a panel of 20 genes that were consistently deregulated by PICs compared to NICs, thus distinguishing between these two groups. Functional analysis mapped 14 of these genes to immune and inflammatory responses. This was confirmed by the fact that PICs induced NFkB pathway activation in Vk2 cells. By testing microbicide candidates previously characterized in clinical trials we demonstrated that the selected PIC-associated genes properly identified compounds with mucosa-altering effects. The discriminatory power of these genes was further demonstrated after culturing vaginal cells with vaginal bacteria. Prevotella bivia, prevalent bacteria in the disturbed microbiota of bacterial vaginosis, induced strong upregulation of seven selected PIC-associated genes, while a commensal Lactobacillus gasseri associated to vaginal health did not cause any changes. Conclusions In vitro evaluation of the immunoinflammatory potential of microbicides using the PIC-associated genes defined in this study could help in the initial

  16. Mechanisms of Antiviral Action of Plant Antimicrobials against Murine Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gilling, Damian H.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID:24907316

  17. Database Extraction of Metabolite Information of Drug Candidates: Analysis of 27 AstraZeneca Compounds with Human Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion Data.

    PubMed

    Iegre, Jessica; Hayes, Martin A; Thompson, Richard A; Weidolf, Lars; Isin, Emre M

    2016-05-01

    As part of the drug discovery and development process, it is important to understand the human metabolism of a candidate drug prior to clinical studies. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments across species are conducted to build knowledge concerning human circulating metabolites in preparation for clinical studies; therefore, the quality of these experiments is critical. Within AstraZeneca, all metabolite identification (Met-ID) information is stored in a global database using ACDLabs software. In this study, the Met-ID information derived from in vitro and in vivo studies for 27 AstraZeneca drug candidates that underwent human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies was extracted from the database. The retrospective analysis showed that 81% of human circulating metabolites were previously observed in preclinical in vitro and/or in vivo experiments. A detailed analysis was carried out to understand which human circulating metabolites were not captured in the preclinical experiments. Metabolites observed in human hepatocytes and rat plasma but not seen in circulation in humans (extraneous metabolites) were also investigated. The majority of human specific circulating metabolites derive from multistep biotransformation reactions that may not be observed in in vitro studies within the limited time frame in which cryopreserved hepatocytes are active. Factors leading to the formation of extraneous metabolites in preclinical studies seemed to be related to species differences with respect to transporter activity, secondary metabolism, and enzyme kinetics. This retrospective analysis assesses the predictive value of Met-ID experiments and improves our ability to discriminate between metabolites expected to circulate in humans and irrelevant metabolites seen in preclinical studies. PMID:26868617

  18. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prevent seasonal influenza . Antiviral drugs are a second line of defense to treat the flu (including seasonal flu and variant flu viruses ) if you get sick. What are the benefits of antiviral drugs? When used for treatment, antiviral ...

  19. In vitro induction of polyploidy and chromatid exchanges by culture medium extracts of natural rubbers compounded with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as a positive control candidate for genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Isama, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2005-11-01

    We tested extracts of custom-made natural rubber samples for cytotoxicity using V79 cells and for chromosome aberration (CA) induction using CHL cells in compliance with the Japanese guidelines for basic biological tests of medical materials and devices. The samples were formulated with a high level of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) (A); a low level of MBT (B); or zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC) (C). In the CA test, MBT induced mainly polyploidy, including endoreduplication, and ZDBC induced structural CAs. In the cytotoxicity test, culture medium extracts of A, B, and C suppressed colony formation to 50% of the control value at 53.1%, 94.3%, and >100%, respectively. Culture medium extracts of sample A induced polyploidy and structural CAs in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix), but at lower concentrations in its presence, indicating the existence of other leachable promutagens. The extracts of sample B induced structural CAs at the highest concentration and only with S9 mix. Sample C was negative. The facts suggest that sample A may be a candidate for a positive control for genotoxicity tests. The high frequency of polyploidy induced by sample A was not predicted by MBT, suggesting the usefulness of the test for safety evaluation of medical devices. Numerical CAs induced by MBT and sample A are discussed. PMID:16088893

  20. Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Todd H.; Zook, Christina E.; Boettcher, Tara L.; Wick, Scott T.; Pancoast, Jennifer S.; Zusman, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered. PMID:21818340

  1. Clinical relevance of HCV antiviral drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Welsch, C; Zeuzem, S

    2012-10-01

    The approval of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease revolutionized antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C. They mark the beginning of an era with drugs designed to inhibit specific viral proteins involved in the virus life cycle rather than the nonspecific antiviral activity of interferon. Upcoming generations of antivirals are expected that lead to viral eradication in most patients who undergo treatment with hope held for years that HCV can be cured without interferon. Antiviral drug resistance plays a key role in DAA-treatment failure. Knowledge on molecular escape mechanisms of resistant variants, their time to wild-type reversal and potential persistence is of upmost importance to design treatment strategies for patients with previous DAA-treatment failure. PMID:23006585

  2. Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Santos, Nuno C.; Lee, Benhur

    2015-01-01

    Effective antivirals have been developed against specific viruses, such as HIV, Hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This ‘one bug–one drug’ approach to antiviral drug development can be successful, but it may be inadequate for responding to an increasing diversity of viruses that cause significant diseases in humans. The majority of viral pathogens that cause emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are membrane-enveloped viruses, which require the fusion of viral and cell membranes for virus entry. Therefore, antivirals that target the membrane fusion process represent new paradigms for broad-spectrum antiviral discovery. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the fusion between virus and cell membranes and explore how broad-spectrum antivirals target this process to prevent virus entry. PMID:26075364

  3. The structure-activity relationships of the antiviral chemotherapeutic activity of isatin β-thiosemicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, D. J.; Sadler, P. W.

    1960-01-01

    As part of an investigation devoted to the development of new antiviral agents a compound of established antiviral activity has been subjected to systematic structural modification. The structure-activity data so obtained have been used in the design of new compounds, some of which are described. The compound chosen was isatin β-thiosemicarbazone, which has high activity against neurovaccinia infection in mice, and a 4-point parallel-line assay of in vivo chemotherapeutic activity has been developed, which has enabled the activity of the derivatives to be determined against isatin β-thiosemicarbazone as a standard. The overall dimensions of the isatin β-thiosemicarbazone molecule appear to be nearly maximal for the retention of high activity, as all substituents in the aromatic ring decrease the activity irrespective of their nature or position. The projection of the -CS.NH2 group in relation to the ring nitrogen was found to be critical, as the α-thiosemicarbazone was inactive. A number of modifications of the side-chain were investigated:all led to reduction or loss of antiviral activity. The antiviral activity showed a positive correlation with chloroform solubility over a considerable range. The most active compound encountered was 1-ethylisatin β-thiosemicarbazone, with an activity of 286 (isatin β-thiosemicarbazone≡100). Isatin β-thiosemicarbazone showed no activity against 15 other viruses, and 20 related compounds showed on activity against ectromelia. PMID:13797622

  4. Immunoenhancing properties and antiviral activity of 7-deazaguanosine in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Smee, D F; Alaghamandan, H A; Gilbert, J; Burger, R A; Jin, A; Sharma, B S; Ramasamy, K; Revankar, G R; Cottam, H B; Jolley, W B

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide analog 7-deazaguanosine has not previously been reported to possess biological (antiviral or antitumor) properties in cell culture or in vivo. Up to 10(5) U of interferon per ml was detected in mouse sera 1 to 4 h following oral (200-mg/kg of body weight) and intraperitoneal (50-mg/kg) doses of the compound. 7-Deazaguanosine also caused significant activation of natural killer and phagocytic cells but did not augment T- and B-cell blastogenesis. Intraperitoneal treatments of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day administered 24 and 18 h before virus inoculation were highly protective in mice inoculated with lethal doses of Semliki Forest or San Angelo viruses. Less but still significant survivor increases were evident in treated mice infected with banzi or encephalomyocarditis viruses. In most cases, the degree of antiviral activity was similar to that exhibited by the biological response modifier 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine. 7-Thia-8-oxoguanosine was more potent than 7-deazaguanosine against encephalomyocarditis virus in mice, however. Oral efficacy was achieved with 7-deazaguanosine treatments of greater than or equal to 100 mg/kg against all virus infections, whereas 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine is reported to be devoid of oral activity in rodents. Thus, 7-deazaguanosine represents the first reported orally active nucleoside biological response modifier exhibiting broad-spectrum antiviral activity against particular types of RNA viruses. PMID:1707603

  5. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  6. In vitro antiviral effect of germacrone on feline calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxia; Liu, Yongxiang; Zu, Shaopo; Sun, Xue; Liu, Chunguo; Liu, Dafei; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Tian, Jin; Qu, Liandong

    2016-06-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) often causes respiratory tract and oral disease in cats and is a highly contagious virus. Widespread vaccination does not prevent the spread of FCV. Furthermore, the low fidelity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of FCV leads to the emergence of new variants, some of which show increased virulence. Currently, few effective anti-FCV drugs are available. Here, we found that germacrone, one of the main constituents of volatile oil from rhizoma curcuma, was able to effectively reduce the growth of FCV strain F9 in vitro. This compound exhibited a strong anti-FCV effect mainly in the early phase of the viral life cycle. The antiviral effect depended on the concentration of the drug. In addition, germacrone treatment had a significant inhibitory effect against two other reference strains, 2280 and Bolin, and resulted in a significant reduction in the replication of strains WZ-1 and HRB-SS, which were recently isolated in China. This is the first report of antiviral effects of germacrone against a calicivirus, and extensive in vivo research is needed to evaluate this drug as an antiviral therapeutic agent for FCV. PMID:26997613

  7. Lipophilic prodrugs of nucleoside triphosphates as biochemical probes and potential antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Gollnest, Tristan; de Oliveira, Thiago Dinis; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The antiviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is often limited by ineffective phosphorylation. We report on a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) prodrug approach in which the γ-phosphate of NTPs is bioreversibly modified. A series of TriPPPro-compounds bearing two lipophilic masking units at the γ-phosphate and d4T as a nucleoside analogue are synthesized. Successful delivery of d4TTP is demonstrated in human CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell extracts by an enzyme-triggered mechanism with high selectivity. In antiviral assays, the compounds are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in CD4+ T-cell (CEM) cultures. Highly lipophilic acyl residues lead to higher membrane permeability that results in intracellular delivery of phosphorylated metabolites in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK− cells with higher antiviral activity than the parent nucleoside. PMID:26503889

  8. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A. Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M.; Weaver, Scott C.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored. PMID:21930925

  9. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Weaver, Scott C; Wong, Gerard C L

    2011-09-20

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored. PMID:21930925

  10. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50

  11. Escape Mutations in NS4B Render Dengue Virus Insensitive to the Antiviral Activity of the Paracetamol Metabolite AM404.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Marjakangas, Jenni M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the enormous disease burden associated with dengue virus infections, a licensed antiviral drug is lacking. Here, we show that the paracetamol (acetaminophen) metabolite AM404 inhibits dengue virus replication. Moreover, we find that mutations in NS4B that were previously found to confer resistance to the antiviral compounds NITD-618 and SDM25N also render dengue virus insensitive to AM404. Our work provides further support for NS4B as a direct or indirect target for antiviral drug development. PMID:26856827

  12. Virus assembly, allostery, and antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of virus capsids and surface proteins must be regulated to ensure that the resulting complex is an infectious virion. Here we examine assembly of virus capsids, focusing on hepatitis B virus and bacteriophage MS2, and formation of glycoproteins in the alphaviruses. These systems are structurally and biochemically well-characterized and are simplest-case paradigms of self-assembly. Published data suggest that capsid and glycoprotein assembly is subject to allosteric regulation, that is, regulation at the level of conformational change. The hypothesis that allostery is a common theme in viruses suggests that deregulation of capsid and glycoprotein assembly by small molecule effectors will be an attractive antiviral strategy, as has been demonstrated with hepatitis B virus. PMID:21163649

  13. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  14. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a

    PubMed Central

    Song, JaeHyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, JeongHoon; Jeong, HyeonGun; Kwon, YongSoo; Kim, HyunPyo; Lee, SangWon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells. In the current study, the antiviral activity of hederasaponin B against EV71 C3 and C4a was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method and western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that hederasaponin B and 30% ethanol extract of Hedera helix containing hederasaponin B showed significant antiviral activity against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a by reducing the formation of a visible CPE. Hederasaponin B also inhibited the viral VP2 protein expression, suggesting the inhibition of viral capsid protein synthesis.These results suggest that hederasaponin B and Hedera helix extract containing hederasaponin B can be novel drug candidates with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various subgenotypes of EV71. PMID:24596620

  15. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaehyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Hyeongun; Kwon, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyunpyo; Lee, Sangwon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells. In the current study, the antiviral activity of hederasaponin B against EV71 C3 and C4a was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method and western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that hederasaponin B and 30% ethanol extract of Hedera helix containing hederasaponin B showed significant antiviral activity against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a by reducing the formation of a visible CPE. Hederasaponin B also inhibited the viral VP2 protein expression, suggesting the inhibition of viral capsid protein synthesis.These results suggest that hederasaponin B and Hedera helix extract containing hederasaponin B can be novel drug candidates with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various subgenotypes of EV71. PMID:24596620

  16. Antiviral effect of ranpirnase against Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Thomas; Draper, Ken; Brasel, Trevor; Freiberg, Alexander; Squiquera, Luis; Sidransky, David; Sulley, Jamie; Taxman, Debra J

    2016-08-01

    The recent epidemic of Ebola has intensified the need for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics that prolong and improve survival against deadly viral diseases. We sought to determine whether ranpirnase, an endoribonuclease from Rana pipiens with a demonstrated human safety profile in phase III oncology trials, can reduce titers of Ebola virus (EBOV) in infected cells, protect mice against mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, and reduce virus levels in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that 0.50 μg/ml ranpirnase is potently effective at reducing EBOV Zaire Kikwit infection in cultured Vero E6 cells (Selectivity Index 47.8-70.2). In a prophylactic study, a single intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase protected 70% of mice from progressive infection. Additionally, in a post-exposure prophylactic study, 100% of female mice survived infection after intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase for ten days beginning 1 h post challenge. Most of the male counterparts were sacrificed due to weight loss by Study Day 8 or 9; however, the Clinical Activity/Behavior scores of these mice remained low and no significant microscopic pathologies could be detected in the kidneys, livers or spleens. Furthermore, live virus could not be detected in the sera of ranpirnase-treated mice by Study Day 8 or in the kidneys, livers or spleens by Study Day 12, and viral RNA levels declined exponentially by Study Day 12. Because ranpirnase is exceptionally stable and has a long track record of safe intravenous administration to humans, this drug provides a promising new candidate for clinical consideration in the treatment of Ebola virus disease alone or in combination with other therapeutics. PMID:27350309

  17. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Faral-Tello, Paula; Mirazo, Santiago; Dutra, Carmelo; Pérez, Andrés; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Frabasile, Sandra; Koncke, Elina; Davyt, Danilo; Cavallaro, Lucía; Heinzen, Horacio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI) obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1. PMID:22619617

  18. Synthesis and antiviral properties of novel indole-based thiosemicarbazides and 4-thiazolidinones.

    PubMed

    Cihan-Üstündağ, Gökçe; Gürsoy, Elif; Naesens, Lieve; Ulusoy-Güzeldemirci, Nuray; Çapan, Gültaze

    2016-01-15

    A novel series of indolylthiosemicarbazides (6a-6g) and their cyclization products, 4-thiazolidinones (7a-7g), have been designed, synthesized and evaluated, in vitro, for their antiviral activity against a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses. Compounds 6a, 6b, 6c and 6d exhibited notable antiviral activity against Coxsackie B4 virus, at EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 2.1 μg/mL. The selectivity index (ratio of cytotoxic to antivirally effective concentration) values of these compounds were between 9 and 56. Besides, 6b, 6c and 6d also inhibited the replication of two other RNA viruses, Sindbis virus and respiratory syncytial virus, although these EC50 values were higher compared to those noted for Coxsackie B4 virus. The SAR analysis indicated that keeping the free thiosemicarbazide moiety is crucial to obtain this antiviral activity, since the cyclization products (7a-7g) did not produce any antiviral effect. PMID:26707844

  19. A new antiviral screening method that simultaneously detects viral replication, cell viability, and cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Matza-Porges, Sigal; Eisen, Kobi; Ibrahim, Hadeel; Haberman, Adva; Fridlender, Bertold; Joseph, Gili

    2014-11-01

    Viruses cause a variety of illnesses in humans, yet only a few antiviral drugs have been developed; thus, new antiviral drugs are urgently needed. Plants could be a good source of antiviral drugs, they do not have mobility and can only defend themselves by producing compounds against pathogens such as viruses in their own fix environment. These compounds may have the potential to inhibit animal and human viruses as well. In this study, a fast and reliable method for screening plant extracts for specific antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) was developed. This method distinguishes between host cell death due to infectivity and multiplicity of the virus versus toxicity of the plant extract. Extracts from 80 plant and plant organs were screened using this approach. Six plant extracts showed potential to exert specific HSV-1 growth inhibition activity. In two cases, different organs from the same plant showed similar active results. With this method it is possible to screen a large number of extracts in a rapid and accurate way to detect antiviral substances against HSV-I and other viruses. PMID:25152527

  20. Antiviral activity of Acacia nilotica against Hepatitis C Virus in liver infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) belonging to the family Flaviviridae has infected 3% of the population worldwide and 6% of the population in Pakistan. The only recommended standard treatment is pegylated INF-α plus ribavirin. Due to less compatibility of the standard treatment, thirteen medicinal plants were collected from different areas of Pakistan on the basis of undocumented antiviral reports against different viral infections. Medicinal plants were air dried, extracted and screened out against HCV by infecting HCV inoculums of 3a genotype in liver cells. RT-PCR results demonstrate that acetonic and methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (AN) showed more than 50% reduction at non toxic concentration. From the above results, it can be concluded that by selecting different molecular targets, specific structure-activity relationship can be achieved by doing mechanistic analysis. So, additional studies are required for the isolation and recognition of antiviral compound in AN to establish its importance as antiviral drug against HCV. For further research, we will scrutinize the synergistic effect of active antiviral compound in combination with standard PEG INF-α and ribavirin which may be helpful in exploring further gateways for antiviral therapy against HCV. PMID:21569385

  1. Marine Snails and Slugs: a Great Place To Look for Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Vinh T.; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Green, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Molluscs, comprising one of the most successful phyla, lack clear evidence of adaptive immunity and yet thrive in the oceans, which are rich in viruses. There are thought to be nearly 120,000 species of Mollusca, most living in marine habitats. Despite the extraordinary abundance of viruses in oceans, molluscs often have very long life spans (10 to 100 years). Thus, their innate immunity must be highly effective at countering viral infections. Antiviral compounds are a crucial component of molluscan defenses against viruses and have diverse mechanisms of action against a wide variety of viruses, including many that are human pathogens. Antiviral compounds found in abalone, oyster, mussels, and other cultured molluscs are available in large supply, providing good opportunities for future research and development. However, most members of the phylum Mollusca have not been examined for the presence of antiviral compounds. The enormous diversity and adaptations of molluscs imply a potential source of novel antiviral compounds for future drug discovery. PMID:26063420

  2. Generation of recombinant rabies viruses encoding NanoLuc luciferase for antiviral activity assays.

    PubMed

    Anindita, Paulina Duhita; Sasaki, Michihito; Nobori, Haruaki; Sato, Akihiko; Carr, Michael; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2016-04-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal disease caused by Rabies virus (RABV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. Once central nervous infection occurs and symptoms develop, the case fatality rate approaches 100% despite availability of post-exposure prophylaxis. Therefore, new antiviral therapies for rabies are urgently required. Antivirals which can inhibit virus replication can be identified through screening of small compounds, however, as RABV infection does not generate easily discernible cytopathic effects in vitro, cell viability assays may not be feasible to observe antiviral activity of small compounds against RABV. In this study, recombinant RABVs (rRABVs) encoding NanoLuc luciferase (NanoLuc) were generated to facilitate the screening of small compound libraries. NanoLuc expression was confirmed in single-step growth cures of virus infection and showed that the rRABVs were capable of viral replication without decrease of luciferase activity through ten serial passages. Furthermore, the rRABVs were able to quantify the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analogue ribavirin against RABV in vitro. These findings confirm the potential of the rRABV encoding NanoLuc system to facilitate screening of small compounds to inhibit RABV infection. PMID:26869397

  3. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  4. Antiviral activity of gliotoxin, gentian violet and brilliant green against Nipah and Hendra virus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Using a recently described monolayer assay amenable to high throughput screening format for the identification of potential Nipah virus and Hendra virus antivirals, we have partially screened a low molecular weight compound library (>8,000 compounds) directly against live virus infection and identified twenty eight promising lead molecules. Initial single blind screens were conducted with 10 μM compound in triplicate with a minimum efficacy of 90% required for lead selection. Lead compounds were then further characterised to determine the median efficacy (IC50), cytotoxicity (CC50) and the in vitro therapeutic index in live virus and pseudotype assay formats. Results While a number of leads were identified, the current work describes three commercially available compounds: brilliant green, gentian violet and gliotoxin, identified as having potent antiviral activity against Nipah and Hendra virus. Similar efficacy was observed against pseudotyped Nipah and Hendra virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3 while only gliotoxin inhibited an influenza A virus suggesting a non-specific, broad spectrum activity for this compound. Conclusion All three of these compounds have been used previously for various aspects of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal therapy and the current results suggest that while unsuitable for internal administration, they may be amenable to topical antiviral applications, or as disinfectants and provide excellent positive controls for future studies. PMID:19889218

  5. Viruses and Antiviral Immunity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Cherry, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Viral pathogens present many challenges to organisms, driving the evolution of a myriad of antiviral strategies to combat infections. A wide variety of viruses infect invertebrates, including both natural pathogens that are insect-restricted, and viruses that are transmitted to vertebrates. Studies using the powerful tools available in the model organism Drosophila have expanded our understanding of antiviral defenses against diverse viruses. In this review, we will cover three major areas. First, we will describe the tools used to study viruses in Drosophila. Second, we will survey the major viruses that have been studied in Drosophila. And lastly, we will discuss the well-characterized mechanisms that are active against these diverse pathogens, focusing on non-RNAi mediated antiviral mechanisms. Antiviral RNAi is discussed in another paper in this issue. PMID:23680639

  6. Pharmacokinetics of antiviral polyoxometalates in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ni, L; Boudinot, F D; Boudinot, S G; Henson, G W; Bossard, G E; Martellucci, S A; Ash, P W; Fricker, S P; Darkes, M C; Theobald, B R

    1994-01-01

    Polyoxometalates are soluble mineral compounds formed principally of oxide anions and early transition metal cations. The polyoxometalates K12H2[P2W12O48].24H2O (JM 1591), K10[P2W18Zn4(H2O)2O68].20H2O (JM 1596), and [(CH3)3NH]8[Si2W18Nb6O77] (JM 2820) demonstrate potent antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus in vitro. The preclinical pharmacokinetics of these three compounds were characterized after single-dose intravenous administration of 50 mg/kg to rats. Plasma, urine, and feces were collected for 168 h, and polyoxometalate concentrations were determined by atomic emission. Serum protein binding was measured by equilibrium dialysis. All three compounds were highly bound to serum proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. Total and unbound concentrations of the three compounds in plasma declined in a triexponential manner with terminal half-lives of 246.0 +/- 127.0, 438.4 +/- 129.4, and 32.2 +/- 5.37 h (mean +/- standard deviation) for JM 1591, JM 1596, and JM 2820, respectively. Systemic clearances based on total concentrations in plasma were low, averaging 0.016 +/- 0.002, 0.015 +/- 0.002, and 0.018 +/- 0.003 liter/h/kg for JM 1591, JM 1596, and JM 2820, respectively. The clearances of unbound compounds from plasma averaged 0.966 +/- 0.136, 0.050 +/- 0.005, and 0.901 +/- 0.165 liter/h/kg for JM 1591, JM 1596, and JM 2820, respectively. For JM 1596, the clearance of unbound compound from the kidneys was lower than the glomerular filtration rate (0.086 liter/h/kg), suggesting this polyoxometalate underwent renal tubular reabsorption. However, JM 1591 and JM 2820 appeared to undergo tubular secretion. The fraction of the dose recovered in urine was 11.5, 46.8, and 10.6% for JM 1591, JM 1596, and JM 2820, respectively. Approximately 5% of the dose of each polyoxometalate was recovered in feces. The steady-state volume of distribution based on total concentrations averaged 1.44 liters

  7. Targeting Innate Immunity for Antiviral Therapy through Small Molecule Agonists of the RLR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pattabhi, Sowmya; Wilkins, Courtney R.; Dong, Ran; Knoll, Megan L.; Posakony, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Shari; Mire, Chad E.; Wang, Myra L.; Ireton, Renee C.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Bedard, Kristin M.; Iadonato, Shawn P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cellular response to virus infection is initiated when pathogen recognition receptors (PRR) engage viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This process results in induction of downstream signaling pathways that activate the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). IRF3 plays a critical role in antiviral immunity to drive the expression of innate immune response genes, including those encoding antiviral factors, type 1 interferon, and immune modulatory cytokines, that act in concert to restrict virus replication. Thus, small molecule agonists that can promote IRF3 activation and induce innate immune gene expression could serve as antivirals to induce tissue-wide innate immunity for effective control of virus infection. We identified small molecule compounds that activate IRF3 to differentially induce discrete subsets of antiviral genes. We tested a lead compound and derivatives for the ability to suppress infections caused by a broad range of RNA viruses. Compound administration significantly decreased the viral RNA load in cultured cells that were infected with viruses of the family Flaviviridae, including West Nile virus, dengue virus, and hepatitis C virus, as well as viruses of the families Filoviridae (Ebola virus), Orthomyxoviridae (influenza A virus), Arenaviridae (Lassa virus), and Paramyxoviridae (respiratory syncytial virus, Nipah virus) to suppress infectious virus production. Knockdown studies mapped this response to the RIG-I-like receptor pathway. This work identifies a novel class of host-directed immune modulatory molecules that activate IRF3 to promote host antiviral responses to broadly suppress infections caused by RNA viruses of distinct genera. IMPORTANCE Incidences of emerging and reemerging RNA viruses highlight a desperate need for broad-spectrum antiviral agents that can effectively control infections caused by viruses of distinct genera. We identified small molecule compounds that can

  8. Antiviral activity of Solanum paniculatum extract and constituents.

    PubMed

    Valadares, Ydia M; Brandão'a, Geraldo C; Kroon, Erna G; Filho, José D Souza; Oliveira, Alaņņde B; Braga, Fernão C

    2009-01-01

    Solanum species are traditionally employed as antiherpes and anticancer agents in different countries. S. paniculatum has widespread ethnomedical uses in Brazil, including the treatment of viral infections. This paper reports on the isolation of neotigogenin (1) and the new compound delta25(27)-tigogenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), obtained as a mixture of R and S diastereoisomers at C22 from an ethanol extract of S. paniculatum leaves, along with the determination of their cytotoxicity against Vero cells and antiviral effect against human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1), murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCv), and vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (VACV-WR). The extract of S. paniculatum inhibited HHV-1 replication [EC50 = (298.0 +/- 11.2) microg/ml] and showed no effect on EMCv and VACV-WR. On its turn, 1 was inactive against the assayed strains but presented high cytotoxicity [CC50 = (2.03 +/- 0.03) microg/ml], whereas 2 exhibited significant antiherpes [EC50 = (170.8 +/- 1.7) microg/ml] and antivaccinia virus effects [EC50 = (177.0 +/- 3.3) microg/ml], with low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 400 microg/ml). The results corroborate Solanum paniculatum as a source of cytotoxic and antiviral compounds. PMID:20158151

  9. BEI Resources: Supporting antiviral research

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Robert; Peacock, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources Repository (BEI Resources) provides unique, quality-assured reagents to the scientific community for use in basic research and product development involving biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. These include microorganisms (up to Biosafety Level-3) on the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists of Category A, B and C priority pathogens. In addition to live microorganisms, related products such as polyclonal antisera, monoclonal antibodies, isolated nucleic acid preparations, overlapping peptide arrays, purified proteins, and assay kits are also available. Many of these materials have direct or indirect applications in antiviral research. These reagents are available free of charge to all registered investigators, regardless of funding source or affiliation. Acquisition of new reagents for the repository is one of the critically necessary and challenging tasks for BEI Resources. Therefore, investigators are encouraged to deposit relevant items, so as to provide access to materials, relief from the burden of distribution, protection of intellectual property rights, and secure storage. In addition, BEI Resources has the capability of contracting for the preparation of specific reagents. If there is a resource needed to advance a specific research area, contact an NIAID program officer or use the “suggest a reagent” option on the BEI Resources homepage, www.beiresources.org. PMID:18675849

  10. Helicases as Antiviral Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Frick, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Helicases catalytically unwind duplex DNA or RNA using energy derived from the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates and are attractive drug targets because they are required for viral replication. This review discusses methods for helicase identification, classification and analysis, and presents an overview of helicases that are necessary for the replication of human pathogenic viruses. Newly developed methods to analyze helicases, coupled with recently determined atomic structures, have led to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action. The majority of this research has concentrated on enzymes encoded by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Helicase inhibitors that target the HSV helicase–primase complex comprised of the UL5, UL8 and UL52 proteins have recently been shown to effectively control HSV infection in animal models. In addition, several groups have reported structures of the HCV NS3 helicase at atomic resolutions, and mechanistic studies have uncovered characteristics that distinguish the HCV helicase from related cellular proteins. These new developments should eventually lead to new antiviral medications. PMID:12973446

  11. Antiviral activities of whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Wang, Yan; Ip, Denis Tsz Ming; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Xia, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Milk contains an array of proteins with useful bioactivities. Many milk proteins encompassing native or chemically modified casein, lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin demonstrated antiviral activities. Casein and alpha-lactalbumin gained anti-HIV activity after modification with 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride. Many milk proteins inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase. Bovine glycolactin, angiogenin-1, lactogenin, casein, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine lactoferrampin, and human lactoferrampin inhibited HIV-1 protease and integrase. Several mammalian lactoferrins prevented hepatitis C infection. Lactoferrin, methylated alpha-lactalbumin and methylated beta-lactoglobulin inhibited human cytomegalovirus. Chemically modified alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and lysozyme, lactoferrin and lactoferricin, methylated alpha-lactalbumin, methylated and ethylated beta-lactoglobulins inhibited HSV. Chemically modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin had antihuman papillomavirus activity. Beta-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, esterified beta-lactoglobulin, and esterified lactoferrindisplayed anti-avian influenza A (H5N1) activity. Lactoferrin inhibited respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis B virus, adenovirus, poliovirus, hantavirus, sindbis virus, semliki forest virus, echovirus, and enterovirus. Milk mucin, apolactoferrin, Fe(3+)-lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, human lactadherin, bovine IgG, and bovine kappa-casein demonstrated antihuman rotavirus activity. PMID:26198883

  12. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of Novel Phosphorylated Derivatives of Didanosine Against Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karanam Anandan; Kadiam, Venkata Subbaiah C; Basha, Thaslim S K; Chamarti, Naga Raju; Kumar, Suresh M; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel phosphorylated derivatives of didanosine were designed and docking studies were performed with a fusion protein of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), to develop antiviral compounds against NDV. Based on the docking scores and binding affinities, three derivatives were selected. These compounds were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1) H, (13) C, (31) P, and CHN analysis and mass spectra. They were assessed for their in vitro antiviral activity in DF-1 cells; DDI-10 showed better antiviral activity as evidenced by significant reduction in plaque formation and cytopathic effects. DDI-10 was further evaluated in NDV-infected chicken; the survival rates and antioxidant enzyme levels in brain, liver, and lung tissues were estimated. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly raised, and lipid peroxidation and HA titer levels were decreased upon treatment with 1.5 mg/kg body weight of DDI-10 than with 3 mg/kg body weight of DDI. Further histopathological alterations in NDV-infected tissues were restored in chicken treated with DDI-10. Thus, based on the results from in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assays, the novel phosphorylated DDI-10 might be considered as potent antiviral compound for NDV infection in chicken. PMID:27128998

  13. In-vitro antiviral efficacy of ribavirin and interferon-alpha against canine distemper virus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Otávio V.; Saraiva, Giuliana L.; Ferreira, Caroline G.T.; Felix, Daniele M.; Fietto, Juliana L.R.; Bressan, Gustavo C.; Almeida, Márcia R.; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious disease with high incidence and lethality in the canine population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral action with ribavirin (RBV), interferon-alpha (IFNα), and combinations of RBV and IFNα against canine distemper virus (CDV). Vero cells inoculated with CDV were treated with RBV, IFNα, and combinations of these drugs. The efficacy to inhibit viral replication was evaluated by adding the compounds at different times to determine which step of the viral replicative process was affected. Both drugs were effective against CDV in vitro. The IFNα was the most active compound, with an average IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value lower than the IC50 of the RBV. Ribavirin (RBV) was more selective than IFNα, however, and neither drug showed extracellular antiviral activity. The combination of RBV and IFNα exhibited antiviral activity for the intra- and extracellular stages of the replicative cycle of CDV, although the intracellular viral inhibition was higher. Both RBV and IFNα showed high antiviral efficacy against CDV, and furthermore, RBV + IFNα combinations have shown greater interference range in viral infectivity. These compounds could potentially be used to treat clinical disease associated with CDV infection. PMID:25355997

  14. Characterization of an Antiviral Compound Effective Against Several Pestiviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family consists of four separate species: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 and type 2, classical swine fever virus, and border disease virus (BDV). Classification of several other viral isolates as pestiviruses has been proposed due to their genetic ...

  15. Synthesis and Metabolic Studies of Host-Directed Inhibitors for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Targeting host cell factors required for virus replication provides an alternative to targeting pathogen components and represents a promising approach to develop broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics. High-throughput screening (HTS) identified two classes of inhibitors (2 and 3) with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against ortho- and paramyxoviruses including influenza A virus (IAV), measles virus (MeV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Hit-to-lead optimization delivered inhibitor 28a, with EC50 values of 0.88 and 0.81 μM against IAV strain WSN and MeV strain Edmonston, respectively. It was also found that compound 28a delivers good stability in human liver S9 fractions with a half-life of 165 min. These data establish 28a as a promising lead for antiviral therapy through a host-directed mechanism. PMID:23956816

  16. Antiviral Activities of Several Oral Traditional Chinese Medicines against Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin-Lin; Ge, Miao; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is still a serious threat to human health with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses poses a great challenge to existing antiviral drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) may be an alternative to overcome the challenge. Here, 10 oral proprietary Chinese medicines were selected to evaluate their anti-influenza activities. These drugs exhibit potent inhibitory effects against influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2, and influenza B virus. Importantly, they demonstrate potent antiviral activities against drug-resistant strains. In the study of mechanisms, we found that Xiaoqinglong mixture could increase antiviral interferon production by activating p38 MAPK, JNK/SAPK pathway, and relative nuclear transcription factors. Lastly, our studies also indicate that some of these medicines show inhibitory activities against EV71 and CVB strains. In conclusion, the 10 traditional Chinese medicines, as kind of compound combination medicines, show broad-spectrum antiviral activities, possibly also including inhibitory activities against strains resistant to available antiviral drugs. PMID:26557857

  17. Advances in Antiviral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Barney S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Antiviral vaccines have been the most successful biomedical intervention for preventing epidemic viral disease. Vaccination for smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle was the basis for disease eradication, and recent progress in polio eradication is promising. While early vaccines were developed empirically by passage in live animals or eggs, more recent vaccines have been developed because of the advent of new technologies, particularly cell culture and molecular biology. Recent technological advances in gene delivery and expression, nanoparticles, protein manufacturing, and adjuvants have created the potential for new vaccine platforms that may provide solutions for vaccines against viral pathogens for which no interventions currently exist. In addition, the technological convergence of human monoclonal antibody isolation, structural biology, and high throughput sequencing is providing new opportunities for atomic-level immunogen design. Selection of human monoclonal antibodies can identify immunodominant antigenic sites associated with neutralization and provide reagents for stabilizing and solving the structure of viral surface proteins. Understanding the structural basis for neutralization can guide selection of vaccine targets. Deep sequencing of the antibody repertoire and defining the ontogeny of the desired antibody responses can reveal the junctional recombination and somatic mutation requirements for B-cell recognition and affinity maturation. Collectively, this information will provide new strategic approaches for selecting vaccine antigens, formulations, and regimens. Moreover, it creates the potential for rational vaccine design and establishing a catalogue of vaccine technology platforms that would be effective against any given family or class of viral pathogens and improve our readiness to address new emerging viral threats. PMID:23947359

  18. Advances in antiviral vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Graham, Barney S

    2013-09-01

    Antiviral vaccines have been the most successful biomedical intervention for preventing epidemic viral disease. Vaccination for smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle was the basis for disease eradication, and recent progress in polio eradication is promising. Although early vaccines were developed empirically by passage in live animals or eggs, more recent vaccines have been developed because of the advent of new technologies, particularly cell culture and molecular biology. Recent technological advances in gene delivery and expression, nanoparticles, protein manufacturing, and adjuvants have created the potential for new vaccine platforms that may provide solutions for vaccines against viral pathogens for which no interventions currently exist. In addition, the technological convergence of human monoclonal antibody isolation, structural biology, and high-throughput sequencing is providing new opportunities for atomic-level immunogen design. Selection of human monoclonal antibodies can identify immunodominant antigenic sites associated with neutralization and provide reagents for stabilizing and solving the structure of viral surface proteins. Understanding the structural basis for neutralization can guide selection of vaccine targets. Deep sequencing of the antibody repertoire and defining the ontogeny of the desired antibody responses can reveal the junctional recombination and somatic mutation requirements for B-cell recognition and affinity maturation. Collectively, this information will provide new strategic approaches for selecting vaccine antigens, formulations, and regimens. Moreover, it creates the potential for rational vaccine design and establishing a catalogue of vaccine technology platforms that would be effective against any given family or class of viral pathogens and improve our readiness to address new emerging viral threats. PMID:23947359

  19. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

  20. Antiviral activities of heated dolomite powder.

    PubMed

    Motoike, Koichi; Hirano, Shozo; Yamana, Hideaki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Maeda, Takayoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-12-01

    The effect of the heating conditions of dolomite powder on its antiviral activity was studied against the H5N3 avian influenza virus. Calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO), obtained by the thermal decomposition of dolomite above 800 degrees C, were shown to have strong antiviral activity, but the effect was lessened when the heating temperature exceeded 1400 degrees C. Simultaneous measurement of the crystallite size suggested that the weakening of the activity was due to the considerable grain growth of the oxides. It was found that the presence of Mg in dolomite contributed to the deterrence of grain growth of the oxides during the heating process. Although both CaO and MgO exhibited strong antiviral activity, CaO had the stronger activity but quickly hydrated in the presence of water. On the other hand, the hydration of MgO took place gradually under the same conditions. Separate measurements using MgO and Mg(OH)2 revealed that MgO had a higher antiviral effect than Mg(OH)2. From the overall experiments, it was suggested that the strong antiviral activity of dolomite was related to the hydration reaction of CaO. PMID:19127652

  1. Candidate topical microbicides bind herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B and prevent viral entry and cell-to-cell spread.

    PubMed

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Keller, Marla J; MasCasullo, Veronica; Jarvis, Gary A; Cheng, Hui; John, Minnie; Li, Jin-Hua; Hogarty, Kathleen; Anderson, Robert A; Waller, Donald P; Zaneveld, Lourens J D; Profy, Albert T; Klotman, Mary E; Herold, Betsy C

    2004-06-01

    Topical microbicides designed to prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections are urgently needed. Nonoxynol-9, the only commercially available spermicide, damages epithelium and may enhance human immunodeficiency virus transmission. The observation that herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus bind heparan sulfate provided the rationale for the development of sulfated or sulfonated polymers as topical agents. Although several of the polymers have advanced to clinical trials, the spectrum and mechanism of anti-HSV activity and the effects on soluble mediators of inflammation have not been evaluated. The present studies address these gaps. The results indicate that PRO 2000, polystyrene sulfonate, cellulose sulfate, and polymethylenehydroquinone sulfonate inhibit HSV infection 10,000-fold and are active against clinical isolates, including an acyclovir-resistant variant. The compounds formed stable complexes with glycoprotein B and inhibit viral binding, entry, and cell-to-cell spread. The effects may be long lasting due to the high affinity and stability of the sulfated compound-virus complex, as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance studies. The candidate microbicides retained their antiviral activities in the presence of cervical secretions and over a broad pH range. There was little reduction in cell viability following repeated exposure of human endocervical cells to these compounds, although a reduction in secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor levels was observed. These studies support further development and rigorous evaluation of these candidate microbicides. PMID:15155195

  2. Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Essential oils are complex natural mixtures, their main constituents, e.g. terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being responsible for their biological properties. Essential oils from eucalyptus, tea tree and thyme and their major monoterpene compounds alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, thymol, citral and 1,8-cineole were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. These essential oils were able to reduce viral infectivity by >96%, the monoterpenes inhibited HSV by about >80%. The mode of antiviral action has been determined, only moderate antiviral effects were revealed by essential oils and monoterpenes when these drugs were added to host cells prior to infection or after entry of HSV into cells. However, both essential oils and monoterpenes exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles thereby inactivating viral infection. Among the analysed compounds, monoterpene hydrocarbons were slightly superior to monoterpene alcohols in their antiviral activity, alpha-pinene and alpha-terpineol revealed the highest selectivity index. However, mixtures of different monoterpenes present in natural tea tree essential oil revealed a ten-fold higher selectivity index and a lower toxicity than its isolated single monoterpenes. PMID:19653195

  3. Ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside thiophosphonates compared to phosphonates: synthesis, antiviral activity and decomposition study.

    PubMed

    Roux, Loïc; Priet, Stéphane; Payrot, Nadine; Weck, Clément; Fournier, Maëlenn; Zoulim, Fabien; Balzarini, Jan; Canard, Bruno; Alvarez, Karine

    2013-05-01

    9-[2-(Thiophosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine [S-PMEA, 8] and (R)-9-[2-(Thiophosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [S-PMPA, 9] are acyclic nucleoside thiophosphonates we described recently that display the same antiviral spectrum (DNA viruses) as approved and potent phosphonates PMEA and (R)-PMPA. Here, we describe the synthesis, antiviral activities in infected cell cultures and decomposition study of bis(pivaloyloxymethoxy)-S-PMEA [Bis-POM-S-PMEA, 13] and bis(isopropyloxymethylcarbonyl)-S-PMPA [Bis-POC-S-PMPA, 14] as orally bioavailable prodrugs of the S-PMEA 8 and S-PMPA 9, in comparison to the equivalent "non-thio" derivatives [Bis-POM-PMEA, 11] and [Bis-POC-PMPA, 12]. Compounds 11, 12, 13 and 14 were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against HIV-1-, HIV-2-, HBV- and a broad panel of DNA viruses, and found to exhibit moderate to potent antiviral activity. In order to determine the decomposition pathway of the prodrugs 11, 12, 13 and 14 into parent compounds PMEA, PMPA, 8 and 9, kinetic data and decomposition pathways in several media are presented. As expected, bis-POM-S-PMEA 13 and bis-POC-S-PMPA 14 behaved as prodrugs of S-PMEA 8 and S-PMPA 9. However, thiophosphonates 8 and 9 were released very smoothly in cell extracts, in contrast to the release of PMEA and PMPA from "non-thio" prodrugs 11 and 12. PMID:23603046

  4. Curious discoveries in antiviral drug development: the role of serendipity.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2015-07-01

    Antiviral drug development has often followed a curious meandrous route, guided by serendipity rather than rationality. This will be illustrated by ten examples. The polyanionic compounds (i) polyethylene alanine (PEA) and (ii) suramin were designed as an antiviral agent (PEA) or known as an antitrypanosomal agent (suramin), before they emerged as, respectively, a depilatory agent, or reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (ddNs analogues) (iii) have been (and are still) used in the "Sanger" DNA sequencing technique, although they are now commercialized as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in the treatment of HIV infections. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (iv) was discovered as a selective anti-herpes simplex virus compound and is now primarily used for the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. The prototype of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [(S)-HPMPA], (v) was never commercialized, although it gave rise to several marketed products (cidofovir, adefovir, and tenofovir). 1-[2-(Hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (vi) and TIBO (tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4-benzodiazepin-2(1H)]-one and -thione) (vii) paved the way to a number of compounds (i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, etravirine, and rilpivirine), which are now collectively called non-NRTIs. The bicyclam AMD3100 (viii) was originally described as an anti-HIV agent before it became later marketed as a stem cell mobilizer. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors (ix), while active against a broad range of (-)RNA viruses and poxviruses may be particularly effective against Ebola virus, and for (x) the O-ANP derivatives, the potential application range encompasses virtually all DNA viruses. PMID:25726922

  5. Emerging paramyxoviruses: molecular mechanisms and antiviral strategies

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several paramyxoviruses have emerged to infect humans, including previously unidentified zoonoses. Hendra and Nipah virus (henipavirus (HNV)) zoonoses were first identified in 1994 or 1998, causing deaths in animals and humans in Australia or Malaysia, respectively. Other paramyxoviruses, such as menangle virus, tioman virus, human metapneumovirus, and avian paramyxovirus-1, with less morbidity in humans, have also been recently identified. Although the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses has been previously recognized as biomedically and veterinarily important, the recent emergence of these paramyxoviruses has increased our attention to this family. Antiviral drugs can be designed to target specific important determinants of the viral/cell life cycle. Therefore, identifying and understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of viral entry, replication, assembly, and budding will be critical in the development of antiviral therapeutic agents. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms discovered and the antiviral strategies pursued in recent years for emerging paramyxoviruses, with a concentration on viral entry and exit mechanisms. PMID:21345285

  6. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  7. Current Landscape of Antiviral Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Wade; Cox, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Continued discovery and development of new antiviral medications are paramount for global human health, particularly as new pathogens emerge and old ones evolve to evade current therapeutic agents. Great success has been achieved in developing effective therapies to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV); however, the therapies are not curative and therefore current efforts in HIV and HBV drug discovery are directed toward longer-acting therapies and/or developing new mechanisms of action that could potentially lead to cure, or eradication, of the virus. Recently, exciting early clinical data have been reported for novel antivirals targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza (flu). Preclinical data suggest that these new approaches may be effective in treating high-risk patients afflicted with serious RSV or flu infections. In this review, we highlight new directions in antiviral approaches for HIV, HBV, and acute respiratory virus infections. PMID:26962437

  8. Anti-AIDS Agents 78 †. Design, Synthesis, Metabolic Stability Assessment, and Antiviral Evaluation of Novel Betulinic Acid Derivatives as Potent Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Agents

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Keduo; Yu, Donglei; Chen, Chin-Ho; Huang, Li; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Nitz, Theodore J.; Salzwedel, Karl; Reddick, Mary; Allaway, Graham P.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    In a continuing study of potent anti-HIV agents, seventeen 28,30-disubstituted betulinic acid (BA, 1) derivatives, as well as seven novel 3,28-disubstituted BA analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity. Among them, compound 21 showed an improved solubility and equal anti-HIV potency (EC50: 0.09 μM), when compared to HIV entry inhibitors 3b (IC9564) and 4 (A43-D). Using a cyclic secondary amine to form the C-28 amide bond increased the metabolic stability of the derivatives significantly in pooled human liver microsomes. The most potent compounds 47 and 48 displayed potent anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 0.007 μM and 0.006 μM, respectively. These results are slightly better than that of bevirimat (2), which is currently in Phase IIb clinical trials. Compounds 47 and 48 should serve as attractive promising leads to develop next generation, metabolically stable, 3,28-disubstituted bifunctional HIV-1 inhibitors as clinical trials candidates. PMID:19388685

  9. Tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections. PMID:25117537

  10. Integrative Genomics-Based Discovery of Novel Regulators of the Innate Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, Robin; ter Horst, Rob; Szklarczyk, Radek; Netea, Mihai G.; Andeweg, Arno C.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Huynen, Martijn A.

    2015-01-01

    The RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway is essential for detecting cytosolic viral RNA to trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNα/β) that initiate an innate antiviral response. Through systematic assessment of a wide variety of genomics data, we discovered 10 molecular signatures of known RLR pathway components that collectively predict novel members. We demonstrate that RLR pathway genes, among others, tend to evolve rapidly, interact with viral proteins, contain a limited set of protein domains, are regulated by specific transcription factors, and form a tightly connected interaction network. Using a Bayesian approach to integrate these signatures, we propose likely novel RLR regulators. RNAi knockdown experiments revealed a high prediction accuracy, identifying 94 genes among 187 candidates tested (~50%) that affected viral RNA-induced production of IFNβ. The discovered antiviral regulators may participate in a wide range of processes that highlight the complexity of antiviral defense (e.g. MAP3K11, CDK11B, PSMA3, TRIM14, HSPA9B, CDC37, NUP98, G3BP1), and include uncharacterized factors (DDX17, C6orf58, C16orf57, PKN2, SNW1). Our validated RLR pathway list (http://rlr.cmbi.umcn.nl/), obtained using a combination of integrative genomics and experiments, is a new resource for innate antiviral immunity research. PMID:26485378

  11. Antiviral Drug Resistance: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Sunwen

    2010-01-01

    Summary Antiviral drug resistance is an increasing concern in immunocompromised patient populations, where ongoing viral replication and prolonged drug exposure lead to the selection of resistant strains. Rapid diagnosis of resistance can be made by associating characteristic viral mutations with resistance to various drugs as determined by phenotypic assays. Management of drug resistance includes optimization of host factors and drug delivery, selection of alternative therapies based on knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, and the development of new antivirals. This article discusses drug resistance in herpesviruses and hepatitis B. PMID:20466277

  12. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This information sheet is provided to help you understand the role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists ...

  13. Assay development and high throughput antiviral drug screening against Bluetongue virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianjun; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Hobrath, Judith V.; White, Lucile E.

    2009-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is one of the most important diseases of domestic livestock. There are no antivirals available against BTV disease. In this paper, we present the development, optimization and validation of an in vitro cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using the luminescent-based CellTiter-Glo reagent to identify novel antivirals against BTV. Conditions of the cytopathic effect (CPE)-based assay were optimized at cell density of 5 000 cells/well in medium containing 1% FBS and a multiplicity of infection at 0.01 in 384-well plate, with Z'-values ≥ 0.70, Coefficient of Variations ≥ 5.68 and signal-to-background ratio ≥ 7.10. This assay was further validated using a 9 532 compound library. The fully validated assay was then used to screen the 194 950 compound collection, which identified 693 compounds with > 30% CPE inhibition. The ten-concentration dose response assay identified 185 structures with IC50 ≤ 100 μM, out of which 42 compounds were grouped into six analog series corresponding to six scaffolds enriched within the active set compared to their distribution in the library. The CPE-based assay development demonstrated its robustness and reliability, and its application in the HTS campaign will make significant contribution to the antiviral drug discovery against BTV disease. PMID:19559054

  14. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  15. Syntheses of Isoxazoline-Carbocyclic Nucleosides and Their Antiviral Evaluation: A Standard Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, Paolo; Vazquez Martinez, Naiara; Scrocchi, Roberto; Corsaro, Antonino; Pistarà, Venerando

    2014-01-01

    The current synthesis of racemic purine and pyrimidine isoxazoline-carbocyclic nucleosides is reported, detailing the key-steps for standard and reliable preparations. Improved yields were obtained by the proper tuning of the single synthetic steps, opening the way for the preparation of a variety of novel compounds. Some of the obtained compounds were also evaluated against a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses including HIV. No specific antiviral activity was observed in the cases at hand. Novel compounds were prepared for future biological tests. PMID:25544956

  16. Development of anti-viral agents using molecular modeling and virtual screening techniques.

    PubMed

    Kirchmair, Johannes; Distinto, Simona; Liedl, Klaus Roman; Markt, Patrick; Rollinger, Judith Maria; Schuster, Daniela; Spitzer, Gudrun Maria; Wolber, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Computational chemistry has always played a key role in anti-viral drug development. The challenges and the quickly rising public interest when a virus is becoming a threat has significantly influenced computational drug discovery. The most obvious example is anti-AIDS research, where HIV protease and reverse transcriptase have triggered enormous efforts in developing and improving computational methods. Methods applied to anti-viral research include (i) ligand-based approaches that rely on known active compounds to extrapolate biological activity, such as machine learning techniques or classical QSAR, (ii) structure-based methods that rely on an experimentally determined 3D structure of the targets, such as molecular docking or molecular dynamics, and (iii) universal approaches that can be applied in a structure- or ligand-based way, such as 3D QSAR or 3D pharmacophore elucidation. In this review we summarize these molecular modeling approaches as they were applied to fight anti-viral diseases and highlight their importance for anti-viral research. We discuss the role of computational chemistry in the development of small molecules as agents against HIV integrase, HIV-1 protease, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the influenza virus M2 channel protein, influenza virus neuraminidase, the SARS coronavirus main proteinase and spike protein, thymidine kinases of herpes viruses, hepatitis c virus proteins and other flaviviruses as well as human rhinovirus coat protein and proteases, and other picornaviridae. We highlight how computational approaches have helped in discovering anti-viral activities of natural products and give an overview on polypharmacology approaches that help to optimize drugs against several viruses or help to optimize the metabolic profile of and anti-viral drug. PMID:21303343

  17. Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IF stimulated ...

  18. New hypoxanthine nucleosides with RNA antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, V; Ussery, M A

    1992-08-01

    A series of novel C-2 functionalized hypoxanthine and purine ribonucleosides have been synthesized and evaluated against exotic RNA viruses of the family or genus alpha, arena, flavi, and rhabdo. Both specific and broad-spectrum antiviral activities were discovered but only with hypoxanthine nucleosides. PMID:1444325

  19. Anti-viral Responses in Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the study of anti-viral responses in insects has lagged behind studies of responses to other types of pathogens, progress has begun to rapidly accelerate over the past few years. Insects are subject to infection by many different kinds of DNA and RNA viruses. These include viruses that ar...

  20. Antiviral therapy: current concepts and practices.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, B

    1992-01-01

    Drugs capable of inhibiting viruses in vitro were described in the 1950s, but real progress was not made until the 1970s, when agents capable of inhibiting virus-specific enzymes were first identified. The last decade has seen rapid progress in both our understanding of antiviral therapy and the number of antiviral agents on the market. Amantadine and ribavirin are available for treatment of viral respiratory infections. Vidarabine, acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet are used for systemic treatment of herpesvirus infections, while ophthalmic preparations of idoxuridine, trifluorothymidine, and vidarabine are available for herpes keratitis. For treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infections, zidovudine and didanosine are used. Immunomodulators, such as interferons and colony-stimulating factors, and immunoglobulins are being used increasingly for viral illnesses. While resistance to antiviral drugs has been seen, especially among AIDS patients, it has not become widespread and is being intensely studied. Increasingly, combinations of agents are being used: to achieve synergistic inhibition of viruses, to delay or prevent resistance, and to decrease dosages of toxic drugs. New approaches, such as liposomes carrying antiviral drugs and computer-aided drug design, are exciting and promising prospects for the future. PMID:1576586

  1. Delivery of suramin as an antiviral agent through liposomal systems.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Fabbri, Jacopo; Rohayem, Jacques; Ruokolainen, Janne; Nykänen, Antti; Milani, Mario; Pezzullo, Margherita; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Bolognesi, Martino

    2014-05-01

    Norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a promising target enzyme for the development of new antiviral drugs. Starting from the crystal structure of norovirus RdRp, we had previously performed an in silico docking search using a library of low-molecular-weight compounds that enabled us to select molecules with predicted enzyme inhibitory activity. Among these, the polysulfonated naphthylurea suramin proved to inhibit in vitro both murine and human norovirus polymerases, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The negatively charged inhibitor, however, displayed poor cell permeability in cell-based experiments. Therefore, we produced different suramin-loaded liposome formulations and evaluated their activities in cell-based assays using murine norovirus cultivated in RAW 264.7 macrophages, as a model for norovirus genus. The results obtained show that suramin, when delivered through liposomes, can effectively inhibit murine norovirus replication. PMID:24616282

  2. Total Synthesis of the Antiviral Natural Product Houttuynoid B.

    PubMed

    Kerl, Thomas; Berger, Florian; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2016-02-24

    The first total synthesis of houttuynoid B, a powerful antiviral flavonoid glycoside from the Chinese plant Houttuynia cordata, is described. In a key step, a Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement employing an already glycosylated substrate was used to efficiently set up the fully functionalized carbon skeleton. The required benzofuran building block was prepared through a domino Sonogashira coupling/5-endo-dig cyclization and converted into a stable 1-hydroxybenzotriazole-derived active ester prior to linking with a galactosylated hydroxyacetophenone unit. The elaborated synthesis requires only nine steps (11 % overall yield) along the longest linear sequence and paves the way for the preparation of structurally related compounds for further biological evaluation. PMID:26748612

  3. Transcriptional analysis of antiviral small molecule therapeutics as agonists of the RLR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Green, R.R.; Wilkins, C.; Pattabhi, S.; Dong, R.; Loo, Y.; Gale, M.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) during viral infection initiates the induction of antiviral signaling pathways, including activation of the Interferon Regulator Factor 3 (IRF3). We identified small molecule compounds that activate IRF3 through MAVS, thereby inhibiting infection by viruses of the families Flaviviridae (West Nile virus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus), Filoviridae (Ebola virus), Orthomyxoviridae (influenza A virus), Arenaviridae (Lassa virus) and Paramyxoviridae (respiratory syncytial virus, Nipah virus) (1). In this study, we tested a lead compound along with medicinal chemistry-derived analogs to compare the gene transcriptional profiles induced by these molecules to that of other known MAVS-dependent IRF3 agonists. Transcriptional analysis of these small molecules revealed the induction of specific antiviral genes and identified a novel module of host driven immune regulated genes that suppress infection of a range of RNA viruses. Microarray data can be found in Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE74047). PMID:26981429

  4. Transcriptional analysis of antiviral small molecule therapeutics as agonists of the RLR pathway.

    PubMed

    Green, R R; Wilkins, C; Pattabhi, S; Dong, R; Loo, Y; Gale, M

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) during viral infection initiates the induction of antiviral signaling pathways, including activation of the Interferon Regulator Factor 3 (IRF3). We identified small molecule compounds that activate IRF3 through MAVS, thereby inhibiting infection by viruses of the families Flaviviridae (West Nile virus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus), Filoviridae (Ebola virus), Orthomyxoviridae (influenza A virus), Arenaviridae (Lassa virus) and Paramyxoviridae (respiratory syncytial virus, Nipah virus) (1). In this study, we tested a lead compound along with medicinal chemistry-derived analogs to compare the gene transcriptional profiles induced by these molecules to that of other known MAVS-dependent IRF3 agonists. Transcriptional analysis of these small molecules revealed the induction of specific antiviral genes and identified a novel module of host driven immune regulated genes that suppress infection of a range of RNA viruses. Microarray data can be found in Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE74047). PMID:26981429

  5. Synthesis, Antiviral and Cytotoxic Activities of 2-(2-Phenyl carboxylic acid)-3-Phenylquinazolin -4(3H)-one Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, P.; Murugesh, N.; Chandramohan, M.; Pannecouque, C.; DE Clercq, E.

    2010-01-01

    A series of novel 2,3-disubstitutedquinazolin-4(3H)-ones have been synthesized by condensation of 2-substituted benzo[1,3]oxazine-4-ones and anthranilic acid. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against HIV, HSV and vaccinia viruses. 5-Bromo-2-(6-bromo-4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)-benzoic acid (MBR2) exhibited distinct antiviral activity against Herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses. PMID:21969760

  6. #Nitrosocarbonyls 1: Antiviral Activity of N-(4-Hydroxycyclohex-2-en-1-yl)quinoline-2-carboxamide against the Influenza A Virus H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saad, Dalya; Memeo, Misal Giuseppe; Quadrelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus flu A H1N1 still remains a target for its inhibition with small molecules. Fleeting nitrosocarbonyl intermediates are at work in a short-cut synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues. The strategy of the synthetic approaches is presented along with the in vitro antiviral tests. The nucleoside derivatives were tested for their inhibitory activity against a variety of viruses. Promising antiviral activities were found for specific compounds in the case of flu A H1N1. PMID:25610906

  7. Replication-Competent Influenza B Reporter Viruses as Tools for Screening Antivirals and Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Benjamin O.; Palese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B virus is a human pathogen responsible for significant health and economic burden. Research into this pathogen has been limited by the lack of reporter viruses. Here we describe the development of both a replication-competent fluorescent influenza B reporter virus and bioluminescent influenza B reporter virus. Furthermore, we demonstrate these reporter viruses can be used to quickly monitor viral growth and permit the rapid screening of antiviral compounds and neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26401044

  8. The antiviral effect of jiadifenoic acids C against coxsackievirus B3

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Miao; Wang, Huiqiang; Zhang, Guijie; Yu, Shishan; Li, Yuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B type 3 (CVB3) is one of the major causative pathogens associated with viral meningitis and myocarditis, which are widespread in the human population and especially prevalent in neonates and children. These infections can result in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and other severe clinical complications. There are no vaccines or drugs approved for the prevention or therapy of CVB3-induced diseases. During screening for anti-CVB3 candidates in our previous studies, we found that jiadifenoic acids C exhibited strong antiviral activities against CVB3 as well as other strains of Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs). The present studies were carried out to evaluate the antiviral activities of jiadifenoic acids C. Results showed that jiadifenoic acids C could reduce CVB3 RNA and proteins synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Jiadifenoic acids C also had a similar antiviral effect on the pleconaril-resistant variant of CVB3. We further examined the impact of jiadifenoic acids C on the synthesis of viral structural and non-structural proteins, finding that jiadifenoic acids C could reduce VP1 and 3D protein production. A time-course study with Vero cells showed that jiadifenoic acids C displayed significant antiviral activities at 0–6 h after CVB3 inoculation, indicating that jiadifenoic acids C functioned at an early step of CVB3 replication. However, jiadifenoic acids C had no prophylactic effect against CVB3. Taken together, we show that jiadifenoic acids C exhibit strong antiviral activities against all strains of CVB, including the pleconaril-resistant variant. Our study could provide a significant lead for anti-CVB3 drug development. PMID:26579396

  9. 5-Bromo (or chloro)-6-azido-5,6-dihydro-2' -deoxyuridine and -thymidine derivatives with potent antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2002-02-11

    Synthesis, antiviral, and cytotoxic activities of 5-bromo (or chloro)-6-azido-5,6-dihydro-2' -deoxyuridine (4,5) and -thymidine (6,7) are reported. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antiherpes activity against (HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, and VZV). PMID:11814776

  10. Amino acid esters substituted phosphorylated emtricitabine and didanosine derivatives as antiviral and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Kuruva Chandra; Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Narasimha, Golla; Raju, Chamarthi Naga; Ghosh, S K

    2014-07-01

    Owing to the promising antiviral activity of amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated nucleosides in the present study, a series of phosphorylated derivatives of emtricitabine and didanosine substituted with bioactive amino acid esters at P-atom were synthesized. Initially, molecular docking studies were screened to predict their molecular interactions with hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus and E2 protein of human papillomavirus. The title compounds were screened for their antiviral ability against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by their in ovo study in embryonated chicken eggs. Compounds 5g and 9c exposed well mode of interactions with HN protein and also exhibited potential growth of NDV inhibition. The remaining compounds exhibited better growth of NDV inhibition than their parent molecules, i.e., emtricitabine (FTC) and didanosine (ddI). In addition, the in vitro anticancer activity of all the title compounds were screenedagainst HeLa cell lines at 10 and 100 μg/mL concentrations. The compounds 5g and 9c showed an effective anticancer activity than that of the remaining title compounds with IC50 values of 40 and 60 μg/mL, respectively. The present in silico and in ovo antiviral and in vitro anticancer results of the title compounds are suggesting that the amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated FTC and ddI derivatives, especially 5g and 9c, can be used as NDV inhibitors and anticancer agents for the control and management of viral diseases with cancerous condition. PMID:24789416

  11. Cloning and expression of small cDNA fragment encoding strong antiviral peptide from Celosia cristata in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, A; Kohnehrouz, B Baghban; Santha, I M; Lodha, M L; Kapoor, H C

    2005-09-01

    A small cDNA fragment containing a ribosome-inactivating site was isolated from the leaf cDNA population of Celosia cristata by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was conducted linearly using a degenerate primer designed from the partially conserved peptide of ribosome-inactivating/antiviral proteins. Sequence analysis showed that it is 150 bp in length. The cDNA fragment was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli as a ~57 kD fused protein, and its presence was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified product showed strong antiviral activity towards tobacco mosaic virus on host plant leaves, Nicotiana glutinosa, indicating the presence of a putative antiviral determinant in the isolated cDNA product. It is speculated that antiviral site is at, or is separate but very close to, the ribosome-inactivating site. We nominate this short cDNA fragment reported here as a good candidate to investigate further the location of the antiviral determinants. The isolated cDNA sequence was submitted to EMBL databases under accession number of AJ535714. PMID:16266271

  12. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Hyunil; Choi, Yu Jeong; Yim, Nam-Hui; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs. PMID:23259003

  13. The antiviral potency of Fagus sylvatica 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Pujol, C A; Damonte, E B; Turjan, J; Yanbo, K Z; Capek, P

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus belongs to Herpesviridae family and causes infection of humans from ancient times. 4OMe-glucuronoxylans as the renewable biopolymers can be promising glycomaterials for various applications in pharmacy. Control enzymatic degradation of the native 4OMe-glucuronoxylan (GX1) followed by targeted sulfation procedure afforded a range of 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates differed in the degree of sulfation (10-16%) and molecular mass (21,000-5000g/mol; GXS1>GXS2>GXS3>GXS4). Antiviral activity tests on GXS1-4 against herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 revealed the positive effect of all compounds against strains of herpes virus. Of them, the compounds GXS1 and GXS4 were shown to be the most active for both HSV serotypes. The antiviral activity of GXS1 and GXS4 was similar to those of heparin or dextran sulfate, used as reference compounds. It was found that GXS1 and GXS4 were active as well against Polio and dengue viruses, however, on a smaller scale. The mode of antiviral action of 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates is due to inhibition of the virus binding to the cell receptors. PMID:26902895

  14. A review on recent developments of indole-containing antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Qiong; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Indole represents one of the most important privileged scaffolds in drug discovery. Indole derivatives have the unique property of mimicking the structure of peptides and to bind reversibly to enzymes, which provide tremendous opportunities to discover novel drugs with different modes of action. There are seven indole-containing commercial drugs in the Top-200 Best Selling Drugs by US Retail Sales in 2012. There are also an amazing number of approved indole-containing drugs in the market as well as compounds currently going through different clinical phases or registration statuses. This review focused on the recent development of indole derivatives as antiviral agents with the following objectives: 1) To present one of the most comprehensive listings of indole antiviral agents, drugs on market or compounds in clinical trials; 2) To focus on recent developments of indole compounds (including natural products) and their antiviral activities, summarize the structure property, hoping to inspire new and even more creative approaches; 3) To offer perspectives on how indole scaffolds as a privileged structure might be exploited in the future. PMID:25462257

  15. Dancing with chemical formulae of antivirals: A panoramic view (Part 2).

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-11-15

    In this second part of "Dancing with antivirals as chemical formulae" I will focus on a number of chemical compounds that in the last few years have elicited more than common attraction from a commercial viewpoint: (i) favipiravir (T-705), as it is active against influenza, but also several other RNA viruses; (ii) neuraminidase inhibitors such as zanamivir and oseltamivir; (iii) peramivir and laninamivir octanoate, which might be effective against influenza virus following a single (intravenous or inhalation) administration; (iv) sofosbuvir, the (anticipated) cornerstone for the interferon-free therapy of HCV infections; (v) combinations of DAAs (direct antiviral agents) to achieve, in no time, a sustained virus response (SVR) against HCV infection; (vi) HIV protease inhibitors, the latest and most promising being darunavir; (vii) the integrase inhibitors (INIs) (raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir), representing a new dimension in the anti-HIV armamentarium; (viii), a new class of helicase primase inhibitors (HPIs) that may exceed acyclovir and the other anti-herpes compounds in both potency and safety; (ix) CMX-001, as the latest of Dr. Antonín Holý's legacy for its activity against poxviruses and CMV infections, and (x) noroviruses for which the ideal antiviral compounds are still awaited for. PMID:24070654

  16. John Montgomery's legacy: carbocyclic adenosine analogues as SAH hydrolase inhibitors with broad-spectrum antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy, SAH) hydrolase was recognized as a pharmacological target for antiviral agents (J. A. Montgomery et al., J. Med. Chem. 25:626-629, 1982), an increasing number of adenosine, acyclic adenosine, and carbocyclic adenosine analogues have been described as potent SAH hydrolase inhibitors endowed with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. The antiviral activity spectrum of the SAH hydrolase inhibitors include pox-, rhabdo-, filo-, arena-, paramyxo-, reo-, and retroviruses. Among the most potent SAH hydrolase inhibitors and antiviral agents rank carbocyclic 3-deazaadenosine (C-c3 Ado), neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A, the 5'-nor derivatives of carbocyclic adenosine (C-Ado, aristeromycin), and the 2-halo (i.e., 2-fluoro) and 6'-R-alkyl (i.e., 6'-R-methyl) derivatives of neplanocin A. These compounds are particularly active against poxviruses (i.e., vaccinia virus), and rhabdoviruses (i.e., vesicular stomatitis virus). The in vivo efficacy of C-c3 Ado and 3-deazaneplanocin A has been established in mouse models for vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and Ebola virus. SAH hydrolase inhibitors such as C-c3Ado and 3-deazaneplanocin A should in thefirst place be considered for therapeutic (or prophylactic) use against poxvirus infections, including smallpox, and hemorrhagic fever virus infections such as Ebola. PMID:16438025

  17. HIV-1 Gag as an Antiviral Target: Development of Assembly and Maturation Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Gag is the master orchestrator of particle assembly. The central role of Gag at multiple stages of the HIV lifecycle has led to efforts to develop drugs that directly target Gag and prevent the formation and release of infectious particles. Until recently, however, only the catalytic site protease inhibitors have been available to inhibit late stages of HIV replication. This review summarizes the current state of development of antivirals that target Gag or disrupt late events in the retrovirus lifecycle such as maturation of the viral capsid. Maturation inhibitors represent an exciting new series of antiviral compounds, including those that specifically target CA-SP1 cleavage and the allosteric integrase inhibitors that inhibit maturation by a completely different mechanism. Numerous small molecules and peptides targeting CA have been studied in attempts to disrupt steps in assembly. Efforts to target CA have recently gained considerable momentum from the development of small molecules that bind CA and alter capsid stability at the post-entry stage of the lifecycle. Efforts to develop antivirals that inhibit incorporation of genomic RNA or to inhibit late budding events remain in preliminary stages of development. Overall, the development of novel antivirals targeting Gag and the late stages in HIV replication appears much closer to success than ever, with the new maturation inhibitors leading the way. PMID:26329615

  18. Determination and Confirmation of the Antiviral Drug Amantadine and Its Analogues in Chicken Jerky Pet Treats.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Andersen, Wendy C; Filigenzi, Michael S; Heise, Andrea S; Lohne, Jack J; Madson, Mark R; Ceric, Olgica; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2015-08-12

    In this study, we investigated two methods for the detection of antiviral compounds in chicken jerky pet treats. Initially, a screening method developed to detect many different chemical contaminants indicated the presence of amantadine, 1, in some pet treats analyzed. A second antiviral-specific method was then developed for amantadine and its analogues, rimantadine, 2, and memantine, 3. Both methods used an acidic water/acetonitrile extraction. The antiviral-specific method also included a dispersive sorbent cleanup. Analytes were detected and identified by LC-MS (ion trap and Orbitrap) instruments. The antiviral-specific method was validated by analyzing matrix blanks and fortified samples (2.5-50 μg/kg levels). Average recoveries for amantadine (using a deuterated internal standard) in fortified samples ranged from 76 to 123% with relative standard deviations of ≤12%. Amantadine was detected and identified in suspect chicken jerky pet treat samples at levels ranging from <2.5 μg/kg to over 600 μg/kg. Rimantadine and memantine were not detected in any samples. PMID:26165548

  19. Characteristics of Nipah virus and Hendra virus replication in different cell-lines and their suitability for anti-viral screening

    PubMed Central

    Aljofan, Mohamad; Saubern, Simon; Meyer, Adam G.; Marsh, Glenn; Meers, Joanne; Mungall, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently described the development and validation of a High Throughput Screening assay suitable for Henipavirus antiviral identification. While we are confident this assay is robust and effective, we wished to investigate assay performance in a range of alternative cell lines to determine if assay sensitivity and specificity could be improved. We evaluated ten different cell lines for their susceptibility to Hendra and Nipah virus infection and their sensitivity of detection of the effects of the broad spectrum antiviral, ribavirin and nine novel antivirals identified using our initial screening approach. Cell lines were grouped into three categories with respect to viral replication. Virus replicated best in Vero and BSR cells, followed by Hep2, HeLa, BHK-21 and M17 cells. The lowest levels of RNA replication and viral protein expression were observed in BAEC, MMEC, A549 and ECV304 cells. Eight cell lines appeared to be similarly effective at discriminating the antiviral effects of ribavirin (<2.7 fold difference). The two cells lines most sensitive to the effect of ribavirin (ECV304 and BAEC) also displayed the lowest levels of viral replication while Vero cells were the least sensitive suggesting excess viral replication may limit drug efficacy and cell lines which limit viral replication may result in enhanced antiviral efficacy. However, there was no consistent trend observed with the other nine antivirals tested. While improvements in antiviral sensitivity in other cell lines may indicate an important role in future HTS assays, the slightly lower sensitivity to antiviral detection in Vero cells has inherent advantages in reducing the number of partially effective lead molecules identified during initial screens. Comparison of a panel of 54 novel antiviral compounds identified during routine screening of an in-house compound library in Vero, BHK-21 and BSR cells suggests no clear advantage of screening in either cell type. PMID:19428741

  20. Synthetic strategy and antiviral evaluation of diamide containing heterocycles targeting dengue and yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Saudi, Milind; Zmurko, Joanna; Kaptein, Suzanne; Rozenski, Jef; Gadakh, Bharat; Chaltin, Patrick; Marchand, Arnaud; Neyts, Johan; Van Aerschot, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    High-throughput screening of a subset of the CD3 chemical library (Centre for Drug Design and Discovery; KU Leuven) provided us with a lead compound 1, displaying low micromolar potency against dengue virus and yellow fever virus. Within a project aimed at discovering new inhibitors of flaviviruses, substitution of its central imidazole ring led to synthesis of variably substituted pyrazine dicarboxylamides and phthalic diamides, which were evaluated in cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against the dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Fourteen compounds inhibited DENV replication (EC50 ranging between 0.5 and 3.4 μM), with compounds 6b and 6d being the most potent inhibitors (EC50 0.5 μM) with selectivity indices (SI) > 235. Compound 7a likewise exhibited anti-DENV activity with an EC50 of 0.5 μM and an SI of >235. In addition, good antiviral activity of seven compounds in the series was also noted against the YFV with EC50 values ranging between 0.4 and 3.3 μM, with compound 6n being the most potent for this series with an EC50 0.4 μM and a selectivity index of >34. Finally, reversal of one of the central amide bonds as in series 13 proved deleterious to the inhibitory activity. PMID:27240271

  1. Polyomavirus T Antigens Activate an Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Giacobbi, Nicholas S.; Gupta, Tushar; Coxon, Andrew; Pipas, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic expression of Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) increased levels of mRNAs encoding interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). The mechanism by which T antigen increases levels of ISGs in MEFs remains unclear. We present evidence that expression of T antigen from SV40, Human Polyomaviruses BK (BKV) or JC (JCV) upregulate production of ISGs in MEFs, and subsequently result in an antiviral state, as determined by inhibition of VSV or EMCV growth. The first 136 amino acids of LT are sufficient for these activities. Furthermore, increased ISG expression and induction of the antiviral state requires STAT1. Finally, the RB binding motif of LT is necessary for activation of STAT1. We conclude that the induction of the STAT1 mediated innate immune response in MEFs is a common feature shared by SV40, BKV and JCV. PMID:25589241

  2. Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Li, Timothy C. M.; Chan, Martin C. W.; Lee, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of severe respiratory infections leading to excessive hospitalizations and deaths globally; annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic/endemic avian virus infections occur as a result of rapid, continuous evolution of influenza viruses. Emergence of antiviral resistance is of great clinical and public health concern. Currently available antiviral treatments include four neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir), M2-inibitors (amantadine, rimantadine), and a polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir). In this review, we focus on resistance issues related to the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Data on primary resistance, as well as secondary resistance related to NAI exposure will be presented. Their clinical implications, detection, and novel therapeutic options undergoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:26389935

  3. Antiviral therapy: old and current issues.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Guido; Turriziani, Ombretta

    2012-08-01

    Many antiviral drugs are currently approved and formally licensed for clinical use in the treatment of viral infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex viruses, varicella-zoster virus, respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus or influenza virus. Recent decades have seen major advances in our knowledge of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral diseases as well as ongoing developments and improvements in antiviral therapy. However, research is far from complete and indeed previously unknown and unexpected issues are currently arising. This review aims to discuss some of these issues in the belief that they should be carefully addressed to enhance the management of patients with viral infections. PMID:22727532

  4. [Spectroscopic studies on the formation of metal complexes and on the protein binding of antiviral thiosemicarbazone derivatives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Heinisch, L; Kramarczyk, K; Tonew, M; Hesse, G

    1981-04-01

    The complexation of some thiosemicarbazones and isothiosemicarbazones of isatin and quinolin-2-aldehydes with Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ ions was spectrometrically investigated. Semiquantitative data, obtained from extinction values, about the relative complexing tendencies within some groups of homologous substances were brought in relation to their antiviral effects and binding to bovine serum albumin. The complexing tendencies were greatest in compounds with methyl substituents and decreased for higher alkyl substituents. whereas the binding to protein increased in the same order. The well-known maxima of the antiviral observed with medium alkyl groups may be explained by a superposition of these effects. PMID:7255526

  5. Inhibition of immune functions by antiviral drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Heagy, W; Crumpacker, C; Lopez, P A; Finberg, R W

    1991-01-01

    Immune functions were evaluated in vitro for PBMC isolated from healthy donors and cultured with the antiviral agents, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), ribavirin, ganciclovir, 2'3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), or acyclovir. To identify methods for assessing the effects of antiviral drugs on immune cells, the PBMC response to mitogens, Con A, or phytohemagglutinin was evaluated from measurements of [3H]thymidine and [14C]-leucine incorporation, cell growth, cellular RNA, DNA, and protein levels, and the PBMC proliferative cycle (i.e., progression from G0----G1----S----G2 + M). At clinically relevant concentrations, AZT, ribavirin, or ganciclovir diminished PBMC responsiveness to mitogen. The numbers of proliferating cells in G1, S, and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle, DNA content, and [3H]thymidine uptake were decreased in cultures treated with AZT, ribavirin, or ganciclovir. AZT or ribavirin but not ganciclovir reduced RNA and protein in the cultures and inhibited cell growth. Whereas AZT, ribavirin, or ganciclovir were antiproliferative, ddI or acyclovir had little, if any, effect on PBMC mitogenesis. The inhibitory effects of antivirals on immune cells may contribute to the immune deterioration observed in patients following prolonged use of the drugs. PMID:1904068

  6. 6-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]pyrimidines with antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Holý, Antonín; Votruba, Ivan; Masojídková, Milena; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Naesens, Lieve; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan

    2002-04-25

    6-Hydroxypyrimidines substituted at positions 2 and 4 by hydrogen, methyl, amino, cyclopropylamino, dimethylamino, methylsulfanyl, or hydroxyl group afford by the reaction with diisopropyl 2-(chloroethoxy)methylphosphonate in the presence of NaH, Cs(2)CO(3), or DBU a mixture of N(1)- and O(6)-[2-(diisopropylphosphorylmethoxy)ethyl] isomers which were converted to the free phosphonic acids by treatment with bromotrimethylsilane followed by hydrolysis. Analogously, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine gave on reaction with [(R)- and (S)-2-(diisopropylphosphorylmethoxy)propyl] tosylate, followed by deprotection, the enantiomeric 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propoxy]pyrimidines. 2,4-Diamino-6-sulfanylpyrimidine gave, on treatment with diisopropyl 2-(chloroethoxy)methylphosphonate in the presence of NaH and subsequent deprotection, 2,4-diamino-6-[[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]sulfanyl]pyrimidine. 2-Amino-4-hydroxy-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]pyrimidine was obtained from the appropriate 2-amino-4-chloropyrimidine derivative by alkaline hydrolysis and ester cleavage. Direct alkylation of 2-amino-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine afforded a mixture of 2-amino-4,6-bis[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]- and 2-amino-1,4-bis[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]pyrimidine. None of the N(1)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl] isomers exhibited any antiviral activity against DNA viruses or RNA viruses tested in vitro. On the contrary, the O(6)-isomers, namely the compounds derived from 2,4-diamino-, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-, or 2-amino-4-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy]-6-hydroxypyrimidine, inhibited the replication of herpes viruses [herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)] and retroviruses [Moloney sarcoma virus (MSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2)], their activity being most pronounced against the latter. The antiviral activity was lower if the oxygen at the position 6 was replaced by a sulfur atom, as in 2,4-diamino-6

  7. Synthesis, antimycobacterial, antiviral, antimicrobial activity and QSAR studies of N(2)-acyl isonicotinic acid hydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Judge, Vikramjeet; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Ahuja, Munish; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Balzarini, Jan

    2013-02-01

    A series of N(2)-acyl isonicotinic acid hydrazides (1-17) was synthesized and tested for its in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the results indicated that the compound, isonicotinic acid N'- tetradecanoyl-hydrazide (12) was more active than the reference compound isoniazid. The results of antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger indicated that compounds with dichloro, hydroxyl, tri-iodo and N(2)-tetradecanoyl substituent were the most active ones. The antiviral activity studies depicted that none of the tested compounds were active against DNA or RNA viruses. The multi-target QSAR model was found to be effective in describing the antimicrobial activity of N(2)-acyl isonicotinic acid hydrazides. PMID:22762163

  8. Cinnamoyl- and hydroxycinnamoyl amides of glaucine and their antioxidative and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Spasova, Maya; Philipov, Stefan; Nikolaeva-Glomb, L; Galabov, A S; Milkova, Ts

    2008-08-01

    The aporphine alkaloid glaucine has been converted into 3-aminomethylglaucine and its free amino group has been linked to cinnamic, ferulic, sinapic, o-, and p-coumaric acids. The antioxidative potential of the synthesized amides was studied against DPPH(*) test. All of the tested compounds demonstrated higher radical scavenging activity than glaucine and 3-aminomethylglaucine, and lower antioxidative effect than the free hydroxycinnamic acids. The newly synthesized compounds were tested in vitro for antiviral activity against viruses belonging to different taxonomic groups. PMID:18590964

  9. A case for developing antiviral drugs against polio.

    PubMed

    Collett, Marc S; Neyts, Johan; Modlin, John F

    2008-09-01

    Polio eradication is within sight. In bringing the world close to this ultimate goal, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has relied exclusively on the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as eradication nears, continued OPV use becomes less tenable due to the incidence of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in vaccine recipients and disease caused by circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in contacts. Once wild poliovirus transmission has been interrupted globally, OPV use will stop. This will leave the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) as the only weapon to defend a polio-free world. Outbreaks caused by cVDPVs are expected post-OPV cessation, and accidental or deliberate releases of virus could also occur. There are serious doubts regarding the ability of IPV alone to control outbreaks. Here, we argue that antiviral drugs against poliovirus be added to the arsenal. Anti-poliovirus drugs could be used to treat the infected and protect the exposed, acting rapidly on their own to contain an outbreak and used as a complement to IPV. While there are no polio antiviral drugs today, the technological feasibility of developing such drugs and their probability of clinical success have been established by over three decades of drug development targeting the related rhinoviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Because of this history, there are known compounds with anti-poliovirus activity in vitro that represent excellent starting points for polio drug development. Stakeholders must come to understand the potential public health benefits of polio drugs, the feasibility of their development, and the relatively modest costs involved. Given the timelines for eradication and those for drug development, the time for action is now. PMID:18513807

  10. In vitro antiviral efficacy of the ganciclovir complexed with beta-cyclodextrin on human cytomegalovirus clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Nicolazzi, Céline; Venard, Véronique; Le Faou, Alain; Finance, Chantal

    2002-05-01

    The toxicity of the compounds currently used in the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunocompromised hosts may force the treatment to be discontinued. The aim of this study was to improve the antiviral activity of ganciclovir (GCV), one the most widely used drug, by complexing it with beta-cyclodextrin. Cyclodextrins (cds) have the property to form inclusion complexes with a great number of molecules and to enhance bioavailability and biological properties of these molecules. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of complexed GCV against several strains of HCMV: AD169, a reference strain, RCL-1, a laboratory mutant resistant to GCV, and four clinical isolates. The complexed GCV was more effective than free GCV against all HCMV strains tested. Cds as carriers for antiviral drugs would represent a useful adjunct to classical treatment procedures. They may make it possible to administer lower doses, thus reducing the toxic side effects of the drugs. PMID:12062397

  11. Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology (441st Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Wally

    2008-10-15

    Vaccines are effective against viruses such as polio and measles, but vaccines against other important viruses, such as HIV and flu viruses, may be impossible to obtain. These viruses change their genetic makeup each time they replicate so that the immune system cannot recognize all their variations. Hence it is important to develop new antiviral agents that inhibit virus replication. During this lecture, Dr. Mangel will discuss his group's work with a model system, the human adenovirus, which causes, among other ailments, pink eye, blindness and obesity. Mangel's team has developed a promising drug candidate that works by inihibiting adenovirus proteinase, an enzyme necessary for viral replication.

  12. Update on emerging antivirals for the management of herpes simplex virus infections: a patenting perspective.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D; Vadlapatla, Ramya K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  13. A High Throughput Assay for Screening Host Restriction Factors and Antivirals Targeting Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Li, Wenjun; Li, Shitao

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Currently approved treatments against influenza are losing effectiveness, as new viral strains are often refractory to conventional treatments. Thus, there is an urgent need to find new therapeutic targets with which to develop novel antiviral drugs. The common strategy to discover new drug targets and antivirals is high throughput screening. However, most current screenings for IAV rely on the engineered virus carrying a reporter, which prevents the application to newly emerging wild type flu viruses, such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu. Here we developed a simple and sensitive screening assay for wild type IAV by quantitatively analyzing viral protein levels using a Dot Blot Assay in combination with the LI-COR Imaging System (DBALIS). We first validated DBALIS in overexpression and RNAi assays, which are suitable methods for screening host factors regulating viral infection. More importantly, we also validated and initiated drug screening using DBALIS. A pilot compound screening identified a small molecule that inhibited IAV infection. Taken together, our method represents a reliable and convenient high throughput assay for screening novel host factors and antiviral compounds. PMID:27375580

  14. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  15. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations. PMID:27010419

  16. Adenine: an important drug scaffold for the design of antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyuan; Song, Zhendong; Yu, Haiqing; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Adenine derivatives, in particular the scaffold bearing the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPS), possess significant antiviral and cytostatic activity. Till now, several effective adenine derivatives have been marketed for the treatment of HIV, HBV, CMV and other virus-infected diseases. These compounds are represented by tenofovir (PMPA), a medicine for both HIV and HBV, and adefovir as an anti-HBV agent. More than this, other analogs, such as GS9148, GS9131, and GS7340, are also well-known anti-viral agents that have been progressed to the clinical studies for their excellent activity. In general, the structures of these compounds include an adenine nucleobase linked to a phosphonate side chain. Considerable structural modifications on the scaffold itself and the peripheral sections were made. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this skeleton will provide valuable clues to identify more effective adenine derivatives as antiviral drugs. Here, we systematically summarized the SARs of the adenine derivatives, and gave important information for further optimizing this template. PMID:26579473

  17. A High Throughput Assay for Screening Host Restriction Factors and Antivirals Targeting Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Li, Wenjun; Li, Shitao

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Currently approved treatments against influenza are losing effectiveness, as new viral strains are often refractory to conventional treatments. Thus, there is an urgent need to find new therapeutic targets with which to develop novel antiviral drugs. The common strategy to discover new drug targets and antivirals is high throughput screening. However, most current screenings for IAV rely on the engineered virus carrying a reporter, which prevents the application to newly emerging wild type flu viruses, such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu. Here we developed a simple and sensitive screening assay for wild type IAV by quantitatively analyzing viral protein levels using a Dot Blot Assay in combination with the LI-COR Imaging System (DBALIS). We first validated DBALIS in overexpression and RNAi assays, which are suitable methods for screening host factors regulating viral infection. More importantly, we also validated and initiated drug screening using DBALIS. A pilot compound screening identified a small molecule that inhibited IAV infection. Taken together, our method represents a reliable and convenient high throughput assay for screening novel host factors and antiviral compounds. PMID:27375580

  18. In vitro antiviral activity of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava against porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus infection and hemagglutination.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Ryu, Young Bae; Kim, Young-Min; Song, Naaleum; Kim, Cha Young; Rho, Mun-Chual; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Su-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Despite the prepdominat agent causing severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine, there are no effective therapeutical treatment of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of five phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava (E. cava) against PEDV. In vitro antiviral activity was tested using two different assay strategies: (1) blockage of the binding of virus to cells (simultaneous-treatment assay) and (2) inhibition of viral replication (post-treatment assay). In simultaneous-treatment assay, compounds 2-5 except compound 1 exhibited antiviral activities of a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) with the ranging from 10.8 ± 1.4 to 22.5 ± 2.2 μM against PEDV. Compounds 1-5 were completely blocked binding of viral spike protein to sialic acids at less than 36.6 μM concentrations by hemagglutination inhibition. Moreover, compounds 4 and 5 of five phlorotannins inhibited viral replication with IC₅₀ values of 12.2 ± 2.8 and 14.6 ± 1.3 μM in the post-treatment assay, respectively. During virus replication steps, compounds 4 and 5 exhibited stronger inhibition of viral RNA and viral protein synthesis in late stages (18 and 24 h) than in early stages (6 and 12 h). Interestingly, compounds 4 and 5 inhibited both viral entry by hemagglutination inhibition and viral replication by inhibition of viral RNA and viral protein synthesis, but not viral protease. These results suggest that compounds isolated from E. cava have strong antiviral activity against PEDV, inhibiting viral entry and/or viral replication, and may be developed into natural therapeutic drugs against coronavirus infection. PMID:23746631

  19. Chemical diversity and antiviral potential in the pantropical Diospyros genus.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, Laure-Anne; Eparvier, Véronique; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Stien, Didier; Litaudon, Marc

    2016-07-01

    A screening using a dengue replicon virus-cell-based assay was performed on 3563 ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts from different parts of 1500 plants. The screening led to the selection of species from the genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), among which 25 species distributed in tropical areas showed significant inhibitory activity on dengue virus replication. A metabolic analysis was conducted from the UPLC-HRMS profiles of 33 biologically active and inactive plant extracts, and their metabolic proximity is presented in the form of a dendrogram. The results of the study showed that chemical similarity is not related to plant species or organ. Overall, metabolomic profiling allowed us to define large groups of extracts, comprising both active and inactive ones. Closely related profiles from active extracts might indicate that the common major components of these extracts were responsible for the antiviral activity, while the comparison of chemically similar active and inactive extracts, will permit to find compounds of interest. Eventually, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros glans bark EtOAc extract afforded usnic acid and 7 known ursane- and lupane-type triterpenoids, among which 5 were found significantly active against dengue virus replication. The inhibitory potency of these compounds was also evaluated on a DENV-NS5 RNA-dependant RNA polymerase assay. PMID:27126897

  20. Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and Filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rebensburg, Stephanie; Helfer, Markus; Schneider, Martha; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Eberle, Josef; Schindler, Michael; Gürtler, Lutz; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve global treatment of virus infections. Herbal products with confirmed clinical safety features are attractive starting material for the identification of new antiviral activities. Here we demonstrate that Cistus incanus (Ci) herbal products inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in vitro. Ci extract inhibited clinical HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, and, importantly, a virus isolate with multiple drug resistances, confirming broad anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was highly selective for virus particles, preventing primary attachment of the virus to the cell surface and viral envelope proteins from binding to heparin. Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that Ci extract contains numerous antiviral compounds and therefore has favorably low propensity to induce virus resistance. Indeed, no resistant viruses emerged during 24 weeks of continuous propagation of the virus in the presence of Ci extracts. Finally, Ci extracts also inhibited infection by virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg virus envelope proteins, indicating that antiviral activity of Ci extract extends to emerging viral pathogens. These results demonstrate that Ci extracts show potent and broad in vitro antiviral activity against viruses that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:26833261

  1. Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and Filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Rebensburg, Stephanie; Helfer, Markus; Schneider, Martha; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Eberle, Josef; Schindler, Michael; Gürtler, Lutz; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve global treatment of virus infections. Herbal products with confirmed clinical safety features are attractive starting material for the identification of new antiviral activities. Here we demonstrate that Cistus incanus (Ci) herbal products inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in vitro. Ci extract inhibited clinical HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, and, importantly, a virus isolate with multiple drug resistances, confirming broad anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was highly selective for virus particles, preventing primary attachment of the virus to the cell surface and viral envelope proteins from binding to heparin. Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that Ci extract contains numerous antiviral compounds and therefore has favorably low propensity to induce virus resistance. Indeed, no resistant viruses emerged during 24 weeks of continuous propagation of the virus in the presence of Ci extracts. Finally, Ci extracts also inhibited infection by virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg virus envelope proteins, indicating that antiviral activity of Ci extract extends to emerging viral pathogens. These results demonstrate that Ci extracts show potent and broad in vitro antiviral activity against viruses that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:26833261

  2. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Ying; Chen, Zhen-Ping; Ju, Huai-Qiang; Komatsu, Masaaki; Ji, Yu-hua; Liu, Ge; Guo, Chao-wan; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Wang, Yi-Fei; Kitazato, Kaio

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  3. Liver-targeted antiviral peptide nanocomplexes as potential anti-HCV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjin; Garrison, Jered C; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Bronich, Tatiana K; Osna, Natalia A

    2015-11-01

    Great success in HCV therapy was achieved by the development of direct-acting antivirals (DAA). However, the unsolved issues such as high cost and genotype dependency drive us to pursue additional therapeutic agents to be used instead or in combination with DAA. The cationic peptide p41 is one of such candidates displaying submicromolar anti-HCV potency. By electrostatic coupling of p41 with anionic poly(amino acid)-based block copolymers, antiviral peptide nanocomplexes (APN) platform was developed to improve peptide stability and to reduce cytotoxicity associated with positive charge. Herein, we developed a facile method to prepare galactosylated Gal-APN and tested their feasibility as liver-specific delivery system. In vitro, Gal-APN displayed specific internalization in hepatoma cell lines. Even though liver-targeted and non-targeted APN displayed comparable antiviral activity, Gal-APN offered prominent advantages to prevent HCV association with lipid droplets and suppress intracellular expression of HCV proteins. Moreover, in vivo preferential liver accumulation of Gal-APN was revealed in the biodistribution study. Altogether, this work illustrates the potential of Gal-APN as a novel liver-targeted therapy against HCV. PMID:26298393

  4. Antiviral effects of liposome-encapsulated PolyICLC against Dengue virus in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongxin; Hu, Yanxin; Sun, Lunquan; Wong, Jonathan; Wang, Ming

    2016-09-16

    This study presents the first investigation of the antiviral effects of the liposome-encapsulated PolyICLC (LE-PolyICLC) on Dengue virus (DENV) in a mouse model. In vivo efficacy studies showed that LE-PolyICLC acted to increase antiviral mechanisms mainly through promoting cytokine expression associated with innate immunity, such as IFN-γ. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also increased, while IL-6 level was decreased in serum. The titers of total antibodies against DENV2 in mice were also elevated. Administration of LE-PolyICLC not only alleviated the loss of body weight, degree of morbidity, and pathological damage in brains, but also reduced the viral titers and expression of viral E protein in the brain. Notably, the effectiveness of LE-PolyICLC was better than PolyICLC on the basis of the data presented in this study. These results, therefore, set a foundation for further development of LE-PolyICLC as an attractive candidate of antiviral agents to be used in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings in DENV diseases. PMID:27524246

  5. Anti-Viral Evaluation of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula assa-foetida against HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Fattahian, Khadijeh; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Behbahani, Mandana; Shahnoush, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several complications attributed with Herpes virus related infections and the emergence of drug resistant viruses prompt scientists to search for new drugs. Several terpenoids and coumarins have shown anti HSV effects while no sesquiterpene coumarins have been previously tested for HSV treatment. Three sesquiterpene coumarins badrakemin acetate (1), kellerin (2) and samarcandin diastereomer (3) were isolated from the gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida, a herbal medicine with antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antiviral effects. Compounds were identified by 1D and 2D- NMR spectroscopies and comparison with literature data. A comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and antiviral activity showed that kellerin (2) could significantly inhibit the cytopathic effects and reduce the viral titre of the herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA viral strain KOS at concentrations of 10, 5 and 2.5 µg/mL. PMID:25237347

  6. Reduction Sensitive Lipid Conjugates of Tenofovir: Synthesis, Stability, and Antiviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Giesler, Kyle E; Marengo, Jose; Liotta, Dennis C

    2016-08-11

    The therapeutic value of numerous small molecules hinges on their ability to permeate the plasma membrane. This is particularly true for tenofovir (TFV), adefovir, and other antiviral nucleosides that demonstrate potent antiviral activity but poor bioavailability. Using TFV as a model substrate, we hybridized two disparate prodrug strategies to afford novel reduction-sensitive lipid conjugates of TFV that exhibit subnanomolar activity toward HIV-1 and are stable in human plasma for more than 24 h with a therapeutic index approaching 30000. These compounds significantly rival the clinically approved formulation of TFV and revitalize the potential of disulfide-bearing prodrugs which have seen limited in vitro and in vivo success since their debut over 20 years ago. We further demonstrate the utility of these conjugates as a tool to indirectly probe the enzymatic hydrolysis of phosphonomonoesters that may further advance the development of other prodrug strategies for nucleosides, peptides, and beyond. PMID:27405794

  7. Systems biology: A tool for charting the antiviral landscape.

    PubMed

    Bowen, James R; Ferris, Martin T; Suthar, Mehul S

    2016-06-15

    The host antiviral programs that are initiated following viral infection form a dynamic and complex web of responses that we have collectively termed as "the antiviral landscape". Conventional approaches to studying antiviral responses have primarily used reductionist systems to assess the function of a single or a limited subset of molecules. Systems biology is a holistic approach that considers the entire system as a whole, rather than individual components or molecules. Systems biology based approaches facilitate an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of the antiviral landscape, while allowing for the discovery of emergent properties that are missed by conventional approaches. The antiviral landscape can be viewed as a hierarchy of complexity, beginning at the whole organism level and progressing downward to isolated tissues, populations of cells, and single cells. In this review, we will discuss how systems biology has been applied to better understand the antiviral landscape at each of these layers. At the organismal level, the Collaborative Cross is an invaluable genetic resource for assessing how genetic diversity influences the antiviral response. Whole tissue and isolated bulk cell transcriptomics serves as a critical tool for the comprehensive analysis of antiviral responses at both the tissue and cellular levels of complexity. Finally, new techniques in single cell analysis are emerging tools that will revolutionize our understanding of how individual cells within a bulk infected cell population contribute to the overall antiviral landscape. PMID:26795869

  8. Application of "Hydrogen-Bonding Interaction" in Drug Design. Part 2: Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationships of Thiophosphoramide Derivatives as Novel Antiviral and Antifungal Agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aidang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ziwen; Zhou, Zhenghong; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of the structure of natural product harmine, lead compound 18, and the structure of compounds in part 1, a series of thiophosphoramide derivatives 1-17 were designed and synthesized from various amines in one step. Their antiviral and antifungal activities were evaluated. Most of the compounds showed significantly higher antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) than commercial virucide ribavirin. Compound (R,R)-17 showed the best anti-TMV activity in vitro (70%/500 μg/mL and 33%/100 μg/mL) and in vivo (inactivation effect, 68%/500 μg/mL and 30%/100 μg/mL; curative effect, 64%/500 μg/mL and 31%/100 μg/mL; protection effect, 66%/500 μg/mL and 31%/100 μg/mL), which is higher than that of ningnanmycin and lead compound 18. The antiviral activity of (R,R)-17·HCl is about similar to that of (R,R)-17. However, the antifungal activity of (R,R)-17·HCl against Puccinia sorghi is slightly lower than that of (R,R)-17. The systematic study provides compelling evidence that these simple thiophosphoramide compounds could become efficient antiviral and antifungal agents. PMID:26485246

  9. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and antiviral evaluation of new series of imidazo[4,5-g]quinoline and pyrido[2,3-g]quinoxalinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Irene; Loddo, Roberta; Laurini, Erik; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Piras, Sandra; Corona, Paola; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta; Sanna, Giuseppina; Giliberti, Gabriele; Ibba, Cristina; Farci, Pamela; La Colla, Paolo; Pricl, Sabrina; Carta, Antonio

    2015-11-13

    Linear aromatic N-tricyclic compounds with promising antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity were prepared and analyzed in the last years. Specifically, the pyrido[2,3-g]quinoxalinone nucleus was found endowed with high potency against several pathogenic RNA viruses as etiological agents of important veterinary and human pathologies. Following our research program on new antiviral agents we have designed, synthesized and assayed new series of imidazo[4,5-g]quinoline and pyrido[2,3-g]quinoxalinone derivatives. Lead compounds 1-4 were further modified to enhance their antiviral activity and reduce their cytotoxicity. Thus, different substituents were introduced on N atom at position 1 or the O atom at position 2 of the leads; contextually, several groups were inserted on the nitrogen atom at position 7 of diaminoquinoline intermediates. Title compounds were tested in cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against RNA virus families containing single-stranded (either positive-sense (ssRNA+) or negative-sense (ssRNA-)), and double-stranded genomes (dsRNA), and against two representatives of DNA virus families. Some derivatives emerged as potential leads for further development as antiviral agents against some viruses of public health significance, such as RSV, Reo, BVDV and HCV. Particularly, compounds 4, 11b, 11c, 13c, 15a, 18 and 21 resulted active against BVDV at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 5 μM. Compound 21 was also evaluated for its activity on the BVDV RdRp. Compound 4 was also tested as potential anti-HCV compound in a subgenomic replication assay. Molecular simulation results provided a molecular rationale for the anti-BVDV activity of these compounds. PMID:26479028

  10. Neuropsychiatric Effects of HIV Antiviral Medications.

    PubMed

    Treisman, Glenn J; Soudry, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    The development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically increased the lifespan of HIV patients but treatment is complicated by numerous adverse effects and toxicities. ART complications include neuropsychiatric, metabolic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and numerous other toxicities, and clinicians often have to choose one toxicity over another to offer the best medication regimen for a patient. Some antiviral drugs cause significant neuropsychiatric complications, including depression, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbance. Even in careful studies, it may be difficult to determine which effects are related to the virus, the immune system, or the treatment. Of the six currently marketed classes of antiviral drugs, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors have been most commonly associated with neuropsychiatric complications. Within these classes, certain drugs are more likely to cause difficulty than others. We review the contention regarding the central nervous system (CNS) complications of efavirenz, as well as debate about the role of CNS penetration in drug effectiveness and toxicity. A thorough working knowledge of the neuropsychiatric consequences of ART allows clinicians to tailor treatment more successfully to individual patients as well as to identify ART more quickly as the source of a problem or symptom. PMID:27534750

  11. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Kirkegaard, Karla A; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  12. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, Karla A.; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus’s inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles—the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations—both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  13. Resolute efforts to cure hepatitis C: Understanding patients' reasons for completing antiviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jack A; Gifford, Allen L

    2015-09-01

    Antiviral treatment for hepatitis C is usually difficult, demanding, and debilitating and has long offered modest prospects of successful cure. Most people who may need treatment have faced stigma of an illness associated with drug and alcohol misuse and thus may be deemed poor candidates for treatment, while completing a course of treatment typically calls for resolve and responsibility. Patients' efforts and their reasons for completing treatment have received scant attention in hepatitis C clinical policy discourse that instead focuses on problems of adherence and patients' expected failures. Thus, we conducted qualitative interviews with patients who had recently undertaken treatment to explore their reasons for completing antiviral treatment. Analysis of their narrative accounts identified four principal reasons: cure the infection, avoid a bad end, demonstrate the virtue of perseverance through a personal trial, and achieve personal rehabilitation. Their reasons reflect moral rationales that mark the social discredit ascribed to the infection and may represent efforts to restore creditable social membership. Their reasons may also reflect the selection processes that render some of the infected as good candidates for treatment, while excluding others. Explication of the moral context of treatment may identify opportunities to support patients' efforts in completing treatment, as well as illuminate the choices people with hepatitis C make about engaging in care. PMID:25377666

  14. [Study of cytotoxic and antiviral effects of some eye drops].

    PubMed

    Dediulescu, Lucreţia; Dediulescu, Daniela Florentina

    2008-01-01

    The study of the cytotoxic and antiviral effect of six commercial mixtures, eye drops type, underlined the advantages of using eye drops with Indomethacin for Herpetic Keratitis, due to the antiviral effect and also for the lack of cytotoxicity. PMID:19354165

  15. Antiviral activity of luteolin against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Qian, Suhong; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-07-15

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of family Flaviviridae, is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE). JEV is one of the most important causative agents of viral encephalitis in humans, and this disease leads to high fatality rates. Although effective vaccines are available, no effective antiviral therapy for JE has been developed. Hence, identifying effective antiviral agents against JEV infection is important. In this study, we found that luteolin was an antiviral bioflavonoid with potent antiviral activity against JEV replication in A549 cells with IC50=4.56μg/mL. Luteolin also showed extracellular virucidal activity on JEV. With a time-of-drug addition assay revealing that JEV replication was inhibited by luteolin after the entry stage. Overall, our results suggested that luteolin can be used to develop an antiviral drug against JEV. PMID:27126774

  16. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  17. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. PMID:27234554

  18. Treatment of norovirus infections: Moving antivirals from the bench to the bedside

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Stuart S.; Green, Kim Y.; Korba, Brent E.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses (NV) are the most common cause of acute gastrointestinal illness in the United States and worldwide. The development of specific antiviral countermeasures has lagged behind that of other viral pathogens, primarily because norovirus disease has been perceived as brief and self-limiting and robust assays suitable for drug discovery have been lacking. The increasing recognition that NV illness can be life-threatening, especially in immunocompromised patients who often require prolonged hospitalization and intensive supportive care, has stimulated new research to develop an effective antiviral therapy. Here, we propose a path forward for evaluating drug therapy in norovirus-infected immunocompromised individuals, a population at high risk for serious and prolonged illness. The clinical and laboratory features of norovirus illness in immunocompromised patients are reviewed, and potential markers of drug efficacy are defined. We discuss the potential design of clinical trials in these patients and how an anti-viral therapy that proves effective in immunocompromised patients might also be used in the setting of acute outbreaks, especially in confined settings such as nursing homes, to block the spread of infection and reduce the severity of illness. We conclude by reviewing the current status of approved and experimental compounds that might be evaluated in a hospital setting. PMID:24583027

  19. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of phosphorodiamidate prodrugs of antiviral and anticancer nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Christopher; Bourdin, Claire; Derudas, Marco; Hamon, Nadège; Hinsinger, Karen; Kandil, Sahar; Madela, Karolina; Meneghesso, Silvia; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Chamberlain, Stanley; Kolykhalov, Alexander; Vernachio, John; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the application of the phosphorodiamidate phosphate prodrug approach to a series of thirteen nucleoside analogs with antiviral or anticancer activity. Twenty-five symmetrical phosphorodiamidates were synthesized, bearing esterified l-Alanine (and in one case d-alanine) in the prodrug moiety, each as single stereoisomer. The presence of an achiral phosphorus represents a potential advantage over the phosphoramidate ProTide approach, where diastereoisomeric mixtures are routinely obtained, and different biological profiles may be expected from the diastereoisomers. Optimization of the synthetic pathway allowed us to identify two general methods depending on the particular nucleoside analogs. All the compounds were biologically evaluated in antiviral and anticancer assays and several showed improvement of activity compared to their parent nucleosides, as in the case of ddA, d4T, abacavir and acyclovir against HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. The biological results were supported by metabolism studies with carboxypeptidase Y monitored by 31P NMR to investigate their bioactivation. This work further validates the phosphorodiamidate approach as a monophosphate prodrug motif with broad application in the antiviral and anticancer fields. PMID:24177359

  20. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways. PMID:25680890

  1. Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp. P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Débora Scopel e; de Castro, Clarissa Caetano; Silva, Fábio da Silva e; Sant’anna, Voltaire; Vargas, Gilberto D’Avila; de Lima, Marcelo; Fischer, Geferson; Brandelli, Adriano; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Hübner, Silvia de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 104.5 TCID50 to 102.75 TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections. PMID:25477947

  2. Structure of the antiviral assembly inhibitor CAP-1 bound to the HIV-1 CA protein

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian N.; Kyere, Sampson; Kinde, Isaac; Tang, Chun; Howard, Bruce R.; Robinson, Howard; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Summers, Michael F.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2007-01-01

    The CA domain of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein plays critical roles in both the early and late phases of viral replication and is therefore an attractive antiviral target. Compounds with antiviral activity were recently identified that bind to the N-terminal domain of CA (CAN) and inhibit core assembly during viral maturation. We have determined the structure of the complex between CAN and the antiviral assembly inhibitor N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-N'-{2-[({5-[(dimethylamino)-methyl]-2-furyl}-methyl)-sulfanyl]ethyl}-urea) (CAP-1) using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The protein undergoes a remarkable conformational change upon CAP-1 binding, in which Phe32 is displaced from its buried position in the protein core to open a deep hydrophobic cavity that serves as the ligand binding site. The aromatic ring of CAP-1 inserts into the cavity, with the urea NH groups forming hydrogen bonds with the backbone oxygen of Val59 and the dimethylamino group interacting with the side chains of Glu28 and Glu29. Elements that could be exploited to improve binding affinity are apparent in the structure. The displacement of Phe32 by CAP-1 appears to be facilitated by a strained main chain conformation, which suggests a potential role for a Phe32 conformational switch during normal capsid assembly. PMID:17826792

  3. Antiviral Indolosesquiterpenoid Xiamycins C-E from a Halophilic Actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hwan; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Oh, Won Keun; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2016-01-22

    New metabolites, xiamycins C-E (1-3), were isolated from a Streptomyces. sp (#HK18) culture inhabiting the topsoil in a Korean solar saltern. The planar structures of the xiamycins C-E were elucidated as carbazole-bearing indolosesquiterpenoids using a combined analysis of NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of these new compounds were determined by analyses of NOESY and ECD data. When the xiamycins were tested for inhibitory activity on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), xiamycin D (2) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on PEDV replication (EC50 = 0.93 μM) with low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 56.03 μM), thus displaying a high selective index (60.31). Quantitative real-time PCR data revealed the inhibitory effect of 2 on genes encoding essential structural proteins (GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane) for PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiviral activity of xiamycin D (2) was also supported by both Western blotting of the GP2 spike and GP6 nucleocapsid protein synthesis of PEDV. Therefore, xiamycin D shows the potential of indolosesquiterpenoids as new and promising chemical skeletons against PEDV-related viruses. PMID:26698879

  4. The antiviral activity of tetrazole phosphonic acids and their analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, D W; Naylor, M

    1985-01-01

    5-(Phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole and a number of related tetrazoles have been prepared and their effects on the replication of Herpes Simplex Viruses-1 and -2 have been investigated as well as their abilities to inhibit the DNA polymerases induced by these viruses and the RNA transcriptase activity of influenza virus A. Contrary to an earlier report, 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole was not an efficient inhibitor of the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in tissue culture. Analogues of 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole were also devoid of significant antiviral activity. Only 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole and 5-(thiophosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole inhibited the influenza virus transcriptase, and both were more effective as inhibitors than phosphonoacetic acid under the same conditions. The DNA polymerases induced by HSV-1 and HSV-2 were inhibited slightly by 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole and to a lesser extent by its N-ethyl analogue and 3-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole. None of these compounds were as effective as phosphonoacetic acid. 5-(Thiophosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole was a better inhibitor of the DNA polymerase induced by HSV-1 than 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole. PMID:2417198

  5. Antiviral mechanism of polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Maly, Marek; De la Mata, Francisco J; Gómez, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-derived platforms, such as dendrimers, are very attractive in several biological applications. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers have shown great potential as antiviral agents in the development of novel microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. In this work, we studied the mechanism of two sulfated and naphthylsulfonated functionalized carbosilane dendrimers, G3-S16 and G2-NF16. They are able to inhibit viral infection at fusion and thus at the entry step. Both compounds impede the binding of viral particles to target cell surface and membrane fusion through the blockage of gp120–CD4 interaction. In addition, and for the first time, we demonstrate that dendrimers can inhibit cell-to-cell HIV transmission and difficult infectious synapse formation. Thus, carbosilane dendrimers’ mode of action is a multifactorial process targeting several proteins from viral envelope and from host cells that could block HIV infection at different stages during the first step of infection. PMID:27103798

  6. Antiviral mechanism of polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Maly, Marek; De la Mata, Francisco J; Gómez, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-derived platforms, such as dendrimers, are very attractive in several biological applications. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers have shown great potential as antiviral agents in the development of novel microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. In this work, we studied the mechanism of two sulfated and naphthylsulfonated functionalized carbosilane dendrimers, G3-S16 and G2-NF16. They are able to inhibit viral infection at fusion and thus at the entry step. Both compounds impede the binding of viral particles to target cell surface and membrane fusion through the blockage of gp120-CD4 interaction. In addition, and for the first time, we demonstrate that dendrimers can inhibit cell-to-cell HIV transmission and difficult infectious synapse formation. Thus, carbosilane dendrimers' mode of action is a multifactorial process targeting several proteins from viral envelope and from host cells that could block HIV infection at different stages during the first step of infection. PMID:27103798

  7. Current approaches in antiviral drug discovery against the Flaviviridae family.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Aida; Hassan, Asfarina Amir; Sheng, Gan Chye; Nasir, Shah Bakhtiar; Othman, Shatrah; Yusof, Rohana; Othman, Rozana; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family primarily spread through arthropod vectors, and are the major causes of illness and death around the globe. The Flaviviridae family consists of 3 genera which include the Flavivirus genus (type species, yellow fever virus) as the largest genus, the Hepacivirus (type species, hepatitis C virus) and the Pestivirus (type species, bovine virus diarrhea). The flaviviruses (Flavivirus genus) are small RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that take over host cell machinery in order to propagate. However, hepaciviruses and pestiviruses are not antropod-borne. Despite the extensive research and public health concern associated with flavivirus diseases, to date, there is no specific treatment available for any flavivirus infections, though commercially available vaccines for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-born encephalitis exist. Due to the global threat of viral pandemics, there is an urgent need for new drugs. In many countries, patients with severe cases of flavivirus infections are treated only by supportive care, which includes intravenous fluids, hospitalization, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Only modified peptidic, nonpeptidic, natural compounds and fragment-based inhibitors (typically of mass less than 300 Da) against structural and non-structural proteins are discussed. PMID:24001228

  8. Antiviral Activity of Trichilia catigua Bark Extracts for Herpesvirus and Poliovirus.

    PubMed

    Espada, Samantha F; Faccin-Galhardi, Ligia C; Rincao, Vinicius P; Bernardi, Ana L S; Lopes, Nayara; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, Joao C P; Linhares, Rosa E C; Nozawa, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Herpesvirus and poliovirus are responsible for important diseases in human and animal. Trichilia catigua a Brazilian native plant known as catiguá has several medicinal properties among them antimicrobial for bacteria and protozoa, however, no antiviral activity has been reported yet. This study evaluated the antiviral activity of the crude extract (CE) and aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions (AF, EAF) obtained from T. catigua in the replication of the Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), bovine herpesvirus (BoHV-1) and poliovirus (PV-1). The cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay and the antiviral effect was determined by the addition of extracts (0.25 to 100.0 μg/ml), before (-2h and -1h), during (Oh) and after (1h and 2h) the viral infection, by plaque reduction assay, in HEp-2 cell culture. The virucidal activity and inhibition of viral adsorption were also evaluated. In addition, the combination index (CI) with Acyclovir (ACV - reference drug) was determined for HSV-1. CE, AF and EAF showed a low toxicity (CC(50) >400 µg/ml) and low inhibitory concentration (IC50), ranging from 2.44-34.25 µg/ml for herpesvirus and 0.67 to 1.8 µg/ml for PV-1, associated with high selectivity index. The tested compounds showed high virucidal effect and high ability to inhibit viral adsorption, for all virus. The CI demonstrated a synergic effect (CI<1) for AF and EAF comparatively to acyclovir (ACV). Our study demonstrated that the extract and fractions of T. catigua is promising for future antiviral drug design with economically feasible production. PMID:25941883

  9. Novel concept on antiviral strategies to dengue.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chih; Perng, Guey Chuen

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence has revealed that asymptomatic and/or persistent dengue virus (DENV) infections play a role in the cycling pattern of dengue outbreaks. These findings add a new dimension to the continually evolving search for effective prevention strategies in dengue. Disappointing outcomes of clinical trials in anti-dengue modalities have become commonplace. These failures may result from confounding variables and/or unresolved scientific issues that surround dengue, including the replication cycle of DENV in a natural setting, the target cells and reservoir for viral replication in vivo, and the effect of asymptomatic/persistent carriers in the dissemination of dengue. This article sets forth to address these issues using the most updated information available in the literature and to propose a novel antiviral strategy for the prevention and control of dengue. PMID:27284691

  10. RNAi: antiviral therapy against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Idrees, Sobia; Ashfaq, Usman A

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus infection has become a global threat affecting around 100 countries in the world. Currently, there is no licensed antiviral agent available against dengue. Thus, there is a strong need to develop therapeutic strategies that can tackle this life threatening disease. RNA interference is an important and effective gene silencing process which degrades targeted RNA by a sequence specific process. Several studies have been conducted during the last decade to evaluate the efficiency of siRNA in inhibiting dengue virus replication. This review summarizes siRNAs as a therapeutic approach against dengue virus serotypes and concludes that siRNAs against virus and host genes can be next generation treatment of dengue virus infection. PMID:23620845

  11. Ubiquitination in the Antiviral Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Meredith E.; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has long been known to regulate fundamental cellular processes through the induction of proteasomal degradation of target proteins. More recently, ‘atypical’ nondegradative types of polyubiquitin chains have been appreciated as important regulatory moieties by modulating the activity or subcellular localization of key signaling proteins. Intriguingly, many of these non-degradative types of ubiquitination regulate the innate sensing pathways initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), ultimately coordinating an effective antiviral immune response. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding the functional roles of degradative and atypical types of ubiquitination in innate immunity to viral infections, with a specific focus on the signaling pathways triggered by RIG-I-like receptors, Toll-like receptors, and the intracellular viral DNA sensor cGAS. PMID:25753787

  12. Isoflavone Agonists of IRF-3 Dependent Signaling Have Antiviral Activity against RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Myra L.; Proll, Sean C.; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Katze, Michael G.; Gale, Michael; Iadonato, Shawn P.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for novel antiviral therapies that are broad spectrum, effective, and not subject to resistance due to viral mutations. Using high-throughput screening methods, including computational docking studies and an interferon-stimulated gene 54 (ISG54)-luciferase reporter assay, we identified a class of isoflavone compounds that act as specific agonists of innate immune signaling pathways and cause activation of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3) transcription factor. The isoflavone compounds activated the ISG54 promoter, mediated nuclear translocation of IRF-3, and displayed highly potent activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and influenza virus. Additionally, these agonists efficiently activated IRF-3 in the presence of the HCV protease NS3-4A, which is known to blunt the host immune response. Furthermore, genomic studies showed that discrete innate immune pathways centered on IRF signaling were regulated following agonist treatment without causing global changes in host gene expression. Following treatment, the expression of only 64 cellular genes was significantly induced. This report provides the first evidence that innate immune pathways dependent on IRF-3 can be successfully targeted by small-molecule drugs for the development of novel broad-spectrum antiviral compounds. PMID:22532686

  13. Novel 1-acyl-4-substituted semicarbazide derivatives of primaquine - synthesis, cytostatic, antiviral and antioxidative studies.

    PubMed

    Perković, Ivana; Tršinar, Sara; Žanetić, Jelena; Kralj, Marijeta; Martin-Kleiner, Irena; Balzarini, Jan; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Katsori, Anna Maria; Zorc, Branka

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel 1,4-substituted semicarbazides 5a-g with a primaquine moiety bridged by a carbonyl group at position 1 and a cycloalkyl, aryl, benzyloxy or hydroxy substituent at position 4 were prepared and biologically evaluated. The synthetic pathways applied for preparation of the title compounds involved benzotriazole as synthetic auxiliary. Primaquine semicarbazides 5a-g and their synthetic precursors benzotriazolecarbonyl semicarbazides 4 were evaluated for cytostatic, antiviral and antioxidative activities. All compounds of the series 5 showed high selectivity towards MCF-7 cells (breast carcinoma) with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range and the most active was benzyl derivative 5c (IC(50) 1 ± 0.2 µM). The benzhydryl derivative 5e showed significant cytostatic activities towards all the tested cell lines (IC(50) 4-18 µM). The same compound was the strongest lipoxygenase inhibitor as well (51%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated for the hydroxy derivative 5g and benzotriazolecarbonyl semicarbazides 4b,c (61.2-68.5%). No antiviral activity was observed against a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses. PMID:22380782

  14. Antiviral activity of carnosic acid against respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory infection and a major public health threat worldwide. To date, no vaccine or effective therapeutic agent has been developed. In a screen for potential therapeutic agents against hRSV, we discovered that an extract of Rosmarinus officinalis exerted a strong inhibitory effect against hRSV infection. Subsequent studies identified carnosic acid as a bioactive constituent responsible for anti-hRSV activity. Carnosic acid has been shown to exhibit potent antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. Anti-RSV activity of carnosic acid was further investigated in this study. Methods Effects of extracts from various plants and subfractions from R. officinalis on hRSV replication were determined by microneutralization assay and plaque assay. Several constituents were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of R. officinalis and their anti-RSV activities were assessed by plaque assay as well as reverse-transcription quantitative PCR to determine the synthesis of viral RNAs. Results Among the tested bioactive constituents of R. officinalis, carnosic acid displayed the most potent anti-hRSV activity and was effective against both A- and B-type viruses. Carnosic acid efficiently suppressed the replication of hRSV in a concentration-dependent manner. Carnosic acid effectively suppressed viral gene expression without inducing type-I interferon production or affecting cell viability, suggesting that it may directly affect viral factors. A time course analysis showed that addition of carnosic acid 8 hours after infection still effectively blocked the expression of hRSV genes, further suggesting that carnosic acid directly inhibited the replication of hRSV. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that carnosic acid, a natural compound that has already been shown to be safe for human consumption, has anti-viral activity against hRSV, efficiently blocking the replication of this virus. Carnosic

  15. Synthesis, DNA binding and antiviral activity of new uracil, xanthine, and pteridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    El-Sabbagh, Osama I; El-Sadek, Mohamed E; El-Kalyoubi, Samar; Ismail, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    Some new 6-amino-1,3-dimethyl-5-(substituted methylidene)aminouracils were synthesized. Most of them were cyclized with triethyl orthoformate as a one-carbon source to afford 1,3-dime-thyl-6-substituted pteridine derivatives. Certain uracils gave xanthine instead of the expected pteridine derivatives upon using another one-carbon source such as triethyl orthoacetate or triethyl orthobenzoate. The nucleic acid binding assay revealed that some new compounds showed high affinity, chelation, and fragmentation of nucleic acids whether DNA or RNA contrary to acyclovir that has affinity to DNA only. The antiviral activity of these novel compounds showed that compounds 2e and 2f reduced the cytopathogencity of Peste des petits ruminant virus (PPRV) on Vero cell culture by 60 and 50%, respectively. PMID:17206606

  16. Polyhydroxylated sulfated steroids derived from 5α-cholestanes as antiviral agents against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Carlos A; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Richmond, Victoria; Maier, Marta S; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    Twelve polyhydroxylated sulfated steroids synthesized from a 5α-cholestane skeleton with different substitutions in C-2, C-3 and C-6 were evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) by a virus plaque reduction assay. Four compounds elicited a selective inhibitory effect against HSV. The disodium salt of 2β,3α-dihydroxy-6E-hydroximine-5α-cholestane-2,3-disulfate, named compound 7, was the most effective inhibitor of HSV-1, HSV-2 and pseudorabies virus (PrV) strains, including acyclovir-resistant variants, in human and monkey cell lines. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that compound 7 did not affect the initial steps of virus entry but inhibited a subsequent event in the infection process of HSV. PMID:27101075

  17. Antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type-2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major mosquito-borne disease currently with no effective antiviral or vaccine available. Effort to find antivirals for it has focused on bioflavonoids, a plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with many potential health benefits. In the present study, antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type -2 (DENV-2) in Vero cell was evaluated. Anti-dengue activity of these compounds was determined at different stages of DENV-2 infection and replication cycle. DENV replication was measured by Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for each compound. Results The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of quercetin against dengue virus was 35.7 μg mL-1 when it was used after virus adsorption to the cells. The IC50 decreased to 28.9 μg mL-1 when the cells were treated continuously for 5 h before virus infection and up to 4 days post-infection. The SI values for quercetin were 7.07 and 8.74 μg mL-1, respectively, the highest compared to all bioflavonoids studied. Naringin only exhibited anti-adsorption effects against DENV-2 with IC50 = 168.2 μg mL-1 and its related SI was 1.3. Daidzein showed a weak anti-dengue activity with IC50 = 142.6 μg mL-1 when the DENV-2 infected cells were treated after virus adsorption. The SI value for this compound was 1.03. Hesperetin did not exhibit any antiviral activity against DENV-2. The findings obtained from Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) were corroborated by findings of the qRT-PCR assays. Quercetin and daidzein (50 μg mL-1) reduced DENV-2 RNA levels by 67% and 25%, respectively. There was no significant inhibition of DENV-2 RNA levels with naringin and hesperetin. Conclusion Results from the study suggest that only quercetin demonstrated significant anti-DENV-2 inhibitory activities. Other bioflavonoids

  18. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy's current antiviral agents FactFile 2008 (2nd edition): RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik; Field, Hugh J

    2008-01-01

    Among the RNA viruses, other than the retroviruses (that is, HIV), which are dealt with separately in the current FactFile, the most important targets for the development of antiviral agents at the moment are the orthomyxoviruses (that is, influenza), the hepaciviruses (that is, hepatitis C virus [HCV]) and, to a lesser extent, the picornaviruses. Although the uncoating inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine were the first known inhibitors of influenza A, the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir have now become the prime antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For HCV infections, standard treatment consists of the combination of pegylated interferon-alpha with ribavirin, but several other antivirals targeted at specific viral functions such as the HCV protease and/ or polymerase may be expected to soon take an important share of this important market. Still untapped is the potential of a variety of uncoating inhibitors, as well as protease and/or polymerase inhibitors against the wide spectrum of picornaviruses. While ribavirin has been available for 35 years as a broad-spectrum anti-RNA virus agent, relatively new and unexplored is favipiravir (T-705) accredited with activity against influenza as well as flaviviruses, bunyaviruses and arenaviruses. PMID:18727441

  19. Novel Cell-Based Hepatitis C Virus Infection Assay for Quantitative High-Throughput Screening of Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zongyi; Lan, Keng-Hsin; He, Shanshan; Swaroop, Manju; Hu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has advanced with the recent approval of direct-acting antivirals in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin. New antivirals with novel targets are still needed to further improve the treatment of hepatitis C. Previously reported screening methods for HCV inhibitors either are limited to a virus-specific function or apply a screening method at a single dose, which usually leads to high false-positive or -negative rates. We developed a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assay platform with a cell-based HCV infection system. This highly sensitive assay can be miniaturized to a 1,536-well format for screening of large chemical libraries. All candidates are screened over a 7-concentration dose range to give EC50s (compound concentrations at 50% efficacy) and dose-response curves. Using this assay format, we screened a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC). Based on the profile of dose-dependent curves of HCV inhibition and cytotoxicity, 22 compounds with adequate curves and EC50s of <10 μM were selected for validation. In two additional independent assays, 17 of them demonstrated specific inhibition of HCV infection. Ten potential candidates with efficacies of >70% and CC50s (compound concentrations at 50% cytotoxicity) of <30 μM from these validated hits were characterized for their target stages in the HCV replication cycle. In this screen, we identified both known and novel hits with diverse structural and functional features targeting various stages of the HCV replication cycle. The pilot screen demonstrates that this assay system is highly robust and effective in identifying novel HCV inhibitors and that it can be readily applied to large-scale screening of small-molecule libraries. PMID:24277038

  20. The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Influenza Virus Infection and Their Potential as Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, I-Ni; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major threat that can cause severe morbidity and mortality due to rapid genomic variation. Resistance of IAVs to current anti-IAV drugs has been emerging, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been considered to be potential candidates for novel treatment against IAV infection. AMPs are endogenous proteins playing important roles in host defense through direct antimicrobial and antiviral activities and through immunomodulatory effects. In this review, we will discuss the anti-IAV and immunomodulatory effects of classical AMPs (defensins and cathelicidins), and proteins more recently discovered to have AMP-like activity (histones and Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid). We will discuss the interactions between AMPs and other host defense proteins. Major emphasis will be placed on novel synthetic AMPs derived from modification of natural proteins, and on potential methods of increasing expression of endogenous AMPs, since these approaches may lead to novel antiviral therapeutics. PMID:27608030

  1. Teaching "Candide": A Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Theodore E. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches to teaching Voltaire's "Candide", one deriving meaning from the textual fabric or "inside" of the story and the other focusing on the author's "external" intent in writing the story, are presented and compared. (MSE)

  2. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pérez, María José; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia

    2016-03-01

    Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications. PMID:27005637

  3. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, María José; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications. PMID:27005637

  4. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  5. Antiviral Regulation in Porcine Monocytic Cells at Different Activation States

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monocytic cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, exist in different activation states that are critical to the regulation of antimicrobial immunity. Many pandemic viruses are monocytotropic, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which directly infects subsets of monocytic cells and interferes with antiviral responses. To study antiviral responses in PRRSV-infected monocytic cells, we characterized inflammatory cytokine responses and genome-wide profiled signature genes to investigate response pathways in uninfected and PRRSV-infected monocytic cells at different activation states. Our findings showed suppressed interferon (IFN) production in macrophages in non-antiviral states and an arrest of lipid metabolic pathways in macrophages at antiviral states. Importantly, porcine monocytic cells at different activation states were susceptible to PRRSV and responded differently to viral infection. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, two approaches were used to potentiate antiviral activity: (i) pharmaceutical modulation of cellular lipid metabolism and (ii) in situ PRRSV replication-competent expression of interferon alpha (IFN-α). Both approaches significantly suppressed exogenous viral infection in monocytic cells. In particular, the engineered IFN-expressing PRRSV strain eliminated exogenous virus infection and sustained cell viability at 4 days postinfection in macrophages. These findings suggest an intricate interaction of viral infection with the activation status of porcine monocytic cells. An understanding and integration of antiviral infection with activation status of monocytic cells may provide a means of potentiating antiviral immunity. IMPORTANCE Activation statuses of monocytic cells, including monocytes, macrophages (Mϕs), and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. Unfortunately, the activation status of porcine monocytic cells or how cell activation status

  6. Antivirals for Respiratory Viral Infections: Problems and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Yuan-Hong; Ye, Feng; Yang, Zhan-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    In the past two decades, several newly emerging and reemerging viral respiratory pathogens including several influenza viruses (avian influenza and pandemic influenza), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have continued to challenge medical and public health systems. Thereafter, the development of cost-effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the urgent mission of both virologists and pharmacologists. Current antiviral developments have focused targets on viral entry, replication, release, and intercellular pathways essential for viral life cycle. Here, we review the current literature on challenges and prospects in the development of these antivirals. PMID:27486742

  7. Antiviral agents: characteristic activity spectrum depending on the molecular target with which they interact.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E

    1993-01-01

    The target protein (enzyme) with which antiviral agents interact determines their antiviral activity spectrum. Based on their activity spectrum, antiviral compounds could be divided into the following classes: (1) sulfated polysaccharides (i.e., dextran sulfate), which interact with the viral envelope glycoproteins and are inhibitory to a broad variety of enveloped viruses (i.e., retro-, herpes-, rhabdo-, and arenaviruses): (2) SAH hydrolase inhibitors (i.e., neplanocin A derivatives), which are particularly effective against poxvirus, (-)RNA viruses (paramyxovirus, rhabdovirus), and (+/-)RNA virus (reovirus); (3) OMP decarboxylase inhibitors (i.e., pyrazofurin) and CTP synthetase inhibitors (i.e., cyclopentenylcytosine), which are active against a broad range of DNA, (+)RNA, (-)RNA, and (+/-)RNA viruses; (4) IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors (i.e., ribavirin), which are also active against various (+)RNA and (-)RNA viruses and, in particular, ortho- and paramyxoviruses; (5) acyclic guanosine analogs (i.e., ganciclovir) and carbocyclic guanosine analogs (i.e., cyclobut-G), which are particularly active against herpesviruses (i.e., HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV); (6) thymidine analogs (i.e., BVDU, BVaraU), which are specifically active against HSV-1 and VZV because of their preferential phosphorylation by the virus-encoded thymidine kinase; (7) acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (i.e., HPMPA, HPMPC, PMEA, FPMPA), which, depending on the structure of the acyclic side chain, span an activity spectrum from DNA viruses (papova-, adeno-, herpes-, hepadna-, and poxvirus) to retroviruses (HIV); (8) dideoxynucleoside analogs (i.e., AZT, DDC), which act as chain terminators in the reverse transcriptase reaction and thus block the replication of retroviruses as well as hepadnaviruses; and (9) the TIBO, HEPT, and other TIBO-like compounds, which interact specifically with the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 and thus block the replication of HIV-1, but not of HIV-2 or any other retrovirus

  8. Antiviral activity of Paulownia tomentosa against enterovirus 71 of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ping; Chen, Changmai; Hu, Yanan; Zhan, Zixuan; Pan, Wei; Li, Rongrong; Li, Erguang; Ge, Hui-Ming; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The bark, leaves, and flowers of Paulownia trees have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. We investigated the antiviral effects of Paulownia tomentosa flowers, an herbal medicine used in some provinces of P. R. China for the treatment of skin rashes and blisters. Dried flowers of P. tomentosa were extracted with methanol and tested for antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CAV16), the predominant etiologic agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in P. R. China. The extract inhibited EV71 infection, although no effect was detected against CAV16 infection. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed to identify apigenin as an active component of the flowers. The EC50 value for apigenin to block EV71 infection was 11.0 µM, with a selectivity index of approximately 9.3. Although it is a common dietary flavonoid, only apigenin, and not similar compounds like naringenin and quercetin, were active against EV71 infection. As an RNA virus, the genome of EV71 has an internal ribosome entry site that interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and regulates viral translation. Cross-linking followed by immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that EV71 RNA was associated with hnRNPs A1 and A2. Apigenin treatment disrupted this association, indicating that apigenin suppressed EV71 replication through a novel mechanism by targeting the trans-acting factors. This study therefore validates the effects of Paulownia against EV71 infection. It also yielded mechanistic insights on apigenin as an active compound for the antiviral activity of P. tomentosa against EV71 infection. PMID:25744451

  9. Meeting report: 27th International conference on antiviral research, in Raleigh, NC, USA.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2014-11-01

    The 27th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA from May 12 to 16, 2014. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. John Drach (Elion Award) described the early days of antiviral drugs and their novel modes of action. Piet Herdewijn (Holý Award) used evolutionary pressure to select DNA polymerases that accept nucleoside analogs. Replacing thymine by 5-chlorouracil led to the generation of a new form of Escherichia coli. Adrian Ray (Prusoff Award) demonstrated how prodrugs can markedly improve both the efficacy and safety of potential drugs. The keynote addresses, by David Margolis and Myron Cohen, tackled two emerging areas of HIV research, to find an HIV "cure" and to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. These topics were discussed further in other presentations - a cure seems to be a distant prospect but there are exciting developments for reducing HIV transmission. TDF-containing vaginal rings and GSK-744, as a long-lasting injection, offer great hope. There were three mini-symposia. Although therapy with TDF/FTC gives excellent control of HBV replication, there are only a few patients who achieve a functional cure. Myrcludex, an entry inhibitor, is active against both HBV and HDV. The recent progress with HBV replication in cell cultures has transformed the search for new antiviral compounds. The HBV capsid protein has been recognized as key player in HBV DNA synthesis. Unexpectedly, compounds which enhance capsid formation, markedly reduce HBV DNA synthesis. The development of BCX4430, which is active against Marburg and Ebola viruses, is of great current interest. PMID:25218950

  10. Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Tina M.; Pryke, Kara M.; Abraham, Jinu; Liu, Andrew; Archer, Iris; Broeckel, Rebecca; Staverosky, Julia A.; Smith, Jessica L.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed; Amsler, Lisi; Sheridan, Kayla; Nilsen, Aaron; Streblow, Daniel N.; DeFilippis, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of innate immune processes represents an attractive strategy to achieve multiple therapeutic outcomes including inhibition of virus replication, boosting antitumor immunity, and enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. In light of this we sought to identify small molecules capable of activating the type I interferon (IFN) response by way of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). A high throughput in vitro screen yielded 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (referred to herein as G10), which was found to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts. Further examination of the cellular response to this molecule revealed expression of multiple IRF3-dependent antiviral effector genes as well as type I and III IFN subtypes. This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. To define cellular proteins essential to elicitation of the antiviral activity by the compound we employed a reverse genetics approach that utilized genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, and the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction and antiviral effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that G10 does not bind to STING directly, however. Thus the compound may represent the first synthetic small molecule characterized as an indirect activator of human STING-dependent phenotypes. In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses. PMID:26646986

  11. Synthesis, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of some new 5-sulphonamido-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Emad M; El-Sawy, Eslam R; Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Mandour, Adel H; Abdel-Mogeed, Dina; El-Safty, Mounir M

    2012-06-01

    A series of fused pyranopyrazole and pyranoimidazole, namely 5-(3,6-diamino-4-aryl-5-carbonitrile-pyrano(2,3-c)pyrazol-2-yl)sulphonyl-8-hydroxyquinolines (5a-e), 5-(6-amino-4-aryl-5-carbonitrile-pyrano(2,3-c)pyrazol-3-yl)sulphonamido-8-hydroxyquinolines (6a-e), 5-(2-thioxo-4-aryl-5-carbonitrile-6-amino-pyrano(2,3-d)imidazol-2-yl)sulphonyl-8-hydroxyquinolines (10a-e), and 5-(2-oxo-4-aryl-5-carbonitrile-6-amino-pyrano(2,3-d)imidazol-2-yl) sulphonyl-8-hydroxyquinolines (11a-e), have been prepared via condensation of some arylidine malononitriles with 5-sulphonamido-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives 3, 4, 8 and 9. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities, and most of the tested compounds showed potent inhibition growth activity towards Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gramnegative bacteria). Furthermore, six selected compounds were tested for their antiviral activity against avian paramyxovirus type1 (APMV-1) and laryngotracheitis virus (LTV), and the results showed that a concentration range of 3-4 μg per mL of compounds 2, 3, and 4 showed marked viral inhibitory activity for APMV-1 of 5000 tissue culture infected dose fifty (TCID(50)) and LTV of 500 TCID(50) in Vero cell cultures based on their cytopathic effect. Chicken embryo experiments show that compounds 2, 3, and 4 possess high antiviral activity in vitro with an inhibitory concentration fifty (IC(50)) range of 3-4 μg per egg against avian APMV-1 and LTV and their toxic concentration fifty (CC(50)) of 200-300 μg per egg. PMID:22870804

  12. Natural and semisynthetic diterpenoids with antiviral and immunomodulatory activities block the ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Carlos Alberto; Michelini, Flavia Mariana; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Gómez, Catalina Arredondo; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Alché, Laura Edith

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of many viral infections lies on the damage caused by the immune response against the virus. Current antiviral drugs do not act on the inflammatory component of the disease. Thus, new compounds that inhibit both viral multiplication and the immunopathology elicited by the virus are an approach that should be considered. In the present study, we identified two jatropholones (2A and 5B) and one carnosic acid derivative (9C) that significantly inhibited multiplication of TK+ and TK- strains of HSV-1 in Vero cells. Compounds 2A, 5B and 9C also prevented HSV-1- and TLRs-induced inflammatory response in cultivated murine macrophages. In macrophages infected with HSV-1, the inhibitory effect of compounds 2A, 5B and 9C on TNF-α and IL-6 production could be associated with the block of ERK pathway, whereas NF-κB pathway was not hampered by any of the compounds. Besides, 2A, 5B and 9C also inhibited ERK pathway and reduced TNF-α production in macrophages stimulated with TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9 agonists and were able to hinder IL-6 secretion after activation with TLR2 or TLR4, but not with TLR9. The immunomodulatory effect of 2A, 5B and 9C in macrophages infected with HSV-1 may be a consequence of the inhibition of ERK pathway activated by TLRs. The availability of compounds with both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties which affect TLR signaling pathways might be a useful strategy to control the progress of virus-induced disease. PMID:25528328

  13. Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sonia Regina I N; Valente, Ligia M M; Sampaio, André L; Siani, Antonio C; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes L; D'Avila, Luiz A; Mazzei, José L; Henriques, Maria das Graças M; Kubelka, Claire F

    2008-03-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC., a large woody vine native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests has been used medicinally by indigenous peoples since ancient times and has scientifically proven immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Several inflammatory mediators that are implicated in vascular permeability and shock are produced after Dengue Virus (DENV) infection by monocytes, the primary targets for virus replication. Here we assessed the immunoregulatory and antiviral activities from U. tomentosa-derived samples, which were tested in an in vitro DENV infection model. DENV-2 infected human monocytes were incubated with U. tomentosa hydro-alcoholic extract or either its pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched or non-alkaloid fractions. The antiviral activity was determined by viral antigen (DENV-Ag) detection in monocytes by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated an in vitro inhibitory activity by both extract and alkaloidal fraction, reducing DENV-Ag+ cell rates in treated monocytes. A multiple microbead immunoassay was applied for cytokine determination (TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10) in infected monocyte culture supernatants. The alkaloidal fraction induced a strong immunomodulation: TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha levels were significantly decreased and there was a tendency towards IL-10 modulation. We conclude that the alkaloidal fraction was the most effective in reducing monocyte infection rates and cytokine levels. The antiviral and immunomodulating in vitro effects from U. tomentosa pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids displayed novel properties regarding therapeutic procedures in Dengue Fever and might be further investigated as a promising candidate for clinical application. PMID:18279801

  14. A case report: antiviral triple therapy with telaprevir in a haemodialysed HCV patient in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akhan, S; Sayan, M; Sargin Altunok, E; Aynioglu, A

    2015-12-01

    A 49-year-old woman was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C 7 years ago. She began haemodialysis at the same time. She was on the waiting list for kidney transplantation (KTx). The real-time PCR technique revealed an HCV RNA viral load of 212,000 IU/ml, genotype 1a, IL28B the rs12979860 minor allele heterozygous CT (rs8099917 TT homozygous). She had a history of first antiviral treatment for 48 weeks of PEG-IFN-alpha 2a, 135 μg/week in 2011, but the HCV infection relapsed. Considering her relatively young age, candidacy for renal transplant, and the heterozygous pattern of IL28B, we decided to proceed with a second (and last) antiviral treatment using triple therapy with telaprevir at the regular dose of 750 mg every 8 hours+PEG-IFN-alpha 2a 135 μg/week sc+200 mg RBV three times a week. At the end of 6-month therapy, HCV RNA was found to be negative at months 3, 5, and 6.The patient has reached the sustained virological response (SVR) and is ready for KTx. All renal transplant candidates (dialysis-dependent, or not) with HCV should be assessed for antiviral treatment given the increased risk of progressive liver disease due to immunosuppressive therapy, increased life expectancy compared to other HCV-positive patients on dialysis, and the inability to receive interferon after transplantation. PMID:26790555

  15. Rapid progression of antiviral treatments of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pol, S; Corouge, M; Mallet, V; Sogni, P

    2013-06-01

    The treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin leads to a sustained virologic response in around 50% of patients with HCV genotype 1, 65% with HCV genotype 4, 75% with HCV genotype 3 and around 80% with HCV genotype 2. A better understanding of the HCV life-cycle recently resulted in the development of several potential direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) targeting viral proteins (NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B nucleos(t)idic and non nucleos(t)idic polymerase inhibitors, NS5A replication complex inhibitors). A lot of data have been reported with the combinations of pegylated interferon-alfa/ribavirin and the first generation oral DAAs, Telaprevir and Boceprevir. These regimens have demonstrated a high level of antiviral efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in treatment-naïve patients and in prior non-responders to pegylated interferon-alfa/ribavirin. After this first major step, the combination of the second generation DAAs with pegylated interferon-alfa/ribavirin will impact antiviral potency and tolerance and will reduce the duration of therapies and the pill burden. The next step will be the oral combination of new DAAs which is likely to become the standard of care for chronic HCV after 2015. Most studies are conducted in small numbers of "easy-to-treat" patients with short post-treatment period for concluding to a sustained virologic response: extension of both the numbers of treated patients and post-treatment follow-up, inclusion of more difficult-to-treat patients (experienced genotype 3-infected or genotype 1-infected patients who failed to first generation protease inhibitors, cirrhotic, HIV co-infected patients, allograft recipients or candidates to transplantation) will probably reduce the overall rate of cure. PMID:23831907

  16. Potent Antiviral Activities of the Direct-Acting Antivirals ABT-493 and ABT-530 with Three-Day Monotherapy for Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    O'Riordan, William D.; Asatryan, Armen; Freilich, Bradley L.; Box, Terry D.; Overcash, J. Scott; Lovell, Sandra; Ng, Teresa I.; Liu, Wei; Campbell, Andrew; Lin, Chih-Wei; Yao, Betty; Kort, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ABT-493 is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural (NS) protein 3/4A protease inhibitor, and ABT-530 is an HCV NS5A inhibitor. These direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) demonstrated potent antiviral activity against major HCV genotypes and high barriers to resistance in vitro. In this open-label dose-ranging trial, antiviral activity and safety were assessed during 3 days of monotherapy with ABT-493 or ABT-530 in treatment-naive adults with HCV genotype 1 infection, with or without compensated cirrhosis. The presence of baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was also evaluated. The mean maximal decreases in HCV RNA levels from baseline were approximately 4 log10 IU/ml for all ABT-493 doses ranging from 100 mg to 700 mg and for ABT-530 doses of ≥40 mg. There were no meaningful differences in viral load declines for patients with versus without compensated cirrhosis. Twenty-four (50%) of the baseline samples from patients treated with ABT-493 had RAVs to NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Among 40 patients treated with ABT-530, 6 (15%) carried baseline RAVs to NS5A inhibitors. Viral load declines in patients with single baseline NS5A RAVs were similar to those in patients without RAVs. One patient harbored baseline RAVs at 3 NS5A positions and appeared to have a slightly less robust viral load decline on day 3 of monotherapy. No serious or grade 3 (severe) or higher adverse events and no clinically relevant laboratory abnormalities were observed with either compound. ABT-493 and ABT-530 demonstrated potent antiviral activity and acceptable safety during 3-day monotherapy in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection, with or without compensated cirrhosis. Based on these results, phase II studies assessing the combination of these DAAs for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in patients with or without compensated cirrhosis have been initiated. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01995071.) PMID:26711747

  17. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNAi spread

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Maria-Carla; Tassetto, Michel; van Rij, Ronald P.; Goic, Bertsy; Gausson, Valérie; Berry, Bassam; Jacquier, Caroline; Antoniewski, Christophe; Andino, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defense systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations1-4. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA interference (RNAi) mediates antiviral immunity5-7. However, the antiviral RNAi defense in flies is thought to be a local, cell-autonomous process, since flies are considered unable to generate a systemic RNAi response8. Here we show that a recently defined double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake pathway9 is essential for effective antiviral RNAi immunity in adult flies. Mutant flies defective in this dsRNA uptake pathway were hypersensitive to infection with Drosophila C virus (DCV) and Sindbis virus. Mortality in dsRNA-uptake defective flies was accompanied by 100-to 105-fold increases in viral titers and higher levels of viral RNA. Furthermore, inoculating naked dsRNA into flies elicited a sequence specific antiviral immune response that required an intact dsRNA uptake pathway. These findings suggest that spread of dsRNA to uninfected sites is essential for effective antiviral immunity. Strikingly, infection with Sindbis-GFP suppressed expression of host-encoded GFP at a distal site. Thus, similar to protein-based immunity in vertebrates, the antiviral RNAi-response in flies also relies on the systemic spread of a virus-specific immunity signal. PMID:19204732

  18. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Heger, Zbynek; Krejcova, Ludmila; Pekarik, Vladimir; Bastl, Karel; Janda, Jozef; Kostolansky, Frantisek; Vareckova, Eva; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides. PMID:26492266

  19. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Heger, Zbynek; Krejcova, Ludmila; Pekarik, Vladimir; Bastl, Karel; Janda, Jozef; Kostolansky, Frantisek; Vareckova, Eva; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-10-01

    The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20(th) century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides. PMID:26492266

  20. Antiviral Merosesquiterpenoids Produced by the Antarctic Fungus Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis SCSIO 05702.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Wei, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiaochu; Tian, Xinpeng; Liao, Li; Li, Kemin; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Xianwen; Wang, Fazuo; Zhang, Tianyu; Tu, Zhengchao; Chen, Bo; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-22

    Five new highly oxygenated α-pyrone merosesquiterpenoids, ochraceopones A-E (1-5), together with one new double bond isomer of asteltoxin, isoasteltoxin (6), and two known asteltoxin derivatives, asteltoxin (7) and asteltoxin B (8), were isolated from an Antarctic soil-derived fungus, Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis SCSIO 05702. Their structures were determined through extensive spectroscopic analysis, CD spectra, quantum mechanical calculations, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Ochraceopones A-D (1-4) are the first examples of α-pyrone merosesquiterpenoids possessing a linear tetracyclic carbon skeleton, which has not been previously described. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antiviral, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antitubercular activities. Among these compounds, ochraceopone A (1), isoasteltoxin (6), and asteltoxin (7) exhibited antiviral activities against the H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses with IC50 values of >20.0/12.2 ± 4.10, 0.23 ± 0.05/0.66 ± 0.09, and 0.54 ± 0.06/0.84 ± 0.02 μM, respectively. A possible biosynthetic pathway for ochraceopones A-E (1-5) was proposed. PMID:26697718

  1. Recent advances in the search for antiviral agents against human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is extremely common and associated with the development of benign warts or malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa. Infection by a high-risk (oncogenic) anogenital HPV type, most often through sexual contacts, is the starting point of virtually all cases of cervical cancers and the majority of anal cancers. The same viral types are also increasingly being linked with a subset of head-and-neck and non-melanoma skin cancers. Although prophylactic vaccines are now available to protect against the four types most commonly found in cervical and anal cancers (HPV16 and HPV18) and anogenital warts (HPV6 and HPV11), these neither protect against all genital HPVs nor are of therapeutic utility for already infected patients. Thus, the need for antiviral agents to treat HPV-associated diseases remains great, but none currently exist. This article reviews the recent progress made towards the development of antiviral agents to treat HPV infections, from target identification and validation to the discovery of lead compounds with therapeutic potential. Emphasis has been placed on novel low-molecular-weight compounds that antagonize HPV proteins or, alternatively, inhibit cellular proteins which have been usurped by papillomaviruses and are mediating their pathogenic effects. PMID:17668552

  2. Cytotoxic and antiviral activities of aporphine alkaloids of Magnolia grandiflora L.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, S M; Hassan, E M; Ibrahim, N A

    2010-09-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae) leaves led to the isolation and characterisation of four aporphine alkaloids, magnoflorine, lanuginosine, liriodenine and anonaine. The cytotoxicities of the pure compounds magnoflorine and lanuginosine were determined in a cell viability assay with the tumour cell lines Hela (cervix tumour cell line), HEPG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) and U251 (brain tumour cell line). Magnoflorine was more cytotoxic (IC(50) 0.4 microg mL(-1)) than lanuginosine (IC(50) 2.5 microg mL(-1)) against HEPG2 in comparison with the standard doxorubacin (IC(50) 0.27 microg mL(-1)). In addition, magnoflorine and lanuginosine exhibited cytotoxicity against U251, with IC(50) of 7 and 4 microg mL(-1), respectively. The two compounds were found to be inactive against the Hela cancer cell. On the other hand, the methanol extract showed high antiviral activity against the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), 76.7% inhibition at 1.1 microg mL(-1), whereas the extract exhibited a moderate antiviral activity against poliovirus type-1 (47% inhibition at the same concentration). This chemical and biological investigation has not been studied previously. PMID:19764006

  3. Searching for antiviral drugs for human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, M R; Shewchuk, L M; Hassell, A M; Phelps, W C

    2000-12-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are ubiquitous human pathogens that cause a wide variety of benign and pre-malignant epithelial tumours. Of the almost 100 different types of HPV that have been characterized to date, approximately two dozen specifically infect genital and oral mucosa. Mucosal HPVs are most frequently sexually transmitted and, with an incidence roughly twice that of herpes simplex virus infection, are considered one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases throughout the world. A subset of genital HPVs, termed 'high-risk' HPVs, is highly associated with the development of genital cancers including cervical carcinoma. The absence of a simple monolayer cell culture system for analysis and propagation of the virus has substantially retarded progress in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HPV infection. In spite of these difficulties, great progress has been made in the elucidation of the molecular controls of virus gene expression, replication and pathogenesis. With this knowledge and some important new tools, there is great potential for the development of improved diagnostic and prognostic tests, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, and traditional antiviral medicines. PMID:11142617

  4. Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P.; Johnson, Gregory P.; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

  5. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  6. The antiviral activities of ISG15

    PubMed Central

    Morales, David J.; Lenschow, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modification is an important strategy for the regulation of the cell proteome independent of the need for new gene expression. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers mediate the regulation of protein levels, signaling pathways, vesicular trafficking, and many other cellular processes through their covalent conjugation to proteins. Interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a type I interferon induced ubiquitin-like modifier. In addition to conjugating to potentially hundreds of target proteins, ISG15 can be found in an unconjugated form both inside of the cell and released from interferon stimulated cells into the extracellular environment. Due to its robust expression after type I interferon stimulation and the broad panel of proteins that it targets, ISG15 has drawn much attention as a potential regulator of the immune response and has been shown to mediate protection in a number of different viral infection models. Here we will review the current state of the field of ISG15, the viruses against which ISG15 mediates protection, and the mechanisms by which ISG15 exerts antiviral activity. PMID:24095857

  7. [Study of the antiviral action of gentamicin].

    PubMed

    Novokhatskiĭ, A S; Gerasimova, S S

    1975-05-01

    Experimental data on the effect of various concentrations of gentamycin on reproduction of VEE and Sindbis viruses in tissue culture are presented. It was found that gentamycin had no cytotoxic effect on the primary tripsinized chick embryon fibroblasts (CEF) when used in doses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/ml and only when used in a dose of 50 mg/ml it induced 50 percent destruction of the cell layer. Multiplication of the VEE and Sindbis viruses in the culture of CEF was inhibited in the presence of gentamycin by 1.5--3.5 lg PFU/ml. Two stages in the virus inhibiting effect of gentamycin were determined on the model of VEE, i. e. the stage of inhibition in the absence of visible damages of the cells and the stage associated with their destruction. The doses of gentamycin higher than 3 mg/ml inhibited in parallel the virus specific synthesis and synthesis of the cell proteins and nucleic acids. At the same time, when gentamycin was used in a dose of 10 mg/ml, no impairement of the cell viability was observed and the cell capacity to produce high titers of the model virus was reduced after incubation without the antibiotic for 24 hours. The antiviral activity of gentamycin were therefore determined by revers inhibition of the cell metabolic activity. PMID:1225192

  8. Virus infection, antiviral immunity, and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R.; Chastain, Emily M. L.; Terry, Rachael L.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary As a group of disorders, autoimmunity ranks as the third most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. However, the etiology of most autoimmune diseases remains unknown. Although genetic linkage studies support a critical underlying role for genetics, the geographic distribution of these disorders as well as the low concordance rates in monozygotic twins suggest that a combination of other factors including environmental ones are involved. Virus infection is a primary factor that has been implicated in the initiation of autoimmune disease. Infection triggers a robust and usually well-coordinated immune response that is critical for viral clearance. However, in some instances, immune regulatory mechanisms may falter, culminating in the breakdown of self-tolerance, resulting in immune-mediated attack directed against both viral and self-antigens. Traditionally, cross-reactive T-cell recognition, known as molecular mimicry, as well as bystander T-cell activation, culminating in epitope spreading, have been the predominant mechanisms elucidated through which infection may culminate in an T-cell-mediated autoimmune response. However, other hypotheses including virus-induced decoy of the immune system also warrant discussion in regard to their potential for triggering autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which virus infection and antiviral immunity contribute to the development of autoimmunity. PMID:23947356

  9. Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Qi; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (1-7) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM. PMID:26712735

  10. Antiviral Combination Approach as a Perspective to Combat Enterovirus Infections.

    PubMed

    Galabov, Angel S; Nikolova, Ivanka; Vassileva-Pencheva, Ralitsa; Stoyanova, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections. At present, clinically effective antivirals for use in the treatment of enteroviral infection do not exist, in spite of the large amount of work carried out in this field. The main reason for this is the development of drug resistance. We studied the process of development of resistance to the strongest inhibitors of enteroviruses, WIN compounds (VP1 protein hydrophobic pocket blockers), especially in the models in vivo, Coxsackievirus B (CV-B) infections in mice. We introduced the tracing of a panel of phenotypic markers (MIC50 value, plaque shape and size, stability at 50℃, pathogenicity in mice) for characterization of the drug-mutants (resistant and dependent) as a very important stage in the study of enterovirus inhibitors. Moreover, as a result of VP1 RNA sequence analysis performed on the model of disoxaril mutants of CVB1, we determined the molecular basis of the drug-resistance. The monotherapy courses were the only approach used till now. For the first time in the research for anti-enterovirus antivirals our team introduced the testing of combination effect of the selective inhibitors of enterovirus replication with different mode of action. This study resulted in the selection of a number of very effective in vitro double combinations with synergistic effect and a broad spectrum of sensitive

  11. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds.

    PubMed

    Forthal, Donald N; Phan, Tran B; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Landucci, Gary; Chu, Hencelyn; Elofsson, Mikael; Peterson, Ellena

    2012-10-01

    Salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds have been shown to inhibit bacterial pathogens, including Chlamydia and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If such compounds could also target HIV-1, their potential use as topical microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections would be considerable. In this study, the in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity and mechanism of action of several salicylidene acylhydrazides were determined. Inhibitory activity was assessed using TZM-bl cells and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as targets for HIV-1 infection. Antiviral activity was measured against cell-free and cell-associated virus and in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Since the antibacterial activity of salicylidene acylhydrazides is reversible by Fe(2+), the ability of Fe(2+) and other cations to reverse the anti-HIV-1 activity of the compounds was determined. Real-time PCR was also employed to determine the stage affected in the HIV-1 replication cycle. Four compounds with 50% inhibitory concentrations against HIV-1 of 1-7 μM were identified. In vitro toxicity varied but was generally limited. Activity was similar against three R5 clade B primary isolates and whether the target for virus replication was TZM-bl cells or PBMCs. Compounds inhibited cell-free and cell-associated virus and were active in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Fe(2+), but not other cations, reversed the anti-HIV-1 effect. Finally, the inhibitory effect of the compounds occurred at a post-integration step. In conclusion, salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified with in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity in the micromolar range. The activity of these compounds against other sexually transmitted pathogens makes them potential candidates to formulate for use as a broad-spectrum topical genital microbicide. PMID:22819150

  12. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhuliang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Triterpenoids GLTA and GLTB display anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity. • The compounds prevent EV71 infection by blocking adsorption of the virus to the cells. • GLTA and GLTB bind to EV71 capsid at the hydrophobic pocket to block EV71 uncoating. • The two compounds significantly inhibit the replication of EV71 viral RNA. • GLTA and GLTB may be used as potential therapeutic agents to treat EV71 infection. - Abstract: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential

  13. Chemically sulfated natural galactomannans with specific antiviral and anticoagulant activities.

    PubMed

    Muschin, Tegshi; Budragchaa, Davaanyam; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Ichiyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shuqin, Han; Yoshida, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Naturally occurring galactomannans were sulfated to give sulfated galactomannans with degrees of substitution of 0.7-1.4 per sugar unit and molecular weights of M¯n=0.6×10(4)-2.4×10(4). Sulfated galactomannans were found to have specific biological activities in vitro such as anticoagulant, anti-HIV and anti-Dengue virus activities. The biological activities were compared with those of standard dextran and curdlan sulfates, which are polysaccharides with potent antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity. It was found that sulfated galactomannans had moderate to high anticoagulant activity, 13.4-36.6unit/mg, compared to that of dextran and curdlan sulfates, 22.7 and 10.0unit/mg, and high anti-HIV and anti-Dengue virus activities, 0.04-0.8μg/mL and 0.2-1.1μg/mL, compared to those curdlan sulfates, 0.1μg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity on MT-4 and LCC-MK2 cells was low. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of sulfated galactomannans revealed strong interaction with poly-l-lysine as a model compound of virus proteins, and suggested that the specific biological activities might originate in the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged sulfate groups of sulfated galactomannans and positively charged amino groups of surface proteins of viruses. These results suggest that sulfated galactomannans effectively prevented the infection of cells by viruses and the degree of substitution and molecular weights played important roles in the biological activities. PMID:27154517

  14. Characterization of antiviral and antibacterial activity of Bombyx mori seroin proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh, C P; Vaishna, R L; Kakkar, A; Arunkumar, K P; Nagaraju, J

    2014-09-01

    Lepidopterans as other insects have a very potent innate immune system, which basically comprises cellular and humoral defence mechanisms against bacterial and fungal infections. In lepidopterans, not much is known about the defence mechanisms against viral pathogens, such as baculoviruses. Here we show that small silk proteins of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, called seroins, act as antiviral agents against a baculovirus pathogen, Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). Involvement of these proteins in the inhibition of baculovirus infection was revealed by estimating the viral load upon their dsRNA-mediated knockdown. Additionally, we found through antimicrobial assays that seroins are potent inhibitors of bacterial growth. Binding competition assays followed by antimicrobial assays showed that seroins bind to peptidoglycan, a cell wall component of bacteria. Analysis of bacterial load upon knockdown of seroins resulted in higher proliferation of bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed the recent origin of seroins in a few moth species and duplication only in Bombycids. The antiviral and antibacterial activity of seroins shown in this study using several biochemical and molecular biological assays provide strong evidence to characterize them as antimicrobial proteins. Hence, we hypothesize that seroins are potent candidates for use in development of transgene-based disease resistant silkworm strains. PMID:24628957

  15. Overexpression of Cytochrome c by a Recombinant Rabies Virus Attenuates Pathogenicity and Enhances Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Faber, Milosz; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Spitsin, Sergei; Weihe, Eberhard; Hooper, D. Craig; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenicity of individual rabies virus strains appears to correlate inversely with the extent of apoptotic cell death they induce and with the expression of rabies virus glycoprotein, a major inducer of an antiviral immune response. To determine whether the induction of apoptosis by rabies virus contributes to a decreased pathogenicity by stimulating antiviral immunity, we have analyzed these parameters in tissue cultures and in mice infected with a recombinant rabies virus construct that expresses the proapoptotic protein cytochrome c. The extent of apoptosis was strongly increased in primary neuron cultures infected with the recombinant virus carrying the active cytochrome c gene [SPBN-Cyto c(+)], compared with cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the inactive cytochrome c gene [SPBN-Cyto c(−)]. Mortality in mice infected intranasally with SPBN-Cyto c(+) was substantially lower than in SPBN-Cyto c(−)-infected mice. Furthermore, virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers were significantly higher in mice immunized with SPBN-Cyto c(+) at the same dose. The VNA titers induced by these recombinant viruses paralleled their protective activities against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection, with SPBN-Cyto c(+) revealing an effective dose 20 times lower than that of SPBN-Cyto c(−). The strong increase in immunogenicity, coupled with the marked reduction in pathogenicity, identifies the SPBN-Cyto c(+) construct as a candidate for a live rabies virus vaccine. PMID:11602721

  16. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry.

    PubMed

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  17. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  18. Influenza antiviral susceptibility monitoring activities in relation to national antiviral stockpiles in Europe during the winter 2006/2007 season.

    PubMed

    Meijer, A; Lackenby, A; Hay, A; Zambon, M

    2007-04-01

    Due to the influenza pandemic threat, many countries are stockpiling antivirals in the hope of limiting the impact of a future pandemic virus. Since resistance to antiviral drugs would probably significantly alter the effectiveness of antivirals, surveillance programmes to monitor the emergence of resistance are of considerable importance. During the 2006/2007 influenza season, an inventory was conducted by the European Surveillance Network for Vigilance against Viral Resistance (VIRGIL) in collaboration with the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) to evaluate antiviral susceptibility testing by the National Influenza Reference Laboratories (NIRL) in relation to the national antiviral stockpile in 30 European countries that are members of EISS. All countries except Ukraine had a stockpile of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) oseltamivir. Additionally, four countries had a stockpile of the NAI zanamivir and three of the M2 ion channel inhibitor rimantadine. Of 29 countries with a NAI stockpile, six countries' NIRLs could determine virus susceptibility by 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and in 13 countries it could be done by sequencing. Only in one of the three countries with a rimantadine stockpile could the NIRL determine virus susceptibility, by sequencing only. However, including the 18 countries that had plans to introduce or extend antiviral susceptibility testing, the NIRLs of 21 of the 29 countries with a stockpile would be capable of susceptibility testing appropriate to the stockpiled drug by the end of the 2007/2008 influenza season. Although most European countries in this study have stockpiles of influenza antivirals, susceptibility surveillance capability by the NIRLs appropriate to the stockpiled antivirals is limited. PMID:17991386

  19. Antiviral activity of lambda-carrageenan prepared from red seaweed (Gigartina skottsbergii) against BoHV-1 and SuHV-1.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Jésica V; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; González, Marcelo J; Ciancia, Marina; Bratanich, Ana C

    2015-02-01

    The antiviral effect of polysaccharides has been known for many years. Carrageenans are considered a good alternative for the prevention of a wide range of diseases, mainly caused by enveloped viruses. The advantages lie on their high availability, low cost and low induction of resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of two viral pathogens of veterinary interest to the presence of lambda-carrageenan. This is the first report of a lambda-carrageenan having antiviral activity against animal viruses belonging to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, BoHV-1 (bovine herpesvirus type 1) strain Cooper and SuHV-1 (suid herpesvirus type 1) strain Bartha. Lambda-carrageenan was able to reduce infectivity of both viruses with a more pronounced effect against BoHV-1. These results proved, as previously shown for human herpes virus type 1, that these compounds could be used as potential antiviral agents in the veterinary field. PMID:25435342

  20. ALA Candidates: Presidential Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with two effective spokespeople, notable school librarian Sara Kelly Johns and retired public library administrator Molly Raphael, who compete to be American Library Association (ALA) president. One of them will be elected president of ALA for a year's term beginning in July 2011. Each candidate comes from a…

  1. Alteration of Antiviral Signalling by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signalling Protein (MAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fei; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Hayakari, Ryo; Yoshida, Hidemi; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation is associated with diseases. As a type of genetic variation occurring with certain regularity and frequency, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is attracting more and more attention because of its great value for research and real-life application. Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a common adaptor molecule for retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), which can recognize foreign RNA, including viral RNA, leading to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Therefore, MAVS is thought to be a crucial molecule in antiviral innate immunity. We speculated that genetic variation of MAVS may result in susceptibility to infectious diseases. To assess the risk of viral infection based on MAVS variation, we tested the effects of twelve non-synonymous MAVS coding-region SNPs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database that result in amino acid substitutions. We found that five of these SNPs exhibited functional alterations. Additionally, four resulted in an inhibitory immune response, and one had the opposite effect. In total, 1,032 human genomic samples obtained from a mass examination were genotyped at these five SNPs. However, no homozygous or heterozygous variation was detected. We hypothesized that these five SNPs are not present in the Japanese population and that such MAVS variations may result in serious immune diseases. PMID:26954674

  2. Antiviral activity of brassinosteroids derivatives against measles virus in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Wachsman, Mónica B; Ramirez, Javier A; Galagovsky, Lydia R; Coto, Celia E

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven brassinosteroid derivatives were tested for antiviral activity against measles virus (MV) via a virus-yield reduction assay. Compounds 6b [(22S,235)-3beta-bromo-5alpha,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one], 1d [(22R,23R)-2alpha,3alpha,22,23-tetrahydroxy-beta-Homo-7-oxa-stigmastan-6-one], 8a [(22R,23R)-3beta-fluoro-22,23-dihydroxystigmastan-6-one], 9b [(22S,23S)-3beta-fluoro-5alpha,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one] and 10b [(22S,23S)-5alpha-fluor-3beta,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one], with selectivity indexes (SI) of 40, 57, 31, 37 and 53, are the derivatives with good antiviral activity against MV. These SI values are higher than those obtained with ribavirin (used as reference drug). A comparative analysis of 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values, using confluent non-growing cells, gives and indication of structure-activity relationship. According to their degree of cytotoxicity the compounds were divided in three groups: low, intermediate and high cytotoxicity. By observing the chemical structures of compounds belonging to the first group we can see that less cytotoxic activities are related to the presence of a 3beta-hydroxy group on C-3 (ring A) and a double bond between C-22 and C-23 (side chain). The replacement of a 5alpha-hydroxy group by a 5alpha-fluoro group enhances cytotoxicity. Halogenated brassinosteroid derivatives in C-3 position are more cytotoxic than those with an acetoxy group in the same position. For compounds 1d, 6b, 10b and ribavirin, cytotoxicity measurements were also done with replicating cells; CC50 values were low, but they still competed favourably with ribavirin against MV. PMID:12180649

  3. Discovery of novel antiviral agents directed against the influenza A virus nucleoprotein using photo-cross-linked chemical arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Kyoji; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Ueda, Atsushi; Yamada, Kazunori; Goto, Hideo; Watanabe, Toshiki; Nakata, Tadashi; Osada, Hiroyuki; Aida, Yoko

    2010-04-09

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of the influenza virus is expressed in the early stage of infection and plays important roles in numerous steps of viral replication. NP is relatively well conserved compared with viral surface spike proteins. This study experimentally demonstrates that NP is a novel target for the development of new antiviral drugs against the influenza virus. First, artificial analogs of mycalamide A in a chemical array bound specifically with high affinity to NP. Second, the compounds inhibited multiplication of the influenza virus. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance imaging experiments demonstrated that the binding activity of each compound to NP correlated with its antiviral activity. Finally, it was shown that these compounds bound NP within the N-terminal 110-amino acid region but their binding abilities were dramatically reduced when the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail was deleted, suggesting that the compounds might bind to this region, which mediates the nuclear transport of NP and its binding to viral RNA. These data suggest that compound binding to the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail region may inhibit viral replication by inhibiting the functions of NP. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that chemical arrays are convenient tools for the screening of viral product inhibitors.

  4. Antiviral macrophage responses in flavivirus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ashhurst, Thomas Myles; Vreden, Caryn van; Munoz-Erazo, Luis; Niewold, Paula; Watabe, Kanami; Terry, Rachael L; Deffrasnes, Celine; Getts, Daniel R; Cole King, Nicholas Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are a major current and emerging threat, affecting millions of people worldwide. Global climate change, combined with increasing proximity of humans to animals and mosquito vectors by expansion into natural habitats, coupled with the increase in international travel, have resulted in significant spread and concomitant increase in the incidence of infection and severe disease. Although neuroinvasive disease has been well described for some viral infections such as Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), others such as dengue virus (DENV) have recently displayed an emerging pattern of neuroinvasive disease, distinct from the previously observed, systemically-induced encephalomyelopathy. In this setting, the immune response is a crucial component of host defence, in preventing viral dissemination and invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). However, subversion of the anti-viral activities of macrophages by flaviviruses can facilitate viral replication and spread, enhancing the intensity of immune responses, leading to severe immune-mediated disease which may be further exacerbated during the subsequent infection with some flaviviruses. Furthermore, in the CNS myeloid cells may be responsible for inducing specific inflammatory changes, which can lead to significant pathological damage during encephalitis. The interaction of virus and cells of the myeloid lineage is complex, and this interaction is likely responsible at least in part, for crucial differences between viral clearance and pathology. Recent studies on the role of myeloid cells in innate immunity and viral control, and the mechanisms of evasion and subversion used by flaviviruses are rapidly advancing our understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms involved in flavivirus encephalitis and will lead to the development of therapeutic strategies previously not considered. PMID:24434318

  5. Antiviral immune responses of bats: a review.

    PubMed

    Baker, M L; Schountz, T; Wang, L-F

    2013-02-01

    Despite being the second most species-rich and abundant group of mammals, bats are also among the least studied, with a particular paucity of information in the area of bat immunology. Although bats have a long history of association with rabies, the emergence and re-emergence of a number of viruses from bats that impact human and animal health has resulted in a resurgence of interest in bat immunology. Understanding how bats coexist with viruses in the absence of disease is essential if we are to begin to develop therapeutics to target viruses in humans and susceptible livestock and companion animals. Here, we review the current status of knowledge in the field of bat antiviral immunology including both adaptive and innate mechanisms of immune defence and highlight the need for further investigations in this area. Because data in this field are so limited, our discussion is based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. It is hoped that by provoking original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories, this review may stimulate further research in this important field. Efforts to understand the immune systems of bats have been greatly facilitated in recent years by the availability of partial genome sequences from two species of bats, a megabat, Pteropus vampyrus, and a microbat, Myotis lucifugus, allowing the rapid identification of immune genes. Although bats appear to share most features of the immune system with other mammals, several studies have reported qualitative and quantitative differences in the immune responses of bats. These observations warrant further investigation to determine whether such differences are associated with the asymptomatic nature of viral infections in bats. PMID:23302292

  6. Antiviral effects of Phyllanthus urinaria containing corilagin against human enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sang-Gu; Song, Jae Hyoung; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Yong Soo; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Won; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) especially in infants and children under 5 years of age. Despite recent outbreaks of HFMD, there are no approved therapeutics against EV71 and CA16 infection. Moreover, in a small percentage of cases, the disease progression can lead to serious complications of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of corilagin and Phyllanthus urinaria extract, which contains corilagin as a major component, on EV71 and CA16 infection in vitro. Our results indicate that corilagin reduces the cytotoxicity induced by EV71 or CA16 on Vero cells with and IC50 value of 5.6 and 32.33 μg/mL, respectively. We confirmed the presence of corilagin in EtOAc and BuOH fractions from P. urinaria extract and this correlated with antiviral activity of the fractions against EV71 or CA16. Future studies will be required to confirm the antiviral activity of corilagin and P. urinaria extract in vivo. Challenging a model with a lethal dose of viral infection will be required to test this. Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of novel drugs to treat HFMD. PMID:24752860

  7. Modes of Antiviral Action of Chemical Portions and Constituents from Woad Root Extract against Influenza Virus A FM1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jia-Hang; Diao, Rui-Gang; Lv, Shu-Guang; Mou, Xiao-Dong; Li, Kefeng

    2016-01-01

    Woad root has been used for the prevention of influenza for hundreds of years in many Asian countries. In this study, the antiviral modes of clemastanin B (CB), epigoitrin, phenylpropanoid portion (PEP), and the mixture of phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and organic acid portions (PEP + ALK + OA) from wood root extract against influenza virus A FM1 were investigated. The results revealed that CB, epigoitrin, PEP, and PEP + ALK + OA exert their anti-influenza activity via inhibiting the virus multiplication, prophylaxis, and blocking the virus attachment. The primary mode of action of PEP and PEP + ALK + OA is the inhibition of virus replication. The inhibitory effect on virus attachment and multiplication is the main modes for epigoitrin. All the compounds or chemical portions from woad root extract tested in this study do not have direct virucidal activity. Our results provided the comprehensive analysis of the antiviral mechanism of wood root extract. PMID:26989425

  8. Synthesis and antiviral activity of novel acyclic nucleoside analogues of 5-(1-azido-2-haloethyl)uracils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, N; Nath, M; Saffran, H A; Tyrrell, D L

    2001-11-22

    We present the discovery of a novel category of 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as potent antiviral agents. A series of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl] (5-7), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] (8-10), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl] (11-13) derivatives of 5-(1-azido-2-haloethyl)uracil were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity in cell culture. 1-[4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-5-(1-azido-2-chloroethyl)uracil (12) was the most effective antiviral agent in the in vitro assays against DHBV (EC(50) = 0.31-1.55 microM) and HCMV (EC(50) = 3.1 microM). None of the compounds investigated showed any detectable toxicity to several stationary and proliferating host cells. PMID:11708924

  9. Novel platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazones derived from 5-substitutedthiophene-2-carboxaldehydes and their antiviral and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Karaküçük-İyidoğan, Ayşegül; Taşdemir, Demet; Oruç-Emre, Emine Elçin; Balzarini, Jan

    2011-11-01

    A series of thiosemicarbazones and their platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes have been synthesized. The chemical structures of ligands and their complexes were characterized by UV-Vis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS spectra, elemental analysis and TGA. The antiviral and cytotoxic activities of all compounds have been tested. Results of broad antiviral evaluation showed that none of the compounds evaluated endowed with anti-DNA or -RNA virus activity at subtoxic concentrations except for the palladium complex 1b. This compound exhibited slightly selective inhibition against cytomegalovirus. The platinum complex 4a exhibited the best cytostatic activities against human cervix carcinoma. Ligands 2, 4 and 5 showed cytostatic potential. The palladium complexes were in general less cytostatic than the corresponding platinum complexes or unliganded congeners. PMID:21993152

  10. Sequence-Specific Modifications Enhance the Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Response Activated by RIG-I Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cindy; Beljanski, Vladimir; Yin, Kevin; Olagnier, David; Ben Yebdri, Fethia; Steel, Courtney; Goulet, Marie-Line; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Haddad, Elias K.; Trautmann, Lydie; Ross, Ted; Lin, Rongtuan

    2015-01-01

    properties against influenza, dengue, and chikungunya viruses. A novel, sequence-dependent, uridine-rich RIG-I agonist generated a protective antiviral response in vitro and in vivo and was effective at concentrations 100-fold lower than prototype sequences or other RNA agonists, highlighting the robust activity and potential clinical use of the 5′pppRNA against RNA virus infection. Altogether, the results identify a novel, sequence-specific RIG-I agonist as an attractive therapeutic candidate for the treatment of a broad range of RNA viruses, a pressing issue in which a need for new and more effective options persists. PMID:26018150

  11. Antiviral sesquiterpenes from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Xing-Meng; Sun, Han-Dong; Pu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Miao, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yong-Kuan; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Three unreported sesquiterpenes possessing two new skeletons, tabasesquiterpenes A-C (1-3), together with three known sesquiterpenes (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Their structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compound 2 exhibited high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.2%, which were higher than that of positive control (ningnanmycin). The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 20.5-28.6%. PMID:26581121

  12. New antiviral targets for innovative treatment concepts for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus.

    PubMed

    Durantel, David; Zoulim, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Current therapies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain limited to pegylated-interferon-alpha (PegIFN-α) or any of the five approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatments. While viral suppression can be achieved in the majority of patients with the high-barrier-to-resistance new-generation of NUC, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir, HBsAg loss is achieved by PegIFN-α and/or NUC in only 10% of patients, after a 5-year follow-up. Attempts to improve the response by administering two different NUC or a combination of NUC and PegIFN-α have not provided a dramatic increase in the rate of functional cure. Because of this and the need of long-term NUC administration, there is a renewed interest regarding the understanding of various steps of the HBV replication cycle, as well as specific virus-host cell interactions, in order to define new targets and develop new antiviral drugs. This includes a direct inhibition of viral replication with entry inhibitors, drugs targeting cccDNA, siRNA targeting viral transcripts, capsid assembly modulators, and approaches targeting the secretion of viral envelope proteins. Restoration of immune responses is a complementary approach. The restoration of innate immunity against HBV can be achieved, with TLR agonists or specific antiviral cytokine delivery. Restoration of adaptive immunity may be achieved with inhibitors of negative checkpoint regulators, therapeutic vaccines, or autologous transfer of engineered HBV-specific T cells. Novel targets and compounds will readily be evaluated using both relevant and novel in vitro and in vivo models of HBV infection. The addition of one or several new drugs to current therapies should offer the prospect of a markedly improved response to treatments and an increased rate of functional cure. This should lead to a reduced risk of antiviral drug resistance, and to a decreased incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID:27084032

  13. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans. PMID:24877694

  14. The 17th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W

    2004-09-01

    The focus of the 17th International Conference on Antiviral Research was the discovery and development of antiviral agents (chemistry, biology, animal models and clinical trial results) against a variety of human infectious agents including HIV, herpes viruses, hepatitis viruses, respiratory viruses and emerging/re-emerging pathogens. The meeting included the symposium 'Clinical Update on Antiviral Drugs', plenary sessions dedicated to each of the individual classes of infectious agents, a symposium on new developments surrounding emerging pathogens, and three special award lectures, which discussed the history of nucleotide antiviral agents, mechanisms of viral persistence and drug resistance, and the therapy of herpes virus infections. Within each infectious agent session the presentations included those describing the development of new and novel anti-infectives, including research based on the preclinical development of new molecules, and the results of animal modelling and clinical studies on advanced-stage antiviral agents. A summary of the meeting highlights, segregated by infectious agent, will be presented in this review. PMID:15330752

  15. Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, David H

    2011-12-01

    Many chronic human diseases may have an underlying autoimmune mechanism. In this review, the author presents a case of autoimmune CIU (chronic idiopathic urticaria) in stable remission after therapy with a retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (Isentress). Previous reports located using the search terms "autoimmunity" and "anti-viral" and related topics in the pubmed data-base are reviewed suggesting that novel anti-viral agents such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, gene silencing therapies and eventually vaccines may provide new options for anti-viral therapy of autoimmune diseases. Cited epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that increased replication of epigenomic viral pathogens such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in chronic human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS) may activate endogenous human retroviruses (HERV) as a pathologic mechanism. Memory B cells are the reservoir of infection of EBV and also express endogenous retroviruses, thus depletion of memory b-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab) may have therapeutic anti-viral effects in addition to effects on B-lymphocyte presentation of both EBV and HERV superantigens. Other novel anti-viral therapies of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, could be effective, although not without risk. PMID:21871974

  16. Pharmacological and biological antiviral therapeutics for cardiac coxsackievirus infections.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Henry; Pinkert, Sandra; Geisler, Anja; Poller, Wolfgang; Kurreck, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Subtype B coxsackieviruses (CVB) represent the most commonly identified infectious agents associated with acute and chronic myocarditis, with CVB3 being the most common variant. Damage to the heart is induced both directly by virally mediated cell destruction and indirectly due to the immune and autoimmune processes reacting to virus infection. This review addresses antiviral therapeutics for cardiac coxsackievirus infections discovered over the last 25 years. One group represents pharmacologically active low molecular weight substances that inhibit virus uptake by binding to the virus capsid (e.g., pleconaril) or inactivate viral proteins (e.g., NO-metoprolol and ribavirin) or inhibit cellular proteins which are essential for viral replication (e.g., ubiquitination inhibitors). A second important group of substances are interferons. They have antiviral but also immunomodulating activities. The third and most recently discovered group includes biological and cellular therapeutics. Soluble receptor analogues (e.g., sCAR-Fc) bind to the virus capsid and block virus uptake. Small interfering RNAs, short hairpin RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides bind to and led to degradation of the viral RNA genome or cellular RNAs, thereby preventing their translation and viral replication. Most recently mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been shown to possess antiviral activity in CVB3 infections. Taken together, a number of antiviral therapeutics has been developed for the treatment of myocardial CVB infection in recent years. In addition to low molecular weight inhibitors, biological therapeutics have become promising anti-viral agents. PMID:21989310

  17. Antiviral responses of arthropod vectors: an update on recent advances.

    PubMed

    Rückert, Claudia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Fazakerley, John K; Fragkoudis, Rennos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges and sand flies, transmit many viruses that can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals around the world. Arthropod vector species are invading new areas due to globalisation and environmental changes, and contact between exotic animal species, humans and arthropod vectors is increasing, bringing with it the regular emergence of new arboviruses. For future strategies to control arbovirus transmission, it is important to improve our understanding of virus-vector interactions. In the last decade knowledge of arthropod antiviral immunity has increased rapidly. RNAi has been proposed as the most important antiviral response in mosquitoes and it is likely to be the most important antiviral response in all arthropods. However, other newly-discovered antiviral strategies such as melanisation and the link between RNAi and the JAK/STAT pathway via the cytokine Vago have been characterised in the last few years. This review aims to summarise the most important and most recent advances made in arthropod antiviral immunity. PMID:25674592

  18. Dark matter candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of. Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs.

  19. Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against a Broad Range of Paramyxoviruses In Vitro and against Human Metapneumovirus in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, D; van Nieuwkoop, S; Smits, S L; Neyts, J; Fouchier, R A M; van den Hoogen, B G

    2016-08-01

    The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses. PMID:27185803

  20. A Review on Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Activity of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Tajik, Hassan; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism. Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antimicrobial activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent. PMID:24877064

  1. In search of a selective antiviral chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1997-01-01

    This article describes several approaches to a selective therapy of virus infections: (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU [brivudin]) for the therapy of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus infections: (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (HPMPC [cidofovir]) for the therapy of various DNA virus (i.e., herpesvirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, polyomavirus, and poxvirus) infections; 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA [adefovir]) for the therapy of retrovirus, hepadnavirus, and herpesvirus infections; (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) for the therapy and prophylaxis of retrovirus and hepadnavirus infections; and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(IH)-one and -thione (TIBO), 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT), alpha-anilinophenylacetamide (alpha-APA), and 2',5'bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5"-(4"-amino-1",2"-oxat hiole- 2",2"-dioxide)pyrimidine (TSAO) derivatives, and thiocarboxanilides for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. For the clinical use of NNRTIs, some guidelines have been elaborated, such as starting treatment with combinations of different compounds at sufficiently high concentrations to effect a pronounced and sustained suppression of the virus. Despite the diversity of the compounds described here and the different viruses at which they are targeted, they have a number of characteristics in common. As they interact with specific viral proteins, the compounds achieve a selective inhibition of the replication of the virus, which, in turn, should be able to develop resistance to the compounds. However, as has been established for the NNRTIs, the problem of viral resistance may be overcome if the compounds are used from the start at sufficiently high doses, which could be reduced if different compounds are combined. For HIV infections, drug treatment

  2. Synthesis, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of 6-bromo-2,3-disubstituted-4(3H)-quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Murugesan; Selvam, Periyaswamy; DeClercq, Erik; Sridhar, Seshaiah Krishnan

    2003-09-01

    In the present study, a series of 6-bromo-2,3-disubstitued-4(3H)-quinazolinones was synthesized by condensation of 6-bromo-2-substituted-benzoxazin-4-one with trimethoprim, pyrimethamine and lamotrigine. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of IR, (1)H-NMR and mass spectral and elemental analysis. The antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of the compounds were tested in E(6)SM (Herpes simplex-1 KOS, Herpes simplex-1 TK-KOS ACV, Herpes simplex-2 G, Vaccinia virus, Vesicular stomatitis virus, Parainfluenza-3 virus, Reovirus-1, Sindbis virus, Coxsackie virus B4 and Punta Toro virus) and HeLa cell culture (Vesicular stomatitis virus, Coxsackie virus B4 and Respiratory syncyticla virus). Investigation of anti-HIV activity was done against replication of HIV-1 (HTLV-III B LAI) in MT-4 cells. 6-Bromo-2-phenyl-3-[(4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidin-2-yl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone (4) exhibited the most potent antiviral activity with a MIC of 1.92 microg/ml against vaccinia virus in E(6)SM cell culture. The other compounds did not exhibit antiviral activity nor afford significant cytoprotection to the E(6)SM and HeLa cell culture when challenged with the viruses. The study implies that 4 may possess activity against Pox viruses including variola. In the anti-HIV study, 6-bromo-2-methyl-3-[(4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidin-2-yl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone (3) and 6-bromo-2-phenyl-3-[(4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidin-2-yl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone (4) exhibited the least cytotoxic concentration (0.424, 0.461 microg/ml) which is an index of the infective viability of mock infected MT-4 cells with HIV-1. None of the compounds exhibited significant anti-HIV activity. PMID:12951471

  3. Origins and Evolution of tetherin, an Orphan Antiviral Gene.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2016-08-10

    Tetherin encodes an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that traps a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses at infected cell surfaces. Despite the absence of any clearly related gene or activity, we describe possible scenarios by which tetherin arose that exemplify how protein modularity, evolvability, and robustness can create and preserve new functions. We find that tetherin genes in various organisms exhibit no sequence similarity and share only a common architecture and location in modern genomes. Moreover, tetherin is part of a cluster of three potential sister genes encoding proteins of similar architecture, some variants of which exhibit antiviral activity while others can be endowed with antiviral activity by a simple modification. Only in slowly evolving species (e.g., coelacanths) does tetherin exhibit sequence similarity to one potential sister gene. Neofunctionalization, drift, and genetic conflict appear to have driven a near complete loss of sequence similarity among modern tetherin genes and their sister genes. PMID:27427209

  4. Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Wang, Junzhong; Yang, Dongliang

    2015-02-01

    The vaccination program against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has greatly reduced the incidence of HBV infection. However, almost one-fourth of the HBV infected patients worldwide are still located in China. The healthcare burden from chronic HBV infection is a big challenge for the Chinese government and clinicians. Antiviral therapy plays a central role in controlling chronic HBV infection and preventing the disease progression. However, due to the specific economic and medical system issues, the first-line antiviral agents recommended by the AASLD and EASL have not been widely used for Chinese patients. In this review, we will discuss some key issues in the area of antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B in China. PMID:25540038

  5. An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marie B; Reinert, Line S; Thomsen, Martin K; Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nandakumar, Ramya; Cheshenko, Natalia; Prabakaran, Thaneas; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Krzyzowska, Malgosha; Kratholm, Sine K; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Petersen, Steen V; Goriely, Stanislas; Bibby, Bo Martin; Eriksson, Kristina; Ruland, Jürgen; Thomsen, Allan R; Herold, Betsy C; Wandall, Hans H; Frische, Sebastian; Holm, Christian K; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-01

    Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at epithelial surfaces before the IFNs. The pathway is activated independently of known innate sensors of viral infections through a mechanism dependent on viral O-linked glycans, which induce CXCR3 chemokines and stimulate antiviral activity in a manner dependent on neutrophils. This study therefore identifies a previously unknown layer of antiviral defense that exerts its action on epithelial surfaces before the classical IFN response is operative. PMID:26595890

  6. Antiviral selection in the management of acute retinal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patrick MK; Hooper, Claire Y; Lightman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal antiviral regimen in the management of acute retinal necrosis, a disease caused by herpetic viruses with devastating consequences for the eye. The current gold standard is based on retrospective case series. Because the incidence of disease is low, few well-designed, randomized trials have evaluated treatment dosage and duration. Newer oral antiviral agents are emerging as alternatives to high-dose intravenous acyclovir, avoiding the need for inpatient intravenous treatment. Drug resistance is uncommon but may also be difficult to identify. Antiviral drugs have few side effects, but special attention needs to be paid to patients who have underlying renal disease, are pregnant or are immunocompromised. PMID:20169044

  7. Ubiquitin in the activation and attenuation of innate antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection activates danger signals that are transmitted via the retinoic acid–inducible gene 1–like receptor (RLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein signaling cascades. This places host cells in an antiviral posture by up-regulating antiviral cytokines including type-I interferon (IFN-I). Ubiquitin modifications and cross-talk between proteins within these signaling cascades potentiate IFN-I expression, and inversely, a growing number of viruses are found to weaponize the ubiquitin modification system to suppress IFN-I. Here we review how host- and virus-directed ubiquitin modification of proteins in the RLR, NLR, and TLR antiviral signaling cascades modulate IFN-I expression. PMID:26712804

  8. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of "água-mel" from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Leonor; Antunes, Maria D; Aazza, Smail; Duarte, Joana; Silvério, Ana R

    2013-06-01

    "Água-mel" is a honey-based product produced in Portugal for ancient times. Several attributes have been reported to "água-mel" particularly in the alleviation of simple symptoms of upper respiratory tract. Samples of "água-mel" from diverse beekeepers from different regions of Portugal were studied in what concerns antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral properties. The amounts of phenol and brown pigment were also evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant activities. A great variability on the levels of these compounds was found among samples which were responsible for the variability detected also on the antioxidant activities, independent on the method used. Generally, antioxidant activity correlated better with brown pigments' amount than with phenols' content. The antimicrobial activity found for "água-mel" samples confirm the virtues reported by popular findings. In addition, this work also reveals the antiviral properties of "água-mel" evidenced by a decrease on the infectivity of the Qβ bacteriophage. PMID:23422034

  9. Human DDX3 protein is a valuable target to develop broad spectrum antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Brai, Annalaura; Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Zamperini, Claudio; Bugli, Francesca; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Stigliano, Egidio; Esté, José; Badia, Roger; Franco, Sandra; Martinez, Miguel A; Martinez, Javier P; Meyerhans, Andreas; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Garbelli, Anna; Maga, Giovanni; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-05-10

    Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Herein, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that the inhibition of DDX3 by a small molecule could be successfully exploited for the development of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. In addition to the multiple antiviral activities, hit compound 16d retained full activity against drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the absence of cellular toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies in rats confirmed a good safety profile and bioavailability of 16d. Thus, DDX3 is here validated as a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:27118832

  10. Human DDX3 protein is a valuable target to develop broad spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Annalaura; Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Zamperini, Claudio; Bugli, Francesca; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Stigliano, Egidio; Esté, José; Badia, Roger; Franco, Sandra; Martinez, Javier P.; Meyerhans, Andreas; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Garbelli, Anna; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Herein, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that the inhibition of DDX3 by a small molecule could be successfully exploited for the development of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. In addition to the multiple antiviral activities, hit compound 16d retained full activity against drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the absence of cellular toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies in rats confirmed a good safety profile and bioavailability of 16d. Thus, DDX3 is here validated as a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:27118832

  11. The use of nonhuman primate models of HIV infection for the evaluation of antiviral strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, Koen K A

    2012-01-01

    Several nonhuman primate models are used in HIV/AIDS research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates results in a disease (simian AIDS) that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its limitations, a carefully designed study allows experimental approaches that are not feasible in humans, but that can provide better insights in disease pathogenesis and proof-of-concept of novel intervention strategies. In the early years of the HIV pandemic, nonhuman primate models played a minor role in the development of antiviral strategies. Since then, a better understanding of the disease and the development of better compounds and assays to monitor antiviral effects have increased the usefulness and relevance of these animal models in the preclinical development of HIV vaccines, microbicides, and antiretroviral drugs. Several strategies that were first discovered to have efficacy in nonhuman primate models are now increasingly used in humans. Recent trends include the use of nonhuman primate models to explore strategies that could reduce viral reservoirs and, ultimately, attempt to cure infection. Ongoing comparison of results obtained in nonhuman primate models with those observed in human studies will lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models so they can continue to advance our scientific knowledge and guide clinical trials. PMID:21902451

  12. Influenza virus-host interactome screen as a platform for antiviral drug development

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawakami, Eiryo; Shoemaker, Jason E.; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Tomita, Yuriko; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Gorai, Takeo; Kuwahara, Tomoko; Takeda, Eiji; Nagata, Atsushi; Takano, Ryo; Kiso, Maki; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Katsura, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Naoki; Fujii, Hiroko; Fujii, Ken; Sugita, Yukihiko; Noda, Takeshi; Goto, Hideo; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinji; Neumann, Gabriele; Oyama, Masaaki; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Host factors required for viral replication are ideal drug targets because they are less likely than viral proteins to mutate under drug-mediated selective pressure. Although genome-wide screens have identified host proteins involved in influenza virus replication, limited mechanistic understanding of how these factors affect influenza has hindered potential drug development. We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and validate host factors that associate with influenza virus proteins and affect viral replication. After identifying over one thousand host factors that co-immunoprecipitate with specific viral proteins, we generated a network of virus-host protein interactions based on the stage of the viral lifecycle affected upon host factor down-regulation. Using compounds that inhibit these host factors, we validated several proteins, notably Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GBF1) and JAK1, as potential antiviral drug targets. Thus, virus-host interactome screens are powerful strategies to identify targetable host factors and guide antiviral drug development. PMID:25464832

  13. Novel analogs of alloferon: Synthesis, conformational studies, pro-apoptotic and antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Kuczer, Mariola; Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Majewska, Anna; Różanowska, Maria; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Lisowski, Marek

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the structure-activity relationships of novel derivatives of the insect peptide alloferon (H-His-Gly-Val-Ser-Gly-His-Gly-Gln-His-Gly-Val-His-Gly-OH). The peptide structure was modified by exchanging His at position 9 or 12 for natural or non-natural amino acids. Biological properties of these peptides were determined in antiviral in vitro test against Human Herpes Virus 1 McIntrie strain (HHV-1MC) using a Vero cell line. The peptides were also evaluated for the pro-apoptotic action in vivo on hemocytes of the Tenebrio molitor beetle. Additionally, the structural properties of alloferon analogs were examined by the circular dichroism in water and methanol. It was found that most of the evaluated peptides can reduce the HHV-1 titer in Vero cells. [Ala(9)]-alloferon exhibits the strongest antiviral activity among the analyzed compounds. However, no cytotoxic activity against Vero cell line was observed for all the studied peptides. In vivo assays with hemocytes of T. molitor showed that [Lys(9)]-, [Phg(9)]-, [Lys(12)]-, and [Phe(12)]-alloferon exhibit a twofold increase in caspases activity in comparison with the native peptide. The CD conformational studies indicate that the investigated peptides seem to prefer the unordered conformation. PMID:26986636

  14. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys Growing Spontaneously in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Saoussen; Jmii, Habib; El Mokni, Ridha; Khmiri, Abdelbaki; Faidi, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Hatem; El Aouni, Mohamed Hédi; Aouni, Mahjoub; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys (Lamiaceae) collected from Zaghouan province of Tunisia are reported. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-one compounds were identified representing 88.6% of the total essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the most abundant component (26.1%) followed by caryophyllene oxide (6.3%), myristicin (4.9%) and α-cubebene (3.9%). The antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity to the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The IC50 value of the oil was evaluated as 0.77 mg·mL(-1). In addition, the essential oil was found to possess moderate cytotoxic effects on the HEp-2 cell line (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)=653.6 µg·mL(-1)). The potential antiviral effect was tested against Coxsackievirus B (CV-B), a significant human and mouse pathogen that causes pediatric central nervous system disease, commonly with acute syndromes. The reduction of viral infectivity by the essential oil was measured using a cytopathic (CPE) reduction assay. PMID:26580590

  15. Antiviral and antimicrobial profiles of selected isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria and Corydalis species.

    PubMed

    Orhana, Ilkay; Ozçelik, Berrin; Karaoğlu, Taner; Sener, Bilge

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, 33 isoquinoline alkaloids belonging to protopine-, benzylisoquinoline-, benzophenanthridine-, spirobenzylisoquinoline-, phthalideisoquinoline-, aporphine-, protoberberine-, cularine-, and isoquinolone-types as well as 7 derivatives of them obtained from some Fumaria and Corydalis species growing in Turkey have been evaluated for their in vitro antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of the compounds using Madine-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines and their maximum non-toxic concentrations (MNTC) and cytopathogenic effects (CPE) were determined using acyclovir and oseltamivir as the references. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the alkaloids were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans by the microdilution method and compared to ampicilline, ofloxacine, and ketocanazole as the references. The alkaloids did not present any notable antibacterial effect, while they had significant antifungal activity at 8 microg/ml concentration. On the other hand, the alkaloids were found to have selective inhibition against the PI-3 virus ranging between 0.5 and 64 microg/ml as minimum and maximum CPE inhibitory concentrations, whereas they were completely inactive towards HSV. PMID:17425100

  16. The C terminus of NS1 protein of influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) virus modulates antiviral responses in infected human macrophages and mice.

    PubMed

    Anastasina, Maria; Schepens, Bert; Söderholm, Sandra; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa; Saksela, Kalle; Saelens, Xavier; Kainov, Denis E

    2015-08-01

    Non-structural protein NS1 of influenza A viruses interacts with cellular factors through its N-terminal RNA-binding, middle effector and C-terminal non-structured domains. NS1 attenuates antiviral responses in infected cells and thereby secures efficient virus replication. Some influenza strains express C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins due to nonsense mutations in the NS1 gene. To understand the role of the NS1 C-terminal region in regulation of antiviral responses, we engineered influenza viruses expressing C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins using A/WSN/33(H1N1) reverse genetics and tested them in human macrophages and in mice. We showed that a WSN virus expressing NS1 with a 28 aa deletion from its C terminus is a more powerful inducer of antiviral responses than the virus expressing full-length NS1, or one with a 10 aa truncation of NS1 in vitro. Thus, our findings suggest that the C-terminal region of NS1 is essential for regulation of antiviral responses. Moreover, viruses expressing truncated NS1 proteins could be good vaccine candidates. PMID:25934792

  17. Is Minocycline an Antiviral Agent? A Review of Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Nagarakanti, Sandhya; Bishburg, Eliahu

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline is a second-generation semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has well-known anti-bacterial effects. The drug possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects. The drug is widely used in bacterial infections and non-infectious conditions such as acne, dermatitis, periodontitis and neurodegenerative conditions. Minocycline was shown to have antiviral activity in vitro and also against different viruses in some animal models. Some studies have been done on human patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We have review the available data regarding minocycline activity as an antiviral agent. PMID:26177421

  18. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Antiviral Drug Supply Mixing Tamiflu Capsules Drug Resistance Information for Health ... The Flu Season Seasonal Influenza, More Information Vaccine Supply for 2015-2016 Season Seasonal Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations ...

  19. Antiviral propierties of 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid and bacitracin against T-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Lara, Humberto H; Ixtepan-Turrent, Liliana; Garza-Treviño, Elsa N; Flores-Teviño, Samantha M; Borkow, Gadi; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Bacitracin and the membrane-impermeant thiol reagent 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) are agents known to inhibit protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a cell-surface protein critical in HIV-1 entry therefore they are fusion inhibitors (FI). Here we investigated the possibility that Bacitracin and or DTNB might have other antiviral activities besides FI. By means of residual activity assays, we found that both compounds showed antiviral activity only to viruses T-tropic HIV-1 strain. Cell-based fusion assays showed inhibition on HeLa-CD4-LTR-β-gal (CD4) and HL2/3 cells treated with Bacitracin, and DTNB with the latest compound we observed fusion inhibition on both cells but strikingly in HL2/3 cells (expressing Env) indicating a possible activity on both, the cell membrane and the viral envelope. A time-of-addition experiment showed that both compounds act on HIV entry inhibition but DTNB also acts at late stages of the viral cycle. Lastly, we also found evidence of long-lasting host cell protection in vitro by DTNB, an important pharmacodynamic parameter for a topical microbicide against virus infection, hours after the extracellular drug was removed; this protection was not rendered by Bacitracin. These drugs proved to be leading compounds for further studies against HIV showing antiviral characteristics of interest. PMID:21435237

  20. Antiviral activity of casein and αs2 casein hydrolysates against the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, a rhabdovirus from salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Saint-Jean, S; De las Heras, A; Carrillo, W; Recio, I; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Ramos, M; Gomez-Ruiz, J A; Sarasquete, C; Pérez-Prieto, S I

    2013-05-01

    Salmonid fish viruses, such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), are responsible for serious losses in the rainbow trout and salmon-farming industries, and they have been the subject of intense research in the field of aquaculture. Thus, the aim of this work is to study the antiviral effect of milk-derived proteins as bovine caseins or casein-derived peptides at different stages during the course of IHNV infection. The results indicate that the 3-h fraction of casein and α(S2) -casein hydrolysates reduced the yield of infectious IHNV in a dose-dependent manner and impaired the production of IHNV-specific antigens. Hydrolysates of total casein and α(S2) -casein target the initial and later stages of viral infection, as demonstrated by the reduction in the infective titre observed throughout multiple stages and cycles. In vivo, more than 50% protection was observed in the casein-treated fish, and the kidney sections exhibited none of the histopathological characteristics of IHNV infection. The active fractions from casein were identified, as well as one of the individual IHNV-inhibiting peptides. Further studies will be required to determine which other peptides possess this activity. These findings provide a basis for future investigations on the efficacy of these compounds in treating other viral diseases in farmed fish and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. However, the present results provide convincing evidence in support of a role for several milk casein fractions as suitable candidates to prevent and treat some fish viral infections. PMID:23167612

  1. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 1-(1,3-disubstitutedimidazolidyn-2-ylidene)-3-ethoxycarbonylmethylurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rządkowska, Marzena; Szacoń, Elżbieta; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Rajtar, Barbara; Świątek, Łukasz; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Novel 1-(1,3-disubstituted-imidazolidyn-2-ylidene)-3-ethoxycarbonylmethylurea derivatives (3a-3j) were obtained from appropriate 1-aryl-3-arylsulfonyl-1H-imidazolidine-2-imines (1a-1j) and ethyl isocyanatoacetate (2), which were subjected to condensation. Seven compounds were tested for their antiviral activity against HSV-1 and CVB3 viruses. Among the tested compounds, 3c was found to be active against HSV-1, proving that 4-methoxy substituent as R and 4-methyl substituent as R1 are most beneficial for activity against this virus. Furthermore, 3e and 3g were active against CVB3, which demonstrated that both 4-methyl and 4-chloro substitution is tolerated as R1, whereas 4-chloro and 2-methoxy substituents are best as R. It was also shown that the active compounds are characterized by relatively big surface area, small ovality, and greatest HOMO and LUMO energies in comparison to the rest of the compounds. PMID:25798689

  2. Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Finny S; Kaukinen, Pasi; Gläsker, Sabine; Bespalov, Maxim; Hanski, Leena; Wennerberg, Krister; Kümmerer, Beate M; Ahola, Tero

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type and reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 μM) and ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 μM) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 μM) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner and had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses--Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Abamectin and ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic and antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle. PMID:26752081

  3. The Internal-Candidate Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

  4. Designing cyclopentapeptide inhibitor as potential antiviral drug for dengue virus ns5 methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Idrus, Syarifuddin; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Zubaidi, Ahmad Ardilla

    2012-01-01

    NS5 methyltransferase (Mtase) has a crucial role in the replication of dengue virus. There are two active sites on NS5 Mtase i.e., SAM and RNA-cap binding sites. Inhibition of the NS5 Mtase activity is expected to prevent the propagation of dengue virus. This study was conducted to design cyclic peptide ligands as enzyme inhibitors of dengue virus NS5 Mtase through computational approach. Cyclopentapeptides were designed as ligand of SAM binding site as much as 1635 and 736 cyclopentpeptides were designed as ligand of RNA-cap binding site. Interaction between ligand and NS5 Mtase has been conducted on the Docking simulation. The result shows that cyclopentapeptide CTWYC was the best peptide candidate on SAM binding site, with estimated free binding energy -30.72 kca/mol. Cyclopentapeptide CYEFC was the best peptide on RNA-cap binding site with estimated free binding energy -22.89 kcal/mol. Both peptides did not have tendency toward toxicity properties. So it is expected that both CTWYC and CYEFC ligands could be used as a potential antiviral drug candidates, which can inhibit the SAM and RNA-cap binding sites of dengue virus NS5 Mtase. PMID:22570514

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Stress Primes the Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    West, A. Phillip; Khoury-Hanold, William; Staron, Matthew; Tal, Michal C.; Pineda, Cristiana M.; Lang, Sabine M.; Bestwick, Megan; Duguay, Brett A.; Raimundo, Nuno; MacDuff, Donna A.; Kaech, Susan M.; Smiley, James R.; Means, Robert E.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids1. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein, transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM), regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance, and segregation2. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), triggering calcium-dependent stress signaling and adaptive metabolic responses3. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant stress observed in many human diseases and aging, remain ill-defined4. Here we show that moderate mtDNA stress elicited by TFAM deficiency engages cytosolic antiviral signaling to enhance the expression of a subset of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). Mechanistically, we have found that aberrant mtDNA packaging promotes escape of mtDNA into the cytosol, where it engages the DNA sensor cGAS and promotes STING-IRF3-dependent signaling to elevate ISG expression, potentiate type I interferon responses, and confer broad viral resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpesviruses induce mtDNA stress, which potentiates antiviral signaling and type I interferon responses during infection. Our results further demonstrate that mitochondria are central participants in innate immunity, identify mtDNA stress as a cell-intrinsic trigger of antiviral signaling, and suggest that cellular monitoring of mtDNA homeostasis cooperates with canonical virus sensing mechanisms to fully license antiviral innate immunity. PMID:25642965

  6. Mitochondrial DNA stress primes the antiviral innate immune response.

    PubMed

    West, A Phillip; Khoury-Hanold, William; Staron, Matthew; Tal, Michal C; Pineda, Cristiana M; Lang, Sabine M; Bestwick, Megan; Duguay, Brett A; Raimundo, Nuno; MacDuff, Donna A; Kaech, Susan M; Smiley, James R; Means, Robert E; Iwasaki, Akiko; Shadel, Gerald S

    2015-04-23

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial) regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance and segregation. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation, triggering calcium-dependent stress signalling and adaptive metabolic responses. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant stress observed in many human diseases and ageing, remain poorly defined. Here we show that moderate mtDNA stress elicited by TFAM deficiency engages cytosolic antiviral signalling to enhance the expression of a subset of interferon-stimulated genes. Mechanistically, we find that aberrant mtDNA packaging promotes escape of mtDNA into the cytosol, where it engages the DNA sensor cGAS (also known as MB21D1) and promotes STING (also known as TMEM173)-IRF3-dependent signalling to elevate interferon-stimulated gene expression, potentiate type I interferon responses and confer broad viral resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpesviruses induce mtDNA stress, which enhances antiviral signalling and type I interferon responses during infection. Our results further demonstrate that mitochondria are central participants in innate immunity, identify mtDNA stress as a cell-intrinsic trigger of antiviral signalling and suggest that cellular monitoring of mtDNA homeostasis cooperates with canonical virus sensing mechanisms to fully engage antiviral innate immunity. PMID:25642965

  7. Approved Antiviral Drugs over the Past 50 Years.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik; Li, Guangdi

    2016-07-01

    Since the first antiviral drug, idoxuridine, was approved in 1963, 90 antiviral drugs categorized into 13 functional groups have been formally approved for the treatment of the following 9 human infectious diseases: (i) HIV infections (protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (ii) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (lamivudine, interferons, nucleoside analogues, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (iii) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (ribavirin, interferons, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B polymerase inhibitors), (iv) herpesvirus infections (5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, entry inhibitors, nucleoside analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and acyclic guanosine analogues), (v) influenza virus infections (ribavirin, matrix 2 protein inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, and neuraminidase inhibitors), (vi) human cytomegalovirus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and oligonucleotides), (vii) varicella-zoster virus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, nucleoside analogues, 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, and antibodies), (viii) respiratory syncytial virus infections (ribavirin and antibodies), and (ix) external anogenital warts caused by human papillomavirus infections (imiquimod, sinecatechins, and podofilox). Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive overview of antiviral drugs approved over the past 50 years, shedding light on the development of effective antiviral treatments against current and emerging infectious diseases worldwide. PMID:27281742

  8. Synergistic antiviral activity of gemcitabine and ribavirin against enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunju; Kim, Chonsaeng; Kim, Dong-eun; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Hae Soo; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Janghwan; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Su Ui; Lee, Chong-Kyo; Kim, Meehyein; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Cho, Sungchan

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses are major causative agents of various human diseases, and some of them are currently considered to be an enormous threat to public health. However, no effective therapy is currently available for the treatment of these infections. We identified gemcitabine, a nucleoside-analog drug used for cancer treatment, from a screen of bioactive chemicals as a novel inhibitor of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Gemcitabine potently inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 and EV71, as well as the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons, in cells with a low micromolar IC50 (1-5 μM). Its strong inhibitory effect was also observed in cells infected with human rhinoviruses, demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral effects on enteroviruses. Mechanistically, an extensive analysis excluded the involvement of 2C, 3A, IRES-dependent translation, and also that of polyprotein processing in the antiviral effects of gemcitabine. Importantly, gemcitabine in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug currently being used against a few RNA viruses, exhibited a synergistic antiviral effect on the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrate a new indication for gemcitabine as an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses and strongly suggest a new therapeutic strategy using gemcitabine alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of various diseases associated with enterovirus infection. PMID:26526589

  9. 75 FR 16151 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  10. 76 FR 62418 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  11. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  12. Gutsy Microbes Fly High in the Antiviral War.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Wu, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    The importance of microbiomes in health and disease is now well appreciated. New work from Sansone and colleagues adds to this understanding by showing that gut microbes are key for the local induction of an ERK-dependent antiviral response in flies. PMID:26690611

  13. Novel drug delivery approaches on antiviral and antiretroviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pooja; Chawla, Anuj; Arora, Sandeep; Pawar, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    Viruses have the property to replicate very fast in host cell. It can attack any part of host cell. Therefore, the clinical efficacy of antiviral drugs and its bioavailability is more important concern taken into account to treat viral infections. The oral and parenteral routes of drug administration have several shortcomings, however, which could lead to the search for formulating better delivery systems. Now, a day's novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) proved to be a better approach to enhance the effectiveness of the antivirals and improve the patient compliance and decrease the adverse effect. The NDDS have reduced the dosing frequency and shorten the duration of treatment, thus, which could lead the treatment more cost-effective. The development of NDDS for antiviral and antiretroviral therapy aims to deliver the drug devoid of toxicity, with high compatibility and biodegradability, targeting the drug to specific sites for viral infection and in some instances it also avoid the first pass metabolism effect. This article aims to discuss the usefulness of novel delivery approaches of antiviral agents such as niosomes, microspheres, microemulsions, nanoparticles that are used in the treatment of various Herpes viruses and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:23057001

  14. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Croci, Romina; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Watanabe, Satoru; Pezzullo, Margherita; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity). To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221). In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery. PMID:27242902

  15. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Croci, Romina; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Watanabe, Satoru; Pezzullo, Margherita; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity). To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221). In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery. PMID:27242902

  16. The Pneumovirinae fusion (F) protein: A common target for vaccines and antivirals.

    PubMed

    Melero, José A; Mas, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The Pneumovirinae fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the virus and cell membrane, an essential step for entry of the viral genome in the cell cytoplasm and initiation of a new infectious cycle. Accordingly, potent inhibitors of virus infectivity have been found among antibodies and chemical compounds that target the Pneumovirinae F protein. Recent developments in structure-based vaccines have led to a deeper understanding of F protein antigenicity, unveiling new conformations and epitopes which should assist in development of efficacious vaccines. Similarly, structure-based studies of potent antiviral inhibitors have provided information about their mode of action and mechanisms of resistance. The advantages and disadvantages of the different options to battle against important pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are summarized and critically discussed in this review. PMID:25738581

  17. Antiviral effects of a thiol protease inhibitor on foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kleina, L G; Grubman, M J

    1992-01-01

    The thiol protease inhibitor E-64 specifically blocks autocatalytic activity of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and interferes with cleavage of the structural protein precursor in an in vitro translation assay programmed with virion RNA. Experiments with FMDV-infected cells and E-64 or a membrane-permeable analog, E-64d, have confirmed these results and demonstrated interference in virus assembly, causing a reduction in virus yield. In addition, there is a lag in the appearance of virus-induced cellular morphologic alterations, a delay in cleavage of host cell protein p220 and in shutoff of host protein synthesis, and a decrease in viral protein and RNA synthesis. The implications of using E-64-based compounds as potential antiviral agents for FMDV are discussed. Images PMID:1331517

  18. Structural Dynamics of Picornaviral RdRP Complexes. Implications for the Design of Antivirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer, Núria; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Domingo, Esteban

    Genome replication in picornavirus is catalyzed by a virally encoded RNA dependent RNA polymerase, termed 3D. These viruses also use a small protein primer, named VPg to initiate RNA replication. Polymerase 3D also catalyzes the covalent linkage of UMP to a N-terminal tyrosine on VPg. Seven different crystal structures of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3D catalytic complexes have enhanced our understanding of template and primer recognition, VPg uridylylation and rNTP binding and catalysis. In addition, the biochemical and structural analyses of six different FMDV 3D ribavirin resistant mutants provided evidences of three different mechanisms of resistance to this mutagenic nucleoside analogue. Such structural information is providing new insights into the fidelity of RNA replication, and for the design of antiviral compounds.

  19. Total synthesis and antiviral activity of indolosesquiterpenoids from the xiamycin and oridamycin families

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhanchao; Yu, Haixin; Li, Li; Tao, Wanyin; Chen, Hao; Wan, Ming; Yang, Peng; Edmonds, David J.; Zhong, Jin; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Indolosesquiterpenoids are a growing class of natural products that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Here, we report the total syntheses of xiamycin A and oridamycins A and B, indolosesquiterpenoids isolated from Streptomyces. Two parallel strategies were exploited to forge the carbazole core: 6π-electrocyclization/aromatization and indole C2–H bond activation/Heck annulation. The construction of their trans-decalin motifs relied on two diastereochemically complementary radical cyclization reactions mediated by Ti(III) and Mn(III), respectively. The C23 hydroxyl of oridamycin B was introduced by an sp3 C–H bond oxidation at a late stage. On the basis of the chemistry developed, the dimeric congener dixiamycin C has been synthesized for the first time. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of these compounds revealed that xiamycin A is a potent agent against herpes simplex virus–1 (HSV-1) in vitro. PMID:25648883

  20. Biological activity of sophorolipids and their possible use as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Borsanyiova, Maria; Patil, Amrita; Mukherji, Ruchira; Prabhune, Asmita; Bopegamage, Shubhada

    2016-01-01

    Sophorolipids are surface active glycolipids consisting of a hydrophilic sophorose unit and a hydrophobic portion composed of a fatty acid tail. Crude sophorolipid sample contains both acidic and lactonic forms of sophorolipid with different degrees of acetylation and varying lengths of the fatty acid chains depending on the substrates used in the production process. Carboxylic end in the acidic form of the fatty acid is free, whereas in the lactonic form, it is internally esterified. Sophorolipids show different physicochemical properties with wide range of applications for each structural compound. Lactonic form of sophorolipids shows surface tension reducing ability and biological activity, whereas the acidic form possesses better foam forming ability and higher solubility. Presence of acetyl groups gives hydrophilic nature to the sophorolipids which promotes its antiviral and cytokine-stimulating properties. The aim of this review is to explore and suggest the plausibility of sophorolipids as therapeutic and prophylactic agents for the treatment of viral diseases. PMID:26126789

  1. Antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of extracts and constituents from Polygonum spectabile Mart.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Kroon, Erna Gessien; Duarte, Maria Gorette R; Braga, Fernão Castro; de Souza Filho, José Dias; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga

    2010-10-01

    Polygonum spectabile is used in Brazil for treatment of several infection diseases. Extracts and constituents isolated from this species were evaluated for cytotoxicity and effects on 15 bacterias and yeasts as well on 4 viruses strains (HHV-1, VACV-WR, EMCV, DEN-2). Less polar extracts were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Micrococcus luteus, M. canis and Tricophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Two known chalcones and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol were isolated. The ethanol extract was the only one to show antiviral activity (CE50 < 30 μg/ml). One chalcone has inhibited the growth of several bacteria and was significantly active against dermathophytes. The 3 compounds isolated have shown moderate cytotoxicity against Vero and LLCMK(2) cells (CC(50) < 50 μg/ml). These results support the use of P. spectabile as antimicrobial agent. PMID:20382006

  2. Design, synthesis, antiviral and cytostatic evaluation of novel isoxazolidine nucleotide analogues with a carbamoyl linker.

    PubMed

    Kokosza, Kamil; Balzarini, Jan; Piotrowska, Dorota G

    2013-03-01

    5-Arylcarbamoyl-2-methylisoxazolidin-3-yl-3-phosphonates have been synthesised from N-methyl-C-diethoxyphosphorylnitrone and N-arylacrylamides in good yields. cis- and trans-isoxazolidine phosphonates obtained herein were evaluated for activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. None of the compounds were endowed with antiviral activity at subtoxic concentrations. Isoxazolidines having phenyl substituted with halogen (Ar=2-F-C(6)H(4); 3-Br-C(6)H(4); and 4-Br-C(6)H(4)) have been found to inhibit proliferation of L1210, CEM as well as HeLa cells with IC(50) in the 100-170 μM range. PMID:23380474

  3. Comparison of the Antiviral Effects of 5-Methoxymethyl-deoxyuridine with 5-Iododeoxyuridine, Cytosine Arabinoside, and Adenine Arabinoside

    PubMed Central

    Babiuk, Lorne A.; Meldrum, Blair; Gupta, V. Sagar; Rouse, Barry T.

    1975-01-01

    The antiviral activity of 5-methoxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine (MMUdR) was compared with that of 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IUdR), cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), and adenine arabinoside (Ara-A). At concentrations of 2 to 4 μg/ml, MMUdR was inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1, but concentrations as high as 128 μg/ml were not inhibitory to three other herpesviruses tested (equine rhinopneumonitis virus, murine cytomegalovirus, and feline rhinopneumonitis virus) or to vaccinia virus. The other nucleosides, in contrast, were inhibitory at similar concentrations (1 to 8 μg/ml) against all viruses tested. The inhibition of HSV-1 by MMUdR appeared to be the result of interference with virus replication rather than the result of drug toxicity to host cells. The drug was not toxic to host cells at 100 times the antiviral concentrations, and pretreatment of host cells with high concentrations of MMUdR had no effect on subsequent virus replication. Combination of MMUdR with either IUdR, Ara-A, or Ara-C gave an enhanced antiviral effect, suggesting that the mechanism of action of MMUdR is different from that of the other three drugs. Antiviral indexes were calculated for each compound and were found to be >250, 80, 40, and 8 for MMUdR, IUdR, Ara-A, and Ara-C, respectively. These were defined as the minimum dose at which toxicity was observed microscopically divided by the dose which reduced plaque numbers by 50%. PMID:1239978

  4. Antiviral Action of Diphenyl Diselenide on Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection in Female BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Gláubia; Jardim, Natália Silva; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos; Cargnelutti, Juliana; Flores, Eduardo F; Prigol, Marina; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2016-07-01

    Diphenyl diselenide, (PhSe)2 , is an organoselenium compound with pharmacological actions mostly related to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The study investigated its antiviral and virucidal actions against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection in vitro and in a vaginal infection model in mice. The plaque reduction assay indicated that (PhSe)2 showed virucidal and antiviral actions reducing infectivity in 70.8% and 47%, respectively. The antiviral action of (PhSe)2 against HSV-2 vaginal infection was performed by infecting mice (10(5)  PFU/ml(-1) ) at day 6. The treatment with (PhSe)2 (5 mg/kg/day, intragastric [i.g.]) followed 5 days before and for more 5 days after infection. The extravaginal lesion score was evaluated from days 6 to 10. At day 11, animals were killed, and histological evaluation, determination of viral load, and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were performed in supernatants of homogenized vaginal tissue. The levels of reactive species (RS), protein carbonyl, non-protein thiols (NPSH), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined. (PhSe)2 reduced the histological damage, extravaginal lesion scores, the viral load of vaginal tissue, and the activity of MPO, but increased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ. (PhSe)2 attenuated the increase of RS, MDA, NOx levels and the activity of GR caused by infection. (PhSe)2 also attenuated the reduction of NPSH content and the inhibition of CAT, SOD, and GPx activities. The antiviral action of (PhSe)2 against HSV-2 infection was related to its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1638-1648, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26639776

  5. Antiviral Activity of Bay 41-4109 on Hepatitis B Virus in Humanized Alb-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brezillon, Nicolas; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Lamant, Céline; DaSilva, Lucie; Berissi, Sophie; Belghiti, Jacques; Hannoun, Laurent; Puerstinger, Gherard; Wimmer, Eva; Neyts, Johan; Hantz, Olivier; Soussan, Patrick; Morosan, Serban; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC50 of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy. PMID:22162746

  6. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less

  7. Synthesis of Am80 (tamibarotene) prodrug candidates, congeners and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Muratake, Hideaki; Amano, Yohei; Toda, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi; Shudo, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Compound 1 (IT-M-07000) was previously reported as a candidate prodrug of Am80 (Tamibarotene; used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia), and shown to be efficiently metabolized to Am80 via β-oxidation. Here, we describe in detail the synthesis of 1, together with another tetradeuterated candidate prodrug, IT-YA-00616 (2), as well as two congeners, and several metabolic intermediates of 1 previously detected in mouse plasma. PMID:23902867

  8. The Need for Development of New HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors in the Aftermath of Antiviral Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) involves combinations of drugs to achieve maximal virological response and reduce the potential for the emergence of antiviral resistance. There are two broad classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Since the first classes of such compounds were developed, viral resistance against them has necessitated the continuous development of novel compounds within each class. This paper considers the NRTIs and NNRTIs currently in both preclinical and clinical development or approved for second line therapy and describes the patterns of resistance associated with their use, as well as the underlying mechanisms that have been described. Due to reasons of both affordability and availability, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors with low genetic barrier are more commonly used in resource-limited settings. Their use results to the emergence of specific patterns of antiviral resistance and so may require specific actions to preserve therapeutic options for patients in such settings. More recently, the advent of integrase strand transfer inhibitors represents another major step forward toward control of HIV infection, but these compounds are also susceptible to problems of HIV drug resistance. PMID:24278679

  9. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously identified two hydrolyzable tannins, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) that blocked herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry and spread. These compounds inhibited viral glycoprotein interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Based on this property, we evaluated their antiviral efficacy against several different viruses known to employ GAGs for host cell entry. Results Extensive analysis of the tannins’ mechanism of action was performed on a panel of viruses during the attachment and entry steps of infection. Virus-specific binding assays and the analysis of viral spread during treatment with these compounds were also conducted. CHLA and PUG were effective in abrogating infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV), measles virus (MV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), at μM concentrations and in dose-dependent manners without significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the natural compounds inhibited viral attachment, penetration, and spread, to different degrees for each virus. Specifically, the tannins blocked all these steps of infection for HCMV, HCV, and MV, but had little effect on the post-fusion spread of DENV and RSV, which could suggest intriguing differences in the roles of GAG-interactions for these viruses. Conclusions CHLA and PUG may be of value as broad-spectrum antivirals for limiting emerging/recurring viruses known to engage host cell GAGs for entry. Further studies testing the efficacy of these tannins in vivo against certain viruses are justified. PMID:23924316

  10. Hypericum in infection: Identification of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory constituents

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F; Widrlechner, Mark P; Hammer, Kimberly DP; Hillwig, Matthew L; Wei, Jingqiang; Kraus, George A; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, JoeAnn; Wurtele, Eve S; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F; Maury, Wendy J; Price, Jason P

    2009-01-01

    The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum, and Prunella botanical supplements for human-health benefit, emphasizing antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain activities. This mini-review reports on ongoing studies on Hypericum. The Center uses the genetically diverse, well-documented Hypericum populations collected and maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), and the strength of research in synthetic chemistry at Iowa State University to tap natural diversity, to help discover key constituents and interactions among constituents that impact bioactivity and toxicity. The NCRPIS has acquired more than 180 distinct populations of Hypericum, with a focus on Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), representing about 13% of currently recognized taxa. Center chemists have developed novel synthetic pathways for key flavones, acyl phloroglucinols, hyperolactones and a tetralin that have been found in Hypericum, and these compounds are used as standards and for bioactivity studies. Both light-dependent and light-independent anti-viral activities have been identified by using bioactivity-guided fractionation of H. perforatum and a HIV-1 infection test system. Our Center has focused on light-independent activity, potentially due to novel chemicals, and polar fractions are undergoing further fractionation. Anti-inflammatory activity has been found to be light-independent, and fractionation of a flavonoid-rich extract revealed four compounds (amentoflavone, chlorogenic acid, pseudohypericin and quercetin) that interacted in the light to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 activity. The Center continues to explore novel populations of H. perforatum and related species to identify constituents and interactions of constituents that contribute to potential health benefits related to infection. PMID:19907671

  11. Hypericum in infection: Identification of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory constituents.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Widrlechner, Mark P; Hammer, Kimberly Dp; Hillwig, Matthew L; Wei, Jingqiang; Kraus, George A; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joeann; Wurtele, Eve S; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F; Maury, Wendy J; Price, Jason P

    2009-01-01

    The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum, and Prunella botanical supplements for human-health benefit, emphasizing antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain activities. This mini-review reports on ongoing studies on Hypericum. The Center uses the genetically diverse, well-documented Hypericum populations collected and maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), and the strength of research in synthetic chemistry at Iowa State University to tap natural diversity, to help discover key constituents and interactions among constituents that impact bioactivity and toxicity. The NCRPIS has acquired more than 180 distinct populations of Hypericum, with a focus on Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), representing about 13% of currently recognized taxa. Center chemists have developed novel synthetic pathways for key flavones, acyl phloroglucinols, hyperolactones and a tetralin that have been found in Hypericum, and these compounds are used as standards and for bioactivity studies. Both light-dependent and light-independent anti-viral activities have been identified by using bioactivity-guided fractionation of H. perforatum and a HIV-1 infection test system. Our Center has focused on light-independent activity, potentially due to novel chemicals, and polar fractions are undergoing further fractionation. Anti-inflammatory activity has been found to be light-independent, and fractionation of a flavonoid-rich extract revealed four compounds (amentoflavone, chlorogenic acid, pseudohypericin and quercetin) that interacted in the light to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E(2) activity. The Center continues to explore novel populations of H. perforatum and related species to identify constituents and interactions of constituents that contribute to potential health benefits related to infection. PMID:19907671

  12. Optimization of xanthatin extraction from Xanthium spinosum L. and its cytotoxic, anti-angiogenesis and antiviral properties.

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Zanuy, M; Rosell, E; Cascante, M; Piulats, J; Font-Bardia, M; Balzarini, J; De Clerq, E; Pujol, M D

    2015-01-27

    The aqueous extraction of the sesquiterpene lactone xanthatin from Xanthium spinosum L. favours the conversion of xanthinin (1) to xanthatin (2) via the loss of acetic acid. The cytotoxic (Hep-G2 and L1210 human cell lines) and antiviral activities of isolated xanthatin are established. This natural compound shows significant cytotoxicity against the Hep-G2 cell line and our experimental results reveal its strong anti-angiogenesis capacity in vitro. The structure of xanthatin is determined by spectroscopic methods and for the first time confirmed by X-ray diffraction. PMID:25481815

  13. Antiviral Effect of Methylated Flavonol Isorhamnetin against Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Choi, Hye Yeon; Kim, Young Bong; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease with frequent seasonal epidemics that causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in humans, poultry, and animals. Influenza is a serious economic concern due to the costly countermeasures it necessitates. In this study, we compared the antiviral activities of several flavonols and other flavonoids with similar, but distinct, hydroxyl or methyl substitution patterns at the 3, 3′, and 4′ positions of the 15-carbon flavonoid skeleton, and found that the strongest antiviral effect was induced by isorhamnetin. Similar to quercetin and kaempferol, isorhamnetin possesses a hydroxyl group on the C ring, but it has a 3′-methyl group on the B ring that is absent in quercetin and kaempferol. Co-treatment and pre-treatment with isorhamnetin produced a strong antiviral effect against the influenza virus A/PR/08/34(H1N1). However, isorhamnetin showed the most potent antiviral potency when administered after viral exposure (post-treatment method) in vitro. Isorhamnetin treatment reduced virus-induced ROS generation and blocked cytoplasmic lysosome acidification and the lipidation of microtubule associated protein1 light chain 3-B (LC3B). Oral administration of isorhamnetin in mice infected with the influenza A virus significantly decreased lung virus titer by 2 folds, increased the survival rate which ranged from 70–80%, and decreased body weight loss by 25%. In addition, isorhamnetin decreased the virus titer in ovo using embryonated chicken eggs. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of isorhamnetin could explain its strong anti-influenza virus potency; the methyl group located on the B ring of isorhamnetin may contribute to its strong antiviral potency against influenza virus in comparison with other flavonoids. PMID:25806943

  14. Molecular structures of antiviral agents, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and 4-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)imino]methyl-1,2-benzodiol

    SciTech Connect

    Gurskaya, G. V.; Zavodnik, V. E.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Kozlov, M. V.

    2008-07-15

    Two antiviral agents, namely, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and 4-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)imino]methyl-1,2-benzodiol, are studied by X-ray diffraction. The stereochemical features of the molecular structures of the compounds under investigation are discussed, and the possible correlation between the structure and biological activity with respect to hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is analyzed.

  15. Combinatorial Cytokine Code Generates Anti-Viral State in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Boris M.; Marjanovic, Nada; Nudelman, German; Moran, Thomas M.; Sealfon, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological function of the immune system and the response to therapeutic immunomodulators may be sensitive to combinatorial cytokine micro-environments that shape the responses of specific immune cells. Previous work shows that paracrine cytokines released by virus-infected human dendritic cells (DC) can dictate the maturation state of naïve DCs. To understand the effects of paracrine signaling, we systematically studied the effects of combinations cytokines in this complex mixture in generating an anti-viral state. After naïve DCs were exposed to either IFNβ or to paracrine signaling released by DCs infected by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), microarray analysis revealed a large number of genes that were differently regulated by the DC-secreted paracrine signaling. In order to identify the cytokine mechanisms involved, we identified 20 cytokines secreted by NDV infected DCs for which the corresponding receptor gene is expressed in naïve DCs. By exposing cells to all combinations of 19 cytokines (leave-one-out studies), we identified five cytokines (IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1β, TNFSF15, and IL28) as candidates for regulating DC maturation markers. Subsequent experiments identified IFNβ, TNFα, and IL1β as the major contributors to this anti-viral state. This finding was supported by infection studies in vitro, by T-cell activation studies and by in vivo infection studies in mouse. Combination of cytokines can cause response states in DCs that differ from those achieved by the individual cytokines alone. These results suggest that the cytokine microenvironment may act via a combinatorial code to direct the response state of specific immune cells. Further elucidation of this code may provide insight into responses to infection and neoplasia as well as guide the development of combinatorial cytokine immunomodulation for infectious, autoimmune, and immunosurveillance-related diseases. PMID:24616721

  16. Antiviral activity of platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes of pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Varadinova, T; Kovala-Demertzi, D; Rupelieva, M; Demertzis, M; Genova, P

    2001-04-01

    A heterocyclic compound, pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HFoTsc), and its six metal coordinated bound complexes, three with platinum (II) and three with palladium (II), were studied for their activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in cultured cells. According to their cytotoxicity the compounds were divided into two groups. Group I (cytotoxic compounds) included all three palladium complexes and [Pt(HFoTsc)2] Cl2, with maximum non-toxic concentration (MNC) of 1-10 micromol/l and a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 20-100 micromol/l. Group 2 (low cytotoxic compounds) with MNC of 100 micromol/l and CC50 of 548-5820 micromol/l included compounds in the following order: [Pt(HFoTsc)2] Cl2antiviral activity. IC50 and SI values of HFoTsc increased in parallel with the duration of action in HSV-1-infected cells. All three platinum complexes as well as [Pd(HFoTsc)2]Cl2 and [Pd(FoTsc)2] inhibited HSV- I infection following a structure-activity relationship but only [Pt(HFoTsc)2]Cl2 expressed a significant selectivity comparable to that of HFoTsc. However, [PdCl(FoTsc)] acting 48 hrs gave a higher infectious HSV-1 titer (170%) compared to control (100%, no compound). PMID:11719987

  17. Antiviral activities of Indonesian medicinal plants in the East Java region against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The overall prevalence of HCV infection is 2%, representing 120 million people worldwide. Current standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin is effective in only 50% of the patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and is associated with significant side effects. Therefore, it is still of importance to develop new drugs for treatment of HCV. Antiviral substances obtained from natural products, including medicinal plants, are potentially good targets to study. In this study, we evaluated Indonesian medicinal plants for their anti-HCV activities. Methods Ethanol extracts of 21 samples derived from 17 species of medicinal plants explored in the East Java region were tested. Anti-HCV activities were determined by a cell culture method using Huh7.5 cells and HCV strains of 9 different genotypes (1a to 7a, 1b and 2b). Results Four of the 21 samples tested showed antiviral activities against HCV: Toona sureni leaves (TSL) with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.9 and 2.0 μg/ml against the HCV J6/JFH1-P47 and -P1 strains, respectively, Melicope latifolia leaves (MLL) with IC50 of 3.5 and 2.1 μg/ml, respectively, Melanolepis multiglandulosa stem (MMS) with IC50 of 17.1 and 6.2 μg/ml, respectively, and Ficus fistulosa leaves (FFL) with IC50 of 15.0 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that TSL and MLL inhibited both at the entry and post-entry steps while MMS and FFL principally at the entry step. TSL and MLL inhibited all of 11 HCV strains of all the genotypes tested to the same extent. On the other hand, FFL showed significantly weaker inhibitory activities against the HCV genotype 1a strain, and MMS against the HCV strains of genotypes 2b and 7a to a lesser extent, compared to the other HCV genotypes. Conclusions Ethanol extracts of TSL, MLL, MMS and FFL showed antiviral

  18. Design and evaluation of novel interferon lambda analogs with enhanced antiviral activity and improved drug attributes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Debin; Zhao, Mingzhi; Dong, Liwei; Zhao, Lu; Zou, Mingwei; Sun, Hetong; Zhang, Mengying; Liu, Hongyu; Zou, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) (also called IFN-λ: IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, IFN-λ3, and IFN-λ4) are critical players in the defense against viral infection of mucosal epithelial cells, where the activity of type I IFNs is weak, and unlike type I IFNs that are associated with severe and diverse side effects, type III IFNs cause minimal side effects due to the highly restricted expression of their receptors, and thus appear to be promising agents for the treatment and prevention of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral infection. However, the antiviral potency of natural type III IFNs is weak compared to type I and, although IFN-λ3 possesses the highest bioactivity among the type III IFNs, IFN-λ1, instead of IFN-λ3, is being developed as a therapeutic drug due to the difficulty to express IFN-λ3 in the prokaryotic expression system. Here, to develop optimal IFN-λ molecules with improved drug attributes, we designed a series of IFN-λ analogs by replacing critical amino acids of IFN-λ1 with the IFN-λ3 counterparts, and vice versa. Four of the designed analogs were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with high yield and were easily purified from inclusion bodies. Interestingly, all four analogs showed potent activity in inducing the expression of the antiviral genes MxA and OAS and two of them, analog-6 and -7, displayed an unexpected high potency that is higher than that of type I IFN (IFN-α2a) in activating the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-luciferase reporter. Importantly, both analog-6 and -7 effectively inhibited replication of hepatitis C virus in Huh-7.5.1 cells, with an IC50 that is comparable to that of IFN-α2a; and consistent with the roles of IFN-λ in mucosal epithelia, both analogs potently inhibited replication of H3N2 influenza A virus in A549 cells. Together, these studies identified two IFN-λ analogs as candidates to be developed as novel antiviral biologics. PMID:26792983

  19. Pharmacological Characterization of the Spectrum of Antiviral Activity and Genetic Barrier to Drug Resistance of M2-S31N Channel Blockers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunlong; Zhang, Jiantao; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) are one of the two classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved antiviral drugs used for the prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infections. They inhibit viral replication by blocking the wild-type (WT) M2 proton channel, thus preventing viral uncoating. However, their use was discontinued due to widespread drug resistance. Among a handful of drug-resistant mutants, M2-S31N is the predominant mutation and persists in more than 95% of currently circulating influenza A strains. We recently designed two classes of M2-S31N inhibitors, S31N-specific inhibitors and S31N/WT dual inhibitors, which are represented by N-[(5-cyclopropyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl)methyl]adamantan-1-amine (WJ379) and N-[(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methyl]adamantan-1-amine (BC035), respectively. However, their antiviral activities against currently circulating influenza A viruses and their genetic barrier to drug resistance are unknown. In this report, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of these two classes of M2-S31N inhibitors (WJ379 and BC035) by profiling their antiviral efficacy against multidrug-resistant influenza A viruses, in vitro drug resistance barrier, and synergistic effect with oseltamivir. We found that M2-S31N inhibitors were active against several influenza A viruses that are resistant to one or both classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-influenza drugs. In addition, M2-S31N inhibitors display a higher in vitro genetic barrier to drug resistance than amantadine. The antiviral effect of WJ379 was also synergistic with oseltamivir carboxylate. Overall, these results reaffirm that M2-S31N inhibitors are promising antiviral drug candidates that warrant further development. PMID:27385729

  20. Bulk production of the antiviral lectin griffithsin.

    PubMed

    Fuqua, Joshua L; Hamorsky, Krystal; Khalsa, Guruatma; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Palmer, Kenneth E

    2015-10-01

    Application of plant-based protein expression systems for bulk production of recombinant protein pharmaceuticals is building momentum. There are considerable regulatory challenges to consider in commercialization of plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs), some of which are inherent to plant-production systems and others that are common with other production systems, but are new to PMPs because of the youth of the industry. In this review, we discuss our recent and ongoing experience with bulk production of the HIV microbicide candidate, griffithsin (GRFT), utilizing plant-based transient protein expression, with specific focus on areas relevant to commercial manufacturing of bulk GRFT active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Analytical programs have been developed for the qualification and monitoring of both the expression vector system and the API detailing our experience and plans for each. Monitoring postpurification protein modifications are discussed in relation to stability and safety programs. Expression, processing and analytics programs are associated with increased manufacturing costs in current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) production because of the required qualification testing. The impact of these costs on the overall cost of goods is particularly relevant to GRFT manufacturing because GRFT, as an HIV microbicide, is most needed in populations at high risk for HIV exposure in resource-poor countries. Consequently, GRFT for microbicide applications is a very cost-sensitive recombinant PMP. We have therefore emphasized maintaining a low cost of goods. We provide a review of the literature on the economics of PMPs with various expression systems and how they may impact production costs and complexity. PMID:26176205

  1. A Novel Iminosugar UV-12 with Activity against the Diverse Viruses Influenza and Dengue (Novel Iminosugar Antiviral for Influenza and Dengue)

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Plummer, Emily; Alonzi, Dominic S.; Wolfe, Gary W.; Sampath, Aruna; Nguyen, Tam; Butters, Terry D.; Enterlein, Sven G.; Stavale, Eric J.; Shresta, Sujan; Ramstedt, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Iminosugars are capable of targeting the life cycles of multiple viruses by blocking host endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidase enzymes that are required for competent replication of a variety of enveloped, glycosylated viruses. Iminosugars as a class are approved for use in humans with diseases such as diabetes and Gaucher’s disease, providing evidence for safety of this class of compounds. The in vitro antiviral activity of iminosugars has been described in several publications with a subset of these demonstrating in vivo activity against flaviviruses, herpesviruses, retroviruses and filoviruses. Although there is compelling non-clinical in vivo evidence of antiviral efficacy, the efficacy of iminosugars as antivirals has yet to be demonstrated in humans. In the current study, we report a novel iminosugar, UV-12, which has efficacy against dengue and influenza in mouse models. UV-12 exhibits drug-like properties including oral bioavailability and good safety profile in mice and guinea pigs. UV-12 is an example of an iminosugar with activity against multiple virus families that should be investigated in further safety and efficacy studies and demonstrates potential value of this drug class as antiviral therapeutics. PMID:25984714

  2. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  3. Rationally Designed Interfacial Peptides Are Efficient In Vitro Inhibitors of HIV-1 Capsid Assembly with Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Rebeca; Nevot, María; Doménech, Rosa; López, Inmaculada; Abián, Olga; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Cavasotto, Claudio N.; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Gómez, Javier; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Neira, José Luis; Mateu, Mauricio G.

    2011-01-01

    Virus capsid assembly constitutes an attractive target for the development of antiviral therapies; a few experimental inhibitors of this process for HIV-1 and other viruses have been identified by screening compounds or by selection from chemical libraries. As a different, novel approach we have undertaken the rational design of peptides that could act as competitive assembly inhibitors by mimicking capsid structural elements involved in intersubunit interfaces. Several discrete interfaces involved in formation of the mature HIV-1 capsid through polymerization of the capsid protein CA were targeted. We had previously designed a peptide, CAC1, that represents CA helix 9 (a major part of the dimerization interface) and binds the CA C-terminal domain in solution. Here we have mapped the binding site of CAC1, and shown that it substantially overlaps with the CA dimerization interface. We have also rationally modified CAC1 to increase its solubility and CA-binding affinity, and designed four additional peptides that represent CA helical segments involved in other CA interfaces. We found that peptides CAC1, its derivative CAC1M, and H8 (representing CA helix 8) were able to efficiently inhibit the in vitro assembly of the mature HIV-1 capsid. Cocktails of several peptides, including CAC1 or CAC1M plus H8 or CAI (a previously discovered inhibitor of CA polymerization), or CAC1M+H8+CAI, also abolished capsid assembly, even when every peptide was used at lower, sub-inhibitory doses. To provide a preliminary proof that these designed capsid assembly inhibitors could eventually serve as lead compounds for development of anti-HIV-1 agents, they were transported into cultured cells using a cell-penetrating peptide, and tested for antiviral activity. Peptide cocktails that drastically inhibited capsid assembly in vitro were also able to efficiently inhibit HIV-1 infection ex vivo. This study validates a novel, entirely rational approach for the design of capsid assembly

  4. Antiviral properties of aminodiol inhibitors against human immunodeficiency virus and protease.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, C M; Patick, A K; Alam, M; Greytok, J; Tino, J A; Chen, P; Gordon, E; Ahmad, S; Barrish, J C; Zahler, R

    1995-01-01

    A series of aminodiol inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease were identified by using an in vitro peptide cleavage assay. BMS 182,193, BMS 186,318, and BMS 187,071 protected cells against HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus infections, with 50% effective doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.33 microM, while having no inhibitory effect on cells infected with unrelated viruses. These compounds were also effective in inhibiting p24 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with HIV-1 IIIB and against the zidovudine-resistant HIV-1 strain A018C. Time-of-addition studies indicated that BMS 182,193 could be added as late as 27 h after infection and still retain its antiviral activity. To directly show that the activity of these compounds in culture was due to inhibition of proteolytic cleavage, the levels of HIV-1 gag processing in chronically infected cells were monitored by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. All compounds blocked the processing of p55 in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% effective doses of 0.4 to 2.4 microM. To examine the reversibility of BMS 186,318, chronically infected CEM-SS cells were treated with drug and virions purified from the culture medium. Incubation of HIV-1 particles in drug-free medium indicated that inhibition of p55 proteolysis was slowly reversible. The potent inhibition of HIV-1 during both acute and chronic infections indicates that these aminodiol compounds are effective anti-HIV-1 compounds. PMID:7726501

  5. Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sandra N.; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses. PMID:24316048

  6. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  7. TRIM family proteins: retroviral restriction and antiviral defence.

    PubMed

    Nisole, Sébastien; Stoye, Jonathan P; Saïb, Ali

    2005-10-01

    Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis and apoptosis. Some TRIM proteins display antiviral properties, targeting retroviruses in particular. The potential activity of TRIM19, better known as promyelocytic leukaemia protein, against several viruses has been well documented and, recently, TRIM5alpha has been identified as the factor responsible for the previously described Lv1 and Ref1 antiretroviral activities. There is also evidence indicating that other TRIM proteins can influence viral replication. These findings are reviewed here, and the possibility that TRIMs represent a new and widespread class of antiviral proteins involved in innate immunity is also considered. PMID:16175175

  8. The diversity of insect antiviral immunity: insights from viruses.

    PubMed

    Marques, João T; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Insects represent over 70% of all animal species. Recent virome analyses reveal unprecedented genetic diversity of insect viruses, which appears to match that of their hosts. Thus, insect-virus interactions may provide information on a vast repertoire of antiviral immune mechanisms. Tapping into this diversity is challenging because of several constraints imposed by the uniqueness of each insect model. Nevertheless, it is clear that many conserved and divergent pathways participate in the control of viral infection in insects. Co-evolution between hosts and viruses favors the development of immune evasion mechanisms by the pathogen. Viral suppressors can offer unique perspective on host pathways and emphasize the importance of RNA interference, apoptosis, but also NF-κB pathways and translation control in insect antiviral immunity. PMID:27232381

  9. Preventing and treating secondary bacterial infections with antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial super-infections contribute to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza and other respiratory virus infections. There are robust animal model data but only limited clinical information on the effectiveness of licensed antiviral agents for the treatment of bacterial complications of influenza. The association of secondary bacterial pathogens with fatal pneumonia during the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic highlights the need for new development in this area. Basic and clinical research into viral-bacterial interactions over the last decade has revealed several mechanisms that underlie this synergism. By applying these insights to antiviral drug development, the potential exists to improve outcomes by means other than direct inhibition of the virus. PMID:21447860

  10. Antiviral Treatment Guidelines for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yong Pil; Song, Joon Young; Seo, Yu Bin; Choi, Jae-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system caused by the new betacoronavirus (MERS coronavirus, MERS-CoV), which shows high mortality rates. The typical symptoms of MERS are fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and it is often accompanied by pneumonia. The MERS-CoV was introduced to Republic of Korea in May 2015 by a patient returning from Saudi Arabia. The disease spread mostly through hospital infections, and by the time the epidemic ended in August, the total number of confirmed diagnoses was 186, among which 36 patients died. Reflecting the latest evidence for antiviral drugs in the treatment of MERS-CoV infection and the experiences of treating MERS patients in Republic of Korea, these guidelines focus on antiviral drugs to achieve effective treatment of MERS-CoV infections. PMID:26483999

  11. Microbiota-Dependent Priming of Antiviral Intestinal Immunity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Christine L; Cohen, Jonathan; Yasunaga, Ari; Xu, Jie; Osborn, Greg; Subramanian, Harry; Gold, Beth; Buchon, Nicolas; Cherry, Sara

    2015-11-11

    Enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. In Drosophila, the ERK signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. The intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. Here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral ERK signaling in the intestinal epithelium. One signal depends on recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota, particularly from the commensal Acetobacter pomorum, which primes the NF-kB-dependent induction of a secreted factor, Pvf2. However, the microbiota is not sufficient to induce this pathway; a second virus-initiated signaling event involving release of transcriptional paused genes mediated by the kinase Cdk9 is also required for Pvf2 production. Pvf2 stimulates antiviral immunity by binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase PVR, which is necessary and sufficient for intestinal ERK responses. These findings demonstrate that sensing of specific commensals primes inflammatory signaling required for epithelial responses that restrict enteric viral infections. PMID:26567510

  12. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge CG

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’ of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release ‘danger-associated molecular patterns’ that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy. PMID:25620999

  13. Evaluation of macrophage antiviral activity in patients affected by neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Merendino, R A; Iannello, D; Arena, A; Bonina, L; Greco, V; Mesiti, M; Chillemi, S; Mastroeni, P

    1988-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral activity of macrophages has been studied in healthy donors and in patients affected by breast cancer and melanoma. In vitro differentiated macrophages from blood-derived monocytes were infected with measles virus, herpes simplex virus type 2 and adenovirus 17. The challenge was carried out with different multiplicities of infection and the synthesis of virus was tested by evaluating the single cycle growth curve in 24 h. The results obtained show that the restriction of virus infectivity by macrophages is strongly influenced by the multiplicity of infection. This was particularly evident with the adenovirus 17. Moreover, macrophages from patients with melanoma and breast cancer showed an impairment of the intrinsic antiviral activity in comparison with normal subjects. PMID:2842553

  14. Emerging antivirals for the treatment of hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Yan; Chen, Hong-Song

    2014-06-28

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes a major global public health threat, causing substantial disease burdens such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, thus representing high unmet medical needs. Currently available therapies are safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in decreasing viremia and improving measured clinical outcomes with low rates of antiviral resistance. However, long-term management remains a clinical challenge, mainly due to the slow kinetics of HBV surface antigen clearance. In this article, we review emerging antivirals directed at novel targets derived from mechanisms of viral cellular entry, viral replication, viral assembly, and the host immune response, leading to preclinical and clinical trials for possible future therapeutic intervention. The recent therapeutic advances in the development of all categories of HBV inhibitors may pave the way for regimens of finite duration that result in long-lasting control of chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:24976708

  15. Genome editing and the next generation of antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel; Niyonzima, Nixon; Jerome, Keith R

    2016-09-01

    Engineered endonucleases such as homing endonucleases (HEs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), Tal-effector nucleases (TALENS) and the RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs or CRISPR/Cas9) can target specific DNA sequences for cleavage, and are proving to be valuable tools for gene editing. Recently engineered endonucleases have shown great promise as therapeutics for the treatment of genetic disease and infectious pathogens. In this review, we discuss recent efforts to use the HE, ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing platforms as antiviral therapeutics. We also discuss the obstacles facing gene-editing antiviral therapeutics as they are tested in animal models of disease and transition towards human application. PMID:27272125

  16. Antiviral activity of doxycycline against vesicular stomatitis virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhuan-Chang; Wang, Xin; Wei, Jian-Chao; Li, Bei-Bei; Shao, Dong-Hua; Li, Yu-Ming; Liu, Ke; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Ya-Feng; Ma, Zhi-Yong

    2015-11-01

    Doxycycline (Dox) is a tetracycline derivative with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities that is used as an effector substance in inducible gene-expression systems. We investigated the antiviral activity of Dox against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in cultured H1299 cells. Dox at concentrations of 1.0-2.0 μg ml(-1) significantly inhibited VSV replication and the VSV-induced cytopathic effect in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Dox may have broader activity in inhibiting viral replication, in addition to its well-defined bacteriostatic activity. Dox exerted its antiviral effect at the early-mid stage of VSV infection, suggesting that it did not interfere with VSV infectivity, adsorption, or entry into target cells. These results indicate that Dox can inhibit VSV infection and may therefore have potential applications for the treatment of viral infections. PMID:26459887

  17. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte activation promotes innate antiviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mahima; Abeler-Dörner, Lucie; Chettle, James; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Goubau, Delphine; Chakravarty, Probir; Ramsay, George; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Staeheli, Peter; Blacklaws, Barbara A; Heeney, Jonathan L; Hayday, Adrian C

    2015-01-01

    Unrelenting environmental challenges to the gut epithelium place particular demands on the local immune system. In this context, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) compose a large, highly conserved T cell compartment, hypothesized to provide a first line of defence via cytolysis of dysregulated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cytokine-mediated re-growth of healthy IEC. Here we show that one of the most conspicuous impacts of activated IEL on IEC is the functional upregulation of antiviral interferon (IFN)-responsive genes, mediated by the collective actions of IFNs with other cytokines. Indeed, IEL activation in vivo rapidly provoked type I/III IFN receptor-dependent upregulation of IFN-responsive genes in the villus epithelium. Consistent with this, activated IEL mediators protected cells against virus infection in vitro, and pre-activation of IEL in vivo profoundly limited norovirus infection. Hence, intraepithelial T cell activation offers an overt means to promote the innate antiviral potential of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25987506

  18. Comparative in vitro imunotoxicology of acyclovir and other antiviral agents.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, R W; Marmer, D J; Keeney, R E

    1980-01-01

    In vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses to the commonly employed mitogens phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed, and concanavalin A were evaluated when acyclovir, adenine arabinoside, cytosine arabinoside, and idoxuridine were added to the culture materials. Similarly, specific antigen-induced blastogenic responses, including herpes group antigens, and cytotoxicity and leukocyte inhibitory factor assays with herpes group viruses were determined in the presence and absence of antiviral agents. No depression of these cellular immmune responses by acyclovir or adenine arabinoside ws demonstrated. This was in contrast to the effects of cytosine arabinoside and idoxuridine, which severely inhibited blastogenic and cytotoxic responses but not leukocyte inhibitory factor production. Even at concentrations up to 20 microgram/ml, the antiviral agent acyclovir did not depress selected cellular immune responses that are important for successful elimination of invading herpes group viruses. PMID:6249751

  19. Targeting human papillomavirus genome replication for antiviral drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Jacques; Melendy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are a major human health problem; they are the cause of recurrent benign warts and of several cancers of the anogenital tract and head and neck region. Although there are two prophylactic HPV vaccines that could, if used universally, prevent as many as two-thirds of HPV-induced cancers, as well as several cytotoxic and immunomodulatory agents for localized treatment of infections, there are currently no HPV antiviral drugs in our arsenal of therapeutic agents. This review examines the status of past and ongoing research into the development of HPV antivirals, focused primarily upon approaches targeting the replication of the viral genome. The only HPV enzyme, E1, is a DNA helicase that interfaces with the cellular DNA replication machinery to replicate the HPV genome. To date, searches for small molecule inhibitors of E1 for use as antivirals have met with limited success. The lack of other viral enzymes has meant that the search for antivirals has shifted to a large degree to the modulation of protein–protein interactions. There has been some success in identifying small molecule inhibitors targeting interactions between HPV proteins but with activity against a small subset of viral types only. As noted in this review, it is thought that targeting E1 interactions with cellular replication proteins may provide inhibitors with broader activity against multiple HPV types. Herein, we outline the steps in HPV DNA replication and discuss those that appear to provide the most advantageous targets for the development of anti-HPV therapeutics. PMID:23615820

  20. Antiviral response dictated by choreographed cascade of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Elena; Hershberg, Uri; Seto, Jeremy; Pham, Alissa M.; Marquez, Susanna; Duke, Jamie L.; Wetmur, James G.; tenOever, Benjamin R.; Sealfon, Stuart C.; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC) is a master regulator of immune responses. Pathogenic viruses subvert normal immune function in DCs through the expression of immune antagonists. Understanding how these antagonists interact with the host immune system requires knowledge of the underlying genetic regulatory network that operates during an uninhibited antiviral response. In order to isolate and identify this network, we studied DCs infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which is able to stimulate innate immunity and DC maturation through activation of RIG-I signaling, but lacks the ability to evade the human interferon response. To analyze this experimental model, we developed a new approach integrating genome-wide expression kinetics and time-dependent promoter analysis. We found that the genetic program underlying the antiviral cell-state transition during the first 18-hours post-infection could be explained by a single convergent regulatory network. Gene expression changes were driven by a step-wise multi-factor cascading control mechanism, where the specific transcription factors controlling expression changed over time. Within this network, most individual genes are regulated by multiple factors, indicating robustness against virus-encoded immune evasion genes. In addition to effectively recapitulating current biological knowledge, we predicted, and validated experimentally, antiviral roles for several novel transcription factors. More generally, our results show how a genetic program can be temporally controlled through a single regulatory network to achieve the large-scale genetic reprogramming characteristic of cell state transitions. PMID:20164420

  1. Antiviral agents and HIV prevention: controversies, conflicts, and consensus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Myron S.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral agents can be used to prevent HIV transmission before exposure as preexpo-sure prophylaxis (PrEP), after exposure as postexposure prophylaxis, and as treatment of infected people for secondary prevention. Considerable research has shed new light on antiviral agents for PrEP and for prevention of secondary HIV transmission. While promising results have emerged from several PrEP trials, the challenges of poor adherence among HIV-negative clients and possible increase in sexual risk behaviors remain a concern. In addition, a broader pipeline of antiviral agents for PrEP that focuses on genital tract pharmacology and safety and resistance issues must be developed. Antiretroviral drugs have also been used to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected patients to their HIV-discordant sexual partners. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial demonstrated nearly complete prevention of HIV transmission by early treatment of infection, but the generalizability of the results to other risk groups – including intravenous drug users and MSM – has not been determined. Most importantly, the best strategy for use of antiretroviral agents to reduce the spread of HIV at either the individual level or the population level has not been developed, and remains the ultimate goal of this area of investigation. PMID:22507927

  2. Mx proteins: antiviral gatekeepers that restrain the uninvited.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, Judith; Hulpiau, Paco; Saelens, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Fifty years after the discovery of the mouse Mx1 gene, researchers are still trying to understand the molecular details of the antiviral mechanisms mediated by Mx proteins. Mx proteins are evolutionarily conserved dynamin-like large GTPases, and GTPase activity is required for their antiviral activity. The expression of Mx genes is controlled by type I and type III interferons. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Mx genes are present in almost all vertebrates, usually in one to three copies. Mx proteins are best known for inhibiting negative-stranded RNA viruses, but they also inhibit other virus families. Recent structural analyses provide hints about the antiviral mechanisms of Mx proteins, but it is not known how they can suppress such a wide variety of viruses lacking an obvious common molecular pattern. Perhaps they interact with a (partially) symmetrical invading oligomeric structure, such as a viral ribonucleoprotein complex. Such an interaction may be of a fairly low affinity, in line with the broad target specificity of Mx proteins, yet it would be strong enough to instigate Mx oligomerization and ring assembly. Such a model is compatible with the broad "substrate" specificity of Mx proteins: depending on the size of the invading viral ribonucleoprotein complexes that need to be wrapped, the assembly process would consume the necessary amount of Mx precursor molecules. These Mx ring structures might then act as energy-consuming wrenches to disassemble the viral target structure. PMID:24296571

  3. Antioxidants: potential antiviral agents for Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zehua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Zongtao; Tian, Yanping

    2014-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is prevalent throughout eastern and southern Asia and the Pacific Rim. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. Despite the importance of JE, little is known about its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of viral infections has led to increased interest in its role in JEV infections. This review focuses mainly on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of JEV infection and the antiviral effect of antioxidant agents in inhibiting JEV production. First, this review summarizes the pathogenesis of JE. The pathological changes include neuronal death, astrocyte activation, and microglial proliferation. Second, the relationship between oxidative stress and JEV infection is explored. JEV infection induces the generation of oxidants and exhausts the supply of antioxidants, which activates specific signaling pathways. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of a variety of antioxidants as antiviral agents, including minocycline, arctigenin, fenofibrate, and curcumin, was studied. In conclusion, antioxidants are likely to be developed into antiviral agents for the treatment of JE. PMID:24780919

  4. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03679.001 PMID:25333492

  5. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Megan B; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W

    2013-12-13

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the small, interfering RNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived double-stranded RNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, and Jak-STAT and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. PMID:24120681

  6. [Strategy of molecular drug design: hits, leads and drug candidates].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zong-ru

    2008-09-01

    Hits, leads and drug candidates constitute three millstones in the course of drug discovery and development. The definition of drug candidates is a critical point in the value chain of drug innovation, which not only differentiates the research and development stages, but more importantly, determines the perspective and destiny of the pre-clinical and clinical studies. All outcomes from the development stage are actually attributed to the chemical structure of candidates. The quality of candidates, however, is restricted by the drug-likeness of lead compounds, which in turn is decided by the characteristics of hits. The hit-to-lead is to provide a promising and druggable structure for further development, whereas the optimization of lead compounds is a process to transform an active compound into a drug, which in essence is molecular manipulation in multi-dimensional space related to pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, physico-chemical, and safety properties. This review discusses the strategic principles in hit discovery, lead identification and optimization, as well as drug candidate definition with practical examples. PMID:19048779

  7. Antiviral treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine.

    PubMed

    Taffin, Elien; Paepe, Dominique; Goris, Nesya; Auwerx, Joeri; Debille, Mariella; Neyts, Johan; Van de Maele, Isabel; Daminet, Sylvie

    2015-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats (feline AIDS), is a ubiquitous health threat to the domestic and feral cat population, also triggering disease in wild animals. No registered antiviral compounds are currently available to treat FIV-infected cats. Several human antiviral drugs have been used experimentally in cats, but not without the development of serious adverse effects. Here we report on the treatment of six naturally FIV-infected cats, suffering from moderate to severe disease, with the antiretroviral compound (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine ([R]-PMPDAP), a close analogue of tenofovir, a widely prescribed anti-HIV drug in human medicine. An improvement in the average Karnofsky score (pretreatment 33.2 ± 9.4%, post-treatment 65±12.3%), some laboratory parameters (ie, serum amyloid A and gammaglobulins) and a decrease of FIV viral load in plasma were noted in most cats. The role of concurrent medication in ameliorating the Karnofsky score, as well as the possible development of haematological side effects, are discussed. Side effects, when noted, appeared mild and reversible upon cessation of treatment. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn owing to the small number of patients and lack of a placebo-treated control group, the activity of (R)-PMPDAP, as observed here, warrants further investigation. PMID:24782459

  8. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity of entry inhibitors that target the CD4-binding site of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Curreli, Francesca; Choudhury, Spreeha; Pyatkin, Ilya; Zagorodnikov, Victor P.; Bulay, Anna Khulianova; Altieri, Andrea; Kwon, Young Do; Kwong, Peter D.; Debnath, Asim K.

    2012-01-01

    The CD4 binding site on HIV-1 gp120 has been validated as a drug target to prevent HIV-1 entry to cells. Previously, we identified two small molecule inhibitors consisting of a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine ring linked by an oxalamide to a p-halide-substituted phenyl group, which target this site, specifically, a cavity termed “Phe43 cavity”. Here we use synthetic chemistry, functional assessment and structure-based analysis to explore variants of each region of these inhibitors for improved antiviral properties. Alterations of the phenyl group and of the oxalamide linker indicated that these regions were close to optimal in the original lead compounds. Design of a series of compounds, where the tetramethylpiperidine ring was replaced with new scaffolds, lead to improved antiviral activity. These new scaffolds provide insight into the surface chemistry at the entrance of the cavity and offer additional opportunities by which to optimize further these potential-next-generation therapeutics and microbicides against HIV-1. PMID:22524483

  9. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  10. Antiviral Activity of MK-4965, a Novel Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor▿

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Tain; Munshi, Vandna; Touch, Sinoeun; Tynebor, Robert M.; Tucker, Thomas J.; McKenna, Philip M.; Williams, Theresa M.; DiStefano, Daniel J.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Miller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the mainstays of therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. However, the effectiveness of NNRTIs can be hampered by the development of resistance mutations which confer cross-resistance to drugs in the same class. Extensive efforts have been made to identify new NNRTIs that can suppress the replication of the prevalent NNRTI-resistant viruses. MK-4965 is a novel NNRTI that possesses both diaryl ether and indazole moieties. The compound displays potency at subnanomolar concentrations against wild-type (WT), K103N, and Y181C reverse transcriptase (RT) in biochemical assays. MK-4965 is also highly potent against the WT virus and two most prevalent NNRTI-resistant viruses (viruses that harbor the K103N or the Y181C mutation), against which it had 95% effective concentrations (EC95s) of <30 nM in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. The antiviral EC95 of MK-4965 was reduced approximately four- to sixfold when it was tested in 50% human serum. Moreover, MK-4965 was evaluated with a panel of 15 viruses with NNRTI resistance-associated mutations and showed a superior mutant profile to that of efavirenz but not to that of etravirine. MK-4965 was similarly effective against various HIV-1 subtypes and viruses containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor resistance-conferring mutations. A two-drug combination study showed that the antiviral activity of MK-4965 was nonantagonistic with each of the 18 FDA-licensed drugs tested vice versa in the present study. Taken together, these in vitro data show that MK-4965 possesses the desired properties for further development as a new NNRTI for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:19289522

  11. Complete Sequence Analysis and Antiviral Screening of Medicinal Plants for Human Coxsackievirus A16 Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Park, Kwisung; Shim, Aeri; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Hee; Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Jae Kyung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Yoon, Kyungah; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Coxsackievirus A group 16 strain (CVA16) is one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods Using a specimen from a male patient with HFMD, we isolated and performed sequencing of the Korean CVA16 strain and compared it with a G10 reference strain. Also, we were investigated the effects of medicinal plant extract on the cytopathic effects (CPE) by CPE reduction assay against Korean CVA16. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean CVA16 isolate belonged to cluster B-1 and was closely related to the strain PM-15765-00 isolated in Malaysia in 2000. The Korean CVA16 isolate showed 73.2% nucleotide identity to the G10 prototype strain and 98.7% nucleotide identity to PM-15765-00. Next, we assessed whether the Korean CVA16 isolate could be used for in vitro screening of antiviral agents to treat HFMD infection. Vero cells infected with the Korean CVA16 isolate showed a cytopathic effect 2 days after the infection, and the treatment of cells with Cornus officinalis, Acer triflorum, Pulsatilla koreana, and Clematis heracleifolia var. davidiana Hemsl extracts exhibited strong antiviral activity against CVA16. Conclusion Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of vaccine and novel drugs to treat the CVA16 strain isolated from a Korean patient. PMID:25737832

  12. Novel Biotinylated Lipid Prodrugs of Acyclovir for the Treatment of Herpetic Keratitis (HK): Transporter Recognition, Tissue Stability and Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Earla, Ravinder; Sirimulla, Suman; Bailey, Jake Brain; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were designed to target the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) on the cornea to facilitate enhanced cellular absorption of ACV. Methods All the prodrugs were screened for in vitro cellular uptake, interaction with SMVT, docking analysis, cytotoxicity, enzymatic stability and antiviral activity. Results Uptake of biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV (B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV) was significantly higher than biotinylated prodrug (B-ACV), lipid prodrugs (R-ACV and 12HS-ACV) and ACV in corneal cells. Transepithelial transport across rabbit corneas indicated the recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT. Average Vina scores obtained from docking studies further confirmed that biotinylated lipid prodrugs possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. All the prodrugs studied did not cause any cytotoxicity and were found to be safe and non-toxic. B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV were found to be relatively more stable in ocular tissue homogenates and exhibited excellent antiviral activity. Conclusions Biotinylated lipid prodrugs demonstrated synergistic improvement in cellular uptake due to recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT on the cornea and lipid mediated transcellular diffusion. These biotinylated lipid prodrugs appear to be promising drug candidates for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK) and may lower ACV resistance in patients with poor clinical response. PMID:23657675

  13. Manipulation of host factors optimizes the pathogenesis of western equine encephalitis virus infections in mice for antiviral drug development.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Pennelope K; Delekta, Phillip C; Miller, David J; Irani, David N

    2015-02-01

    While alphaviruses spread naturally via mosquito vectors, some can also be transmitted as aerosols making them potential bioterrorism agents. One such pathogen, western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), causes fatal human encephalitis via multiple routes of infection and thus presumably via multiple mechanisms. Although WEEV also produces acute encephalitis in non-human primates, a small animal model that recapitulates features of human disease would be useful for both pathogenesis studies and to evaluate candidate antiviral therapies. We have optimized conditions to infect mice with a low passage isolate of WEEV, thereby allowing detailed investigation of virus tropism, replication, neuroinvasion, and neurovirulence. We find that host factors strongly influence disease outcome, and in particular, that age, gender, and genetic background all have significant effects on disease susceptibility independent of virus tropism or replication within the central nervous system. Our data show that experimental variables can be adjusted in mice to recapitulate disease features known to occur in both non-human primates and humans, thus aiding further study of WEEV pathogenesis and providing a realistic therapeutic window for antiviral drug delivery. PMID:25361697

  14. Manipulation of host factors optimizes the pathogenesis of western equine encephalitis virus infections in mice for antiviral drug development

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Pennelope K.; Delekta, Phillip C.; Miller, David J.; Irani, David N.

    2014-01-01

    While alphaviruses spread naturally via mosquito vectors, some can also be transmitted as aerosols making them potential bioterrorism agents. One such pathogen, western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), causes fatal human encephalitis via multiple routes of infection and thus presumably via multiple mechanisms. Although WEEV also produces acute encephalitis in non-human primates, a small animal model that recapitulates features of human disease would be useful for both pathogenesis studies and to evaluate candidate antiviral therapies. We have optimized conditions to infect mice with a low passage isolate of WEEV, thereby allowing detailed investigation of virus tropism, replication, neuroinvasion, and neurovirulence. We find that host factors strongly influence disease outcome, and in particular that age, gender and genetic background all have significant effects on disease susceptibility independent of virus tropism or replication within the central nervous system. Our data show that experimental variables can be adjusted in mice to recapitulate disease features known to occur in both non-human primates and humans, thus aiding further study of WEEV pathogenesis and providing a realistic therapeutic window for antiviral drug delivery. PMID:25361697

  15. beta-Cyclodextrin derivatives as carriers to enhance the antiviral activity of an antisense oligonucleotide directed toward a coronavirus intergenic consensus sequence.

    PubMed

    Abdou, S; Collomb, J; Sallas, F; Marsura, A; Finance, C

    1997-01-01

    The ability of cyclodextrins to enhance the antiviral activity of a phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide has been investigated. A 18-mer oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the initiation region of the mRNA coding for the spike protein and containing the intergenic consensus sequence of an enteric coronavirus has been tested for antiviral action against virus growth in human adenocarcinoma cells. The phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide only showed a limited effect on virus growth rate (from 12 to 34% viral inhibition in cells treated with 7.5 to 25 microM oligodeoxynucleotide, respectively, at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 infectious particle per cell). In the same conditions, the phosphorothioate analogue exhibited stronger antiviral activity, the inhibition increased from 56 to 90%. The inhibitory effect of this analogue was antisense and sequence-specific. Northern blot analysis showed that the sequence-dependent mechanism of action appears to be the inhibition of mRNA transcription. We conclude that the coronavirus intergenic consensus sequence is a good target for an antisense oligonucleotide antiviral action. The properties of the phosphodiester oligonucleotide was improved after its complexation with cyclodextrins. The most important increase of the antiviral activity (90% inhibition) was obtained with only 7.5 microM oligonucleotide complexed to a cyclodextrin derivative, 6-deoxy-6-S-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-6-thio-cyclomalto-heptaose+ ++ in a molar ratio of 1:100. These studies suggest that the use of cyclodextrin derivatives as carrier for phosphodiester oligonucleotides delivery may be an effective method for increasing the therapeutic potential of these compounds in viral infections. PMID:9672621

  16. The Synthetic Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Globally Prevalent Pathogenic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Halfmann, Peter; Morrey, John D.; Smee, Donald F.; Prichard, Mark; Mire, Chad E.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arbidol (ARB) is a synthetic antiviral originally developed to combat influenza viruses. ARB is currently used clinically in several countries but not in North America. We have previously shown that ARB inhibits in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blocking HCV entry and replication. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are inhibited by ARB and demonstrate that ARB suppresses in vitro infection of mammalian cells with Ebola virus (EBOV), Tacaribe arenavirus, and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We also confirm suppression of hepatitis B virus and poliovirus by ARB. ARB inhibited EBOV Zaire Kikwit infection when added before or at the same time as virus infection and was less effective when added 24 h after EBOV infection. Experiments with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the EBOV Zaire glycoprotein showed that infection was inhibited by ARB at early stages, most likely at the level of viral entry into host cells. ARB inhibited HHV-8 replication to a similar degree as cidofovir. Our data broaden the spectrum of antiviral efficacy of ARB to include globally prevalent viruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality. IMPORTANCE There are many globally prevalent viruses for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral medicines. Some of these viruses, such as Ebola virus or members of the arenavirus family, rapidly cause severe hemorrhagic diseases that can be fatal. Other viruses, such as hepatitis B virus or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), establish persistent infections that cause chronic illnesses, including cancer. Thus, finding an affordable, effective, and safe drug that blocks many viruses remains an unmet medical need. The antiviral drug arbidol (ARB), already in clinical use in several countries as an anti-influenza treatment, has been previously shown to suppress the growth of many viruses. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are blocked by ARB in a laboratory setting to include Ebola virus

  17. Compound matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Christos; Mitrouli, Marilena

    2009-02-01

    This paper studies the possibility to calculate efficiently compounds of real matrices which have a special form or structure. The usefulness of such an effort lies in the fact that the computation of compound matrices, which is generally noneffective due to its high complexity, is encountered in several applications. A new approach for computing the Singular Value Decompositions (SVD's) of the compounds of a matrix is proposed by establishing the equality (up to a permutation) between the compounds of the SVD of a matrix and the SVD's of the compounds of the matrix. The superiority of the new idea over the standard method is demonstrated. Similar approaches with some limitations can be adopted for other matrix factorizations, too. Furthermore, formulas for the n - 1 compounds of Hadamard matrices are derived, which dodge the strenuous computations of the respective numerous large determinants. Finally, a combinatorial counting technique for finding the compounds of diagonal matrices is illustrated.

  18. DNA binding, antiviral activities and cytotoxicity of new furochromone and benzofuran derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafez, Omaima Mohamed; Abedelatif, Nehad Ahmed; Badria, Farid A

    2011-10-01

    Bromination of visnagin (1) afforded 9-bromovisnagin (2) which on its alkaline hydrolysis afforded the 3-acetyl benzofuran derivative (3). The condensation of (3) with hydrazine hydrate, phenylhydrazine and/or hydroxylamine hydrochloride afforded the corresponding pyrazole derivatives (4a, b) and isoxazole derivative (4c). On the other hand, when compound 3 was condensed with some aromatic aldehydes, this yielded corresponding α, β-unsaturated keto derivatives (5a-e). Furthermore, when 1 was subjected to chlorosulfonation, the visnaginsulfonylchloride derivative 6 was afforded, which on amidation using morpholine, a sulonamido derivative (7) was obtained. Alkaline hydrolysis of the latter compound yielded 7-N-morpholinosulsamidobenzofuran (8) which was condensed with some aromatic aldehydes to yield the corresponding chalcone compounds (9a-e). Demethylation of visnagin afforded norvisnagin (10). The reaction of 10 with ethylbromoacetate in dry acetone yielded the ester benzopyran derivative (11) which reacted with hydrazine hydrate to afford the corresponding hydrazide derivative (12) and this was condensed with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde to give the corresponding hydrazone (13). A thaizolidinone derivative (14) was obtained by condensation of (13) with thioglycolic acid. Chloromethylation of norvisnagin afforded a 4-chloromethyl derivative (15) which reacted with different primary and secondary amines to yield the corresponding ethylamino derivative (16a, b). Moreover, mannich bases (16a, b) and (17a-c) were obtained by reacting norvisnagin with different primary and secondary amines in the presence of formalin but benzoylation of (16a, b) and (17a-c) afforded 4-oxybenzoyl derivative (18a-e). The prepared compounds were tested for their interaction with DNA; bromovisnagin 2 showed the highest affinity and compounds 6, 15, 8a, > 14, > 16b, 17a, and 16a showed moderate activity in decreasing potency. Moreover, compound 2 also was the most active as antiviral

  19. Synthesis and antiviral properties of (+/-)-5'-noraristeromycin and related purine carbocyclic nucleosides. A new lead for anti-human cytomegalovirus agent design.

    PubMed

    Patil, S D; Schneller, S W; Hosoya, M; Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1992-09-01

    (+/-)-5'-Noraristeromycin (3) has been prepared in three steps beginning with the 2,3-O-isopropylidene derivative of (+/-)-(1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 beta, 4 alpha)-4-amino-1,2,3-cyclopentanetriol (7). Also prepared from the same starting material were the related hypoxanthine (4), guanine (5), and 2,6-diaminopurine (6) analogues. Compounds 3-6 were evaluated for antiviral activity against a large number of viruses with marked activity being observed for 3 towards vaccinia virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, parainfluenza (type 3) virus, measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, reovirus (type 1), and the arenaviruses Junin and Tacaribe. None of the compounds showed cytotoxicity to the host cell monolayers used in the antiviral studies. Both 3 and 6 have been found to be inhibitors of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase), which likely accounts for their antiviral activity. Inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase represents a new approach to human cytomegalovirus drug design that should be pursued. Also, the activity of 3 should be further scrutinized for the treatment of pox-, rhabdo-, paramyxo-, reo-, and arenavirus infections. PMID:1326633

  20. Anti-viral and cytotoxic norbisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica and their absolute configurations.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun-Jiang; Yu, Shan; Xin, Ying; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to identify anti-viral and cytotoxic compounds from Phyllanthus spp., 14 highly oxygenated norbisabolane sesquiterpenoids, phyllaemblicins H1-H14, were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica Linn, along with phyllaemblicins B and C and glochicoccinoside D. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Determination of absolute configurations of these compounds was facilitated by theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for the aglycone components, and pre-column derivative/chiral HPLC analysis for the monosaccharides. The known glochicoccinoside D displayed potent activity against influenza A virus strain H3N2 and hand, foot and mouth virus EV71, with IC50 values of 4.5±0.6 and 2.6±0.7 μg/ml, respectively. Phyllaemblicin H1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines A-549 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 4.7±0.7 and 9.9±1.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26074492

  1. Antiviral mode of action of a synthetic brassinosteroid against Junin virus replication.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Viviana; Larzábal, Mariano; Sgalippa, Natalia Aguirre; Wachsman, Mónica B; Coto, Celia E

    2005-11-01

    The antiviral mode of action of the synthetic brassinosteroid (22S,23S)-3beta-bromo-5alpha,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one (6b) against Junin virus replication in Vero cells was investigated. Time-related experiments showed that 6b mainly affects an early event of virus growth cycle. Neither adsorption nor internalization of viral particles was the target of the inhibitory action. The analysis of the effect of 6b on viral RNA synthesis demonstrated that the presence of the compound adversely affects virus RNA replication by preventing the synthesis of full length antigenomic RNA. Although 6b was most effective the earlier it was added to the cells after infection with JV, a high level of inhibition of JV yield and fusion activity of newly synthesized viral glycoproteins was still detected when the compound was present during the last hours of infection. Therefore, we cannot rule out an inhibitory action of 6b on later events of JV replicative cycle. PMID:16171877

  2. Molecular recognition in the human immunodeficiency virus capsid and antiviral design.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Del Álamo, Marta; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2012-11-01

    Many compounds able to interfere with HIV-1 infection have been identified; some 25 of them have been approved for clinical use. Current anti-HIV-1 therapy involves the use of drug cocktails, which reduces the probability of virus escape. However, many issues remain, including drug toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant mutant viruses, even in treated patients. Therefore, there is a constant need for the development of new anti-HIV-1 agents targeting other molecules in the viral cycle. The capsid protein CA plays a key role in many molecular recognition events during HIV-1 morphogenesis and uncoating, and is eliciting increased interest as a promising target for antiviral intervention. This article provides a structure-based, integrated review on the CA-binding small molecules and peptides identified to date, and their effects on virus capsid assembly and stability, with emphasis on recent results not previously reviewed. As a complement, we present novel experimental results on the development and proof-of-concept application of a combinatorial approach to study molecular recognition in CA and its inhibition by peptide compounds. PMID:22728445

  3. A Real-Time Cell Analyzing Assay for Identification of Novel Antiviral Compounds against Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Screening of viral inhibitors through induction of cytopathic effects (CPE) by conventional method has been applied for various viruses including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a significant arbovirus. However, it does not provide the information about cytopathic effect from the beginning and throughout the course of virus replication. Conventionally, most of the approaches are constructed on laborious end-point assays which are not capable for detecting minute and rapid changes in cellular morphology. Therefore, we developed a label-free and dynamical method for monitoring the cellular features that comprises cell attachment, proliferation, and viral cytopathogenicity, known as the xCELLigence real-time cell analysis (RTCA). In this chapter, we provide a RTCA protocol for quantitative analysis of CHIKV replication using an infected Vero cell line treated with ribavirin as an in vitro model. PMID:27233278

  4. Evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, Afshan; Ishaq, Humera; Anwer, Laila; Badar, Sehrish; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Morus alba against Foot and Mouth disease virus using MTT assay (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as Means ± S.D. The concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are considered to be effective antiviral concentrations. From the tested plant extracts, Moringa oleifera showed potent antiviral activity (p<0.05) while Azadirachta indica showed significant antiviral activity in the range of 1-50μ/ml & 12-100μ/ml respectively. In contrast no antiviral activity was observed by Morus alba as all the tested concentration resulted in significant reduction (p<0.05) in cell survival percentage. PMID:27393440

  5. Novel potent pyrimido[4,5-c]quinoline inhibitors of protein kinase CK2: SAR and preliminary assessment of their analgesic and anti-viral properties.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Fabrice; O'Brien, Sean E; Haddach, Mustapha; Bourbon, Pauline; Schwaebe, Michael K; Stefan, Eric; Darjania, Levan; Stansfield, Ryan; Ho, Caroline; Siddiqui-Jain, Adam; Streiner, Nicole; Rice, William G; Anderes, Kenna; Ryckman, David M

    2011-03-15

    We describe the discovery of novel potent substituted pyrimido[4,5-c]quinoline ATP-competitive inhibitors of protein kinase CK2. A binding model of the inhibitors with the protein was elaborated on the basis of SAR and revealed various modes of interaction with the hinge region. Representative analog 14k (CK2 IC(50)=9 nM) showed anti-viral activity at nanomolar concentrations against HIV-1. Orally available compound 7e (CK2 IC(50)=3 nM) reduced pain in the phase II of a murine formalin model. These preliminary data confirm that properly optimized CK2 inhibitors may be used for anti-viral and pain therapy. PMID:21316963

  6. Decision Making with Regard to Antiviral Intervention during an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Eunha; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiviral coverage is defined by the proportion of the population that takes antiviral prophylaxis or treatment. High coverage of an antiviral drug has epidemiological and evolutionary repercussions. Antivirals select for drug resistance within the population, and individuals may experience adverse effects. To determine optimal antiviral coverage in the context of an influenza outbreak, we compared 2 perspectives: 1) the individual level (the Nash perspective), and 2) the population level (utilitarian perspective). Methods We developed an epidemiological game-theoretic model of an influenza pandemic. The data sources were published literature and a national survey. The target population was the US population. The time horizon was 6 months. The perspective was individuals and the population overall. The interventions were antiviral prophylaxis and treatment. The outcome measures were the optimal coverage of antivirals in an influenza pandemic. Results At current antiviral pricing, the optimal Nash strategy is 0% coverage for prophylaxis and 30% coverage for treatment, whereas the optimal utilitarian strategy is 19% coverage for prophylaxis and 100% coverage for treatment. Subsidizing prophylaxis by $440 and treatment by $85 would bring the Nash and utilitarian strategies into alignment. For both prophylaxis and treatment, the optimal antiviral coverage decreases as pricing of antivirals increases. Our study does not incorporate the possibility of an effective vaccine and lacks probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Our survey also does not completely represent the US population. Because our model assumes a homogeneous population and homogeneous antiviral pricing, it does not incorporate heterogeneity of preference. Conclusions The optimal antiviral coverage from the population perspective and individual perspectives differs widely for both prophylaxis and treatment strategies. Optimal population and individual strategies for prophylaxis and treatment might

  7. Preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus disease: passive, active immunisation and new antivirals.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna; Saxena, Sonia; Sharland, Mike

    2014-05-01

    In most high-income countries palivizumab prophylaxis is considered safe, efficacious and cost-effective for preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospital admissions among specific subgroups of infants born preterm, with chronic lung disease or with congenital heart disease. Virtually all babies acquire RSV during infancy and previously healthy babies are not eligible to receive palivizumab. Emerging evidence suggests some benefit of palivizumab use in reducing recurrent wheeze among infants born preterm. Better longitudinal studies are needed to examine its clinical and cost-effectiveness on recurrent and chronic respiratory illness and associated healthcare burden on resources in the community and hospitals. Since 99% of child deaths attributed to RSV occur in resource poor countries where expensive prophylaxis is not available or affordable, palivizumab has limited potential to impact on the current global burden of RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). A range of candidate vaccines for active immunisation against RSV are now in clinical trials. Two promising new antivirals are also currently in phase I/II trials to test their effectiveness in preventing severe RSV LRTI. These agents may be effective in preventing severe disease and phase III studies are in development. In the absence of effective active immunisation against RSV infection, population level approaches to prevent severe RSV LRTI should continue to focus on reducing prenatal and environmental risk factors including prematurity, smoking and improving hygiene practices. PMID:24464977

  8. The Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein ZAP Inhibits LINE and Alu Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, John B.; Moran, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. To investigate the interplay between the L1 retrotransposition machinery and the host cell, we used co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the L1 first open reading frame-encoded protein, ORF1p. We identified 39 ORF1p-interacting candidate proteins including the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP or ZC3HAV1). Here we show that the interaction between ZAP and ORF1p requires RNA and that ZAP overexpression in HeLa cells inhibits the retrotransposition of engineered human L1 and Alu elements, an engineered mouse L1, and an engineered zebrafish LINE-2 element. Consistently, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous ZAP in HeLa cells led to a ~2-fold increase in human L1 retrotransposition. Fluorescence microscopy in cultured human cells demonstrated that ZAP co-localizes with L1 RNA, ORF1p, and stress granule associated proteins in cytoplasmic foci. Finally, molecular genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that ZAP reduces the accumulation of full-length L1 RNA and the L1-encoded proteins, yielding mechanistic insight about how ZAP may inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Together, these data suggest that ZAP inhibits the retrotransposition of LINE and Alu elements. PMID:25951186

  9. In vitro antiviral activities of extracts derived from Daucus maritimus seeds.

    PubMed

    Miladi, S; Abid, N; Debarnôt, C; Damak, M; Canard, B; Aouni, M; Selmi, B

    2012-01-01

    The antiviral activities of extracts from Daucus maritimus seeds were investigated against the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and a panel of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The extracts showed moderate to potent inhibition rates against the four viral polymerases. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against WNV's RdRp, with an IC₅₀ value of 8 µg mL⁻¹. The F₂ fraction exhibited potent inhibitory activity against WNV and HCV's RdRps, with IC₅₀ values 1 and 5 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. The P₂ fraction also showed potent inhibitory effects on WNV and HCV's RdRps, with IC₅₀ values 2.7 and 4 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. The results suggest that these extracts are candidates for the development of new anti-WNV RpDp and anti-HCV RpDp agents. PMID:21895456

  10. Enhancing Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Mediated Antiviral Responses and Decreasing Nuclear Factor Kappa B Expression Limit HIV-1 Replication in Cervical Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rollenhage, Christiane; Macura, Sherrill L.; Lathrop, Melissa J.; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Asin, Susana N.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of a productive HIV-1 infection in the female reproductive tract likely depends on the balance between anti-viral and pro-inflammatory responses leading to activation and proliferation of HIV target cells. Immune modulators that boost anti-viral and depress pro-inflammatory immune responses may decrease HIV-1 infection or replication. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic [Poly (I:C)] has been reported to down-regulate HIV-1 replication in immune cell subsets and lymphoid tissues, yet the scope and mechanisms of poly (I:C) regulation of HIV-1 replication in the cervicovaginal mucosa, the main portal of viral entry in women remain unknown. Using a relevant, underexplored ex vivo cervical tissue model, we demonstrated that poly (I:C) enhanced Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)7 mediated antiviral responses and decreased tissue Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFκB) RNA expression. This pattern of cellular transcription factor expression correlated with decreased HIV-1 transcription and viral release. Reducing IRF7 expression up-regulated HIV-1 and NFκB transcription, providing proof of concept for the critical involvement of IRF7 in cervical tissues. By combining poly (I:C) with a suboptimal concentration of tenofovir, the leading anti-HIV prophylactic microbicide candidate, we demonstrated an earlier and greater decrease in HIV replication in poly (I:C)/tenofovir treated tissues compared with tissues treated with tenofovir alone, indicating overall improved efficacy. Poly (I:C) decreases HIV-1 replication by stimulating IRF7 mediated antiviral responses while reducing NFκB expression. Early during the infection, poly (I:C) improved the anti-HIV-1 activity of suboptimal concentrations of tenofovir likely to be present during periods of poor adherence i.e. inconsistent or inadequate drug use. Understanding interactions between anti-viral and pro-inflammatory immune responses in the genital mucosa will provide crucial insights for the identification of targets that can be

  11. Combination siRNA therapy against feline coronavirus can delay the emergence of antiviral resistance in vitro.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Phillip; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-03-23

    Virulent biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV), commonly referred to as feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), can result in the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a typically fatal immune mediated disease for which there is currently no effective antiviral treatment. We previously reported the successful in vitro inhibition of FIPV replication by synthetic siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in an immortalised cell line (McDonagh et al., 2011). A major challenge facing the development of any antiviral strategy is that of resistance, a problem which is particularly acute for RNAi based therapeutics due to the exquisite sequence specificity of the targeting mechanism. The development of resistance during treatment can be minimised using combination therapy to raise the genetic barrier or using highly potent compounds which result in a more rapid and pronounced reduction in the viral replication rate, thereby reducing the formation of mutant, and potentially resistant viruses. This study investigated the efficacy of combination siRNA therapy and its ability to delay or prevent viral escape. Virus serially passaged through cells treated with a single or dual siRNAs rapidly acquired resistance, with mutations identified in the siRNA target sites. Combination therapy with three siRNA prevented viral escape over the course of five passages. To identify more potent silencing molecules we also compared the efficacy, in terms of potency and duration of action, of canonical versus Dicer-substrate siRNAs for two previously identified effective viral motifs. Dicer-substrate siRNAs showed equivalent or better potency than canonical siRNAs for the target sites investigated, and may be a more appropriate molecule for in vivo use. Combined, these data inform the potential therapeutic application of antiviral RNAi against FIPV. PMID:25596968

  12. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    PubMed

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. PMID:27082694

  13. Associations between serum lipids and hepatitis C antiviral treatment efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ramcharran, Darmendra; Wahed, Abdus S.; Conjeevaram, Hari S.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Wang, Tianyi; Belle, Steven H.; Yee, Leland J.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one half of patients who undergo antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection will not respond to treatment. African Americans (AAs) are less responsive to treatment than Caucasian Americans (CAs) and the reasons for this disparity are largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that serum lipids may be associated with treatment response. The aims of this study were to evaluate baseline and changes in serum lipids during therapy, determine if serum lipids are associated with virological response, and assess if these measures explain the racial difference in efficacy. Participants were from Virahep-C, a prospective study of treatment naïve participants with type 1 HCV infection who received peginterferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin therapy for up to 48 weeks. Fasting serum lipids were analyzed at baseline, during, and after therapy in 160 AAs and 170 CAs. A relative risk (RR) model was employed to evaluate characteristics associated with sustained virological response (SVR). Antiviral therapy was associated with changes in serum lipids during and after antiviral therapy, with the changes differing by race and the amount of PEG-IFN taken. Baseline lipid measures independently associated with a higher rate of SVR were lower TG and higher LDLc, with an interaction between high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and gender. Lipid measures did not contribute significantly to explaining the racial difference in SVR. Conclusion Lipid levels are associated with SVR, although lipid parameters did not explain the racial difference in treatment response. Results are compatible with proposed biological mechanisms of HCV entry, replication, and secretion, and may underscore new potential therapeutic targets for HCV eradication. PMID:20690192

  14. Update on hepatitis C: Direct-acting antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Leon L; Perumpail, Ryan B; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered 26 years ago. For decades, interferon-based therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for HCV. Recently, several direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved for treatment of HCV-infected patients and to help combat the virus. These drugs have revolutionized the management of HCV as all-oral regimens with favorable side effect profiles and superior rates of sustained virological response. Emerging real-world data are demonstrating results comparable to registration trials for DAA agents. Suddenly, the potential for eradicating HCV is on the horizon. PMID:26668694

  15. Henipavirus outbreaks to antivirals: the current status of potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Broder, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus and Nipah virus, are classic examples of recently emerged viral zoonoses. In a relatively short time since their discoveries in the mid and late 1990s, respectively, a great deal of new information has been accumulated detailing their biology and certain unique characteristics. Their broad species tropism and abilities to cause severe and often fatal respiratory and/or neurologic disease in both animals and humans has sparked considerable interest in developing effective antiviral strategies to prevent or treat henipavirus infection and disease. Here, recent findings on the few most advanced henipavirus countermeasures are summarized and discussed. PMID:22482714

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of certain alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and their corresponding fused pyridines as antiviral and cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    El-Subbagh, H I; Abu-Zaid, S M; Mahran, M A; Badria, F A; Al-Obaid, A M

    2000-07-27

    A new series of 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones, as chalcone analogues carrying variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups, pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines, pyridolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines, and pyrido[4,3-c]-pyridines, carrying an arylidene moiety, and a series of pyrano[3,2-c]pyridines, as flavone and coumarin isosteres, were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antiviral and antitumor activities at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 9 and 18 proved to be active against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), while compound 13 showed moderate activity against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Compounds 14, 26, 28, 33, and 35 exhibited a broad spectrum antitumor activity. In addition, compounds 26, 33, and 35 proved to be of moderate selectivity toward leukemia cell lines. The pyrano[3,2-c]pyridines heterocyclic system proved to be the most active antitumors among the investigated heterocycles. PMID:10956199

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive petalostigma extracts: Toxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    Kalt, F. R.; Cock, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petalostigma pubescens and Petalostigma triloculare were common components of pharmacopeia's of multiple Australian Aboriginal tribal groupings which traditionally inhabited the areas in which they grow. Among these groups, they had a myriad of medicinal uses in treating a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This study was undertaken to test P. pubescens and P. triloculare leaf and fruit extracts for the ability to inhibit bacterial and viral growth and thus validate Australian Aboriginal usage of these plants in treating bacterial and fungal diseases. Materials and Methods: P. pubescens, and P. triloculare leaves and fruit were extracted and tested for antimicrobial, antiviral activity and toxicity. The bioactive extracts were further examined by RP-HPLC and GC-MS to identify the component compounds. Results: The methanol, water and ethyl acetate leaf and fruit extracts of displayed potent antibacterial activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 10 of the 14 bacteria tested (71%) for the leaf extract and 9 of the 14 bacteria tested (64%) for the fruit extracts. The water extracts also had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 8 (57%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. All antibacterial extracts were approximately equally effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, inhibiting the growth of 50-75% of the bacteria tested. The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay. The methanol and water extracts inhibited 26.6-49.0% and 85.4-97.2% of MS2 plaque formation, respectively, with the fruit extracts being more potent inhibitors. All ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of MS2 plaque formation. All extracts were also non-toxic or of low toxicity. Analysis of these extracts by RP-HPLC showed that the P. triloculare ethyl acetate fruit extract was

  18. Design, Synthesis, Biochemical, and Antiviral Evaluations of C6 Benzyl and C6 Biarylmethyl Substituted 2-Hydroxylisoquinoline-1,3-diones: Dual Inhibition against HIV Reverse Transcriptase-Associated RNase H and Polymerase with Antiviral Activities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) remains the only virally encoded enzymatic function not targeted by current chemotherapy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although numerous chemotypes have been reported to inhibit HIV RNase H biochemically, few show significant antiviral activity against HIV. We report herein the design, synthesis, and biological evaluations of a novel variant of 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3-dione (HID) scaffold featuring a crucial C-6 benzyl or biarylmethyl moiety. The synthesis involved a recently reported metal-free direct benzylation between tosylhydrazone and boronic acid, which allowed the generation of structural diversity for the hydrophobic aromatic region. Biochemical studies showed that the C-6 benzyl and biarylmethyl HID analogues, previously unknown chemotypes, consistently inhibited HIV RT-associated RNase H and polymerase with IC50s in low to submicromolar range. The observed dual inhibitory activity remained uncompromised against RT mutants resistant to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs), suggesting the involvement of binding site(s) other than the NNRTI binding pocket. Intriguingly, these same compounds inhibited the polymerase, but not the RNase H function of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMLV) RT and also inhibited Escherichia coli RNase H. Additional biochemical testing revealed a substantially reduced level of inhibition against HIV integrase. Molecular docking corroborates favorable binding of these analogues to the active site of HIV RNase H. Finally, a number of these analogues also demonstrated antiviral activity at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:25522204

  19. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    PubMed

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease. PMID:19446931

  20. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  1. Early antiviral response and virus-induced genes in fish.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Eloi R; Langevin, Christelle; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In fish as in mammals, virus infections induce changes in the expression of many host genes. Studies conducted during the last fifteen years revealed a major contribution of the interferon system in fish antiviral response. This review describes the screening methods applied to compare the impact of virus infections on the transcriptome in different fish species. These approaches identified a "core" set of genes that are strongly induced in most viral infections. The "core" interferon-induced genes (ISGs) are generally conserved in vertebrates, some of them inhibiting a wide range of viruses in mammals. A selection of ISGs -PKR, vig-1/viperin, Mx, ISG15 and finTRIMs - is further analyzed here to illustrate the diversity and complexity of the mechanisms involved in establishing an antiviral state. Most of the ISG-based pathways remain to be directly determined in fish. Fish ISGs are often duplicated and the functional specialization of multigenic families will be of particular interest for future studies. PMID:21414349

  2. Antiviral Drug- and Multidrug Resistance in Cytomegalovirus Infected SCT Patients

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Katharina; Hamprecht, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    In pediatric and adult patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT) disseminated infections caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause life threatening diseases. For treatment, the three antivirals ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (PFA) and cidofovir (CDV) are approved and most frequently used. Resistance to all of these antiviral drugs may induce a severe problem in this patient cohort. Responsible for resistance phenomena are mutations in the HCMV phosphotransferase-gene (UL97) and the polymerase-gene (UL54). Most frequently mutations in the UL97-gene are associated with resistance to GCV. Resistance against all three drugs is associated to mutations in the UL54-gene. Monitoring of drug resistance by genotyping is mostly done by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. For phenotyping with cell culture the isolation of HCMV is a prerequisite. The development of multidrug resistance with mutation in both genes is rare, but it is often associated with a fatal outcome. The manifestation of multidrug resistance is mostly associated with combined UL97/UL54-mutations. Normally, mutations in the UL97 gene occur initially followed by UL54 mutation after therapy switch. The appearance of UL54-mutation alone without any detection of UL97-mutation is rare. Interestingly, in a number of patients the UL97 mutation could be detected in specific compartments exclusively and not in blood. PMID:25750703

  3. Inborn errors of anti-viral interferon immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; de Diego, Rebeca Perez; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The three types of interferon (IFNs) are essential for immunity against at least some viruses in the mouse model of experimental infections, type I IFNs displaying the broadest and strongest anti-viral activity. Consistently, human genetic studies have shown that type II IFN is largely redundant for immunity against viruses in the course of natural infections. The precise contributions of human type I and III IFNs remain undefined. However, various inborn errors of anti-viral IFN immunity have been described, which can result in either broad or narrow immunological and viral phenotypes. The broad disorders impair the response to (STAT1, TYK2) or the production of at least type I and type III IFNs following multiple stimuli (NEMO), resulting in multiple viral infections at various sites, including herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The narrow disorders impair exclusively (TLR3) or mostly (UNC-93B, TRIF, TRAF3) the TLR3-dependent induction of type I and III IFNs, leading to HSE in apparently otherwise healthy individuals. These recent discoveries highlight the importance of human type I and III IFNs in protective immunity against viruses, including the TLR3-IFN pathway in protection against HSE. PMID:22347990

  4. Human IFNAR2 deficiency: lessons for antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, C.J.A.; Mohamad, S.M.B; Young, D.F.; Skelton, A.J.; Leahy, T.R.; Munday, D.C.; Butler, K.M.; Morfopoulou, S.; Brown, J.R.; Hubank, M.; Connell, J.; Gavin, P.J.; McMahon, C.; Dempsey, E.; Lynch, N.E.; Jacques, T.S.; Valappil, M.; Cant, A.J.; Breuer, J.; Engelhardt, K.R.; Randall, R.E.; Hambleton, S.

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) is a fundamental antiviral defense mechanism. Mouse models have been pivotal to understanding the role of IFN-α/β in immunity, although validation of these findings in humans has been limited. We investigated a previously healthy child with fatal encephalitis following inoculation of the live-attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. By targeted resequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in the high-affinity interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR2) in the proband, as well as a newborn sibling, that rendered cells unresponsive to IFN-α/β. Reconstitution of the proband’s cells with wild-type IFNAR2 restored IFN-α/β responsiveness and control of IFN-attenuated viruses. Despite the severe outcome of systemic live-vaccine challenge, the proband had previously shown no evidence of heightened susceptibility to respiratory viral pathogens. The phenotype of IFNAR2 deficiency, together with similar findings in STAT2 deficient patients, supports an essential but narrow role for IFN-α/β in human antiviral immunity. Summary Human IFNAR2 deficiency causes fatal susceptibility to live viral vaccines, revealing a vital but narrow nonredundant role for IFN-α/β in viral immunity. PMID:26424569

  5. Drosha as an interferon-independent antiviral factor.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jillian S; Schmid, Sonja; Aguado, Lauren C; Sabin, Leah R; Yasunaga, Ari; Shim, Jaehee V; Sachs, David; Cherry, Sara; tenOever, Benjamin R

    2014-05-13

    Utilization of antiviral small interfering RNAs is thought to be largely restricted to plants, nematodes, and arthropods. In an effort to determine whether a physiological interplay exists between the host small RNA machinery and the cellular response to virus infection in mammals, we evaluated antiviral activity in the presence and absence of Dicer or Drosha, the RNase III nucleases responsible for generating small RNAs. Although loss of Dicer did not compromise the cellular response to virus infection, Drosha deletion resulted in a significant increase in virus levels. Here, we demonstrate that diverse RNA viruses trigger exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1)-dependent Drosha translocation into the cytoplasm in a manner independent of de novo protein synthesis or the canonical type I IFN system. Additionally, increased virus infection in the absence of Drosha was not due to a loss of viral small RNAs but, instead, correlated with cleavage of viral genomic RNA and modulation of the host transcriptome. Taken together, we propose that Drosha represents a unique and conserved arm of the cellular defenses used to combat virus infection. PMID:24778219

  6. Human IFNAR2 deficiency: Lessons for antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christopher J A; Mohamad, Siti M B; Young, Dan F; Skelton, Andrew J; Leahy, T Ronan; Munday, Diane C; Butler, Karina M; Morfopoulou, Sofia; Brown, Julianne R; Hubank, Mike; Connell, Jeff; Gavin, Patrick J; McMahon, Cathy; Dempsey, Eugene; Lynch, Niamh E; Jacques, Thomas S; Valappil, Manoj; Cant, Andrew J; Breuer, Judith; Engelhardt, Karin R; Randall, Richard E; Hambleton, Sophie

    2015-09-30

    Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) is a fundamental antiviral defense mechanism. Mouse models have been pivotal to understanding the role of IFN-α/β in immunity, although validation of these findings in humans has been limited. We investigated a previously healthy child with fatal encephalitis after inoculation of the live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. By targeted resequencing, we identified a homozygous mutation in the high-affinity IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR2) in the proband, as well as a newborn sibling, that rendered cells unresponsive to IFN-α/β. Reconstitution of the proband's cells with wild-type IFNAR2 restored IFN-α/β responsiveness and control of IFN-attenuated viruses. Despite the severe outcome of systemic live vaccine challenge, the proband had previously shown no evidence of heightened susceptibility to respiratory viral pathogens. The phenotype of IFNAR2 deficiency, together with similar findings in STAT2-deficient patients, supports an essential but narrow role for IFN-α/β in human antiviral immunity. PMID:26424569

  7. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asma; Felmlee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data. PMID:26694454

  8. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663

  9. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review. PMID:26282942

  10. Autophagy and selective deployment of Atg proteins in antiviral defense

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient process eukaryotic cells utilize to remove and recycle intracellular material in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. In metazoans, the autophagy machinery not only functions in this capacity but also has evolved to perform a diverse repertoire of intracellular transport and regulatory functions. In response to virus infections, the autophagy machinery degrades viruses, shuttles viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns to endosomes containing Toll-like receptors, facilitates viral-antigen processing for major histocompatibility complex presentation and transports antiviral proteins to viral replication sites. This is accomplished through canonical autophagy or through processes involving distinct subsets of the autophagy-related genes (Atgs). Herein, we discuss how the variable components of the autophagy machinery contribute to antiviral defense and highlight three emerging themes: first, autophagy delivers viral cytosolic components to several distinct endolysosomal compartments; second, Atg proteins act alone, as subgroups or collectively; and third, the specificity of autophagy and the autophagy machinery is achieved by recognition of triggers and selective targeting by adaptors. PMID:23042773

  11. Anti-Viral Antibody Profiling by High Density Protein Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xiaofang; Wiktor, Peter; Kahn, Peter; Brunner, Al; Khela, Amritpal; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Barker, Kristi; Yu, Xiaobo; Magee, Mitch; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Gibson, David; Rooney, Madeleine E; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections elicit anti-viral antibodies and have been associated with various chronic diseases. Detection of these antibodies can facilitate diagnosis, treatment of infection and understanding of the mechanisms of virus associated diseases. In this work, we assayed anti-viral antibodies using a novel high density-nucleic acid programmable protein array (HD-NAPPA) platform. Individual viral proteins were expressed in situ directly from plasmids encoding proteins in an array of microscopic reaction chambers. Quality of protein display and serum response was assured by comparing intra- and inter- array correlation within or between printing batches with average correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. HD-NAPPA showed higher signal to background (S/B) ratio compared with standard NAPPA on planar glass slides and ELISA. Antibody responses to 761 antigens from 25 different viruses were profiled among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Common as well as unique antibody reactivity patterns were detected between patients and healthy controls. We believe HD-viral-NAPPA will enable the study of host-pathogen interactions at unprecedented dimensions and elucidate the role of pathogen infections in disease development. PMID:25758251

  12. L-696,229 specifically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and possesses antiviral activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M E; O'Brien, J A; Ruffing, T L; Nunberg, J H; Schleif, W A; Quintero, J C; Siegl, P K; Hoffman, J M; Smith, A M; Emini, E A

    1992-01-01

    L-696,229 (3-[2-(benzoxazol-2-yl)ethyl]-5-ethyl-6-methyl-pyridin-2 (1H)-one) is a specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that possesses antiviral activity in cell culture (W.S. Saari, J.M. Hoffman, J.S. Wai, T.E. Fisher, C.S. Rooney, A.M. Smith, C.M. Thomas, M. E. Goldman, J. A. O'Brien, J. H. Nunberg, J. C. Quintero, W. A. Schleif, E. A. Emini, and P. S. Anderson, J. Med. Chem. 34:2922-2925, 1991). In the present study, the RT-inhibitory activity and antiviral properties were characterized in detail. The inhibition of RT activity was template-primer dependent with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.018 to 0.50 microM and was noncompetitive with respect to deoxynucleoside triphosphates. L-696,229 inhibited RT activity in a mutually exclusive manner with respect to either phosphonoformate or azidothymidine triphosphate and was a weak partial inhibitor of the RNase H activity associated with HIV-1 RT. The compound did not significantly inhibit other retroviral or cellular polymerases at 300 microM.L-696,229 inhibited the spread of HIV-1 infection in cell cultures with all cell types and viral isolates tested, including human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a virus isolate resistant to azidothymidine. PMID:1380788

  13. Phenol sulfotransferases: Candidate genes for Batten disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, T.P.; Probst, P.; Obermoeller, R.D.

    1995-06-05

    Batten disease (juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; JNCL) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the cytosomal accumulation of autofluorescent protolipopigments in neurons and other cell types. The Batten disease gene (CLN3) has not yet been identified, but has been mapped to a small region of human chromosome area 16p12.1-p11.2. We recently reported the fortuitous discovery that the cytosolic phenol sulfotransferase gene (STP) is located within this same interval of chromosome 16p. Since phenol sulfotransferase is expressed in neurons, can sulfate lipophilic phenolic compounds, and is mapped near CLN3, STP is considered as a candidate gene for Batten disease. YAC and cosmid cloning results have further substantiated the close proximity of STP and a highly related sulfotransferase (STM), encoding the catecholamine-preferring enzyme, to the CLN3 region of chromosome 16p. In this report, we summarize some of the recent progress in the identification of two phenol sulfotransferase genes (STP and STM) as positional candidate genes for Batten disease. 42 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Quasar candidates near 1057 + 01

    SciTech Connect

    Crampton, D.; Cartledge, S.; Cowley, A.P.; Hartwick, F.D.A. Arizona State Univ., Tempe Victoria Univ. )

    1991-04-01

    Positions and magnitudes are given for 143 quasar candidates and three white dwarf candidates discovered with the CFHT blue grens in a 2.7 square degree area in the direction 1057 + 01. The goal of this survey is to provide complete samples of quasars to study the large scale distribution of matter at moderate to high (z less than 3.4) redshifts. Part of the region surveyed in this paper was previously studied by Crampton and Parmar (1983), allowing a comparison of the search and measurements accuracies. Redshifts, derived from MMT spectroscopy, for 27 of the candidates are also presented. One quasar, 1058.1 + 0052, displays strong broad absorption lines characteristic of BAL quasars. 5 refs.

  15. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) can cause reproductive failure in swine resulting in economic losses to the industry. Antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on PPV. In this study, the antiviral activity of ...

  16. Impact of antivirals and emergence of drug resistance: HSV-2 epidemic control.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, H B; Blower, S M

    2000-03-01

    Genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2), affects more people world-wide than any other sexually transmitted disease (STD). Antivirals are effective in decreasing the duration of symptoms and in reducing viral shedding; however, currently antiviral usage is extremely low. Increased usage of antivirals would have a beneficial epidemic-level effect (due to the decreased transmission of drug-sensitive strains) as well as potentially a detrimental epidemic-level effect (if drug-resistant strains emerge and are transmitted). Previously, we have developed a mathematical model that we have used to predict (with a degree of uncertainty) the beneficial and the potential detrimental epidemic-level effects of increased antiviral usage. Here, we use our model to make further predictions about the impact of increasing antiviral usage. We calculate the effect, on individual patients, of antiviral usage in terms of: (1) the decrease in the average number of infectious days per year and (2) an individual's lifetime probability of acquiring permanent drug resistance. We also use our model: (1) to determine the probability of eliminating herpes by antivirals and (2) to quantify the effect of increasing antiviral usage on decreasing HSV-2 prevalence. Our results show that theoretically it would be possible to eliminate herpes epidemics by using a drug that does not cure. PMID:10763542

  17. Respiratory Viral Testing and Influenza Antiviral Prescriptions During Hospitalization for Acute Respiratory Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Rolfes, Melissa A.; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly M.; Meek, James I.; Fry, Alicia M.; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined respiratory viral testing and influenza antiviral prescriptions at a US tertiary care hospital. During the 2010–11 to 2012–13 influenza seasons, antiviral prescriptions among acute respiratory illness (ARI) hospitalizations were associated with viral testing (rate ratio = 15.0), and empiric prescriptions were rare (<1% of ARI hospitalizations). PMID:26885545

  18. Hypericum in Infection: Identification of Anti-viral and Anti-inflammatory Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum and Prunella supplements for human-health benefit, focusing on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain effects. This paper reports on ongoing anti-viral and anti-inflammatory studies on Hypericu...

  19. Synthesis of phosphonate analogues of the antiviral cyclopropane nucleoside A-5021.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Tomoyuki; Sekiyama, Takaaki; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A series of phosphonate analogues of the antiviral cyclopropane nucleoside A-5021 were synthesized from (1S*, 7R*)-3,5-dioxa-4,4-diphenylbicyclo[5. 1.0]octane-l-methanol by a 10-step process. In contrast to the potent antiherpetic activity of A-5021, they were all devoid of antiviral activity. PMID:16270661

  20. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602