Science.gov

Sample records for candidate biological control

  1. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  2. Life cycle of Uromyces salsolae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Salsola tragus (Russian thistle)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salsola tragus (Russian thistle, Chenopodiaceae) is a major weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Uromyces salsolae from the Yasensky Spit in Russia is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of S. tragus in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) contain...

  3. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  4. High Host Specificity in Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a Biological Control Candidate Against the White Peach Scale in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-introductory host specificity tests were performed with Encarsia diaspidicola, a biological control candidate against the invasive white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona. False oleander scale, P. cockerelli, coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor, cycad scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, greenh...

  5. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes key aspects of the biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus, an eriophyid mite that was recently described as a new species from Dipsacus fullonum and D. laciniatus (Dipsacaceae). Preliminary host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus s...

  6. Are three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent for Lygodium microphyllum, the same host biotype?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum, were barcoded using the D2 expansion domain, to determine which of two biotypes they represented. The first colony, collected in 2005 & 2007, was used for the initial host range testing. Colon...

  7. Host-specificity testing on Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of Dipsacus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leipothrix dipsacivagus Petanovic & Rector is the first eriophyid mite recorded from hosts in the genus Dipsacus and is considered a potential candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacaceae). Host-specificity testing on Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae) was carried out ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  9. Biology, distribution, and field host plants of Macroplea japana in China: an unsuitable candidate for biological control of Hydrilla verticillata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beetle Macroplea japana (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was regarded as a potential agent to biological control Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle. Herein we describe its discovery in South China and descriptions of the beetle biology, including its distribution and host plants. All stages of...

  10. Molecular characterization of Gonatocerus tuberculifemur (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), a prospective Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) biological control candidate agent from South America:

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We genetically characterized the prospective South American egg parasitoid candidate, Gonatocerus tuberculifemur, of the glassy-winged sharsphooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, for a neoclassical biological control program in California. Two molecular methods, inter-simple sequence repeat-polym...

  11. Leaf-spot disease on European mistletoe (Viscum album) caused by Phaeobotryosphaeria visci: a potential candidate for biological control.

    PubMed

    Varga, Ildikó; Taller, János; Baltazár, Tivadar; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Poczai, Péter

    2012-06-01

    Viscum album (European mistletoe), a perennial, evergreen, hemiparasitic shrub, infects a wide range of woody species. It adversely affects the height and diameter of growth and it is associated with increased mortality of its hosts. There is no effective control methods against it. We have found a specific hyperparasitic fungus, which can completely destroy European mistletoe by infecting its branches, leaves and berries. Both morphological and molecular identification, based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences (rDNA-ITS), established its identity as Phaeobotryosphaeria visci. Our analysis also revealed unexpected ITS variability, as compared to the previous studies, that needs to be considered in identifying of this pathogen. Because of its efficient pathogenicity this fungus might be a good candidate for biological control of mistletoe. PMID:22395478

  12. The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

  13. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  14. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  15. DNA Fingerprinting To Improve Data Collection Efficiency and Yield in a Host-Specificity Test of a Weed Biological Control Candidate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An open-field test was conducted in southern France to assess the host-specificity of Ceratapion basicorne, a candidate for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis; YST). Test plants were infested by naturally occurring populations of C. basicorne but were also exposed to s...

  16. Integrative species delimitation in photosynthetic sea slugs reveals twenty candidate species in three nominal taxa studied for drug discovery, plastid symbiosis or biological control

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Retana, Jennifer N.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding can highlight taxa in which conventional taxonomy underestimates species richness, identifying mitochondrial lineages that may correspond to unrecognized species. However, key assumptions of barcoding remain untested for many groups of soft-bodied marine invertebrates with poorly resolved taxonomy. Here, we applied an integrative approach for species delimitation to herbivorous sea slugs in clade Sacoglossa, in which unrecognized diversity may complicate studies of drug discovery, plastid endosymbiosis, and biological control. Using the mitochondrial barcoding COI gene and the nuclear histone 3 gene, we tested the hypothesis that three widely distributed “species” each comprised a complex of independently evolving lineages. Morphological and reproductive characters were then used to evaluate whether each lineage was distinguishable as a candidate species. The “circumtropical” Elysia ornata comprised a Caribbean species and four Indo-Pacific candidate species that are potential sources of kahalalides, anti-cancer compounds. The “monotypic” and highly photosynthetic Plakobranchus ocellatus, used for over 60 years to study chloroplast symbiosis, comprised 10 candidate species. Finally, six candidate species were distinguished in the Elysia tomentosa complex, including potential biological control agents for invasive green algae (Caulerpa spp.). We show that a candidate species approach developed for vertebrates effectively categorizes cryptic diversity in marine invertebrates, and that integrating threshold COI distances with non-molecular character data can delimit species even when common assumptions of DNA barcoding are violated. PMID:23876292

  17. Effect of host-plant genotypes on the performance of three candidate biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius in Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pepper is a weed in Florida, California and Hawaii that originates from South America. In Florida we have found two distinct types of Brazilian pepper plant and a hybrid between these two types. To control this weed, three biological control agents are being evaluated from Brazil. These ar...

  18. Life history of Parafreutreta regalis, (diptera:tephritidae), a candidate agent for biological control of delairea odorata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lamaire, is an ornamental vine, native to the eastern part of South Africa, which has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. Exploratory surveys in South Africa located several potential biological control agents. One of these is Parafreu...

  19. Laboratory Host Range of Parafreutreta regalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lamaire) is an ornamental vine that has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. It is native to the eastern part of South Africa, and surveys there located several potential biological control agents for this weed. One of these is Parafreu...

  20. Host range testing and biology of Abia sericea (Cimbicidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp., Dipsacaceae) are widespread in the USA, being present in 43 states and listed as noxious in five. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (L.) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. The host range, biology, and life history of this ins...

  1. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  2. Searching for microbial biological control candidates for invasive grasses: coupling expanded field research with strides in biotechnology and grassland restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly invasive grasses (e.g. Bromus spp., Pennisetum ciliare, Taeniatherum caput-medusae) are largely unabated in much of the arid Western U.S., despite more than 70 years of control attempts with a wide array of tools and management practices. The development and sustained integration of new appro...

  3. Mining biological databases for candidate disease genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Terry A.; Scheetz, Todd; Webster, Gregg L.; Casavant, Thomas L.

    2001-07-01

    The publicly-funded effort to sequence the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome, the Human Genome Project (HGP), has currently produced more than 93% of the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome into a preliminary `draft' format. In addition, several valuable sources of information have been developed as direct and indirect results of the HGP. These include the sequencing of model organisms (rat, mouse, fly, and others), gene discovery projects (ESTs and full-length), and new technologies such as expression analysis and resources (micro-arrays or gene chips). These resources are invaluable for the researchers identifying the functional genes of the genome that transcribe and translate into the transcriptome and proteome, both of which potentially contain orders of magnitude more complexity than the genome itself. Preliminary analyses of this data identified approximately 30,000 - 40,000 human `genes.' However, the bulk of the effort still remains -- to identify the functional and structural elements contained within the transcriptome and proteome, and to associate function in the transcriptome and proteome to genes. A fortuitous consequence of the HGP is the existence of hundreds of databases containing biological information that may contain relevant data pertaining to the identification of disease-causing genes. The task of mining these databases for information on candidate genes is a commercial application of enormous potential. We are developing a system to acquire and mine data from specific databases to aid our efforts to identify disease genes. A high speed cluster of Linux of workstations is used to analyze sequence and perform distributed sequence alignments as part of our data mining and processing. This system has been used to mine GeneMap99 sequences within specific genomic intervals to identify potential candidate disease genes associated with Bardet-Biedle Syndrome (BBS).

  4. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  5. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  6. Population establishment of and promising early results with the brown lygodium moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis - a candidate biological control agent of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most serious invasive, weeds affecting southern and central Florida. Management of this weed using traditional strategies has proved difficult and expensive, with limited long-term success. In early 2008, a new biological control agent cal...

  7. Life history and host range of the leaf blotcher Eucosmophora schinusivora; a candidate for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host range of Eucosmophora schinusivora Davis & Wheeler (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental and agricultural weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The l...

  8. Laboratory and open-field tests on Abia sericea (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) - a candidate for biological control of teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are widespread in the USA (43 states) and listed as noxious in five states. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (Linné, 1758) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. Abia sericea lays its eggs under the epidermis of the leaves of Di...

  9. F1 Sterile insect technique: a novel approach for risk assessment of Episimus unguiculus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolus in the Continental USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal regulations mandate that researchers in the field of classical weed biological control follow the precautionary principle when proposing the release of an organism that can affect our environment. However, the host range observed in traditional laboratory cage experiments typically is broad...

  10. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  11. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  12. Host-range testing of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a candidate for biological control of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.

    PubMed

    Herrick, N J; McAvoy, T J; Snyder, A L; Salom, S M; Kok, L T

    2012-02-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven, is an invasive species native to Asia. It first was introduced into the United States in the 1700 s and now is distributed throughout much of North America. Mechanical and chemical controls are current suppression tactics, however, implementation is costly. A weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold), was identified in China and imported for quarantine testing in 2004 as a potential biological control agent. Host specificity tests on adult feeding, larval development, and oviposition of this weevil were conducted from 2007 to 2011 on A. altissima and 29 nontarget species. Eucryptorrhynchus brandti adults fed significantly more on A. altissima foliage when compared with all test species. Range of means for feeding on A. altissima was 32.5-106.5 mm(2)/adult/d. In no-choice tests, Simarouba glauca DC, Leitneria floridana Chapm., and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F., had feeding rates of only 10, 49, and 10%, respectively, compared with the level of feeding on A. altissima. The mean range of adult feeding by E. brandti on all other test species was <7% of feeding on A. altissima (0.0-3.3 ± 5.0 mm(2)/adult/d). In the no-choice larval inoculation tests, larval development only occurred in two of 10 L. floridana seedlings compared with seven of 10 A. altissima seedlings. In the no-choice oviposition tests, oviposition and subsequent larval development did not occur in L. floridiana, whereas all seven A. altissima seedlings supported oviposition and subsequent larval development. The weevil did not appear to be a threat to L. floridana or any other nontarget species tested. Therefore, we conclude that Eucryptorrhynchus brandti is highly host specific to A. altissima. PMID:22525066

  13. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine. PMID:20021760

  14. The host range and impact of Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising candidate agent for biological control of Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...

  15. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  16. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  17. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  18. Biological control of ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  19. An Exercise in Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  20. Candidate Species Selection and Controlled Environment Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Research was undertaken to attempt to identify the causal agents for intumescences that develop on many different species of plants in controlled environments. Concentration and filtration procedures were not successful in identifying any particular compounds. The injury was found to develop, even though the atmosphere for the plants is filtered through activated charcoal, potassium permanganate, or is subjected to catalytic combustion at 450 C. Thus, the causal agent is apparently either an oxidized compound or specific element, or the result of some unrecognized variation in physical conditions around the plants. The research has demonstrated that the injury is controlled to a significant extent by temperature. Growing temperatures of 20 degrees and 25 degrees C resulted in serious injury on plants, but temperatures of 30 C resulted in very little injury.

  1. Osteosarcoma Genetics and Epigenetics: Emerging Biology and Candidate Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James J.; Khanna, Chand

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone, typically presenting in the first or second decade of life. Unfortunately, clinical outcomes for osteosarcoma patients have not substantially improved in over 30 years. This stagnation in therapeutic advances is perhaps explained by the genetic, epigenetic, and biological complexities of this rare tumor. In this review we provide a general background on the biology of osteosarcoma and the clinical status quo. We go on to enumerate the genetic and epigenetic defects identified in osteosarcoma. Finally, we discuss ongoing large-scale studies in the field and potential new therapies that are currently under investigation. PMID:26349415

  2. Osteosarcoma Genetics and Epigenetics: Emerging Biology and Candidate Therapies.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James J; Khanna, Chand

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone, typically presenting in the first or second decade of life. Unfortunately, clinical outcomes for osteosarcoma patients have not substantially improved in over 30 years. This stagnation in therapeutic advances is perhaps explained by the genetic, epigenetic, and biological complexities of this rare tumor. In this review we provide a general background on the biology of osteosarcoma and the clinical status quo. We go on to enumerate the genetic and epigenetic defects identified in osteosarcoma. Finally, we discuss ongoing large-scale studies in the field and potential new therapies that are currently under investigation. PMID:26349415

  3. CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control of weeds is an important tool for managing invasive alien plants that have become too widespread to control by conventional methods. It involves the discovery and release of naturally occurring species of natural enemies (insects, mites or pathogens) to control a pest (...

  4. Biology of gait control

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, C.; Verghese, J.; Fantino, B.; Herrmann, F.R.; Allali, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adverse neuromuscular events have been described in case of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, suggesting that vitamin D may be involved in gait stability. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) and serum 25OHD concentration in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: STV and 25OHD concentration were assessed in 411 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 70.4 ± 1.8 years, 57.9% women). The following established 25OHD thresholds were used: severe 25OHD insufficiency <10 ng/mL, moderate 10–30 ng/mL, and normal >30 ng/mL. Age, number of drugs used per day, use of psychoactive drugs, depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, history of falls, distance visual acuity, lower limb proprioception, center of mass (CoM) motion, and walking speed were considered as potential confounders. Results: A total of 16.6% (n = 68) of subjects had severe 25OHD insufficiency, 70.3% (n = 289) moderate insufficiency, and 13.1% (n = 54) normal concentrations. In the full adjusted and the stepwise backward linear regression models, high STV (worse performance) was associated with severe 25OHD insufficiency (p = 0.028 and p = 0.044, respectively), high CoM motion (p = 0.031 and p = 0.014, respectively), and low lower limb proprioception score (p = 0.017 and p = 0.008, respectively). The stepwise backward regression model also showed that high STV was associated with female gender (p = 0.041). Conclusions: Low serum 25OHD concentrations were associated with high STV reflecting a disturbed gait control. This association could be explained by a possible action of vitamin D on different components involved in gait control. PMID:21471466

  5. Herbivory, Predation, and Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terence M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Authors describe a set of controlled ecosystems that can be used to demonstrate the effects of herbivory on the health and growth of a plant population and of predation on the growth of a primary consumer population. The system also shows the effectiveness of biological pest control measures in a dramatic way. The construction of the ecosystems is…

  6. Biological control in greenhouse systems.

    PubMed

    Paulitz, T C; Bélanger, R R

    2001-01-01

    The controlled environment of greenhouses, the high value of the crops, and the limited number of registered fungicides offer a unique niche for the biological control of plant diseases. During the past ten years, over 80 biocontrol products have been marketed worldwide. A large percentage of these have been developed for greenhouse crops. Products to control soilborne pathogens such as Sclerotinia, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium include Coniothyrium minitans, species of Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Streptomyces, and Bacillus, and nonpathogenic Fusarium. Products containing Trichoderma, Ampelomyces quisqualis, Bacillus, and Ulocladium are being developed to control the primary foliar diseases, Botrytis and powdery mildew. The development of Pseudomonas for the control of Pythium diseases in hydroponics and Pseudozyma flocculosa for the control of powdery mildew by two Canadian research programs is presented. In the future, biological control of diseases in greenhouses could predominate over chemical pesticides, in the same way that biological control of greenhouse insects predominates in the United Kingdom. The limitations in formulation, registration, and commercialization are discussed, along with suggested future research priorities. PMID:11701861

  7. CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a univoltine weevil native to Eurasia whose larvae develop in root-crowns of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae). This insect was "rejected" as a prospective biological control agent about 15 years ago after preliminary evaluation ...

  8. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  9. Control theory meets synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

  10. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  11. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    PubMed

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  12. Mining frequent biological sequences based on bitmap without candidate sequence generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Davis, Darryl N; Ren, Jiadong

    2016-02-01

    Biological sequences carry a lot of important genetic information of organisms. Furthermore, there is an inheritance law related to protein function and structure which is useful for applications such as disease prediction. Frequent sequence mining is a core technique for association rule discovery, but existing algorithms suffer from low efficiency or poor error rate because biological sequences differ from general sequences with more characteristics. In this paper, an algorithm for mining Frequent Biological Sequence based on Bitmap, FBSB, is proposed. FBSB uses bitmaps as the simple data structure and transforms each row into a quicksort list QS-list for sequence growth. For the continuity and accuracy requirement of biological sequence mining, tested sequences used during the mining process of FBSB are real ones instead of generated candidates, and all the frequent sequences can be mined without any errors. Comparing with other algorithms, the experimental results show that FBSB can achieve a better performance on both run time and scalability. PMID:26773937

  13. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from plant-parasitic nematodes. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared to inundative applications of ...

  14. Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

  15. Biology and host range of Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis; a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow Triadica sebifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera, is an invasive weed that infests natural and agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. A candidate for biological control of Chinese tallow has been studied under quarantine conditions. The biology and host range of a primitive leaf feeding beetle, Heterapoderops...

  16. Controlling Sulfuryl-Transfer Biology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kopp, Felix; Wu, Peng; Leyh, Thomas S

    2016-05-19

    In humans, the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze regiospecific transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to thousands of metabolites, including numerous signaling small molecules, and thus regulates their activities and half-lives. Imbalances in the in vivo set points of these reactions leads to disease. Here, with the goal of controlling sulfonation in vivo, molecular ligand-recognition principles in the SULT and nuclear receptor families are integrated in creating a strategy that can prevent sulfonation of a compound without significantly altering its receptor affinity, or inhibiting SULTS. The strategy is validated by using it to control the sulfonation and estrogen receptor (ER) activating activity of raloxifene (a US Food and Drug Administration-approved selective estrogen receptor modulator) and its derivatives. Preventing sulfonation is shown to enhance ER-activation efficacy 10(4)-fold in studies using Ishikawa cells. The strategy offers the opportunity to control sulfuryl transfer on a compound-by-compound basis, to enhance the efficacy of sulfonated drugs, and to explore the biology of sulfuryl transfer with unprecedented precision. PMID:27203377

  17. PiNGO: a Cytoscape plugin to find candidate genes in biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Smoot, Michael; Ono, Keiichiro; Ideker, Trey; Maere, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Summary: PiNGO is a tool to screen biological networks for candidate genes, i.e. genes predicted to be involved in a biological process of interest. The user can narrow the search to genes with particular known functions or exclude genes belonging to particular functional classes. PiNGO provides support for a wide range of organisms and Gene Ontology classification schemes, and it can easily be customized for other organisms and functional classifications. PiNGO is implemented as a plugin for Cytoscape, a popular network visualization platform. Availability: PiNGO is distributed as an open-source Java package under the GNU General Public License (http://www.gnu.org/), and can be downloaded via the Cytoscape plugin manager. A detailed user guide and tutorial are available on the PiNGO website (http://www.psb.ugent.be/esb/PiNGO. Contact: steven.maere@psb.vib-ugent.be PMID:21278188

  18. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  19. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other Pasteuria members. Pasteuria spp. are distributed worldwide and have been reported from 323 nematode species belonging to 116 genera of free-living, predatory, plant-parasitic, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Artificial cultivation of P. penetrans has met with limited success; large-scale production of endospores depends on in vivo cultivation. Temperature affects endospore attachment, germination, pathogenesis, and completion of the life cycle in the nematode pseudocoelom. The biological control potential of Pasteuria spp. have been demonstrated on 20 crops; host nematodes include Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Heterodera spp., Meloidogyne spp., and Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Pasteuria penetrans plays an important role in some suppressive soils. The efficacy of the bacterium as a biological control agent has been examined. Approximately 100,000 endospores/g of soil provided immediate control of the peanut root-knot nematode, whereas 1,000 and 5,000 endospores/g of soil each amplified in the host nematode and became suppressive after 3 years. PMID:19274225

  20. Biologically-Induced Micropitting of Alloy 22, a Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Horn, J

    2003-11-03

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment (or microcosm) consisting of crushed rock (tuff) from the Yucca Mountain repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years at room temperature and 30 C. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Room temperature, biotically-incubated coupons show a wide distribution of pores covering the coupon surface, while coupons incubated at 30 C show the pores restricted to polishing ridges.

  1. A Candidate Vegetation Index of Biological Integrity Based on Species Dominance and Habitat Fidelity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gara, Brian D; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas of the USA and are used in some states to make critical management decisions. An underlying concept of all VIBIs is that they respond negatively to disturbance. The Ohio VIBI (OVIBI) is calculated from 10 metrics, which are different for each wetland vegetation class. We present a candidate vegetation index of biotic integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) that requires only two metrics to calculate an overall score regardless of vegetation class. These metrics focus equally on the critical ecosystem elements of diversity and dominance as related to a species’ degree of fidelity to habitat requirements. The indices were highly correlated but varied among vegetation classes. Both indices responded negatively with a published index of wetland disturbance in 261 Ohio wetlands. Unlike VIBI-FQ, however, errors in classifying wetland vegetation may lead to errors in calculating OVIBI scores. This is especially critical when assessing the ecological condition of rapidly developing ecosystems typically associated with wetland restoration and creation projects. Compared to OVIBI, the VIBI-FQ requires less field work, is much simpler to calculate and interpret, and can potentially be applied to all habitat types. This candidate index, which has been “standardized” across habitats, would make it easier to prioritize funding because it would score the “best” and “worst” of all habitats appropriately and allow for objective comparison across different vegetation classes.

  2. New generation super alloy candidates for medical applications: corrosion behavior, cation release and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Ziegenhagen, R; Unger, R E; Eschler, P Y; Constantin, F

    2014-12-01

    Three super alloy candidates (X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N, NiCr21 MoNbFe 8-3-5 AlTi, CoNiCr 35-20 Mo 10 BTi) for a prolonged contact with skin are evaluated in comparison with two reference austenitic stainless steels 316L and 904L. Several electrochemical parameters were measured and determined (E(oc), E(corr), i(corr), b(a), b(c), E(b), R(p), E(crev) and coulometric analysis) in order to compare the corrosion behavior. The cation release evaluation and in vitro biological characterization also were performed. In terms of corrosion, the results reveal that the 904L steels presented the best behavior followed by the super austenitic steel X1 CrNiMoMnW 24-22-6-3-2 N. For the other two super alloys (NiCr and CoNiCr types alloys) tested in different conditions (annealed, work hardened and work hardened+age hardened) it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak and close to the other reference stainless steel, 316L. Regarding the extraction a mixture of cations in relatively high concentrations was noted and therefore a cocktail effect was not excluded. The results obtained in the biological assays WST-1 and TNF-alpha were in correlation with the corrosion and extraction evaluation. PMID:25491846

  3. Proteases in biological control and biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.D.; Long, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores the role of proteases in biological control systems and diseases, examines their structures and evolution, and reviews the methods by which proteases and protease inhibitors are engineered. In addition, the use of recombinant DNA technology is explained throughout the volume. Specific topics examined include: the versatility of proteolytic enzymes, the intricate proteolytic control mechanisms in hemostasis and their application to thrombolytic therapy, the evolution of proteolytic enzymes, and the role of limited proteolytic processing in several biological control processes.

  4. MODELING AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Cynthia C.

    2009-01-01

    Models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. At an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. When more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. There are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however, there have been many theoretical studies of biological control in other insect systems and of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in general. Examples are used here to illustrate important aspects of designing, using and interpreting models. The stability properties of a model are valuable in assessing the potential of a biological control agent, but may not be relevant to a mosquito population with frequent environmental perturbations. The time scale and goal of proposed control strategies are important considerations when analyzing a model. The underlying biology of the mosquito host and the biological control agent must be carefully considered when deciding what to include in a model. Factors such as density dependent population growth in the host, the searching efficiency and aggregation of a natural enemy, and the resource base of both have been shown to influence the stability and dynamics of the interaction. Including existing mosquito control practices into a model is useful if biological control is proposed for locations with current insecticidal control. The development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies can be enhanced using modeling techniques, as a wide variety of options can be simulated and examined. Models can also be valuable in comparing alternate routes of disease transmission and to investigate the level of control needed to reduce transmission. PMID:17853610

  5. Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  6. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF AQUATIC NUISANCES - A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 532 references on the biological control of aquatic nuisances were reviewed. Three major control approaches exist. Grazing and predation have been the most frequently utilized techniques, with emphasis on macrophyte control by fish and insects. The use of pathogens is ...

  7. An Introduced Insect Biological Control Agent Preys on an Introduced Weed Biological Control Agent.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic interference, especially by generalist predators, has been implicated in preventing establishment or limiting the impact of introduced weed biological control agents. Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Homoptera: Psyllidae) was released into Florida in 2002 as part of a classical biological c...

  8. Biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakis, S L

    1982-01-29

    After 77 years of being attacked by the chestnut blight fungus, American chestnut trees continue to sprout from gradually declining root systems. The blight fungus in Italy is now associated with virus-like agents that limit its pathogenicity, and attempts have been made to introduce these controlling agents into the blight fungus in the United States. If a way can be found to help the spread here of strains of the fungus with controlling agents, it may be possible to save the American chestnut trees in our eastern forests. PMID:17771259

  9. A systems approach to the biology of mood disorders through network analysis of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Detera-Wadleigh, S D; Akula, N

    2011-05-01

    Meta analysis of association data of mood disorders has shown evidence for the role of particular genes in genetic risk. Integration of association data from meta analysis with differential expression data in brains of mood disorder patients could heighten the level of support for specific genes. To identify molecular mechanisms that may be disrupted in disease, a systems approach that involves analysis of biological networks created by these selected genes was employed.Interaction networks of hierarchical groupings of selected genes were generated using the Michigan Molecular Interactions (MiMI) software. Large networks were deconvoluted into subclusters of core complexes by using a community clustering program, GLay. Network nodes were functionally annotated in DAVID Bioinformatics Resource to identify enriched pathways and functional clusters. MAPK and beta adrenergic receptor signaling pathways were significantly enriched in the ANK3 and CACNA1C network. The PBRM1 network bolstered the enrichment of chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation functional clusters. Lowering the stringency for inclusion of other genes in network seeds increased network complexity and expanded the recruitment of enriched pathways to include signaling by neurotransmitter and hormone receptors, neurotrophin, ErbB and the cell cycle. We present a strategy to interrogate mechanisms in the cellular system that might be perturbed in disease. Network analysis of meta analysis- generated candidate genes that exhibited differential expression in mood disorder brains identified signaling pathways and functional clusters that may be involved in genetic risk for mood disorders. PMID:21547870

  10. Robot control with biological cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Zauner, Klaus-Peter; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2007-02-01

    At present there exists a large gap in size, performance, adaptability and robustness between natural and artificial information processors for performing coherent perception-action tasks under real-time constraints. Even the simplest organisms have an enviable capability of coping with an unknown dynamic environment. Robots, in contrast, are still clumsy if confronted with such complexity. This paper presents a bio-hybrid architecture developed for exploring an alternate approach to the control of autonomous robots. Circuits prepared from amoeboid plasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum are interfaced with an omnidirectional hexapod robot. Sensory signals from the macro-physical environment of the robot are transduced to cellular scale and processed using the unique micro-physical features of intracellular information processing. Conversely, the response form the cellular computation is amplified to yield a macroscopic output action in the environment mediated through the robot's actuators. PMID:17188804

  11. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  12. Controlled ecological life support system - biological problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III (Editor); Macelroy, R. D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The general processes and controls associated with two distinct experimental paradigms are examined. Specific areas for research related to biotic production (food production) and biotic decomposition (waste management) are explored. The workshop discussions were directed toward Elemental cycles and the biological factors that affect the transformations of nutrients into food, of food material into waste, and of waste into nutrients were discussed. To focus on biological issues, the discussion assumed that (1) food production would be by biological means (thus excluding chemical synthesis), (2) energy would not be a limiting factor, and (3) engineering capacity for composition and leak rate would be adequate.

  13. PUCCINIA LAGENOPHORAE FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF COMMON GROUNDSEL IN THE UNITED STATES: POTENTIAL AND CONCERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia lagenophorae (PL) is an exotic rust fungus candidate for biological control of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) in the U.S. In a containment greenhouse, PL caused a 30% reduction in plant dry weight compared with uninoculated controls. Bellis perennis (English daisy) also was susceptib...

  14. Biological invasion and biological control select for different life histories.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Ashraf; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Estoup, Arnaud; Ravigné, Virginie; Frachon, Léa; Facon, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Biological invaders have long been hypothesized to exhibit the fast end of the life-history spectrum, with early reproduction and a short lifespan. Here, we examine the rapid evolution of life history within the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis. The species, once used as a biological control agent, is now a worldwide invader. We show that biocontrol populations have evolved a classic fast life history during their maintenance in laboratories. Invasive populations also reproduce earlier than native populations, but later than biocontrol ones. Invaders allocate more resources to reproduction than native and biocontrol individuals, and their reproduction is spread over a longer lifespan. This life history is best described as a bet-hedging strategy. We assert that invasiveness cannot be explained only by invoking faster life histories. Instead, the evolution of life history within invasive populations can progress rapidly and converge to a fine-tuned evolutionary match between the invaded environment and the invader. PMID:26035519

  15. Biological invasion and biological control select for different life histories

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Ashraf; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Estoup, Arnaud; Ravigné, Virginie; Frachon, Léa; Facon, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Biological invaders have long been hypothesized to exhibit the fast end of the life-history spectrum, with early reproduction and a short lifespan. Here, we examine the rapid evolution of life history within the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis. The species, once used as a biological control agent, is now a worldwide invader. We show that biocontrol populations have evolved a classic fast life history during their maintenance in laboratories. Invasive populations also reproduce earlier than native populations, but later than biocontrol ones. Invaders allocate more resources to reproduction than native and biocontrol individuals, and their reproduction is spread over a longer lifespan. This life history is best described as a bet-hedging strategy. We assert that invasiveness cannot be explained only by invoking faster life histories. Instead, the evolution of life history within invasive populations can progress rapidly and converge to a fine-tuned evolutionary match between the invaded environment and the invader. PMID:26035519

  16. Environmental Controls of Biological Manganese Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, A. P.; Ahn, C. C.; Nealson, K. H.

    2001-12-01

    Biological catalysis of manganese oxidation represents an important contribution to global manganese cycling; biological oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude higher than those of abiotic processes. Despite recent genetics advances, ongoing behavioral studies, and a large pool of knowledge regarding manganese chemistry, the links between biology and environmental chemistry remain unresolved. We have performed experiments on batch cultures of Leptothrix discophora SS-1 to explore the physiology of biological manganese oxidation. We have further conducted spectroscopic and microscopic studies of the mechanism as manganese proceeds from the soluble Mn2+ species to the insoluble Mn(III) and Mn(IV) phases. These investigations suggest roles for aqueous chemistry, mineralogy, and microbial physiology in controlling manganese fluxes in metal-rich environments.

  17. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  18. Biology & control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V.P.; Dev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. There are six major mosquito vector taxa in India, viz. Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. minimus, An. dirus and An. sundaicus. Among these, An. culicifacies is widely distributed and considered the most important vector throughout the plains and forests of India for generating bulk of malaria cases (>60% annually). Major malaria epidemics are caused by An. culicifaices. It is also the vector of tribal malaria except parts of Odisha and Northeastern States of India. An. culicifacies has been the cause of perennial malaria transmission in forests, and over the years penetrated the deforested areas of Northeast. An. culicifacies participates in malaria transmission either alone or along with An. stephensi or An. fluviatilis. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) spends about 80 per cent malaria control budget annually in the control of An. culicifacies, yet it remains one of the most formidable challenges in India. With recent advances in molecular biology there has been a significant added knowledge in understanding the biology, ecology, genetics and response to interventions, requiring stratification for cost-effective and sustainable malaria control. Research leading to newer interventions that are evidence-based, community oriented and sustainable would be useful in tackling the emerging challenges in malaria control. Current priority areas of research should include in-depth vector biology and control in problem pockets, preparation of malaria-risk maps for focused and selective interventions, monitoring insecticide resistance, cross-border initiative and data sharing, and coordinated control efforts for achieving transmission reduction, and control of drug-resistant malaria. The present review on An. culicifacies

  19. Biology & control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P; Dev, V

    2015-05-01

    Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. There are six major mosquito vector taxa in India, viz. Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. minimus, An. dirus and An. sundaicus. Among these, An. culicifacies is widely distributed and considered the most important vector throughout the plains and forests of India for generating bulk of malaria cases (>60% annually). Major malaria epidemics are caused by An. culicifaices. It is also the vector of tribal malaria except parts of Odisha and Northeastern States of India. An. culicifacies has been the cause of perennial malaria transmission in forests, and over the years penetrated the deforested areas of Northeast. An. culicifacies participates in malaria transmission either alone or along with An. stephensi or An. fluviatilis. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) spends about 80 per cent malaria control budget annually in the control of An. culicifacies, yet it remains one of the most formidable challenges in India. With recent advances in molecular biology there has been a significant added knowledge in understanding the biology, ecology, genetics and response to interventions, requiring stratification for cost-effective and sustainable malaria control. Research leading to newer interventions that are evidence-based, community oriented and sustainable would be useful in tackling the emerging challenges in malaria control. Current priority areas of research should include in-depth vector biology and control in problem pockets, preparation of malaria-risk maps for focused and selective interventions, monitoring insecticide resistance, cross-border initiative and data sharing, and coordinated control efforts for achieving transmission reduction, and control of drug-resistant malaria. The present review on An. culicifacies

  20. A Biologically-Inspired Framework for Contour Detection Using Superpixel-Based Candidates and Hierarchical Visual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes. PMID:26492252

  1. A biologically-inspired framework for contour detection using superpixel-based candidates and hierarchical visual cues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes. PMID:26492252

  2. The biological control of the malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Kamareddine, Layla

    2012-09-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes. PMID:23105979

  3. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new aryl thiosemicarbazone as antichagasic candidates.

    PubMed

    Blau, Lorena; Menegon, Renato Farina; Trossini, Gustavo H G; Molino, João Vitor Dutra; Vital, Drielli Gomes; Cicarelli, Regina Maria Barretto; Passerini, Gabriela Duó; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Chin, Chung Man

    2013-09-01

    The present work reports on the synthesis, biological assaying and docking studies of a series of 12 aryl thiosemicarbazones, which were planned to act over two main enzymes, cruzain and trypanothione reductase. These enzymes are used as targets of trypanocidal activity in Chagas disease control with a minimal mutagenic profile. Three p-nitroaromatic thiosemicarbazones showed high activity against Trypanosoma cruzi in in vitro assays (IC50 < 57 μM), and no mutagenic profile was observed in micronucleous tests. Although the in vitro inhibition test showed that 10-μM doses of eight compounds inhibited cruzain activity, no correlation was found between cruzain inhibition and trypanocidal activity. PMID:23851115

  4. Episodic positive selection at mitochondrial genome in an introduced biological control agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Sen; Liang, Xin-Yu; Zou, Shang-Jun; Liu, Yang; De Clercq, Patrick; Ślipiński, Adam; Pang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial introduction in classical biological control provides a unique opportunity to understand mitochondrial evolution driving adaptation to novel environments. We studied mitochondrial genomes of a world-wide introduced agent, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. We detected positive selection in complex I genes (ND5 and ND4) against a background of widespread negative selection. We further detected significant signals in neutrality tests within 11 populations at ND5 gene, indicating a recent selective sweep/positive selection. Our results imply that these candidate mutations may contribute local adaptation of exotic biological control agents and these provide new insights into the improvement of classical biological control programs. PMID:26994640

  5. Proxima Centauri: a transitional modified Newtonian dynamics controlled orbital candidate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2009-10-01

    The triple-system candidacy of Proxima Centauri with α Centauri A/B is reviewed in terms of its potential to demonstrate an orbit controlled according to modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). It is noted that Proxima is already sufficiently distant from α Cen A/B that MOND corrections to its speed and orbit should be present and therefore potentially measurable. It is argued that present-day observations of the Proxima-α Centauri A/B system do not rule out the possibility that Proxima occupies a low-eccentricity orbit with an orbital period of the order of a few million years.

  6. Sperm specific proteins-potential candidate molecules for fertility control

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anil

    2004-01-01

    The increase in population growth rate warrants the development of additional contraceptive methods that are widely acceptable, free from side effects and less expensive. Immunocontraception, and in particular the targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm egg binding and fertilization, offers an attractive approach to control fertility. The development of a contraceptive vaccine based on sperm antigen represents a promising approach to contraception. In mammals, fertilization is completed by the direct interaction of sperm and egg, a process mediated primarily by sperm surface proteins. Sperm have proteins that are unique, cell specific, immunogenic and accessible to antibodies. A few of the sperm specific proteins have been isolated and characterized. The antibodies raised against the sperm specific antigens have proved to be extremely effective at reducing sperm-egg interaction in vitro; fertility trials in sub-human primates would eventually prove the effectiveness of the sperm antigens in terms of contraceptive efficacy. PMID:15012833

  7. Evaluation of Puccinia carduorum for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rust fungus Puccinia carduorum is a candidate for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in the USA. In Tunisia, rusted C. pycnocephalus has been found in many fields during surveys conducted in the north of the country. The pathogenicity of Puccinia carduorum was evaluated under greenhou...

  8. Evaluation of Puccinia carduorum for biological control of Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rust fungus Puccinia carduorum is a candidate for biological control of Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus). In Tunisia, rusted Italian thistle has been found in many fields during surveys conducted in the north region of the country. The pathogenicity of Puccinia carduorum was evaluated und...

  9. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed.

    PubMed

    Boussinesq, M

    2008-09-01

    Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerco volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related post-ivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs. PMID:18814732

  10. Novel Factors in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis and Potential Drug Candidates Are Found with Systems Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Manczinger, Máté; Kemény, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by increased proliferation of keratinocytes, activation of immune cells and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Systems biology approach makes it possible to reveal novel important factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Protein-protein, protein-DNA, merged (containing both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions) and chemical-protein interaction networks were constructed consisting of differentially expressed genes (DEG) between lesional and non-lesional skin samples of psoriatic patients and/or the encoded proteins. DEGs were determined by microarray meta-analysis using MetaOMICS package. We used STRING for protein-protein, CisRED for protein-DNA and STITCH for chemical-protein interaction network construction. General network-, cluster- and motif-analysis were carried out in each network. Many DEG-coded proteins (CCNA2, FYN, PIK3R1, CTGF, F3) and transcription factors (AR, TFDP1, MEF2A, MECOM) were identified as central nodes, suggesting their potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis. CCNA2, TFDP1 and MECOM might play role in the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, whereas FYN may be involved in the disturbed immunity in psoriasis. AR can be an important link between inflammation and insulin resistance, while MEF2A has role in insulin signaling. A controller sub-network was constructed from interlinked positive feedback loops that with the capability to maintain psoriatic lesional phenotype. Analysis of chemical-protein interaction networks detected 34 drugs with previously confirmed disease-modifying effects, 23 drugs with some experimental evidences, and 21 drugs with case reports suggesting their positive or negative effects. In addition, 99 unpublished drug candidates were also found, that might serve future treatments for psoriasis. PMID:24303025

  11. The reverse control of irreversible biological processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Joo, Jae Il; Shin, Dongkwan; Kim, Dongsan; Park, Sang-Min

    2016-09-01

    Most biological processes have been considered to be irreversible for a long time, but some recent studies have shown the possibility of their reversion at a cellular level. How can we then understand the reversion of such biological processes? We introduce a unified conceptual framework based on the attractor landscape, a molecular phase portrait describing the dynamics of a molecular regulatory network, and the phenotype landscape, a map of phenotypes determined by the steady states of particular output molecules in the attractor landscape. In this framework, irreversible processes involve reshaping of the phenotype landscape, and the landscape reshaping causes the irreversibility of processes. We suggest reverse control by network rewiring which changes network dynamics with constant perturbation, resulting in the restoration of the original phenotype landscape. The proposed framework provides a conceptual basis for the reverse control of irreversible biological processes through network rewiring. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:366-377. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1346 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27327189

  12. A biological model for controlling interface growth and morphology.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2004-01-01

    Biological systems create proteins that perform tasks more efficiently and precisely than conventional chemicals. For example, many plants and animals produce proteins to control the freezing of water. Biological antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit the solidification process, even below the freezing point. These molecules bond to specific sites at the ice/water interface and are theorized to suppress solidification chemically or geometrically. In this project, we investigated the theoretical and experimental data on AFPs and performed analyses to understand the unique physics of AFPs. The experimental literature was analyzed to determine chemical mechanisms and effects of protein bonding at ice surfaces, specifically thermodynamic freezing point depression, suppression of ice nucleation, decrease in dendrite growth kinetics, solute drag on the moving solid/liquid interface, and stearic pinning of the ice interface. Stearic pinning was found to be the most likely candidate to explain experimental results, including freezing point depression, growth morphologies, and thermal hysteresis. A new stearic pinning model was developed and applied to AFPs, with excellent quantitative results. Understanding biological antifreeze mechanisms could enable important medical and engineering applications, but considerable future work will be necessary.

  13. Genetic analysis of polymorphisms in biologically relevant candidate genes in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Toru; Shibamura, Hidenori; Tromp, Gerard; Sinha, Moumita; Goddard, Katrina A. B.; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Limet, Raymond; MacKean, Gerald L.; Arthur, Claudette; Sueda, Taijiro; Land, Susan; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by histologic signs of chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of extracellular matrix, and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the process of extracellular matrix remodeling by performing a genetic association study with polymorphisms in the genes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and structural extracellular matrix molecules in AAA. Our hypothesis was that genetic variations in one or more of these genes contribute to greater or lesser activity of these gene products, and thereby contribute to susceptibility for developing AAAs. Methods DNA samples from 812 unrelated white subject (AAA, n = 387; controls, n = 425) were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in 13 different candidate genes: MMP1(nt−1607), MMP2(nt−955), MMP3(nt−1612), MMP9(nt−1562), MMP10(nt+180), MMP12(nt−82), MMP13(nt−77), TIMP1(nt+434), TIMP1(rs2070584), TIMP2(rs2009196), TIMP3(nt−1296), TGFB1(nt−509), ELN(nt+422), and COL3A1(nt+581). Odds ratios and P values adjusted for gender and country of origin using logistic regression and stratified by family history of AAA were calculated to test for association between genotype and disease status. Haplotype analysis was carried out for the two TIMP1 polymorphisms in male subjects. Results Analyses with one polymorphism per test without interactions showed an association with the two TIMP1 gene polymorphisms (nt+434, P = .0047; rs2070584, P = .015) in male subjects without a family history of AAA. The association remained significant when analyzing TIMP1 haplotypes (χ2 P = .014 and empirical P = .009). In addition, we found a significant interaction between the polymorphism and gender for MMP10 (P = .037) in cases without a family history of AAA, as well as between the polymorphism and country of origin for ELN (P = .0169) and TIMP3 (P = .0023) in cases with a family history of AAA. Conclusions These

  14. El control biologico de plagas(Biological control of pests)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work some ecological principles that drive applied biocontrol and agent selection are discussed. Subjects such as specificity evaluations, host shifts and species invasiveness are analyzed under the light of ecological theory. The main assertions are: 1. biological control is a safe and bene...

  15. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Ana C.; Fan, Zi Peng; Wert, Katherine J.; Baranov, Petr; Cohen, Malkiel A.; Saini, Janmeet S.; Cohick, Evan; Charniga, Carol; Dadon, Daniel; Hannett, Nancy M.; Young, Michael J.; Temple, Sally; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Lee, Tong Ihn; Young, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs) are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types. PMID:26603904

  16. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Ana C; Fan, Zi Peng; Wert, Katherine J; Baranov, Petr; Cohen, Malkiel A; Saini, Janmeet S; Cohick, Evan; Charniga, Carol; Dadon, Daniel; Hannett, Nancy M; Young, Michael J; Temple, Sally; Jaenisch, Rudoff; Lee, Tong Ihn; Young, Richard A

    2015-11-10

    Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs) are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types. PMID:26603904

  17. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  18. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  19. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  20. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  1. Landscape structure and biological control in agroecosystems

    PubMed

    Thies; Tscharntke

    1999-08-01

    Biological pest control has primarily relied on local improvements in populations of natural enemies, but landscape structure may also be important. This is shown here with experiments at different spatial scales using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The presence of old field margin strips along rape fields was associated with increased mortality of pollen beetles resulting from parasitism and adjacent, large, old fallow habitats had an even greater effect. In structurally complex landscapes, parasitism was higher and crop damage was lower than in simple landscapes with a high percentage of agricultural use. PMID:10436158

  2. Antroquinonol A: Scalable Synthesis and Preclinical Biology of a Phase 2 Drug Candidate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The fungal-derived Taiwanese natural product antroquinonol A has attracted both academic and commercial interest due to its reported exciting biological properties. This reduced quinone is currently in phase II trials (USA and Taiwan) for the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and was recently granted orphan drug status by the FDA for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Pending successful completion of human clinical trials, antroquinonol is expected to be commercialized under the trade name Hocena. A synthesis-enabled biological re-examination of this promising natural product, however, reveals minimal in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity in preclinical models. PMID:27163023

  3. Optically Controlled Collision of Biological Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmerson, K.; Davies, B. J.; Kishore, R.; Phillips, W. D.; Mammen, M.; Choi, S.-K.; Whitesides, G. M.

    1997-03-01

    We have developed a new functional assay in which two mesoscale particles are caused to collide using two independently controlled optical tweezers. This assay involved measurement of the probability of adhesion on collision. Since the components of the solution, the orientation, and the relative collision velocity are all under the user's control, this assay can mimic closely a range of types of collisions involving biological objects. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the probability of adhesion of a single erythrocyte to a virus-coated microsphere, in the presence of a sialic acid-bearing inhibitor(M. Mammen, et al., Chemistry and Biology 3: 757-63 (1996).). This probability as a function of the concentration of the inhibitor is a measure of the effectiveness of the inhibitor; most of the inhibition constants obtained using optical tweezers agree well with those obtained from other techniques. Inhibition constants for the most effective inhibitors could not be measured using other types of assays; however, they were readily obtained using our optical tweezers based assay. The best inhibitor is the most potent inhibitor of attachment of influenza virus to erythrocytes ever measured.

  4. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    Higher plants, as one of the essential biological components of CELSS, can supply food, oxygen and water for human crews during future long-duration space missions and Lunar/Mars habitats. In order to select suitable leaf vegetable varieties for our CELSS Experimental Facility (CEF), five varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng”, “Naichoutai”, “Dongfangkaixuan” and “Siji”), two of spinach (“Daye” and “Quanneng”), one of rape (“Jingyou No. 1”) and one of common sowthistle were grown and compared on the basis of edible biomass, and nutrient content. In addition, two series of experiments were conducted to study single leaf photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates at 30 days after planting, one which used various concentrations of CO2 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol mol-1) and another which used various light intensities (100, 300, 500 and 700 μmol m-2 s-1). Results showed that lettuce cvs. “Nenlvnaiyou”, “Siji” and “Dasusheng” produced higher yields of edible biomass; common sowthisle would be a good source of β-carotene for the diet. Based on the collective findings, we selected three varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng” and “Siji”) and one of common sowthistle as the candidate crops for further research in our CEF. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration increased the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and elevated light intensity increased the rate of photosynthesis for these varieties. These results can be useful for determining optimal conditions for controlling CO2 and water fluxes between the crops and the overall CELSS.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel piperidine-benzodioxole derivatives designed as potential leishmanicidal drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ítalo A; de Almeida, Letícia; Ferreira, Patrícia Espuri; Marques, Marcos J; Rocha, Raíssa P; Coelho, Luiz F L; Carvalho, Diogo T; Viegas, Claudio

    2015-08-15

    A novel series of ester and carbamate derivatives was synthesized and evaluated its activities against Leishmania amazonensis. All compounds exhibited weaker leishmanicidal activity than amphotericin B. However, results indicated that substituents on the aryl-acyl subunit are important for modulation of the leishmanicidal effect. The nitro derivative showed the highest activity of the series with an IC50 = 17.24 μM, and comparable potency to the 3,4-benzodioxole ester and n-hexyl carbamate derivatives. All compounds showed low toxicity against human cells. These results revealed interesting novel piperine-like molecular pattern for exploitation in search and development of effective and low toxic antileishmanial drug candidates. PMID:26094119

  6. Biological control in a disturbed environment

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, S.; Gilligan, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Most ecological and epidemiological models describe systems with continuous uninterrupted interactions between populations. Many systems, though, have ecological disturbances, such as those associated with planting and harvesting of a seasonal crop. In this paper, we introduce host–parasite–hyperparasite systems as models of biological control in a disturbed environment, where the host–parasite interactions are discontinuous. One model is a parasite–hyperparasite system designed to capture the essence of biological control and the other is a host–parasite–hyperparasite system that incorporates many more features of the population dynamics. Two types of discontinuity are included in the models. One corresponds to a pulse of new parasites at harvest and the other reflects the discontinuous presence of the host due to planting and harvesting. Such discontinuities are characteristic of many ecosystems involving parasitism or other interactions with an annual host. The models are tested against data from an experiment investigating the persistent biological control of the fungal plant parasite of lettuce Sclerotinia minor by the fungal hyperparasite Sporidesmium sclerotivorum, over successive crops. Using a combination of mathematical analysis, model fitting and parameter estimation, the factors that contribute the observed persistence of the parasite are examined. Analytical results show that repeated planting and harvesting of the host allows the parasite to persist by maintaining a quantity of host tissue in the system on which the parasite can reproduce. When the host dynamics are not included explicitly in the model, we demonstrate that homogeneous mixing fails to predict the persistence of the parasite population, while incorporating spatial heterogeneity by allowing for heterogeneous mixing prevents fade-out. Including the host's dynamics lessens the effect of heterogeneous mixing on persistence, though the predicted values for the parasite population

  7. Physarum polycephalum: towards a biological controller.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin; Adamatzky, Andrew; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuels cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical transducers that generate energy from the metabolism of electro-active microorganisms. The organism Physarum polycephalum is a slime mould, which has demonstrated many novel and interesting properties in the field of unconventional computation, such as route mapping between nutrient sources, maze solving and nutrient balancing. It is a motile, photosensitive and oxygen-consuming organism, and is known to be symbiotic with some, and antagonistic with other microbial species. In the context of artificial life, the slime mould would provide a biological mechanism (along with the microbial community) for controlling the performance and behaviour of artificial systems (MFCs, robots). In the experiments it was found that P. polycephalum did not generate significant amounts of power when inoculated in the anode. However, when P. polycephalum was introduced in the cathode of MFCs, a statistically significant difference in power output was observed. PMID:25448893

  8. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses. PMID:18944382

  9. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  10. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…

  11. Expression and biological characterization of an anti-CD20 biosimilar candidate antibody

    PubMed Central

    Dorvignit, Denise; Palacios, Julio L.; Merino, Maylin; Hernández, Tays; Sosa, Katya; Casacó, Angel; López-Requena, Alejandro; Mateo de Acosta, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The CD20 molecule is a non-glycosylated protein expressed mainly on the surface of B lymphocytes. In some pathogenic B cells, it shows an increased expression, thus becoming an attractive target for diagnosis and therapy. Rituximab is a chimeric antibody that specifically recognizes the human CD20 molecule. This antibody is indicated for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this work, we describe the stable expression and biological evaluation of an anti-CD20 biosimilar antibody. While rituximab is produced in fed-batch culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, our biosimilar antibody expression process consists of continuous culture of recombinant murine NS0 myeloma cells. The ability of the purified biosimilar antibody to recognize the CD20 molecule on human tumor cell lines, as well as on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from humans and primates, was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The biosimilar antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis on human cell lines with high expression of CD20. In addition, this antibody depleted CD20-positive B lymphocytes from peripheral blood in monkeys. These results indicate that the biological properties of the biosimilar antibody compare favorably with those of the innovator product, and that it should be evaluated in future clinical trials. PMID:22647435

  12. Expression and biological characterization of an anti-CD20 biosimilar candidate antibody: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dorvignit, Denise; Palacios, Julio L; Merino, Maylin; Hernández, Tays; Sosa, Katya; Casaco, Angel; López-Requena, Alejandro; Mateo de Acosta, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The CD20 molecule is a non-glycosylated protein expressed mainly on the surface of B lymphocytes. In some pathogenic B cells, it shows an increased expression, thus becoming an attractive target for diagnosis and therapy. Rituximab is a chimeric antibody that specifically recognizes the human CD20 molecule. This antibody is indicated for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this work, we describe the stable expression and biological evaluation of an anti-CD20 biosimilar antibody. While rituximab is produced in fed-batch culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, our biosimilar antibody expression process consists of continuous culture of recombinant murine NS0 myeloma cells. The ability of the purified biosimilar antibody to recognize the CD20 molecule on human tumor cell lines, as well as on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from humans and primates, was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The biosimilar antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis on human cell lines with high expression of CD20. In addition, this antibody depleted CD20-positive B lymphocytes from peripheral blood in monkeys. These results indicate that the biological properties of the biosimilar antibody compare favorably with those of the innovator product, and that it should be evaluated in future clinical trials. PMID:22647435

  13. Prequels to Synthetic Biology: From Candidate Gene Identification and Validation to Enzyme Subcellular Localization in Plant and Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Foureau, E; Carqueijeiro, I; Dugé de Bernonville, T; Melin, C; Lafontaine, F; Besseau, S; Lanoue, A; Papon, N; Oudin, A; Glévarec, G; Clastre, M; St-Pierre, B; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Courdavault, V

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds extracted from microorganisms or plants constitute an inexhaustible source of valuable molecules whose supply can be potentially challenged by limitations in biological sourcing. The recent progress in synthetic biology combined to the increasing access to extensive transcriptomics and genomics data now provide new alternatives to produce these molecules by transferring their whole biosynthetic pathway in heterologous production platforms such as yeasts or bacteria. While the generation of high titer producing strains remains per se an arduous field of investigation, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways as well as characterization of their complex subcellular organization are essential prequels to the efficient development of such bioengineering approaches. Using examples from plants and yeasts as a framework, we describe potent methods to rationalize the study of partially characterized pathways, including the basics of computational applications to identify candidate genes in transcriptomics data and the validation of their function by an improved procedure of virus-induced gene silencing mediated by direct DNA transfer to get around possible resistance to Agrobacterium-delivery of viral vectors. To identify potential alterations of biosynthetic fluxes resulting from enzyme mislocalizations in reconstituted pathways, we also detail protocols aiming at characterizing subcellular localizations of protein in plant cells by expression of fluorescent protein fusions through biolistic-mediated transient transformation, and localization of transferred enzymes in yeast using similar fluorescence procedures. Albeit initially developed for the Madagascar periwinkle, these methods may be applied to other plant species or organisms in order to establish synthetic biology platform. PMID:27480687

  14. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  15. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  16. Improving Apple IPM by maximizing opportunities for biological control.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of biological control in controlling arthropod pests in commercial apple production is for the most part not well understood. We make the case that conditions at this time are especially good for making a concerted effort to integrate biological control into IPM systems. Pest control progr...

  17. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Korsten, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Losses from postharvest fruit diseases range from 1 to 20 percent in the United States, depending on the commodity. The application of fungicides to fruits after harvest to reduce decay has been increasingly curtailed by the development of pathogen resistance to many key fungicides, the lack of replacement fungicides, negative public perception regarding the safety of pesticides and consequent restrictions on fungicide use. Biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) has emerged as an effective alternative. Because wound-invading necrotrophic pathogens are vulnerable to biocontrol, antagonists can be applied directly to the targeted area (fruit wounds), and a single application using existing delivery systems (drenches, line sprayers, on-line dips) can significantly reduce fruit decays. The pioneering biocontrol products BioSave and Aspire were registered by EPA in 1995 for control of postharvest rots of pome and citrus fruit, respectively, and are commercially available. The limitations of these biocontrol products can be addressed by enhancing biocontrol through manipulation of the environment, using mixtures of beneficial organisms, physiological and genetic enhancement of the biocontrol mechanisms, manipulation of formulations, and integration of biocontrol with other alternative methods that alone do not provide adequate protection but in combination with biocontrol provide additive or synergistic effects. PMID:12147766

  18. Ecological Compatibility of GM Crops and Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops pervade many modern cropping systems, and present challenges and opportunities for developing biologically-based pest management programs. Interactions between biological control agents (insect predators, parasitoids, and pathog...

  19. Providing Guidance for Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis Who Are Candidates for Biologic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aldredge, Lakshi M.; Young, Melodie S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disease characterized by itchy, scaly, and often painful plaques in the skin. Psoriasis can have significant psychosocial burdens and increased risks for numerous comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, particularly in patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Dermatology nurse practitioners and physician assistants are an important part of the healthcare team, contributing to all aspects of psoriasis management. This review reinforces the unique aspects of care that nurse practitioners and physician assistants provide to patients with psoriasis, such as facilitating conversations about managing disease, setting appropriate expectations, and considering treatment options, including when treatment response or tolerability is suboptimal. The importance of relationship building is stressed. Patient management topics discussed include helpful tips about assessing treatment options, initiating biologic therapy, optimizing patient adherence, and managing comorbidities. Also reviewed are how to deal with common barriers including lack of knowledge about psoriasis or making healthy lifestyle changes, fear of injections or side effect risks, lack of health insurance, and concerns about treatment costs. Overall, by forming meaningful relationships and engaging patients in their psoriasis care, nurse practitioners and physician assistants can help to optimize clinical efficacy outcomes and consistently manage moderate-to-severe psoriasis and its comorbidities over the patient’s life course. PMID:27004085

  20. Biological evaluation of endophytic fungus, Chaetomium globosum JN711454, as potential candidate for improving drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Selim, Khaled A; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; El-Diwany, Ahmed I

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research work focused on investigating the biological and chemical aspects of endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum, for pharmaceutical purposes to improve the drug discovery process. The endophytic C. globosum was isolated from healthy leaves of Egyptian medicinal plant Adiantum capillus-veneris collected from Saint Katherine Protectorate, Sinai, Egypt. The identification of C. globosum was on the basis of classical and molecular taxonomy. Gene encoding for 18S rRNA was partially sequenced, submitted to the GenBank and got the accession number JN711454, to resolve the phylogenetic relations with fungal ancestor using phylogenetic tree. To explore the biosynthetic power of endophytic C. globosum JN711454, the fungus was cultivated over five different media, oatmeal, rice, yeast malt glucose, potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czapek's dox media, for 3 weeks at 30 °C, followed by extraction with different solvents, ethyl acetate (EA), and methanol. The ethyl acetate extract of C. globosum cultivated on PDA medium was the most potent extract. It showed strong antioxidant activity with EC50 11.5 μg/ml, potent anticancer activity with 55 % toxicity toward HepG-2 cells at 100 μg/ml and 66 % cytotoxicity to FGC4 cells at 250 μg/ml, promising butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities (>85 %), and moderate antimicrobial and stopped the attachment of HSV-2 virus to VERO cells. The metabolomic profiling of PDA-EA extract using LC-MS revealed the presence of several metabolites to which the observed bioactivities could be attributed. Here we report for the first time inhibitory activity of endophytic C. globosum JN711454 secondary metabolites to butyrylcholinesterase, one of neuro hydrolase enzymes that play a major role in development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23775636

  1. The ecological controls on the prevalence of candidate division TM7 in polar regions

    PubMed Central

    Winsley, Tristrom J.; Snape, Ian; McKinlay, John; Stark, Jonny; van Dorst, Josie M.; Ji, Mukan; Ferrari, Belinda C.; Siciliano, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a “host-associated” clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups' seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3) were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class' prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously uncultured group. PMID

  2. Optically controlled collisions of biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Benjamin J.; Kishore, Rani; Mammen, Mathai; Helmerson, Kristian; Choi, Seok-Ki; Phillips, William D.; Whitesides, George M.

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a new assay in which two mesoscale particles are caused to collide using two independently controlled optical tweezers. This assay involves the measurement of the adhesion probability following a collision. Since the relative orientation, impact parameter (i.e., distance of closest approach), and collision velocity of the particles, as well as the components of the solution, are all under the user's control, this assay can mimic a wide range of biologically relevant collisions. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the adhesion probability of a single erythrocyte (red blood cell) to an influenza virus-coated microsphere, in the presence of sialic acid-bearing inhibitors of adhesion. This probability as a function of inhibitor concentration yields a measure of the effectiveness of the inhibitor for blocking viral adhesion. Most of the inhibition constants obtained using the tweezers agree well with those obtained from other techniques, although the inhibition constants for the best of the inhibitors were beyond the limited resolution of conventional assays. They were readily evaluated using our tweezers-based assay, however, and prove to be the most potent inhibitors of adhesion between influenza virus and erythrocytes ever measured. Further studies are underway to investigate the effect of collision velocity on the adhesion probability, with the eventual goal of understanding the various mechanisms of inhibition (direct competition for viral binding sites versus steric stabilization). Analysis of these data also provide evidence that the density of binding sites may be a crucial parameter in the application of this assay and polymeric inhibition in general.

  3. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, Adrianne Marie

    Biological polymers, such as polypeptides, are responsible for many of life's most sophisticated functions due to precisely evolved hierarchical structures. These protein structures are the result of monodisperse sequences of amino acids that fold into well-defined chain shapes and tertiary structures. Recently, there has been much interest in the design of such sequence-specific polymers for materials applications in fields ranging from biotechnology to separations membranes. Non-natural polymers offer the stability and robustness necessary for materials applications; however, our ability to control monomer sequence in non-natural polymers has traditionally operated on a much simpler level. In addition, the relationship between monomer sequence and self-assembly is not well understood for biological molecules, much less synthetic polymers. Thus, there is a need to explore self-assembly phase space with sequence using a model system. Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence-specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of sequence on self-assembly. A variety of monomer interactions have an impact on polymer properties, such as chirality, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic interactions. Thus, a necessary starting point for this project was to investigate monomer sequence effects on the bulk properties of polypeptoid homopolymers. It was found that several polypeptoids have experimentally accessible melting transitions that are dependent on the choice of side chains, and it was shown that this transition is tuned by the incorporation of "defects" or a comonomer. The polypeptoid chain shape is also controlled with the choice of monomer and monomer sequence. By using at least 50% monomers with bulky, chiral side chains, the polypeptoid backbone is sterically twisted into a helix, and as found for the first time in this work, the persistence length is increased. However, this persistence length, which is a measure of the stiffness of the polymer, is

  4. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  5. Synthetic biology expands chemical control of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Tyler J.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    The tools of synthetic biology allow researchers to change the ways engineered organisms respond to chemical stimuli. Decades of basic biology research and new efforts in computational protein and RNA design have led to the development of small molecule sensors that can be used to alter organism function. These new functions leap beyond the natural propensities of the engineered organisms. They can range from simple fluorescence or growth reporting to pathogen killing, and can involve metabolic coordination among multiple cells or organisms. Herein, we discuss how synthetic biology alters microorganisms’ responses to chemical stimuli resulting in the development of microbes as toxicity sensors, disease treatments, and chemical factories. PMID:26056951

  6. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers. PMID:16623730

  7. An analysis of a candidate control algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a candidate algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system. The algorithm consists of a full-state feedback control law based on optimal control output weighting, estimators for angle of attack and sideslip, and a maneuvering algorithm. The control law is shown to perform well by both frequency and time domain analysis. The rms vertical acceleration is reduced by about 40 percent over the whole mission flight envelope. The estimators for the angle of attack and sideslip avoid the often inaccurate or costly direct measurement of those angles. The maneuvering algorithm will allow the augmented airplane to respond to pilot inputs. The design characteristics and performance are documented by the closed-loop eigenvalues; rms levels of vertical, lateral, and longitudinal acceleration; and representative time histories and frequency response.

  8. Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms and cerebral palsy: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    HE, XIAO-GUANG; PENG, QI; CHEN, YAN-HUA; HE, TING; HUANG, HUI; MA, ZE-KE; FAN, XUE-JIN; LUO, LING; LIU, SHAO-JI; LU, XIAO-MEI

    2015-01-01

    Certain genetic polymorphisms have been suggested to be associated with cerebral palsy; the candidate genes are involved in thrombophilia, inflammation and preterm labor, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cerebral palsy among children. A case-control study was conducted, including 74 infants with cerebral palsy (case group) and 99 healthy infants (control group). The distributions of the allele and genotype frequencies were examined for the total cerebral palsy patient population in addition to subgroups divided according to gestational age (preterm versus full-term). The results showed that the rs1042714 variant in adrenergic receptor β-2 (ADRB2) and heterozygosity for ADRB2 were associated with the cerebral palsy risk among the preterm infants. No significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies were observed between the total cerebral palsy patient population and controls for the eight SNPs investigated. PMID:26623029

  9. Candidate proof mass actuator control laws for the vibration suppression of a frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umland, Jeffrey W.; Inman, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    The vibration of an experimental flexible space truss is controlled with internal control forces produced by several proof mass actuators. Four candidate control law strategies are evaluated in terms of performance and robustness. These control laws are experimentally implemented on a quasi free-free planar truss. Sensor and actuator dynamics are included in the model such that the final closed loop is self-equilibrated. The first two control laws considered are based on direct output feedback and consist of tuning the actuator feedback gains to the lowest mode intended to receive damping. The first method feeds back only the position and velocity of the proof mass relative to the structure; this results in a traditional vibration absorber. The second method includes the same feedback paths as the first plus feedback of the local structural velocity. The third law is designed with robust H infinity control theory. The fourth strategy is an active implementation of a viscous damper, where the actuator is configured to provide a bending moment at two points on the structure. The vibration control system is then evaluated in terms of how it would benefit the space structure's position control system.

  10. Extrafloral nectar in an apple ecosystem to enhance biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common goal of conservation biological control is to enhance biodiversity to increase abundance and effectiveness of predators and parasitoids. Although many studies report an increase in abundance of natural enemies, it has been difficult to document increases in rates of biological control. To...

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel m-carborane-containing estrogen receptor partial agonists as SERM candidates.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kiminori; Ogawa, Takumi; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-15

    We designed and synthesized novel m-carborane-containing selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) candidates using previously reported m-carborane-containing ER partial agonist 1 as the lead compound. Biological activities were evaluated by means of ERα competitive binding assay and MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Re-positioning the N,N-dimethylaminoethyloxy group at the para position of 1 to the meta position enhanced the ERα-binding affinity, and 4c showed the highest relative binding affinity (RBA: 83 vs 17β-estradiol = 100) among the tested compounds. Compound 4b showed the most potent ER-agonist activity (EC50: 1.4 nM) and the lowest maximal efficacy (Emax: 50%) in MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Inhibition of 0.1 nM 17β-estradiol-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation by 4b (IC50: 0.4 μM) was at least 10 times more potent than that of the lead compound 1. PMID:26077489

  12. Stress-sensitive neurosignalling in depression: an integrated network biology approach to candidate gene selection for genetic association analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, J. Anke M.; Ellis, Justine A.; Pennell, Craig E.; Craig, Jeff; Saffery, Richard; Mattes, Eugen; Olsson, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic risk for depressive disorders is poorly understood despite consistent suggestions of a high heritable component. Most genetic studies have focused on risk associated with single variants, a strategy which has so far only yielded small (often non-replicable) risks for depressive disorders. In this paper we argue that more substantial risks are likely to emerge from genetic variants acting in synergy within and across larger neurobiological systems (polygenic risk factors). We show how knowledge of major integrated neurobiological systems provides a robust basis for defining and testing theoretically defensible polygenic risk factors. We do this by describing the architecture of the overall stress response. Maladaptation via impaired stress responsiveness is central to the aetiology of depression and anxiety and provides a framework for a systems biology approach to candidate gene selection. We propose principles for identifying genes and gene networks within the neurosystems involved in the stress response and for defining polygenic risk factors based on the neurobiology of stress-related behaviour. We conclude that knowledge of the neurobiology of the stress response system is likely to play a central role in future efforts to improve genetic prediction of depression and related disorders. PMID:25478122

  13. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    2006-03-01

    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity.

    Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover.

    Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed

  14. Implementation of Statistical Process Control: Evaluating the Mechanical Performance of a Candidate Silicone Elastomer Docking Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been developing a novel docking system to meet the requirements of future exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and beyond. A dynamic gas pressure seal is located at the main interface between the active and passive mating components of the new docking system. This seal is designed to operate in the harsh space environment, but is also to perform within strict loading requirements while maintaining an acceptable level of leak rate. In this study, a candidate silicone elastomer seal was designed, and multiple subscale test articles were manufactured for evaluation purposes. The force required to fully compress each test article at room temperature was quantified and found to be below the maximum allowable load for the docking system. However, a significant amount of scatter was observed in the test results. Due to the stochastic nature of the mechanical performance of this candidate docking seal, a statistical process control technique was implemented to isolate unusual compression behavior from typical mechanical performance. The results of this statistical analysis indicated a lack of process control, suggesting a variation in the manufacturing phase of the process. Further investigation revealed that changes in the manufacturing molding process had occurred which may have influenced the mechanical performance of the seal. This knowledge improves the chance of this and future space seals to satisfy or exceed design specifications.

  15. Biological control and nutrition: food for thought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical pesticides are used frequently to combat arthropod pests that plague crops; however, these compounds come with potential risks to the environment and human health. Research efforts have focused on using natural agents as an alternative to these chemical insecticides. These biological contro...

  16. Conservation Biological Control in Pepper and Eggplant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several important factors contribute to low productivity in pepper and eggplant due to western flower thrips. Research has been conducted to develop an understanding of flower thrips population dynamics and insecticide efficacy studies have allowed us to direct recommendations for biological contro...

  17. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  18. Biological Control of Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1998, the Alabama Fire Ant Management Program has been releasing natural enemies of imported fire ants. These natural enemies are being studied to determine their impact on fire ants. It is hoped that eventually the overall number of fire ants in Alabama can be reduced through biological cont...

  19. Systems biology approach to identify transcriptome reprogramming and candidate microRNA targets during the progression of polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by cyst formation throughout the kidney parenchyma. It is caused by mutations in either of two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Mice that lack functional Pkd1 (Pkd1-/-), develop rapidly progressive cystic disease during embryogenesis, and serve as a model to study human ADPKD. Genome wide transcriptome reprogramming and the possible roles of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) that affect the initiation and progression of cyst formation in the Pkd1-/- have yet to be studied. miRNAs are small, regulatory non-coding RNAs, implicated in a wide spectrum of biological processes. Their expression levels are altered in several diseases including kidney cancer, diabetic nephropathy and PKD. Results We examined the molecular pathways that modulate renal cyst formation and growth in the Pkd1-/- model by performing global gene-expression profiling in embryonic kidneys at days 14.5 and 17.5. Gene Ontology and gene set enrichment analysis were used to identify overrepresented signaling pathways in Pkd1-/- kidneys. We found dysregulation of developmental, metabolic, and signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt, calcium, TGF-β and MAPK) in Pkd1-/- kidneys. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach, we determined similarities and differences with human ADPKD: ~50% overlap at the pathway level among the mis-regulated pathways was observed. By using computational approaches (TargetScan, miRanda, microT and miRDB), we then predicted miRNAs that were suggested to target the differentially expressed mRNAs. Differential expressions of 9 candidate miRNAs, miRs-10a, -30a-5p, -96, -126-5p, -182, -200a, -204, -429 and -488, and 16 genes were confirmed by qPCR. In addition, 14 candidate miRNA:mRNA reciprocal interactions were predicted. Several of the highly regulated genes and pathways were predicted as targets of miRNAs. Conclusions We have described global transcriptional reprogramming during the progression of PKD in the Pkd1-/- model. We

  20. Molecular biology approaches to control of intractable weeds: New strategies and complements to existing biological practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular genetic tools and concepts are in relentless and continuous development, affecting every field of biology. Biological control of weeds, an applied science with over a century of history, is no exception. This field has been dominated from the beginning by its foundation concept, classical ...

  1. Biology of the galling wasp, Tetramesa romana, a biological control agent of giant reed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biology of the gall-forming wasp, Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), from southern France and Spain was studied for biological control of giant reed (Arundo donax L.), an exotic and invasive riparian weed in the U.S. Females developed eggs parthenogenetically and deposited them...

  2. ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF INTEGRATED CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report presents results of a four-year study of the ecological impacts of chemical, biological, and integrated methods of aquatic weed control. Biological and water quality changes occurred as abundance of macrophytic vegetation was altered by natural factors or manage...

  3. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  4. New Frontiers in the Biological Control of Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greening movement, food security and safety, climate change and expanding applications provide opportunities for growth of the biological control industry. Plant biofortification, cost of biocontrol agent production, regulatory restrictions and non-producer decision-making present challenges to...

  5. New Biologic Drug Tackles Hard-To-Control Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160833.html New Biologic Drug Tackles Hard-to-Control Asthma Benralizumab ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new injectable drug reduces flare-ups in patients with ...

  6. Immunomodulator plasmid projected by systems biology as a candidate for the development of adjunctive therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; de Souza, Ana Paula Duarte; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Fazolo, Tiago; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-03-01

    An imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been described to influence the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute bronchiolitis and the severity of infection. Th2-driven response has been well described under first RSV vaccine (formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens) and replicated in some conditions for RSV-infected mice, in which a Th2-dependent lung eosinophilia increases illness severity, accompanied of tissue damage. Currently, several prototypes of RSV vaccine are being tested, but there is no vaccine available so far. The advance of bioinformatics can help to solve this issue. Systems biology approaches based on network topological analysis may help to identify new genes in order to direct Th1 immune response during RSV challenge. For this purpose, network centrality analyses from high-throughput experiments were performed in order to select major genes enrolled in each T-helper immune response. Thus, genes termed Hub (B) and bottlenecks (H), which control the flow of biological information (Th1 or Th2 immune response, in this case) within the network, would be identified. As these genes possess high potential to promote Th1 immune response, they could be cloned under regulation of specific promoters in a plasmid, which will be available as a gene-transfer adjunctive to vaccines. Th1 immune response potentiated by our strategy may contribute to accelerate Th1/Th2 shift from neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against RSV infection and reduce lung damage. PMID:26601594

  7. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  8. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems. PMID:25725640

  9. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  10. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  11. The biology of small, introduced populations, with special reference to biological control

    PubMed Central

    Fauvergue, Xavier; Vercken, Elodie; Malausa, Thibaut; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2012-01-01

    Populations are introduced into novel environments in different contexts, one being the biological control of pests. Despite intense efforts, less than half introduced biological control agents establish. Among the possible approaches to improve biological control, one is to better understand the processes that underpin introductions and contribute to ecological and evolutionary success. In this perspective, we first review the demographic and genetic processes at play in small populations, be they stochastic or deterministic. We discuss the theoretical outcomes of these different processes with respect to individual fitness, population growth rate, and establishment probability. Predicted outcomes differ subtly in some cases, but enough so that the evaluating results of introductions have the potential to reveal which processes play important roles in introduced populations. Second, we attempt to link the theory we have discussed with empirical data from biological control introductions. A main result is that there are few available data, but we nonetheless report on an increasing number of well-designed, theory-driven, experimental approaches. Combining demography and genetics from both theoretical and empirical perspectives highlights novel and exciting avenues for research on the biology of small, introduced populations, and great potential for improving both our understanding and practice of biological control. PMID:22949919

  12. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  13. Control of Biologically Inspired Robotic Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei Cheang, U.; Lee, Jun Hee; Roy, Dheeraj; Kim, Min Jun

    2010-11-01

    Flagella have been employed as nanoactuators for biomimetic microswimmers in low Reynolds number fluidic environments. The microswimmers utilize flagellar filaments isolated from Salmonella typhimurium to mimic the spiral-type propulsion mechanism of flagellated bacteria. The microswimmer included a polystyrene microbead conjugated to one or multiple magnetic nanobeads via flagellar filaments using avidin-biotin linkages. Wireless propulsion energy was supplied to magnetic bead by an AC magnetic field, which in turn rotate the bead and induce spiral-type swimming. A magnetic controller consisted of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration was designed and constructed. In conjunction with a LabVIEW input interface, a DAQ controller was used as a function generator to induce AC current outputs from the power supply to the magnetic controller in order to generate an AC magnetic field. Numerical analysis was performed to characterize the magnetic controller. A high-speed camera provided real-time imaging of the microswimmer motion in a static fluidic environment. The robotic microswimmers exhibited active propulsion under an AC magnetic field, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications for drug delivery.

  14. Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in December 2004 requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives. Host specificity experiments conducted in the USDA quarantine laboratory in ...

  15. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  16. Functional Agents to Biologically Control Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Liao, Yucai; Sun, Changpo; Wang, Shuangxia; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, as microbial secondary metabolites, frequently contaminate cereal grains and pose a serious threat to human and animal health around the globe. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a commonly detected Fusarium mycotoxin, has drawn utmost attention due to high exposure levels and contamination frequency in the food chain. Biological control is emerging as a promising technology for the management of DON contamination. Functional biological control agents (BCAs), which include antagonistic microbes, natural fungicides derived from plants and detoxification enzymes, can be used to control DON contamination at different stages of grain production. In this review, studies regarding different biological agents for DON control in recent years are summarized for the first time. Furthermore, this article highlights the significance of BCAs for controlling DON contamination, as well as the need for more practical and efficient BCAs concerning food safety. PMID:27064760

  17. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  18. Optimizing Locomotion Controllers Using Biologically-Based Actuators and Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Delp, Scott L.; Koltun, Vladlen

    2015-01-01

    We present a technique for automatically synthesizing walking and running controllers for physically-simulated 3D humanoid characters. The sagittal hip, knee, and ankle degrees-of-freedom are actuated using a set of eight Hill-type musculotendon models in each leg, with biologically-motivated control laws. The parameters of these control laws are set by an optimization procedure that satisfies a number of locomotion task terms while minimizing a biological model of metabolic energy expenditure. We show that the use of biologically-based actuators and objectives measurably increases the realism of gaits generated by locomotion controllers that operate without the use of motion capture data, and that metabolic energy expenditure provides a simple and unifying measurement of effort that can be used for both walking and running control optimization. PMID:26251560

  19. Biological consequences of environmental control through housing.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D H

    1975-01-01

    Housing was originally devised as a control of the thermal environment, but numerous other functions have been added with resulting competition and confusion. Current design gives insufficient attention to thermal factors and relies upon supplementary heating and cooling to compensate for faults. These are wasteful of energy, and the exhaust from air conditioners adds to the heat island conditions in city cores. The impact of consumerism on domestic space and the importance of personal space and privacy are reviewed. PMID:1157791

  20. The Process of Advance Care Planning in HCT Candidates and Proxies: Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Anxiety Levels

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Katharine E.; Forti, Allison M.; Russell, Gregory B.; Naik, Seema; Hurd, David; McQuellon, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hematopoietic cell transplant candidate and proxy advance care planning (ACP) behavior and attitudes. A total of 49 candidates and 44 proxies completed the Advance Directive Attitudes Survey, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In all, 45% of candidates reported completing an advance directive (AD), while only 26% had ADs on file; 80% of candidates discussed ACP wishes with their loved ones and 15% discussed ACP wishes with their medical team. The AD completers were significantly (1) older, (2) more positive about ADs, and (3) were less likely to believe that health events happen by chance. Discrepancies between reported ACP behavior and communication with health care practitioners have implications for end-of-life care. PMID:23946253

  1. The process of advance care planning in HCT candidates and proxies: self-efficacy, locus of control, and anxiety levels.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Katharine E; Forti, Allison M; Russell, Gregory B; Naik, Seema; Hurd, David; McQuellon, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hematopoietic cell transplant candidate and proxy advance care planning (ACP) behavior and attitudes. A total of 49 candidates and 44 proxies completed the Advance Directive Attitudes Survey, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In all, 45% of candidates reported completing an advance directive (AD), while only 26% had ADs on file; 80% of candidates discussed ACP wishes with their loved ones and 15% discussed ACP wishes with their medical team. The AD completers were significantly (1) older, (2) more positive about ADs, and (3) were less likely to believe that health events happen by chance. Discrepancies between reported ACP behavior and communication with health care practitioners have implications for end-of-life care. PMID:23946253

  2. Biological plaque control: novel therapeutic approach to periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Naoyuki

    2012-03-01

    Despite its important role in the control of periodontal disease, mechanical plaque control is not properly practiced by most individuals. Therefore, adjunctive chemical plaque control using chlorhexidine and antibiotics has also been suggested as an additional therapeutic strategy to augment mechanical plaque control. However, the additional effects of adjunctive antibiotic therapy are small, and topical chlorhexidine therapy is not without side effects. Given current limitations, new approaches for the control of biofilm are required. The new therapeutic approaches discussed in this review are divided into two categories: probiotics and vaccines. Probiotics is an interesting new field of periodontology research that aims to achieve biological plaque control by eliminating pathogenic bacteria. In addition, passive immunization using egg yolk antibody raised against periodontal pathogens may be an effective approach for the treatment of periodontitis. Further study to evaluate the possible effects of these biological plaque control methods against periodontal disease is warranted. PMID:22466880

  3. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  4. Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

  5. Assessing difficult targets - when is biological control feasible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How can we, a priori, determine whether a project is likely to be successful and when should we abandon prolonged projects that have not yet controlled the target pest? I review a variety of examples involving biological control of arthropods (filth flies at dairy farms, a grain weevil in stored ma...

  6. The biology and control of Giardia spp and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Patricia A; Artzer, Marjory

    2009-11-01

    The biology and control of Giardia spp in dogs and cats, and Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is reviewed, including nomenclature, morphology, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenic process, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control, and public health aspects. These surprisingly similar protozoan pathogens are both clinically significant in veterinary clinical medicine. PMID:19932359

  7. Integrated management of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) using biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated weed management (IWM) strategies are being advocated and employed to control invasive plants species. In this study, we compared the impact of three management strategies [biological control alone (BC), BC with fire (BC + F), and BC with mowing (BC + M)] to determine if combining fire or...

  8. Biological control of postharvest diseases: hurdles, successes, and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has accelerated recently on biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) and has resulted in the development of several commercial products for controlling decays of temperate and subtropical fruits. The demand for alternatives to synthetic fungicides is much greater than the supply p...

  9. Use of cryptic species for biological control of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control of weeds depends on the discovery and evaluation of species of arthropods that are highly host specific. The rarity of such species in nature limits our ability to find safe effective agents to control a continually increasing list of invasive alien weeds. However, sci...

  10. Gas biology: tiny molecules controlling metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Mayumi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Takenouchi, Toshiki; Morikawa, Takayuki; Hishiki, Takako; Yukutake, Yoshinori; Suematsu, Makoto

    2012-11-15

    It has been recognized that gaseous molecules and their signaling cascades play a vital role in alterations of metabolic systems in physiologic and pathologic conditions. Contrary to this awareness, detailed mechanisms whereby gases exert their actions, in particular in vivo, have been unclear because of several reasons. Gaseous signaling involves diverse reactions with metal centers of metalloproteins and thiol modification of cysteine residues of proteins. Both the multiplicity of gas targets and the technical limitations in accessing local gas concentrations make dissection of exact actions of any gas mediator a challenge. However, a series of advanced technologies now offer ways to explore gas-responsive regulatory processes in vivo. Imaging mass spectrometry combined with quantitative metabolomics by capillary-electrophoresis/mass spectrometry reveals spatio-temporal profiles of many metabolites. Comparing the metabolic footprinting of murine samples with a targeted deletion of a specific gas-producing enzyme makes it possible to determine sites of actions of the gas. In this review, we intend to elaborate on the ideas how small gaseous molecules interact with metabolic systems to control organ functions such as cerebral vascular tone and energy metabolism in vivo. PMID:22516267

  11. Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

    The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

  12. Factors related to health locus of control among lung transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Burker, Eileen J; Phillips, Kristin M; Giza, Mallory

    2012-01-01

    As the number of individuals pursuing lung transplantation to treat lung disease increases, transplant team members have an opportunity to maximize patients' chances for post-transplant success through identifying and addressing psychosocial factors that have been previously associated with patients' post-transplant survival, such as health locus of control (HLC). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to understand the factors associated with HLC in lung transplant candidates. The aims were to (i) identify the demographic factors associated with internal (IHLC), chance (CHLC), and powerful others (PHLC) HLC; (ii) examine the associations between HLC and anxiety, depression, and optimism; and (iii) determine whether these factors explain a significant proportion of variance in HLC. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age, education, trait anxiety, and optimism explained 20% of the variance in CHLC; gender, trait anxiety, and depression accounted for 9% of the variance in IHLC; and lower education accounted for 5% of the variance in PHLC. Helping transplant team members understand the factors that influence patients' perceptions that their own behaviors impact their health status is important for maximizing post-transplant success. PMID:22515175

  13. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    PubMed Central

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  14. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    PubMed

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  15. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S; van der Mije, Steven; Töpfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation, using two neutral marker sets (mitochondrial control region and microsatellites), and one potentially selectively non-neutral marker (avian Clock gene). We report temporal changes in genetic diversity in extant populations and biological archives over more than a century, using samples from sites differing in the extent of climate change. Comparing genetic differentiation over this period revealed that only the recent Dutch population, which underwent population declines, showed slightly lower genetic variation than the historic Dutch population. As that loss of variation was only moderate and not observed in all markers, current gene flow across Western and Central European populations might have compensated local loss of variation over the last decades. A comparison of genetic differentiation in neutral loci versus the Clock gene locus provided evidence for stabilizing selection. Furthermore, in all genetic markers, we found a greater genetic differentiation in space than in time. This pattern suggests that local adaptation or historic processes might have a stronger effect on the population structure and genetic variation in the pied flycatcher than recent global climate changes. PMID:24363905

  16. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  17. Biological systems drug infusion controller using FREN with sliding bounds.

    PubMed

    Chidentree, Treesatayapun; Sermsak, Uatrongjit

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a direct adaptive control for drug infusion of biological systems is presented. The proposed controller is accomplished using our adaptive network called Fuzzy Rules Emulated Network (FREN). The structure of FREN resembles the human knowledge in the form of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. After selecting the initial value of network's parameters, an on-line adaptive process based on Lyapunov's criteria is performed to improve the controller performance. The control signal from FREN is designed to keep in the region which is calculated by the modified Sliding Mode Control (SMC). The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm can satisfy the setting point and the robust performance. PMID:17073348

  18. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on biological control of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Keith R

    2003-01-01

    During 1999-2001, ARS scientists published over 100 papers on more than 30 species of insect pest and 60 species of predator and parasitoid. These papers address issues crucial to the three strategies of biological control: conservation, augmentation and introduction. Conservation biological control includes both conserving extant populations of natural enemies by using relatively non-toxic pesticides and increasing the abundance of natural enemies in crops by providing or improving refuges for population growth and dispersal into crops. ARS scientists have been very active in determining the effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods and in studying movement of natural enemies from refuges into crops. Augmentation involves repeated releases of natural enemies in the field, which can be inoculative or inundative. Inoculative releases are used to initiate self-propagating populations at times or in places where they would be slow to colonize. ARS scientists have studied augmentative biological control of a variety of pest insects. The targets are mostly pests in annual crops or other ephemeral habitats, where self-reproducing populations of natural enemies are not sufficiently abundant early enough to keep pest populations in check. ARS research in augmentative biological control centers on methods for rearing large numbers of healthy, effective natural enemies and for releasing them where and when they are needed at a cost less than the value of the reduction in damage to the crop. ARS scientists have researched various aspects of introductions of exotic biological control agents against a diversity of pest insects. The major issues in biological control introductions are accurate identification and adequate systematics of both natural enemies and target pests, exploration for natural enemies, predicting the success of candidates for introduction and the likelihood of non-target impacts, quarantine and rearing methods, and post-introduction evaluation of

  19. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  20. DISCOVERY AND DEVELOMENT OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO CONTROL CROP PESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Biological control" refers to the reduction of crop pests or their deleterious activities by one or more antagonistic organisms present in the environment. Thousands of potential microbial biocontrol agents have been isolated from agricultural fields and crops during research over the last 80 year...

  1. The use of phytophagous insects in biological control (in French)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous insects play an important role in classical biological control. This chapter is divided into 6 paragraphs: 1) we present firstly the history and the context of biocontrol, 2) we detail the impact of herbivory on the target plants; 3) we specify the different groups of insects that have ...

  2. [The quality of biological information: standardization and quality control].

    PubMed

    Giampaoli, S; Muti, P

    1992-01-01

    Some procedures and methods for the measurement of cardiovascular risk factor are described; in particular of anthropometric measurements (weight, height, arm circumference, wrist circumference, hip circumference) of blood pressure, of electrocardiogram and of blood samples for the preservation of biological specimens. Some advice for the quality control during screening activities are reported. PMID:1492736

  3. Effects of saltcedar invasion and biological control on small mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) on bird populations and communities have received considerable interest, but impacts on other vertebrate taxa have received less attention. Moreover, only one published study examined effects on vertebrates of biological control efforts directed at saltc...

  4. Utilization of biological control for managing root-knot nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal is to enhance and conserve introduced and naturally occurring antagonists of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) to improve biological control. Towards that end, we have evaluated the effect of crop production practices such as rotation, nematicide application, and cover crops,...

  5. A Review of the Biological Control of Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suppression of well-established invasive ants will likely require biological control by natural enemies. This approach is self-sustaining and can impact undetected or inaccessible populations that are the source of the continual presence and expansion of the invaders. There is an ongoing effor...

  6. Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We review the contribution, at a world level, of classical biological control of invasive insects and plants to the preservation of wildlands, including their biodiversity, their natural resources, and the ecosystems services that they provide. We include both older projects with demonstrated benef...

  7. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites are thought to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant genotype...

  8. Biological control of post-harvest late blight of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of US-8 genotypes of Phytophthora infestans has coincided with an increase in severity of potato late blight in North America. As alternatives to chemical fungicides, 18 bacterial strains patented as biological control agents (BCA) of both sprouting and Fusarium dry rot were cultivated...

  9. USDA-ARS RESEARCH ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 1999-2001, ARS scientists published over 100 papers on biocontrol of 30 insect pests. These papers address issues crucial to the three strategies of biological control: conservation, augmentation, and introduction. ARS scientists have been very active in determining the effects of pesticides...

  10. Integrating Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert S.; Doyle, Francis J.; Henson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the chemical engineering discipline motivates a re-evaluation of the process dynamics and control curriculum. A key requirement of future courses will be the introduction of theoretical concepts and application examples relevant to emerging areas, notably complex biological systems. We outline the critical concepts required to…

  11. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  12. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  13. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  14. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  15. From biological models to the evolution of robot control systems.

    PubMed

    Bullinaria, John A

    2003-10-15

    Attempts to formulate realistic models of the development of the human oculomotor control system have led to the conclusion that evolutionary factors play a crucial role. Moreover, even rather coarse simulations of the biological evolutionary processes result in adaptable control systems that are considerably more efficient than those designed by human researchers. In this paper I shall describe some of the aspects of these biological models that are likely to be useful for building robot control systems. In particular, I shall consider the evolution of appropriate innate starting points for learning/adaptation, patterns of learning rates that vary across different system components, learning rates that vary during the system's lifetime, and the relevance of individual differences across the evolved populations. PMID:14599313

  16. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination of crops* §

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan-ni; Yan, Lei-yan; Jiang, Jin-hua; Ma, Zhong-hua

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins produced primarily by two closely related fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals and humans. Of many approaches investigated to manage aflatoxin contamination, biological control method has shown great promise. Numerous organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and nontoxigenic fungal strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, have been tested for their ability in controlling aflatoxin contamination. Great successes in reducing aflatoxin contamination have been achieved by application of nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in fields of cotton, peanut, maize and pistachio. The nontoxigenic strains applied to soil occupy the same niches as the natural occurring toxigenic strains. They, therefore, are capable of competing and displacing toxigenic strains. In this paper, we review recent development in biological control of aflatoxin contamination. PMID:18837105

  17. Epigenetics and Why Biological Networks are More Controllable than Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motter, Adilson

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. In this talk, I will show that it is possible to exploit this same principle to control network behavior. This approach takes advantage of the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real networks, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible or the linear counterpart is not controllable. Applications show that this framework permits both reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure, which I will illustrate through various biological problems. I will also briefly review the progress our group has made over the past 5 years on related control of complex networks in non-biological domains.

  18. Controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Habib, Maki K

    2007-08-30

    Humanitarian demining requires to accurately detect, locate and deactivate every single landmine and other buried mine-like objects as safely and as quickly as possible, and in the most non-invasive manner. The quality of landmine detection affects directly the efficiency and safety of this process. Most of the available methods to detect explosives and landmines are limited by their sensitivity and/or operational complexities. All landmines leak with time small amounts of their explosives that can be found on surrounding ground and plant life. Hence, explosive signatures represent the robust primary indicator of landmines. Accordingly, developing innovative technologies and efficient techniques to identify in real-time explosives residue in mined areas represents an attractive and promising approach. Biological and biologically inspired detection technology has the potential to compete with or be used in conjunction with other artificial technology to complement performance strengths. Biological systems are sensitive to many different scents concurrently, a property that has proven difficult to replicate artificially. Understanding biological systems presents unique opportunities for developing new capabilities through direct use of trained bio-systems, integration of living and non-living components, or inspiring new design by mimicking biological capabilities. It is expected that controlled bio-systems, biotechnology and microbial techniques will contribute to the advancement of mine detection and other application domains. This paper provides directions, evaluation and analysis on the progress of controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection. It introduces and discusses different approaches developed, underlining their relative advantages and limitations, and highlighting trends, safety and ecology concern, and possible future directions. PMID:17662594

  19. Host specificity in biological control: insights from opportunistic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Host/prey specificity is a significant concern in biological control. It influences the effectiveness of a natural enemy and the risks it might have on non-target organisms. Furthermore, narrow host specificity can be a limiting factor for the commercialization of natural enemies. Given the great diversity in taxonomy and mode of action of natural enemies, host specificity is a highly variable biological trait. This variability can be illustrated by opportunist fungi from the genus Lecanicillium, which have the capacity to exploit a wide range of hosts – from arthropod pests to fungi causing plant diseases – through different modes of action. Processes determining evolutionary trajectories in host specificity are closely linked to the modes of action of the natural enemy. This hypothesis is supported by advances in fungal genomics concerning the identity of genes and biological traits that are required for the evolution of life history strategies and host range. Despite the significance of specificity, we still need to develop a conceptual framework for better understanding of the relationship between specialization and successful biological control. The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the development of ‘omic’ technologies offer new opportunities to investigate evolutionary principles and applications of the specificity of biocontrol agents. PMID:22949922

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nonionic substrate mimics of UDP-Galp as candidate inhibitors of UDP galactopyranose mutase (UGM).

    PubMed

    Kuppala, Ramakrishna; Borrelli, Silvia; Slowski, Kathryn; Sanders, David A R; Ravindranathan Kartha, K P; Pinto, B Mario

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis of 1-[5-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucityl]pyrimidine-2,4(3H)-dione and 1-[(5-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucityl]pyrimidine-2,4(3H)-dione as non-ionic substrate mimics of UDP-Galp are described. UDP-Galp is a precursor of Galf, which is a primary component of the cell-wall glycans of several microorganisms. The interconversion of UDP-Galp and UDP-Galf is catalyzed by UDP galactopyranose mutase (UGM); its inhibition comprises a mode of compromising the microorganisms. The nonionic polyhydroxylated chain was intended to mimic the ionic pyrophosphate group and the ribose moiety in UDP-Galp and increase the bioavailabilities of the candidate inhibitors. Inhibition assays with UGM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed only weak inhibition of the enzyme by these compounds. PMID:25819094

  1. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Petanovic & Rector, 2007) (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) – A promising candidate for biological control of Dipsacus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eriophyid mite Leipothrix dipsacivagus has been recorded from Serbia and Bulgaria on Dipsacus laciniatus and from France on D. fullonum. Host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus spp., which indicates that it could be regarded as potential biocontrol a...

  2. Controlled tetra-Fc sialylation of IVIg results in a drug candidate with consistent enhanced anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Nathaniel; Schwab, Inessa; Ortiz, Daniel; Bhatnagar, Naveen; Lansing, Jonathan C.; Medeiros, Amy; Tyler, Steven; Mekala, Divya; Cochran, Edward; Sarvaiya, Hetal; Garofalo, Kevin; Meccariello, Robin; Meador, James W.; Rutitzky, Laura; Schultes, Birgit C.; Ling, Leona; Avery, William; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Manning, Anthony M.; Kaundinya, Ganesh V.; Bosques, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the beneficial therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in inflammatory diseases, consistent therapeutic efficacy and potency remain major limitations for patients and physicians using IVIg. These limitations have stimulated a desire to generate therapeutic alternatives that could leverage the broad mechanisms of action of IVIg while improving therapeutic consistency and potency. The identification of the important anti-inflammatory role of fragment crystallizable domain (Fc) sialylation has presented an opportunity to develop more potent Ig therapies. However, translating this concept to potent anti-inflammatory therapeutics has been hampered by the difficulty of generating suitable sialylated products for clinical use. Therefore, we set out to develop the first, to our knowledge, robust and scalable process for generating a well-qualified sialylated IVIg drug candidate with maximum Fc sialylation devoid of unwanted alterations to the IVIg mixture. Here, we describe a controlled enzymatic, scalable process to produce a tetra-Fc–sialylated (s4-IVIg) IVIg drug candidate and its qualification across a wide panel of analytic assays, including physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and in vivo animal models of inflammation. Our in vivo characterization of this drug candidate revealed consistent, enhanced anti-inflammatory activity up to 10-fold higher than IVIg across different animal models. To our knowledge, this candidate represents the first s4-IVIg suitable for clinical use; it is also a valuable therapeutic alternative with more consistent and potent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25733881

  3. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-01-01

    Background The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. Objectives The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds Materials and Methods Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential Results Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). Conclusions The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites

  4. A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguninosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...

  5. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nano-silver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nano-silver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over four orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by pre-oxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and release inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nano-silver. PMID:20968290

  6. The Pharmacogenetic Control of Antiplatelet Response: Candidate Genes and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. Expert opinion The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data supports the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available. PMID:26173871

  7. Convergence behaviour and Control in Non-Linear Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Stefan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Control of genetic regulatory networks is challenging to define and quantify. Previous control centrality metrics, which aim to capture the ability of individual nodes to control the system, have been found to suffer from plausibility and applicability problems. Here we present a new approach to control centrality based on network convergence behaviour, implemented as an extension of our genetic regulatory network simulation framework Jimena ( http://stefan-karl.de/jimena). We distinguish three types of network control, and show how these mathematical concepts correspond to experimentally verified node functions and signalling pathways in immunity and cell differentiation: Total control centrality quantifies the impact of node mutations and identifies potential pharmacological targets such as genes involved in oncogenesis (e.g. zinc finger protein GLI2 or bone morphogenetic proteins in chondrocytes). Dynamic control centrality describes relaying functions as observed in signalling cascades (e.g. src kinase or Jak/Stat pathways). Value control centrality measures the direct influence of the value of the node on the network (e.g. Indian hedgehog as an essential regulator of proliferation in chondrocytes). Surveying random scale-free networks and biological networks, we find that control of the network resides in few high degree driver nodes and networks can be controlled best if they are sparsely connected. PMID:26068060

  8. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  9. Comprehensive analysis of schizophrenia-associated loci highlights ion channel pathways and biologically plausible candidate causal genes.

    PubMed

    Pers, Tune H; Timshel, Pascal; Ripke, Stephan; Lent, Samantha; Sullivan, Patrick F; O'Donovan, Michael C; Franke, Lude; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2016-03-15

    Over 100 associated genetic loci have been robustly associated with schizophrenia. Gene prioritization and pathway analysis have focused on a priori hypotheses and thus may have been unduly influenced by prior assumptions and missed important causal genes and pathways. Using a data-driven approach, we show that genes in associated loci: (1) are highly expressed in cortical brain areas; (2) are enriched for ion channel pathways (false discovery rates <0.05); and (3) contain 62 genes that are functionally related to each other and hence represent promising candidates for experimental follow up. We validate the relevance of the prioritized genes by showing that they are enriched for rare disruptive variants and de novo variants from schizophrenia sequencing studies (odds ratio 1.67, P = 0.039), and are enriched for genes encoding members of mouse and human postsynaptic density proteomes (odds ratio 4.56, P = 5.00 × 10(-4); odds ratio 2.60, P = 0.049).The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first 2 authors should be regarded as joint First Author. PMID:26755824

  10. Strategies for Controlled Delivery of Biologics for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Johnny; Lu, Steven; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of biologics is an important component in the treatment of osteoarthritis and the functional restoration of articular cartilage. Numerous factors have been implicated in the cartilage repair process, but the uncontrolled delivery of these factors may not only reduce their full reparative potential and can also cause unwanted morphological effects. It is therefore imperative to consider the type of biologic to be delivered, the method of delivery, and the temporal as well as spatial presentation of the biologic to achieve the desired effect in cartilage repair. Additionally, the delivery of a single factor may not be sufficient in guiding neo-tissue formation, motivating recent research towards the delivery of multiple factors. This review will discuss the roles of various biologics involved in cartilage repair and the different methods of delivery for appropriate healing responses. A number of spatiotemporal strategies will then be emphasized for the controlled delivery of single and multiple bioactive factors in both in vitro and in vivo cartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:24993610

  11. An analysis of learning in an online biology course for teachers and teacher candidates: A mixed methods approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebec, Michael Thomas

    Due to discipline specific shortages, web-based learning has been proposed as a convenient way to upgrade the content knowledge of instructors interested in learning to teach science. Despite quantitative evidence that web-based instruction is equivalent to traditional methods, questions remain regarding its use. The efficiency and practicality of this approach with teachers in particular has not been extensively studied. This investigation examines learning in an online biology course designed to help teachers prepare for science certification exams. Research questions concern flow teachers learn biology in the online environment and how this setting influences the learning process. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies are employed in an attempt to provide a more complete perspective than typical studies of online learning. Concept maps, tests, and online discussion transcripts are compared as measures of assimilated knowledge, while interviews reflect participants' views on the course. Findings indicate that participants experienced gains in declarative knowledge, but little improvement with respect to conditional knowledge. Qualitative examination of concept maps demonstrates gaps in participants' understandings of key course ideas. Engagement in the use of online resources varied according to participants' attitudes towards online learning. Subjects also reported a lack of motivation to fully engage in the course due to busy teaching schedules and the absence of accountability.

  12. Cordyceps fungi as natural killers, new hopes for medicine and biological control factors.

    PubMed

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    The Cordyceps genus includes many species of fungi, most of which are endoparasitoids on arthropods.The distribution of these fungi is cosmopolitan, but many occur in regions such as Asia with a hot, humid climate. These pathogens of insect pests are promising candidates for use as biological control factors. Entomopathogenic fungi including the famous Cordyceps sinensis produce bioactive compounds. Lately Cordyceps sinensis was renamed Ophiocordyceps sinensis. This fungus has a long history as a medicinal fungus. It germinates in a living host, kills and mummifies the larva, and then grows from the body of the host. Is known in Tibet as the “winter worm, summer grass”,or “Caterpillar fungus” (Yartsa gunbu). Collecting Ophiocordyceps has become an important source of money for local households in Nepal. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is cultivated as an anamorph for its medicinal and pharmaceutical properties in an artificial medium on an industrial scale. Ophiocordyceps compounds have immunostimulating properties and antitumor activity. PMID:25281812

  13. Design of a candidate flutter suppression control law for DAST ARW-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A control law is developed to suppress symmetric flutter for a mathematical model of an aeroelastic research vehicle. An implementable control law is attained by including modified LQC (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) design techniques, controller order reduction, and gain scheduling. An alternate (complementary) design approach is illustrated for one flight condition wherein nongradient-based constrained optimization techniques are applied to maximize controller robustness.

  14. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  15. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  16. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Murabito, Ettore; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out through in silico theoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement further in vitro and in vivo experimental efforts. Clearly, what counts is the result in vivo, not only in terms of maximal productivity but also robustness against environmental perturbations. Engineering an organism towards an increased production flux, however, often compromises that robustness. In this contribution, we review and investigate how various analytical approaches used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are related to concepts developed by systems and control engineering. While trade-offs between production optimality and cellular robustness have already been studied diagnostically and statically, the dynamics also matter. Integration of the dynamic design aspects of control engineering with the more diagnostic aspects of metabolic, hierarchical control and regulation analysis is leading to the new, conceptual and operational framework required for the design of robust and productive dynamic pathways. PMID:27075000

  17. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Murabito, Ettore; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out through in silico theoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement further in vitro and in vivo experimental efforts. Clearly, what counts is the result in vivo, not only in terms of maximal productivity but also robustness against environmental perturbations. Engineering an organism towards an increased production flux, however, often compromises that robustness. In this contribution, we review and investigate how various analytical approaches used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are related to concepts developed by systems and control engineering. While trade-offs between production optimality and cellular robustness have already been studied diagnostically and statically, the dynamics also matter. Integration of the dynamic design aspects of control engineering with the more diagnostic aspects of metabolic, hierarchical control and regulation analysis is leading to the new, conceptual and operational framework required for the design of robust and productive dynamic pathways. PMID:27075000

  18. pH control in biological systems using calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Salek, S S; van Turnhout, A G; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-05-01

    Due to its abundance, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has high potentials as a source of alkalinity for biotechnological applications. The application of CaCO3 in biological systems as neutralizing agent is, however, limited due to potential difficulties in controlling the pH. The objective of the present study was to determine the dominant processes that control the pH in an acid-forming microbial process in the presence of CaCO3. To achieve that, a mathematical model was made with a minimum set of kinetically controlled and equilibrium reactions that was able to reproduce the experimental data of a batch fermentation experiment using finely powdered CaCO3. In the model, thermodynamic equilibrium was assumed for all speciation, complexation and precipitation reactions whereas, rate limited reactions were included for the biological fatty acid production, the mass transfer of CO2 from the liquid phase to the gas phase and the convective transport of CO2 out of the gas phase. The estimated pH-pattern strongly resembled the measured pH, suggesting that the chosen set of kinetically controlled and equilibrium reactions were establishing the experimental pH. A detailed analysis of the reaction system with the aid of the model revealed that the pH establishment was most sensitive to four factors: the mass transfer rate of CO2 to the gas phase, the biological acid production rate, the partial pressure of CO2 and the Ca(+2) concentration in the solution. Individual influences of these factors on the pH were investigated by extrapolating the model to a continuously stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) case. This case study indicates how the pH of a commonly used continuous biotechnological process could be manipulated and adjusted by altering these four factors. Achieving a better insight of the processes controlling the pH of a biological system using CaCO3 as its neutralizing agent can result in broader applications of CaCO3 in biotechnological industries. PMID:25425281

  19. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent. PMID:26656102

  20. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent. PMID:26656102

  1. Using biological control research in the classroom to promote scientific inquiry and literacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...

  2. Deciphering endophyte behaviour: the link between endophyte biology and efficacious biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Card, Stuart; Johnson, Linda; Teasdale, Suliana; Caradus, John

    2016-08-01

    Endophytes associate with the majority of plant species found in natural and managed ecosystems. They are regarded as extremely important plant partners that provide improved stress tolerance to the host compared with plants that lack this symbiosis. Fossil records of endophytes date back more than 400 million years, implicating these microorganisms in host plant adaptation to habitat transitions. However, it is only recently that endophytes, and their bioactive products, have received meaningful attention from the scientific community. The benefits some endophytes can confer on their hosts include plant growth promotion and survival through the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrate pests, the removal of soil contaminants, improved tolerance of low fertility soils, and increased tolerance of extreme temperatures and low water availability. Endophytes are extremely diverse and can exhibit many different biological behaviours. Not all endophyte technologies have been successfully commercialised. Of interest in the development of the next generation of plant protection products is how much of this is due to the biology of the particular endophytic microorganism. In this review, we highlight selected case studies of endophytes and discuss their lifestyles and behavioural traits, and discuss how these factors contribute towards their effectiveness as biological control agents. PMID:27222223

  3. Compatability of a Biological Control Agent with Herbicides for Control of Invasive Plant Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kudzu, Pueraria montana var lobata, is an exotic invasive weed that is difficult to control with available products and management practices. The fungal pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu and other invasive vines. This biological control agent might be...

  4. A Biologically Inspired Self-Adaptation of Replica Density Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Tomoko; Izumi, Taisuke; Ooshita, Fukuhito; Kakugawa, Hirotsugu; Masuzawa, Toshimitsu

    Biologically-inspired approaches are one of the most promising approaches to realize highly-adaptive distributed systems. Biological systems inherently have self-* properties, such as self-stabilization, self-adaptation, self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing. Thus, the application of biological systems into distributed systems has attracted a lot of attention recently. In this paper, we present one successful result of bio-inspired approach: we propose distributed algorithms for resource replication inspired by the single species population model. Resource replication is a crucial technique for improving system performance of distributed applications with shared resources. In systems using resource replication, generally, a larger number of replicas lead to shorter time to reach a replica of a requested resource but consume more storage of the hosts. Therefore, it is indispensable to adjust the number of replicas appropriately for the resource sharing application. This paper considers the problem for controlling the densities of replicas adaptively in dynamic networks and proposes two bio-inspired distributed algorithms for the problem. In the first algorithm, we try to control the replica density for a single resource. However, in a system where multiple resources coexist, the algorithm needs high network cost and the exact knowledge at each node about all resources in the network. In the second algorithm, the densities of all resources are controlled by the single algorithm without high network cost and the exact knowledge about all resources. This paper shows by simulations that these two algorithms realize self-adaptation of the replica density in dynamic networks.

  5. The Investigation of the Level of Self-Directed Learning Readiness According to the Locus of Control and Personality Traits of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban Dagal, Asude; Bayindir, Dilan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the level of self-directed learning readiness, locus of control and the personality traits of preschool teacher candidates. The survey method was used for this study. The study group consisted of 151 teacher candidates who volunteered to participate in the study from Preschool…

  6. Controllable Snail-Paced Light in Biological Bacteriorhodopsin Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pengfei; Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

    2005-12-01

    We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091mm/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying the characteristics of the incident pulse. Because of the large quantum yield for the photoreaction in this biochemical system, the ultraslow light is observed even at low light levels of microwatts, indicating high energy efficiency.

  7. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  8. Investigating the Decision Heuristics of Candidate Teachers Who Are Different in Their Responsibility Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özen, Yener

    2016-01-01

    In this study, decision heuristics used by individuals with different responsibility controls were investigated. In the research, 370 final grade university students studying at Erzincan University Faculty of Education were included. In order to collect data, Internally Controlled Responsibility-Externally Controlled Responsibility Scale of Özen…

  9. Feedback control as a framework for understanding tradeoffs in biology.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Noah J; Ankarali, Mert M; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Madhav, Manu S; Roth, Eatai; Sefati, Shahin; Sponberg, Simon; Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Daniel, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Control theory arose from a need to control synthetic systems. From regulating steam engines to tuning radios to devices capable of autonomous movement, it provided a formal mathematical basis for understanding the role of feedback in the stability (or change) of dynamical systems. It provides a framework for understanding any system with regulation via feedback, including biological ones such as regulatory gene networks, cellular metabolic systems, sensorimotor dynamics of moving animals, and even ecological or evolutionary dynamics of organisms and populations. Here, we focus on four case studies of the sensorimotor dynamics of animals, each of which involves the application of principles from control theory to probe stability and feedback in an organism's response to perturbations. We use examples from aquatic (two behaviors performed by electric fish), terrestrial (following of walls by cockroaches), and aerial environments (flight control by moths) to highlight how one can use control theory to understand the way feedback mechanisms interact with the physical dynamics of animals to determine their stability and response to sensory inputs and perturbations. Each case study is cast as a control problem with sensory input, neural processing, and motor dynamics, the output of which feeds back to the sensory inputs. Collectively, the interaction of these systems in a closed loop determines the behavior of the entire system. PMID:24893678

  10. Microstructure synthesis control of biological polyhydroxyalkanoates with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Erik Norman

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA's) are a class of biologically produced polymers, or plastic, that is synthesized by various microorganisms. PHA's are made from biorenewable resources and are fully biodegradable and biocompatible, making them an environmentally friendly green polymer. A method of incorporating polymer microstructure into the PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha was developed. These microstructures were synthesized with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the polymer domains. To synthesize the PHB V copolymer, the additional presence of valerate was required. To control valerate substrate additions to the bioreactor, an off-gas mass spectrometry (MS) feedback control system was developed. Important process information including the cell physiology, growth kinetics, and product formation kinetics in the bioreactor was obtained with MS and used to control microstructure synthesis. The two polymer microstructures synthesized were core-shell granules and block copolymers. Block copolymers control the structure of the individual polymer chains while core-shell granules control the organization of many polymer chains. Both these microstructures result in properties unattainable by blending the two polymers together. The core-shell structures were synthesized with controlled domain thickness based on a developed model. Different block copolymers compositions were synthesized by varying the switching time of the substrate pulses responsible for block copolymer synthesis. The block copolymers were tested to determine their chemical properties and cast into films to determine the materials properties. These block copolymer films possessed new properties not achieved by copolymers or blends of the two polymers.

  11. Biological weapons control. Prospects and implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, R P; Zelicoff, A P; Vrtis, A M

    1997-08-01

    The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), which prohibits the acquisition of biological materials for hostile purposes and armed conflict, entered into force in 1975 and now has the participation of 140 nations (158 nations have signed the BWC, but only 140 of these have also ratified it). However, there is no monitoring mechanism associated with the BWC. Diplomatic efforts are now under way to create a supplemental, legally binding protocol to strengthen the convention. Measures to strengthen the BWC are analogous to the diagnostic processes familiar to physicians; the problem facing negotiators is to identify procedures with high positive and negative predictive value. Few proposed measures meet these criteria. However, the investigation of unusual disease outbreaks and allegations of use are highly diagnostic of illicit activities while avoiding false-positive accusations. At the same time, such information generated by the BWC can contribute to worldwide efforts to improve public health, control emergent disease, and establish an international norm against biological weapons proliferation. PMID:9244311

  12. Mass Spectrometry Uncovers Molecular Reactivities of Coordination and Organometallic Gold(III) Drug Candidates in Competitive Experiments That Correlate with Their Biological Effects.

    PubMed

    Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Christopher; Keppler, Bernhard K; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Casini, Angela

    2016-05-01

    The reactivity of three cytotoxic organometallic gold(III) complexes with cyclometalated C,N,N and C,N ligands (either six- or five-membered metallacycles), as well as that of two representative gold(III) complexes with N-donor ligands, with biological nucleophiles has been studied by ESI-MS on ion trap and time-of-flight instruments. Specifically, the gold compounds were reacted with mixtures of nucleophiles containing l-histidine (imine), l-methionine (thioether), l-cysteine (thiol), l-glutamic acid (carboxylic acid), methylseleno-l-cysteine (selenoether), and in situ generated seleno-l-cysteine (selenol) to judge the preference of the gold compounds for binding to selenium-containing amino acid residues. Moreover, the gold compounds' reactivity was studied with proteins and nucleic acid building blocks. These experiments revealed profound differences between the coordination and organometallic families and even within the family of organometallics, which allowed insights to be gained into the compounds mechanisms of action. In particular, interactions with seleno-l-cysteine appear to reflect well the compounds' inhibition properties of the seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase and to a certain extent their antiproliferative effects in vitro. Therefore, mass spectrometry is successfully applied for linking the molecular reactivity and target preferences of metal-based drug candidates to their biological effects. Finally, this experimental setup is applicable to any other metallodrug that undergoes ligand substitution reactions and/or redox changes as part of its mechanism of action. PMID:26866307

  13. Plasmonics in Biology and Plasmon-Controlled Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence technology is fully entrenched in all aspects of biological research. To a significant extent, future advances in biology and medicine depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. As examples, the sensitivity of many clinical assays is limited by sample autofluorescence, single-molecule detection is limited by the brightness and photostability of the fluorophores, and the spatial resolution of cellular imaging is limited to about one-half of the wavelength of the incident light. We believe a combination of fluorescence, plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmons, without fluorescence, are already in use to a limited extent in biological research. These applications include the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure bioaffinity reactions and the use of metal colloids as light-scattering probes. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We now know that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons that radiate into the far field and that fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These reciprocal interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location, and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to these phenomena as plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF). We predict that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices. These likely possibilities include ultrabright single-particle probes that do not photobleach, probes for selective multiphoton excitation with decreased light intensities, and distance measurements in biomolecular assemblies in the range from 10 to 200 nm. Additionally, PCF is likely to allow

  14. Mechanisms for control of biological electron transfer reactions

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Heather R.; Dow, Brian A.; Davidson, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The rates and mechanisms of these ET reactions are controlled by the proteins in which the redox centers that donate and accept electrons reside. The protein influences the magnitudes of the ET parameters, the electronic coupling and reorganization energy that are associated with the ET reaction. The protein can regulate the rates of the ET reaction by requiring reaction steps to optimize the system for ET, leading to kinetic mechanisms of gated or coupled ET. Amino acid residues in the segment of the protein through which long range ET occurs can also modulate the ET rate by serving as staging points for hopping mechanisms of ET. Specific examples are presented to illustrate these mechanisms by which proteins control rates of ET reactions. PMID:25085775

  15. Biological forcing controls the chemistry of the coral exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Cuif, J.; Yurimoto, H.; Dauphin, Y.; Houlbreque, F.; Dunbar, R.; Constantz, B.

    2006-12-01

    A multitude of marine organisms produce calcium carbonate skeletons that are used extensively to reconstruct water temperature variability of the tropical and subtropical oceans - a key parameter in global climate-change models. Such paleo-climate reconstructions are based on the notion that skeletal oxygen isotopic composition and certain trace-element abundances (e.g., Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios) vary in response to changes in the water temperature. However, it is a fundamental problem that poorly understood biological processes introduce large compositional deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium and hinder precise calibrations of many paleo-climate proxies. Indeed, the role of water temperature in controlling the composition of the skeleton is far from understood. We have studied trace-element abundances as well as oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of individual skeletal components in the zooxanthellate and non-zooxanthellate corals at ultra-structural, i.e. micrometer to sub-micrometer length scales. From this body of work we draw the following, generalized conclusions: 1) Centers of calcification (COC) are not in equilibrium with seawater. Notably, the Sr/Ca ratio is higher than expected for aragonite equilibrium with seawater at the temperature at which the skeleton was formed. Furthermore, the COC are further away from equilibrium with seawater than fibrous skeleton in terms of stable isotope composition. 2) COC are dramatically different from the fibrous aragonite skeleton in terms of trace element composition. 3) Neither trace element nor stable isotope variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are directly related to changes in SST. In fact, changes in SST can have very little to do with the observed compositional variations. 4) Trace element variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are not related to the activity of zooxanthellae. These observations are directly relevant to the issue of biological versus non-biological

  16. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control. PMID:16673791

  17. MYC Cofactors: Molecular Switches Controlling Diverse Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC has fundamental roles in proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and stem cell pluripotency. Over the last 30 years extensive information has been gathered on the numerous cofactors that interact with MYC and the target genes that are regulated by MYC as a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling its diverse roles. Despite significant advances and perhaps because the amount of information learned about MYC is overwhelming, there has been little consensus on the molecular functions of MYC that mediate its critical biological roles. In this perspective, the major MYC cofactors that regulate the various transcriptional activities of MYC, including canonical and noncanonical transactivation and transcriptional repression, will be reviewed and a model of how these transcriptional mechanisms control MYC-mediated proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis will be presented. The basis of the model is that a variety of cofactors form dynamic MYC transcriptional complexes that can switch the molecular and biological functions of MYC to yield a diverse range of outcomes in a cell-type- and context-dependent fashion. PMID:24939054

  18. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds. We are making... subterminalis, into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium...

  19. Heterozygous Disruption of Autism susceptibility candidate 2 Causes Impaired Emotional Control and Cognitive Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kei; Nagai, Taku; Shan, Wei; Sakamoto, Asami; Abe, Manabu; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Hoshino, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) have been associated with a broad range of psychiatric illnesses including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. We previously demonstrated that the cytoplasmic AUTS2 acts as an upstream factor for the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 and Cdc42 that regulate the cytoskeletal rearrangements in neural cells. Moreover, genetic ablation of the Auts2 gene in mice has resulted in defects in neuronal migration and neuritogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex caused by inactivation of Rac1-signaling pathway, suggesting that AUTS2 is required for neural development. In this study, we conducted a battery of behavioral analyses on Auts2 heterozygous mutant mice to examine the involvement of Auts2 in adult cognitive brain functions. Auts2-deficient mice displayed a decrease in exploratory behavior as well as lower anxiety-like behaviors in the absence of any motor dysfunction. Furthermore, the capability for novel object recognition and cued associative memory were impaired in Auts2 mutant mice. Social behavior and sensory motor gating functions were, however, normal in the mutant mice as assessed by the three-chamber test and prepulse inhibition test, respectively. Together, our findings indicate that AUTS2 is critical for the acquisition of neurocognitive function. PMID:26717414

  20. Transformation of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL3) compounds during ozonation and advanced oxidation processes in drinking water: Assessment of biological effects.

    PubMed

    Mestankova, Hana; Parker, Austa M; Bramaz, Nadine; Canonica, Silvio; Schirmer, Kristin; von Gunten, Urs; Linden, Karl G

    2016-04-15

    The removal of emerging contaminants during water treatment is a current issue and various technologies are being explored. These include UV- and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this study, AOPs were explored for their degradation capabilities of 25 chemical contaminants on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List 3 (CCL3) in drinking water. Twenty-three of these were found to be amenable to hydroxyl radical-based treatment, with second-order rate constants for their reactions with hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the range of 3-8 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The development of biological activity of the contaminants, focusing on mutagenicity and estrogenicity, was followed in parallel with their degradation using the Ames and YES bioassays to detect potential changes in biological effects during oxidative treatment. The majority of treatment cases resulted in a loss of biological activity upon oxidation of the parent compounds without generation of any form of estrogenicity or mutagenicity. However, an increase in mutagenic activity was detected by oxidative transformation of the following CCL3 parent compounds: nitrobenzene (OH, UV photolysis), quinoline (OH, ozone), methamidophos (OH), N-nitrosopyrolidine (OH), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (OH), aniline (UV photolysis), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (UV photolysis). Only one case of formation of estrogenic activity was observed, namely, for the oxidation of quinoline by OH. Overall, this study provides fundamental and practical information on AOP-based treatment of specific compounds of concern and represents a framework for evaluating the performance of transformation-based treatment processes. PMID:26900972

  1. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  2. Biological control of Rigidoporus lignosus in Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbebor, Nicholas Obehi; Adekunle, Adefunke Temitayo; Eghafona, Odeh Nosakhare; Ogboghodo, Abraham Ikponmwosa

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo control of fungal antagonists on Rigidoporus lignosus (klotzsch) Imaz in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg. in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. In vitro assessments of biological agents were carried out in dixenic cultures in Petri plates. In vivo tests were carried out in the nursery using Hypocrea virens and Hypocrea jecorina. Significant differences were observed with the dual inoculations of fungal antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day, and the antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus. Hypocrea jecorina was most effective in the control of R. lignosus with percentage inhibition of 86.83 %. Hypocrea virens, H. jecorina, Trichoderma spirale, Trichoderma sp., Trichoderma sp. Pers, and Hypocrea lixii were effective on R. lignosus. Fungal antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus exhibited higher inhibitory efficacies than antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day. In the in vivo evaluation of fungi antagonists on R. lignosus, seedlings in H. jecorina treatment at 60 d and H. virens treatment at 150 d after inoculations respectively had the highest plant heaths (highest length of stem and length of tap rot, lowest plant death, and least foliar symptom) compared to the control. Mortality rate was higher at 60 d after inoculation and decline from the third months onward. Significant differences were observed between the control and R. lignosus treatment in all the parameters evaluated. PMID:25601145

  3. MATING BIOLOGY OF AUSTROMUSOTIMA CAMPTOZONALE (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) - A POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT OF OLD WORLD CLIMBING FERN, LYGODIUM MICROPHYLLUM (SCHIZAEACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Austromusotima camptozonale (Hampson) is under investigation as a potential biological control agent of Old World Climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br., which is a serious invasive weed in southern Florida. Studies were conducted to investigate aspects of the mating biology of A. campto...

  4. A candidate architecture for monitoring and control in chemical transfer propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.; Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    To support the exploration of space, a reusable space-based rocket engine must be developed. This engine must sustain superior operability and man-rated levels of reliability over several missions with limited maintenance or inspection between flights. To meet these requirements, an expander cycle engine incorporating a highly capable control and health monitoring system is planned. Alternatives for the functional organization and the implementation architecture of the engine's monitoring and control system are discussed. On the basis of this discussion, a decentralized architecture is favored. The trade-offs between several implementation options are outlined and future work is proposed.

  5. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P < 0.05). PCR-RFLP analysis leads to three banding patterns for CXCR1c.735C>G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations. PMID:26126595

  6. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F., (Edited By); Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  7. Parasites and biological invasions: parallels, interactions, and control.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison M; Hatcher, Melanie J

    2015-05-01

    Species distributions are changing at an unprecedented rate owing to human activity. We examine how two key processes of redistribution - biological invasion and disease emergence - are interlinked. There are many parallels between invasion and emergence processes, and invasions can drive the spread of new diseases to wildlife. We examine the potential impacts of invasion and disease emergence, and discuss how these threats can be countered, focusing on biosecurity. In contrast with international policy on emerging diseases of humans and managed species, policy on invasive species and parasites of wildlife is fragmented, and the lack of international cooperation encourages individual parties to minimize their input into control. We call for international policy that acknowledges the strong links between emerging diseases and invasion risk. PMID:25613560

  8. Controlling seepage in discrete particle simulations of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Bruce S; Joldes, Grand R; Wong, Kelvin K L; Tan, Chin Wee; Smith, David W

    2016-08-01

    It is now commonplace to represent materials in a simulation using assemblies of discrete particles. Sometimes, one wishes to maintain the integrity of boundaries between particle types, for example, when modelling multiple tissue layers. However, as the particle assembly evolves during a simulation, particles may pass across interfaces. This behaviour is referred to as 'seepage'. The aims of this study were (i) to examine the conditions for seepage through a confining particle membrane and (ii) to define some simple rules that can be employed to control seepage. Based on the force-deformation response of spheres with various sizes and stiffness, we develop analytic expressions for the force required to move a 'probe particle' between confining 'membrane particles'. We analyse the influence that particle's size and stiffness have on the maximum force that can act on the probe particle before the onset of seepage. The theoretical results are applied in the simulation of a biological cell under unconfined compression. PMID:26629728

  9. In vitro induction of polyploidy and chromatid exchanges by culture medium extracts of natural rubbers compounded with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as a positive control candidate for genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Isama, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2005-11-01

    We tested extracts of custom-made natural rubber samples for cytotoxicity using V79 cells and for chromosome aberration (CA) induction using CHL cells in compliance with the Japanese guidelines for basic biological tests of medical materials and devices. The samples were formulated with a high level of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) (A); a low level of MBT (B); or zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC) (C). In the CA test, MBT induced mainly polyploidy, including endoreduplication, and ZDBC induced structural CAs. In the cytotoxicity test, culture medium extracts of A, B, and C suppressed colony formation to 50% of the control value at 53.1%, 94.3%, and >100%, respectively. Culture medium extracts of sample A induced polyploidy and structural CAs in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix), but at lower concentrations in its presence, indicating the existence of other leachable promutagens. The extracts of sample B induced structural CAs at the highest concentration and only with S9 mix. Sample C was negative. The facts suggest that sample A may be a candidate for a positive control for genotoxicity tests. The high frequency of polyploidy induced by sample A was not predicted by MBT, suggesting the usefulness of the test for safety evaluation of medical devices. Numerical CAs induced by MBT and sample A are discussed. PMID:16088893

  10. Dynamic phases in control and information processing biological circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2015-03-01

    Recent work using the mathematical framework of large deviation theory has shown that fluctuations about the steady state can have a particularly rich structure even in extremely simple non-equilibrium systems [Phys. Rev. E. 89, 062108, 2014]. In certain instances the fluctuations can encode the presence of a dynamical phase with properties distinct from those of the steady state of the system. The transition between these two regimes is akin to a first order thermodynamic phase transition. Specifically, it implies an extreme sensitivity of the system to changes in certain sets of parameters. I will show that such dynamical phase transitions can serve as a general organizing principle to understand biological circuits that are involved in information processing and control. I will focus on two specific examples: adaptation control in E. coli chemotaxis and ultra sensitive response of the E. coli flagella motor, to illustrate these calculations. This work also elucidates the role played by energy dissipation in ensuring control and suggests general guidelines for the construction of robust non equilibrium circuits that perform various specified functions.

  11. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  12. Biological control of biofilms on membranes by metazoans.

    PubMed

    Klein, Theresa; Zihlmann, David; Derlon, Nicolas; Isaacson, Carl; Szivak, Ilona; Weissbrodt, David G; Pronk, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, chemical and physical methods have been used to control biofouling on membranes by inactivating and removing the biofouling layer. Alternatively, the permeability can be increased using biological methods while accepting the presence of the biofouling layer. We have investigated two different types of metazoans for this purpose, the oligochaete Aelosoma hemprichi and the nematode Plectus aquatilis. The addition of these grazing metazoans in biofilm-controlled membrane systems resulted in a flux increase of 50% in presence of the oligochaetes (Aelosoma hemprichi), and a flux increase of 119-164% in presence of the nematodes (Plectus aquatilis) in comparison to the control system operated without metazoans. The change in flux resulted from (1) a change in the biofilm structure, from a homogeneous, cake-like biofilm to a more heterogeneous, porous structure and (2) a significant reduction in the thickness of the basal layer. Pyrosequencing data showed that due to the addition of the predators, also the community composition of the biofilm in terms of protists and bacteria was strongly affected. The results have implications for a range of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration for potable water production, membrane bioreactors and reverse osmosis. PMID:26458189

  13. Chrysotile: its occurrence and properties as variables controlling biological effects.

    PubMed

    Langer, A M; Nolan, R P

    1994-08-01

    Chrysotile formation arises through serpentinization of ultramafics and silicified dolomitic limestones. Rock types tend to control the trace metal content and both the nature and amounts of admixed minerals in the ore, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite) and tremolite. Some associated minerals and trace metals are thought to play a role in biological potential. Tremolite, one of the important associated minerals, may occur with different morphological forms, called habits. These habits range from asbestiform (tremolite asbestos) to common blocky or non-fibrous form (tremolite cleavage fragments). The latter is most common in nature. Tremolite in chrysotile ore varies in habit and concentration, both factors determining the degree of risk following inhalation. Tremolite fibre is thought to be important in relation to the occurrence of mesothelioma. Chrysotile fibrils may vary in diameter. Dust clouds generated following manipulation vary in fibre number and surface area. Chrysotile fibres exhibit a range of physical characteristics. The fibre may be non-flexible ('stiff') and low in tensile strength ('brittle'), and may lack an ability to curl. This fibre, referred to as 'harsh', sheds water more quickly than its curly, flexible 'soft' variety. The behaviour of the harsh fibres is more amphibole-like and their splintery nature suggests an enhanced inhalation potential. Slip fibre ore from Canada tends to contain more fibrous brucite (nemalite) than cross-fibre ore in the same mine. Industrial manipulation, which includes chemical treatment, heating and milling, may impart new surface properties to chrysotile dusts. Biological potential may be enhanced (opening of fibre bundles) or reduced (disruption of surface bonds and lessened ability to interact with organic moieties). Leaching of magnesium from chrysotile occurs at a pH less than about 10. Chrysotile has been demonstrated to lose magnesium in vivo and undergo clearance from the lung. The biological potential of

  14. Combining biological control with physical and chemical treatments to control fruit decays after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews research on combining alternatives to conventional fungicide treatment with biological control to reduce postharvest decays on fruits. The basis for selection of the alternative treatments, the effectiveness of the combined treatments, and feasibility and readiness of their imp...

  15. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  16. QTL mapping and candidate gene analysis of telomere length control factors in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Telomere length is under genetic control and important for essential telomere functions. Failure to regulate telomere length homeostasis contributes to cancers and aging-related diseases in animals, but the effects of telomere length defects in plants remains poorly understood. To learn more about t...

  17. Development and Characterization of attenuated Mutant Candidate Vaccines for Control of Paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative pathogen of Johne’s disease, a chronic inflammatory wasting disease in ruminants. The disease has been difficult to control because of the lack of an effective vaccine. To develop a live attenuated vaccine for Map, as well as for the...

  18. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  19. Benchmarking hardware architecture candidates for the NFIRAOS real-time controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    As a part of the trade study for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System, the adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, we investigated the feasibility of performing real-time control computation using a Linux operating system and Intel Xeon E5 CPUs. We also investigated a Xeon Phi based architecture which allows higher levels of parallelism. This paper summarizes both the CPU based real-time controller architecture and the Xeon Phi based RTC. The Intel Xeon E5 CPU solution meets the requirements and performs the computation for one AO cycle in an average of 767 microseconds. The Xeon Phi solution did not meet the 1200 microsecond time requirement and also suffered from unpredictable execution times. More detailed benchmark results are reported for both architectures.

  20. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  1. N450 as a candidate neural marker for interference control deficits in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Yao, Ru; Wang, Zuowei; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-07-01

    A deficit in the ability to suppress irrelevant or interfering stimuli may account for a variety of dysfunctional behaviors in children with learning disabilities (LD). However, neural correlates underlying this deficit in interference control in the LD are still unknown. In this study, we recruited a group of children with LD (age: 10.78 ± 0.52) along with an age-matched control group (age: 10.74 ± 0.86) and asked them to perform a numerical Stroop task. During the task, we used electroencephalogram (EEG) to record their event-related potentials (ERPs). We further evaluated performance of these children on a battery of tests, including the Academic Adaptability Test (AAT), an adapted Chinese version of Pupil Rating Scale (PRS), and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Children's scores on recent math and Chinese exams were also obtained. Results showed that: 1) children with LD had worse performance in the incongruent condition of the numerical Stroop task suggesting that children with LD had interference control deficits but not basic numerical cognition; 2) children with LD had larger N450 effects on the frontal and posterior sites, but did not show any difference in early ERP components, suggesting that the behavioral difference was related with interference control rather than early visual perception processing; and 3) N450 effects were correlated with accuracy in the numerical Stroop task, performance in Raven's SPM, as well as school math performance. These results suggest that N450 can serve as a potential electrophysiology marker for identifying and potentially, providing targeted intervention for children with LD. PMID:24858538

  2. Fine mapping and identification of a candidate gene for a major locus controlling maturity date in peach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maturity date (MD) is a crucial factor for marketing of fresh fruit, especially those with limited shelf-life such as peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch): selection of several cultivars with differing MD would be advantageous to cover and extend the marketing season. Aims of this work were the fine mapping and identification of candidate genes for the major maturity date locus previously identified on peach linkage group 4. To improve genetic resolution of the target locus two F2 populations derived from the crosses Contender x Ambra (CxA, 306 individuals) and PI91459 (NJ Weeping) x Bounty (WxBy, 103 individuals) were genotyped with the Sequenom and 9K Illumina Peach Chip SNP platforms, respectively. Results Recombinant individuals from the WxBy F2 population allowed the localisation of maturity date locus to a 220 kb region of the peach genome. Among the 25 annotated genes within this interval, functional classification identified ppa007577m and ppa008301m as the most likely candidates, both encoding transcription factors of the NAC (NAM/ATAF1, 2/CUC2) family. Re-sequencing of the four parents and comparison with the reference genome sequence uncovered a deletion of 232 bp in the upstream region of ppa007577m that is homozygous in NJ Weeping and heterozygous in Ambra, Bounty and the WxBy F1 parent. However, this variation did not segregate in the CxA F2 population being the CxA F1 parent homozygous for the reference allele. The second gene was thus examined as a candidate for maturity date. Re-sequencing of ppa008301m, showed an in-frame insertion of 9 bp in the last exon that co-segregated with the maturity date locus in both CxA and WxBy F2 populations. Conclusions Using two different segregating populations, the map position of the maturity date locus was refined from 3.56 Mb to 220 kb. A sequence variant in the NAC gene ppa008301m was shown to co-segregate with the maturity date locus, suggesting this gene as a candidate controlling ripening time in

  3. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  4. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce... as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges...

  5. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  6. Alternative Splice Variants, a New Class of Protein Cancer Biomarker Candidates: Findings in Pancreatic Cancer and Breast Cancer with Systems Biology Implications

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.; Yocum, Anastasia K.; Menon, Rajasree

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays an important role in protein diversity without increasing genome size. Earlier thought to be uncommon, splicing appears to affect the majority of genes. Alternative splice variants have been detected at the mRNA level in many diseases. We have designed and demonstrated a discovery pipeline for alternative splice variant (ASV) proteins from tandem MS/MS datasets. We created a modified ECgene database with entries from exhaustive three-frame translation of Ensembl transcripts and gene models from ECgene, with periodic updates. The human database has 14 million entries; the mouse database, 10 million entries. We match MS/MS findings against these potential translation products to identify and quantify known and novel ASVs. In this review, we summarize findings and systems biology implications of biomarker candidates from a mouse model of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [28] and a mouse model of human Her2/neu-induced breast cancer [27]. The same approach is being applied to human tumors, plasma, and cell line studies of other cancers. PMID:20534909

  7. The prospects for biological control of the free-living stages of nematode parasites of livestock.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J; Faedo, M

    1996-01-01

    Control of nematode parasites of livestock is focused almost entirely on the parasitic stages within the host. Current methods rely on anthelmintic drugs, but these are under increasing threat with the development of resistance covering the whole spectrum of anthelmintics amongst the important nematode species of a range of livestock. However, invariably the greatest proportion of the parasite biomass resides not within the animal hosts, but in the external environment-commonly on pasture. It is in this environment that the free-living stages are vulnerable to a range of abiotic factors (extremes in temperature and desiccation) and biotic factors (macro- and micro-organisms) that may decimate their numbers. Of the latter, there are organisms, which exert their effects either indirectly by rendering faecal deposits inimical for the development of nematode eggs through to infective larvae, or directly by acting as pathogens or by exploiting the free-living stages as a food source. Within this vast assemblage of organisms, which include microarthropods, protozoa, viruses, bacteria and fungi, could well emerge a variety of biological control agents of nematode parasites. At present, greatest interest lies with the nematode-destroying fungi. Work has progressed from Petri dishes, to plots, to paddocks with several species of the genus Arthrobotrys and Duddingtonia flagrans. These studies indicate that the voracious nematophagous capabilities of these fungi, clearly demonstrated in vitro, translate to reductions in the number of infective larvae on pasture and indicate that levels of control, comparable to conventional schemes using anthelmintics, can be achieved. The challenge now lies in developing methods of administration of fungi to animals which can be applied under practical farm conditions. However, the pursuit of candidates for biological control of nematode parasites of livestock should not involve just a few species of nematophagous fungi. More than 100

  8. Renewable Interfaces: Surface Topography Actuation for Complex Biological Adhesion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocivavsek, Luka; Ye, Sangho; Cao, Kathleen; Lee, Ka Yee C.; Velankar, Sachin; Wagner, William

    2015-03-01

    Controlling adhesion at biological interfaces is a complex problem with great biomedical importance. We use dynamic wrinkling, generated with PDMS/UVO chemistry under different macroscopic strains (ɛij ~ 0 . 3), to create a mechanical interfacial term that frustrates particle adhesion. This device actuates surface topography between flat (zero surface confinement χij) and wrinkled surfaces (χij ~(A / λ) 2 , where A and λ are wrinkle amplitude and wavelength, respectively), with a maximum rate of 0.6 Hz. Un-actuated PDMS placed in contact with whole sheep blood shows near total surface coverage with adhered platelets over 90 min. Actuation showed a nearly 100-fold decrease in platelet adhesion. Interestingly, topographic actuation is four times as effective compared to flat surface actuation in controlling platelet adhesion. Our model explores the competition between surface tension terms (Uγ = γɛij) and interfacial elastic terms (Uχ =Eij (t .ɛij2 +t3 . (χij /λ2)) generated because of actuation and wrinkling, where Eij is platelet modulus and t is characteristic platelet length scale. The condition for de-adhesion is Uχ >Uγ .

  9. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Philip T; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios. PMID:27087849

  10. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

  11. Pterostilbene Is a Potential Candidate for Control of Blackleg in Canola.

    PubMed

    Koh, Joshua C O; Barbulescu, Denise M; Salisbury, Phil A; Slater, Anthony T

    2016-01-01

    Two stilbenes, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit antifungal activity against Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungal pathogen responsible for blackleg (stem canker) in canola (Brassica napus). In vitro studies on the effect of these stilbenes on L. maculans mycelial growth and conidia germination showed that pterostilbene is a potent fungicide and sporicide, but resveratrol only exerted minor inhibition on L. maculans. Cell viability of hyphae cultures was markedly reduced by pterostilbene and SYTOX green staining showed that cell membrane integrity was compromised. We demonstrate that pterostilbene exerts fungicidal activity across 10 different L. maculans isolates and the compound confers protection to the blackleg-susceptible canola cv. Westar seedlings. The potential of pterostilbene as a control agent against blackleg in canola is discussed. PMID:27213274

  12. Pterostilbene Is a Potential Candidate for Control of Blackleg in Canola

    PubMed Central

    Barbulescu, Denise M.; Salisbury, Phil A.; Slater, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Two stilbenes, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit antifungal activity against Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungal pathogen responsible for blackleg (stem canker) in canola (Brassica napus). In vitro studies on the effect of these stilbenes on L. maculans mycelial growth and conidia germination showed that pterostilbene is a potent fungicide and sporicide, but resveratrol only exerted minor inhibition on L. maculans. Cell viability of hyphae cultures was markedly reduced by pterostilbene and SYTOX green staining showed that cell membrane integrity was compromised. We demonstrate that pterostilbene exerts fungicidal activity across 10 different L. maculans isolates and the compound confers protection to the blackleg-susceptible canola cv. Westar seedlings. The potential of pterostilbene as a control agent against blackleg in canola is discussed. PMID:27213274

  13. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  14. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  15. Identification of Arx targets unveils new candidates for controlling cortical interneuron migration and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Friocourt, Gaëlle; Parnavelas, John G

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the homeobox transcription factor ARX have been found to be responsible for a wide spectrum of disorders extending from phenotypes with severe neuronal migration defects, such as lissencephaly, to mild forms of intellectual disabilities without apparent brain abnormalities, but with associated features of dystonia and epilepsy. Arx expression is mainly restricted to populations of GABA-containing neurons. Studies of the effects of ARX loss of function, either in humans or mutant mice, revealed varying defects, suggesting multiple roles of this gene in brain patterning, neuronal proliferation and migration, cell maturation and differentiation, as well as axonal outgrowth and connectivity. However, to date, little is known about how Arx functions as a transcription factor or which genes it binds and regulates. Recently, we combined chromatin immunoprecipitation and mRNA expression with microarray analysis and identified approximately 1000 gene promoters bound by Arx in transfected neuroblastoma N2a cells and mouse embryonic brain. To narrow the analysis of Arx targets to those most likely to control cortical interneuron migration and/or differentiation, we compare here our data to previously published studies searching for genes enriched or down-regulated in cortical interneurons between E13.5 and E15.5. We thus identified 14 Arx-target genes enriched (Cxcr7, Meis1, Ppap2a, Slc 12a5, Ets2, Phlda1, Egr1, Igf1, Lmo3, Sema6, Lgi1, Alk, Tgfb3, and Napb) and 5 genes specifically down-regulated (Hmgn3, Lmo1, Ebf3, Rasgef1b, and Slit2) in cortical migrating neurons. In this review, we present these genes and discuss how their possible regulation by Arx may lead to the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons, resulting in mental retardation and epilepsy. PMID:22355284

  16. Fundamental Host Range of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott; Jones, Cera; Kristine Braman, S; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-08-01

    Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., is an invasive shrub within riparian areas of the southeastern United States. Biological control is considered the most suitable management option for Chinese privet. The potential host range of the lace bug, Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor, was evaluated on the basis of adult feeding and oviposition, combined oviposition-nymphal development no-choice tests, nymphal development no-choice tests, multiple generation comparison on Forestiera pubescens Nutt. and L. sinense no-choice tests, and multiple-choice tests with 45 plant species in 13 families. No-choice tests showed that the host range of L. hospita was restricted to the tribe Oleeae. In adult feeding and oviposition no-choice tests, the bug fed and oviposited significantly more on Chinese privet than all other test plant species except for three native Forestiera spp., two nonnative Syringa spp., and another exotic Ligustrum sp. Among those, only F. pubescens supported complete development in numbers comparable to Chinese privet. However, when reared for multiple generations lace bugs reared on F. pubescens were smaller and had lower fecundity than those reared on L. sinense, suggesting F. pubescens is not an optimal host. In multiple-choice tests, L. hospita displayed a strong preference for feeding and ovipositing on Chinese privet over other test plant species, with the exception of the closely related nonnative Syringa spp. and its congenic species Ligustrum vulgare. The results of this study suggest that the risk to nontarget plant species in North America is minimal, and L. hospita would be a promising candidate for Chinese privet biological control. PMID:27325627

  17. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Candidate: A Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Joanne M.; Carmona Martinez, Alfonso; Chatterjee, Archana; Halperin, Scott A.; McNeil, Shelly; Reisinger, Keith S.; Aggarwal, Naresh; Huang, Li-Min; Peng, Ching-Tien; Garcia-Sicilia, José; Salamanca de la Cueva, Ignacio; Cabañas, Fernando; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Weber, Miguel Angel; de la O, Manuel; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Dewé, Walthère; Liu, Aixue; Innis, Bruce L.; Jain, Varsha K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) and vaccine strains occurs frequently. Methods. In a randomized controlled trial, immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate (QIV) versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-Victoria(Vic) and TIV-Yamagata(Yam) in children 3–17 years of age was evaluated. In an open-label study arm, QIV only was assessed in children 6–35 months of age. Results. A total of 3094 children (932 QIV, 929 TIV-Vic, 932 TIV-Yam, and 301 QIV only) were vaccinated. QIV was noninferior to the TIVs for shared strains (A/H3N2 and A/H1N1) based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies 28 days after last vaccination, and superior for the unique B strains Victoria and Yamagata (geometric mean titer ratios 2.61, 3.78; seroconversion rate differences 33.96%, 44.63%). Among children in the randomized trial, adverse event rates were similar except for injection site pain (dose 1: 65.4% QIV, 54.6% TIV-Vic, 55.7% TIV-Yam). Conclusion. QIV elicited superior HI responses to the added B strains compared to TIV controls, potentially improving its effectiveness against influenza B. HI responses were similar between QIV and TIV controls for the shared strains. QIV had an acceptable safety profile relative to TIVs. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01198756. PMID:23847058

  18. Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, D.P.; Newton, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The flea beetle, Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras, is a potentially useful agent for biological control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) in grasslands devoted to wildlife conservation. However, effects of other grassland management practices on the persistence and dynamics of flea beetle populations are not well understood. We conducted small plot tests to evaluate 1) the effect of prerelease burning on establishment of A. nigriscutis colonies, and 2) the ability of established A. nigriscutis colonies to survive prescribed fire. More colonies established on plots that were burned prior to beetle release (83% establishment) than on unburned plots (37% establishment), possibly due to litter reduction and baring of the soil surface. However, most colonies established with the aid of fire did not survive past the first generation unless the habitat was otherwise suitable for the species, and we conclude that the primary benefit of prerelease burning is increased recruitment of A. nigriscutis during the first few generations. Established colonies were not harmed by burns in October and May. Both spring and fall burns resulted in an increase in leafy spurge stem density during the first growing season, but stem density declined to the preburn level by the second growing season.

  19. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyeong; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla. PMID:25289015

  20. Changes of trabecular bone under control of biologically mechanical mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Zhang, C. Q.; Dong, X.; Wu, H.

    2008-10-01

    In this study, a biological process of bone remodeling was considered as a closed loop feedback control system, which enables bone to optimize and renew itself over a lifetime. A novel idea of combining strain-adaptive and damage-induced remodeling algorithms at Basic Multicellular Unit (BMU) level was introduced. In order to make the outcomes get closer to clinical observation, the stochastic occurrence of microdamage was involved and a hypothesis that remodeling activation probability is related to the value of damage rate was assumed. Integrated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the changes of trabecular bone in morphology and material properties were simulated in the course of five years. The results suggest that deterioration and anisotropy of trabecluar bone are inevitable with natural aging, and that compression rather than tension can be applied to strengthen the ability of resistance to fracture. This investigation helps to gain more insight the mechanism of bone loss and identify improved treatment and prevention for osteoporosis or stress fracture.

  1. Modelling of photo-thermal control of biological cellular oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Assanov, Gani S.; Zhanabaev, Zeinulla Zh.; Govorov, Alexander O.; Neiman, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    We study the transient dynamics of biological oscillators subjected to brief heat pulses. A prospective well-defined experimental system for thermal control of oscillators is the peripheral electroreceptors in paddlefish. Epithelial cells in these receptors show spontaneous voltage oscillations which are known to be temperature sensitive. We use a computational model to predict the effect of brief thermal pulses in this system. In our model thermal stimulation is realized through the light excitation of gold nanoparticles delivered in close proximity to epithelial cells and generating heat due to plasmon resonance. We use an ensemble of modified Morris-Lecar systems to model oscillatory epithelial cells. First, we validate that the model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of epithelial oscillations in paddlefish electroreceptors, including responses to static and slow temperature changes. Second, we use the model to predict transient responses to short heat pulses generated by the light actuated gold nanoparticles. The model predicts that the epithelial oscillators can be partially synchronized by brief 5 – 15 ms light stimuli resulting in a large-amplitude oscillations of the mean field potential. PMID:25685293

  2. External noise control in inherently stochastic biological systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Likun; Chen, Meng; Nie, Qing

    2012-11-01

    Biological systems are often subject to external noise from signal stimuli and environmental perturbations, as well as noises in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Can different stochastic fluctuations interact to give rise to new emerging behaviors? How can a system reduce noise effects while still being capable of detecting changes in the input signal? Here, we study analytically and computationally the role of nonlinear feedback systems in controlling external noise with the presence of large internal noise. In addition to noise attenuation, we analyze derivatives of Fano factor to study systems' capability of differentiating signal inputs. We find effects of internal noise and external noise may be separated in one slow positive feedback loop system; in particular, the slow loop can decrease external noise and increase robustness of signaling with respect to fluctuations in rate constants, while maintaining the signal output specific to the input. For two feedback loops, we demonstrate that the influence of external noise mainly depends on how the fast loop responds to fluctuations in the input and the slow loop plays a limited role in determining the signal precision. Furthermore, in a dual loop system of one positive feedback and one negative feedback, a slower positive feedback always leads to better noise attenuation; in contrast, a slower negative feedback may not be more beneficial. Our results reveal interesting stochastic effects for systems containing both extrinsic and intrinsic noises, suggesting novel noise filtering strategies in inherently stochastic systems. PMID:23213267

  3. Noise in biological systems: pros, cons, and mechanisms of control.

    PubMed

    Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2011-01-01

    Genetic regulatory circuits are often regarded as precise machines that accurately determine the level of expression of each protein. Most experimental technologies used to measure gene expression levels are incapable of testing and challenging this notion, as they often measure levels averaged over entire populations of cells. Yet, when expression levels are measured at the single cell level of even genetically identical cells, substantial cell-to-cell variation (or "noise") may be observed. Sometimes different genes in a given genome may display different levels of noise; even the same gene, expressed under different environmental conditions, may display greater cell-to-cell variability in specific conditions and more tight control in other situations. While at first glance noise may seem to be an undesired property of biological networks, it might be beneficial in some cases. For instance, noise will increase functional heterogeneity in a population of microorganisms facing variable, often unpredictable, environmental changes, increasing the probability that some cells may survive the stress. In that respect, we can speculate that the population is implementing a risk distribution strategy, long before genetic heterogeneity could be acquired. Organisms may have evolved to regulate not only the averaged gene expression levels but also the extent of allowed deviations from such an average, setting it at the desired level for every gene under each specific condition. Here we review the evolving understanding of noise, its molecular underpinnings, and its effect on phenotype and fitness--when it can be detrimental, beneficial, or neutral and which regulatory tools eukaryotic cells may use to optimally control it. PMID:21863500

  4. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05). A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  5. Fine Mapping and Characterization of Candidate Genes that Control Resistance to Cercospora sojina K. Hara in Two Soybean Germplasm Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Harris, Donna K.; Buck, James; Hoskins, Aaron; Serrano, Jonathan; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Cregan, Perry; Song, Qijian; Boerma, H. Roger; Li, Zenglu

    2015-01-01

    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina K. Hara, may cause a significant yield loss to soybean growers in regions with a warm and humid climate. Two soybean accessions, PI 594891 and PI 594774, were identified to carry a high level of resistance similar to that conditioned by the Rcs3 gene in 'Davis'. Previously, we reported that the resistance to FLS in these two plant introductions (PIs) was controlled by a novel gene (s) on chromosome 13 that is different from Rcs3. To fine-map the novel FLS resistance gene(s) in these two PIs, F2: 3 seeds from the crosses between PI 594891 and PI 594774, and the FLS susceptible genotype 'Blackhawk' were genotyped with SNP markers that were designed based on the SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip data to identify recombinant events and locate candidate genes. Analysis of lines possessing key recombination events helped narrow down the FLS-resistance genomic region in PI 594891 from 3.3 Mb to a 72.6 kb region with five annotated genes. The resistance gene in PI 594774 was fine-mapped into a 540 kb region that encompasses the 72.6 kb region found in PI 594891. Sequencing five candidate genes in PI 594891 identified three genes that have several mutations in the promoter, intron, 5', and 3' UTR regions. qPCR analysis showed a difference in expression levels of these genes in both lines compared to Blackhawk in the presence of C. sojina. Based on phenotype, genotype and haplotype analysis results, these two soybean accessions might carry different resistance alleles of the same gene or two different gene(s). The identified SNPs were used to develop Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays to detect the resistance alleles on chromosome 13 from the two PIs for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25993056

  6. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  7. Expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata and identification of candidate genes for the control of pest leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Leafcutters are the highest evolved within Neotropical ants in the tribe Attini and model systems for studying caste formation, labor division and symbiosis with microorganisms. Some species of leafcutters are agricultural pests controlled by chemicals which affect other animals and accumulate in the environment. Aiming to provide genetic basis for the study of leafcutters and for the development of more specific and environmentally friendly methods for the control of pest leafcutters, we generated expressed sequence tag data from Atta laevigata, one of the pest ants with broad geographic distribution in South America. Results The analysis of the expressed sequence tags allowed us to characterize 2,006 unique sequences in Atta laevigata. Sixteen of these genes had a high number of transcripts and are likely positively selected for high level of gene expression, being responsible for three basic biological functions: energy conservation through redox reactions in mitochondria; cytoskeleton and muscle structuring; regulation of gene expression and metabolism. Based on leafcutters lifestyle and reports of genes involved in key processes of other social insects, we identified 146 sequences potential targets for controlling pest leafcutters. The targets are responsible for antixenobiosis, development and longevity, immunity, resistance to pathogens, pheromone function, cell signaling, behavior, polysaccharide metabolism and arginine kynase activity. Conclusion The generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata have provided important genetic basis for future studies on the biology of leaf-cutting ants and may contribute to the development of a more specific and environmentally friendly method for the control of agricultural pest leafcutters. PMID:21682882

  8. Mass-production of the arundo wasp and other insects for biological weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing is underutilized in biological weed control, despite the wealth of biological information available for insects that have been released and the utility of inoculative releases using large numbers of insects to maximize establishment. Mass-rearing is particularly uncommon for biological...

  9. Patterns and controls on nitrogen cycling of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barger, Nichole N.; Zaady, Eli; Weber, Bettina; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Biocrusts play a significant role in the nitrogen [N ] cycle within arid and semi-arid ecosystems, as they contribute major N inputs via biological fixation and dust capture, harbor internal N transformation processes, and direct N losses via N dissolved, gaseous and erosional loss processes (Fig. 1). Because soil N availability in arid and semi-arid ecosystems is generally low and may limit net primary production (NPP), especially during periods when adequate water is available, understanding the mechanisms and controls of N input and loss pathways in biocrusts is critically important to our broader understanding of N cycling in dryland environments. In particular, N cycling by biocrusts likely regulates short-term soil N availability to support vascular plant growth, as well as long-term N accumulation and maintenance of soil fertility. In this chapter, we review the influence of biocrust nutrient input, internal cycling, and loss pathways across a range of biomes. We examine linkages between N fixation capabilities of biocrust organisms and spatio-temporal patterns of soil N availability that may influence the longer-term productivity of dryland ecosystems. Lastly, biocrust influence on N loss pathways such as N gas loss, leakage of N compounds from biocrusts, and transfer in wind and water erosion are important to understand the maintenance of dryland soil fertility over longer time scales. Although great strides have been made in understanding the influence of biocrusts on ecosystem N cycling, there are important knowledge gaps in our understanding of the influence of biocrusts on ecosystem N cycling that should be the focus of future studies. Because work on the interaction of N cycling and biocrusts was reviewed in Belnap and Lange (2003), this chapter will focus primarily on research findings that have emerged over the last 15 years (2000-2015).

  10. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  11. Biological marker of furfural, chemicals without administrative control level.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Hori, Hajime; Higashi, Toshiaki; Nagatomo, Hiroko; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Ohsato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo

    2007-06-01

    Furfural, a colorless liquid used in solvent-extraction processes, petroleum refining and as a rubber additive, has been assigned an occupational exposure limit of 2.5 ppm by the Japan Society for Occupational Health, but an administrative control level for furfural has not been established. In order to conduct effective occupational health management in workplaces where furfural is used, we measured furfural concentrations in working environments and collected urine samples to measure furoic acid levels (one of the principal metabolites), which act as a biomarker of exposure to furfural. The measurements of airborne concentrations in a working environment where furfural or a solution containing furfural was handled were made in 2004. Workers answered a questionnaire on working conditions, urine samples were collected at the end of the workshift, and furoic acid in the urine was measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The ambient concentrations of furfural during the period were 2.1 ppm in a mixer room and 1.6 ppm in a filling room. The mean concentrations of furoic acid in the workers' urine were 7.7 +/- 7.8 mg/g-creatinine in summer and winter, respectively (normal range: 3 - 60 mg/g-creatinine). The average exposure to furfural per month calculated by multiplying the concentration in the working environment by working hours for a month was 86.4 +/- 108.6 ppm hours/months (mean +/- standard deviation) (range; 0 - 336 ppm hours/month). The relationship between average exposure to furfural and furoic acid in the urine was analyzed by simple linear regression analysis and a positive correlation was found. These findings suggest that furoic acid in urine is useful for biological monitoring of exposure to furfural, and that the measurement of both furfural in the environment and furoic acid in the urine are beneficial in occupational health management of furfural. PMID:17582986

  12. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location. PMID:21667037

  13. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a

  14. Comprehensive Performance Study of Magneto Cantilevers as a Candidate Model for Biological Sensors used in Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

    PubMed Central

    Saberkari, Hamidreza; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Shamsi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, demand for biological sensors which are capable of fast and accurate detection of minor amounts of pathogens in real-time form has been intensified. Acoustic wave (AW) devices whose performance is determined by mass sensitivity parameters and quality factor are used in biological sensors as platforms with high quality. Yet, current AW devices are facing many challenges such as the low value of their quality factor in practical applications and also their difficulty to use in liquids. The main focus of this article is to study on the magnetostrictive sensors which include milli/microcantilever (MSMC) type. In comparison with AW devices, MSMC has a lot of advantages; (1) its actuation and sensing unit is wirelessly controlled. (2) Its fabrication process is easy. (3) It works well in liquids. (4) It has a high-quality factor (in the air > 500). Simulation results demonstrate that the amount of quality factor depends on environment properties (density and viscosity), MSMC geometry, and its resonant behavior of harmonic modes. PMID:26120566

  15. Comprehensive Performance Study of Magneto Cantilevers as a Candidate Model for Biological Sensors used in Lab-on-a-Chip Applications.

    PubMed

    Saberkari, Hamidreza; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Shamsi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, demand for biological sensors which are capable of fast and accurate detection of minor amounts of pathogens in real-time form has been intensified. Acoustic wave (AW) devices whose performance is determined by mass sensitivity parameters and quality factor are used in biological sensors as platforms with high quality. Yet, current AW devices are facing many challenges such as the low value of their quality factor in practical applications and also their difficulty to use in liquids. The main focus of this article is to study on the magnetostrictive sensors which include milli/microcantilever (MSMC) type. In comparison with AW devices, MSMC has a lot of advantages; (1) its actuation and sensing unit is wirelessly controlled. (2) Its fabrication process is easy. (3) It works well in liquids. (4) It has a high-quality factor (in the air > 500). Simulation results demonstrate that the amount of quality factor depends on environment properties (density and viscosity), MSMC geometry, and its resonant behavior of harmonic modes. PMID:26120566

  16. An abundant biological control agent does not provide a significant predator subsidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical weed biological control agents, regardless of their effectiveness, may provide subsidies to predators and parasites. The chemically defended weevil Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe is a successful agent that was introduced to control the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia. Two consecutive small ...

  17. Candidate gene selection and detailed morphological evaluations of fs8.1, a quantitative trait locus controlling tomato fruit shape

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Rodriguez, Gustavo R.; Clevenger, Josh P.; Illa-Berenguer, Eudald; Lin, Jinshan; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Liu, Wenli; Fei, Zhangjun; Wijeratne, Asela; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-01-01

    fs8.1 is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls the elongated shape of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. In this study, we fine-mapped the locus from a 47Mb to a 3.03Mb interval on the long arm of chromosome 8. Of the 122 annotated genes found in the fs8.1 region, 51 were expressed during floral development and six were differentially expressed in anthesis-stage ovaries in fs8.1 and wild-type (WT) lines. To identify possible nucleotide polymorphisms that may underlie the fruit shape phenotype, genome sequence analyses between tomato cultivars carrying the mutant and WT allele were conducted. This led to the identification of 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and five small indels in the fs8.1 interval, including 31 that could be associated with changes in gene expression or function. Morphological and histological analyses showed that the effects of fs8.1 were mainly on reproductive organ elongation by increasing cell number in the proximal–distal direction. Fruit weight was also increased in fs8.1 compared with WT, which was predominantly attributed to the increased fruit length. By combining the findings from the different analyses, we consider 12 likely candidate genes to underlie fs8.1, including Solyc08g062580 encoding a pentatricopeptide repeat protein, Solyc08g061560 encoding a putative orthologue of ERECTA, which is known to control fruit morphology and inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis, Solyc08g061910 encoding a GTL2-like trihelix transcription factor, Solyc08g061930 encoding a protein that regulates cytokinin degradation, and two genes, Solyc08g062340 and Solyc08g062450, encoding 17.6kDa class II small heat-shock proteins. PMID:26175354

  18. A Genome-Wide Survey of Highly Expressed Non-Coding RNAs and Biological Validation of Selected Candidates in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keunsub; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Yang, Chichun; Lee, Danny; Ho, Vincent; Nobuta, Kan; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that has the natural ability of delivering and integrating a piece of its own DNA into plant genome. Although bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to regulate various biological processes including virulence, we have limited knowledge of how Agrobacterium ncRNAs regulate this unique inter-Kingdom gene transfer. Using whole transcriptome sequencing and an ncRNA search algorithm developed for this work, we identified 475 highly expressed candidate ncRNAs from A. tumefaciens C58, including 101 trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs), 354 antisense RNAs (asRNAs), 20 5′ untranslated region (UTR) leaders including a RNA thermosensor and 6 riboswitches. Moreover, transcription start site (TSS) mapping analysis revealed that about 51% of the mapped mRNAs have 5′ UTRs longer than 60 nt, suggesting that numerous cis-acting regulatory elements might be encoded in the A. tumefaciens genome. Eighteen asRNAs were found on the complementary strands of virA, virB, virC, virD, and virE operons. Fifteen ncRNAs were induced and 7 were suppressed by the Agrobacterium virulence (vir) gene inducer acetosyringone (AS), a phenolic compound secreted by the plants. Interestingly, fourteen of the AS-induced ncRNAs have putative vir box sequences in the upstream regions. We experimentally validated expression of 36 ncRNAs using Northern blot and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends analyses. We show functional relevance of two 5′ UTR elements: a RNA thermonsensor (C1_109596F) that may regulate translation of the major cold shock protein cspA, and a thi-box riboswitch (C1_2541934R) that may transcriptionally regulate a thiamine biosynthesis operon, thiCOGG. Further studies on ncRNAs functions in this bacterium may provide insights and strategies that can be used to better manage pathogenic bacteria for plants and to improve Agrobacterum-mediated plant transformation. PMID:23950988

  19. Plant-mediated interactions: considerations for agent selection in weed biological control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-mediated indirect interactions among herbivores (arthropods and pathogens) are common and extensively reported in the ecological literature. However, they are not well-documented with respect to weed biological control. Such interactions between biological control agents can have net positive...

  20. Recent research trends in the use of predators for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We focus on recent interesting research trends in biological control using predators by selecting four areas of current research: 1) Intraguild predation (IGP): defined as the “killing and eating of species that use similar resources and are thus potential competitors”. In biological control, the si...

  1. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protectio...

  2. Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control remains an effective option for managing large-scale weed problems in natural areas. The predation or parasitism of biological control agents by other species present in the introduced range (biotic resistance) is well studied and is often cited as the cause for a lack of establis...

  3. Current status and potential of conservation biological control for agriculture in the developing world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation biological control (CBC), often described as the field of biological control with the the greatest potential for use in the developing world, has received only marginal, scattered research attention outside Western Europe or North America. Thus, pesticide overuse remains rampant in many...

  4. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-01

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency. PMID:21382380

  5. Biology and host range of Omolabus piceus, a weevil rejected for biological control for Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for biological control agents of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) discovered two Omolabus weevils (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) feeding on the plant in its native range. Molecular and morphological analysis indicated that one of these species consistently fed on the tar...

  6. Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: biological parameters of imported parasitoid wasps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three braconid species that parasitize the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wiedemann) were recently imported into Israel. Several of their key biological parameters were studied. The longevities of the egg-attacking parasitoids FOPIUS ARISANUS and FOPIUS CERATITIVORUS, and t...

  7. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  8. Controlling the biological effects of spermine using a synthetic receptor.

    PubMed

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernandez, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-08-01

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to compete with biological polyamine receptors remains a huge challenge. Binding affinities of synthetic hosts are typically separated by a gap of several orders of magnitude from those of biomolecules. We now report that a dynamic combinatorial selection approach can deliver a synthetic receptor that bridges this gap. The selected receptor binds spermine with a dissociation constant of 22 nM, sufficient to remove it from its natural host DNA and reverse some of the biological effects of spermine on the nucleic acid. In low concentrations, spermine induces the formation of left-handed DNA, but upon addition of our receptor, the DNA reverts back to its right-handed form. NMR studies and computer simulations suggest that the spermine complex has the form of a pseudo-rotaxane. The spermine receptor is a promising lead for the development of therapeutics or molecular probes for elucidating spermine's role in cell biology. PMID:16881655

  9. Control of rugose spiraling whitefly using biological insecticides, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected biological insecticides against a new invasive whitefly pest, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, in white bird of paradise under field condition. The trial was conducted at United States Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort P...

  10. The Importance of Intertrophic Interactions in Biological Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The earliest research leading to successful weed biocontrol included observations and some analysis that the strict “gate-keeping” by peer reviewers, editors and publishers does not often allow today. Within these pioneering studies was a valid picture of the biology of weed biocontrol that is appli...

  11. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  12. Integrating biological control into pecan weevil management: a sustainable approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. This article summarizes research and makes recommendations based on a project that was funded in part by the USDA-Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program and that was aimed at developing biological methods of C. caryae contr...

  13. Verifying the biological weapons convention: The role of technology in biological arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, M.J.

    1998-12-01

    The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention prohibits the possession and use of biological agents in war, but does not contain provisions for treaty enforcement. The Protocol to the BWC, an effort to improve enforcement of the treaty, has defined specific mechanisms for verification. This thesis examines the potential for technology to support treaty verification. First, the history of the treaty and efforts to improve it are discussed. Second, the requirements for technical support of verification are examined, and criteria are developed to evaluate potential detection systems. Then, technologies for detection and identification are illustrated, including an evaluation of currently available systems. A procedure for the implementation and support of verification technology is provided. This approach demonstrates a specific process of employing technology to enhance deterrence and verify of compliance with the BWC.

  14. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  15. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    PubMed

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents. PMID:15750748

  16. Collaborative study for the establishment of a candidate equine influenza subtype 2 American-like strain A/EQ/South Africa/4/03 - horse antiserum biological reference preparation.

    PubMed

    Daly, Janet; Daas, A; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2007-12-01

    In 2004, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Expert Surveillance Panel on equine influenza recommended that the American lineage component (H3N8) of equine influenza vaccines (A/eq/Newmarket/1/93-like) be updated to an A/eq/South Africa/4/03-like virus. As a consequence the common European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) - OIE reference for equine influenza subtype 2 American-like antiserum had to be complemented by an antiserum raised in horses against an A/eq/South Africa/4/03 strain. An international collaborative study run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) in the frame of its Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) under the aegis of the Ph. Eur. and the OIE was organised. The study was aimed at evaluating a candidate reference horse anti-serum using the single radial haemolysis (SRH) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. The standard was to be established for use in immunogenicity and batch potency assay of equine influenza vaccines as a Ph. Eur. BRP and for use in clinical diagnostic tests as an OIE-approved International Standard. The evaluation performed in the collaborative study enabled the suitability of the candidate to be demonstrated and an SRH value to be assigned. The candidate was adopted as a BRP by the Ph. Eur. Commission and approved by the OIE Biological Standards Commission as an International Standard Serum in June and September 2006, respectively. PMID:18413133

  17. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  18. Development of Mycolepodiscus terrestris as a biological control of Hydrilla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aquarium studies, Mycolepodiscus terrestris has previously been shown to be effective in controlling the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla. The development of M. terrestris into a commercially viable control option requires methods to produce, formulate, and disperse infective propagules. Our cur...

  19. ABT-controllable laser hyperthermia of biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Eugene V.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Zhadobov, Maxim; Reyman, Alexander M.

    2002-05-01

    The results of experimentally investigated laser heating of optically absorbing inhomogeneities inside the biological objects accompanied with monitoring of internal temperature by acoustical brightness thermometry (ABT) have been presented. One of the urgent problems of modern medicine is to provide organism safety during photodynamic therapy of various neoplasms including malignant ones. In the case when neoplasm differs from normal tissue mainly in optical absorption it seems to be effective to use laser heating for this purpose. In our experiments we used the NIR emission of CW and pulse-periodic Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) as well as CW semiconductor laser (800 nm) for heating of tissue- simulating phantom. Optically transparent gelatine with absorbing inhomogeneity inside was used as a phantom. Internal temperature was measured non-invasively by means of multi-channel ABT after long heating of an object by laser radiation. Temperature was also measured independently by contact electronic thermometer. The results of experiments demonstrated high efficiency of ABT application for internal temperature monitoring during PDT and other hyperthermia procedures. Besides that laser radiation can be used for backlighting followed by ABT investigation of internal structure of temperature distribution inside biological tissues. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects # 00-02-16600; 01-02-06417; 01-02- 17645) and 6th competition-expertise of young scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences (Project #399).

  20. De Novo Analysis of the Transcriptome of Meloidogyne enterolobii to Uncover Potential Target Genes for Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyang; Yang, Dan; Niu, Junhai; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the obligate biotrophic root-knot nematodes that has the ability to reproduce on many economically-important crops. We carried out de novo sequencing of the transcriptome of M. enterolobii using Roche GS FLX and obtained 408,663 good quality reads that were assembled into 8193 contigs and 31,860 singletons. We compared the transcripts in different nematodes that were potential targets for biological control. These included the transcripts that putatively coded for CAZymes, kinases, neuropeptide genes and secretory proteins and those that were involved in the RNAi pathway and immune signaling. Typically, 75 non-membrane secretory proteins with signal peptides secreted from esophageal gland cells were identified as putative effectors, three of which were preliminarily examined using a PVX (pGR107)-based high-throughput transient plant expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana). Results showed that these candidate proteins suppressed the programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by the pro-apoptosis protein BAX, and one protein also caused necrosis, suggesting that they might suppress plant immune responses to promote pathogenicity. In conclusion, the current study provides comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of M. enterolobii for the first time and lays a foundation for further investigation and biological control strategies. PMID:27598122

  1. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  2. Plant genotype effects on a host specific thrips and the impact on biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A promising thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini (Phlaeothripidae) has been considered for biological control of the invasive weed Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthifolius. This thrips was originally collected from a southern region of Brazil where it was frequently found associated with significant da...

  3. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  4. Early-season flood enhances native biological control agents in Wisconsin cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control is predicated on the concept that crop plants are protected when predators suppress herbivore populations. However, many factors, including concurrent crop protection strategies, may modify the effectiveness of a predator in a given agroecosystem. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry...

  5. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  6. High-throughput assay for optimising microbial biological control agent production and delivery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of technologies to produce and deliver effective biological control agents (BCAs) is a major barrier to their commercialization. A myriad of variables associated with BCA cultivation, formulation, drying, storage, and reconstitution processes complicates agent quality maximization. An efficie...

  7. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  8. Historical perspective on biological control of postharvest diseases – past, present, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The birth of the field of biological control of postharvest diseases can be traced back to 1984 when a researcher testing an antagonist (Bacillus subtilis) in the field to control brown rot of peaches (caused by Monilinia fructicola ) decided to apply the antagonist directly to the peach to control ...

  9. Phytotoxicity assessment for potential biological control of leafy spurge by soilborne microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula-virgata), a native of Eurasia, is a serious invasive weed of western grasslands of North America. It is very difficult and cost-prohibitive to control with herbicides; control by insect biological control agents and cultural practices are minimally effective in suppress...

  10. Metabolic behavior of bacterial biological control agents in soil and plant rhizospheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control provides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for the control of plant diseases. To date, however, few biocontrol products have been developed successfully at the commercial level. This stems largely from variability in disease control performance that is often obser...

  11. Biological approaches for control of root pathogens of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Martin, F N; Bull, C T

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Soil fumigation with methyl bromide plus chloropicrin is used as a preplant treatment to control a broad range of pathogens in high-value annual crop production systems. In California, fumigation is used on approximately 10,125 ha of strawberry production to control pathogens ranging from Verticillium dahliae to root pruning pathogens such as Pythium, Rhizoctonia, or Cylindrocarpon spp. In addition to pathogen control, fumigation also causes an enhanced growth response of the plant and reduces weed pressure. The development of successful, long-term cost effective biocontrol strategies most likely will require the development of an integrated systems approach that incorporates diverse aspects of the crop production system. Although application of single microbial inoculants may provide some level of control for specific production problems, it will be a challenge to provide the broad spectrum of activity needed in production fields. PMID:18943893

  12. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  13. Dynamic heterogeneity controls diffusion and viscosity near biological interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik

    2014-01-01

    At a nanometer scale, the behavior of biological fluids is largely governed by interfacial physical chemistry. This may manifest as slowed or anomalous diffusion. Here we describe how measures developed for studying glassy systems allow quantitative measurement of interfacial effects on water dynamics, showing that correlated motions of particles near a surface result in a viscosity greater than anticipated from individual particle motions. This effect arises as a fundamental consequence of spatial heterogeneity on nanometer length scales and applies to any fluid near any surface. Increased interfacial viscosity also causes the classic finding that large solutes such as proteins diffuse much more slowly than predicted in bulk water. This has previously been treated via an empirical correction to the solute size: the hydrodynamic radius. Using measurements of quantities from theories of glass dynamics, we can now calculate diffusion constants from molecular details alone, eliminating the empirical correction factor. PMID:24398864

  14. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS General Provisions § 310.4 Biologics; products subject to license control. (a) If a drug has an...

  15. Design and control strategies for CELSS - Integrating mechanistic paradigms and biological complexities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III; Kaufmann, R.; Reinhold, C.

    1981-01-01

    Systems analysis and control theory consideration are given to simulations of both individual components and total systems, in order to develop a reliable control strategy for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which includes complex biological components. Because of the numerous nonlinearities and tight coupling within the biological component, classical control theory may be inadequate and the statistical analysis of factorial experiments more useful. The range in control characteristics of particular species may simplify the overall task by providing an appropriate balance of stability and controllability to match species function in the overall design. The ultimate goal of this research is the coordination of biological and mechanical subsystems in order to achieve a self-supporting environment.

  16. Host specificity of an Italian population of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), candidate for the biological control of Salsola tragus (Chenopodiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a troublesome weed infesting the drier regions of western North America. It is native to Central Asia and infests rangelands and semi-arid pasture lands, croplands, residential, disturbed and industrial areas. Cosmobaris scolopacea (Germar) is a...

  17. Prospects for Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives in December 2004. TAG recommended approval for release in Aug. 2005. APHIS-PPQ has not yet issu...

  18. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  19. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL THROUGH BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) control through biofiltration is defined as the removal of DBP precursor mateterial (PM) by bacteria attached to the filte nedia. The PM consists of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and is utilized by the filter bacteria as a substrate for cell mainten...

  20. Biological control studies on Convolvulus arvensis L. with fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a perennial, noxious weed in Europe and in many agricultural areas of the world, including Turkey. Some pathogenic fungi were identified with potential to control bindweed and some of them could be used as mycoherbicide components. In the summers of 2008, 200...

  1. Classical biological control of invasive species: fighting fire with fire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species cost the US over $130 billion in losses and control costs every year. Exotic insects, weeds and pathogens are the primary invaders that frequently move across continents, exploding in numbers in areas where they have been newly introduced. There are many reasons that these pests r...

  2. Preventive control of Scirtothrips dorsalis with biological insecticides, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study was 1) to evaluate the efficacy of the selected entomopathogens against a new invasive thrips pest, chilli thrips (CT) Scirtothrips dorsalis in pepper as a preventive control strategy, and 2) compare potential of entomopathogens with a chemical standard under greenhouse ...

  3. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: back to the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 15 years a number of successes and setbacks have taken place regarding development and use of microbial control agents. In this Forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of entomopathogenic virus, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of i...

  4. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  5. Prospects for biological control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives was submitted to TAG in December 2004. Host specificity experiments conducted in the quarantin...

  6. Microsporidia Biological Control Agents and Pathogens of Beneficial Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidian infections of insects are generally chronic, causing subtle pathologies of reduced fecundity and shorter lifespans. The lack of acute infections that cause rapid mortality, make microsporida ill-suited as biopesticides for arthropod control. Instead, they are considered to be more use...

  7. A biologically inspired neural network controller for ballistic arm movements

    PubMed Central

    Bernabucci, Ivan; Conforto, Silvia; Capozza, Marco; Accornero, Neri; Schmid, Maurizio; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-01-01

    Background In humans, the implementation of multijoint tasks of the arm implies a highly complex integration of sensory information, sensorimotor transformations and motor planning. Computational models can be profitably used to better understand the mechanisms sub-serving motor control, thus providing useful perspectives and investigating different control hypotheses. To this purpose, the use of Artificial Neural Networks has been proposed to represent and interpret the movement of upper limb. In this paper, a neural network approach to the modelling of the motor control of a human arm during planar ballistic movements is presented. Methods The developed system is composed of three main computational blocks: 1) a parallel distributed learning scheme that aims at simulating the internal inverse model in the trajectory formation process; 2) a pulse generator, which is responsible for the creation of muscular synergies; and 3) a limb model based on two joints (two degrees of freedom) and six muscle-like actuators, that can accommodate for the biomechanical parameters of the arm. The learning paradigm of the neural controller is based on a pure exploration of the working space with no feedback signal. Kinematics provided by the system have been compared with those obtained in literature from experimental data of humans. Results The model reproduces kinematics of arm movements, with bell-shaped wrist velocity profiles and approximately straight trajectories, and gives rise to the generation of synergies for the execution of movements. The model allows achieving amplitude and direction errors of respectively 0.52 cm and 0.2 radians. Curvature values are similar to those encountered in experimental measures with humans. The neural controller also manages environmental modifications such as the insertion of different force fields acting on the end-effector. Conclusion The proposed system has been shown to properly simulate the development of internal models and to control

  8. Biological control of harmful algal blooms: A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Jordi; Estrada, Marta; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    A multispecies dynamic simulation model (ERSEM) was used to examine the influence of allelopathic and trophic interactions causing feeding avoidance by predators, on the formation of harmful algal blooms, under environmental scenarios typical of a Mediterranean harbour (Barcelona). The biological state variables of the model included four functional groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, toxic and non-toxic flagellates and picophytoplankton), heterotrophic flagellates, micro- and mesozooplankton and bacteria. The physical-chemical forcing (irradiance, temperature and major nutrient concentrations) was based on an actual series of measurements taken along a year cycle in the Barcelona harbour. In order to evaluate potential effects of advection, some runs were repeated after introducing a biomass loss term. Numerical simulations showed that allelopathic effects of a toxic alga on a non-toxic but otherwise similar competitor did not have appreciable influence on the dynamics of the system. However, induction of avoidance of the toxic alga by predators, which resulted on increased predation pressure on other algal groups had a significant effect on the development of algal and predator populations. The presence of advection overrided the effect of these interactions and only allowed organisms with sufficiently high potential growth rates to thrive.

  9. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior is termed the biological pump. In recent decades it has become clear that the composition of the phytoplankton community in the surface ocean largely determines the quantity and quality of organic matter that sinks to depth. This settling organic matter, however, is not sufficient to meet the energy demands of microbes in the dark ocean. Two additional sources of organic matter have been identified: non-sinking organic particles of debated origin that escape capture by sediment traps and exhibit stable concentrations throughout the dark ocean, and microbes that convert inorganic carbon into organic matter. Whether these two sources can together account for the significant mismatch between organic matter consumption and supply in the dark ocean remains to be seen. It is clear, however, that the microbial community of the deep ocean works in a fundamentally different way from surface water communities. PMID:24707320

  10. Biology, epidemiology, and control of Heterobasidion species worldwide.

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Matteo; Gonthier, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a species complex comprising five species that are widely distributed in coniferous forests of the Northern Hemisphere and are each characterized by a distinct host preference. More than 1,700 papers have been published on these fungi in the past four decades, making them perhaps the most widely studied forest fungi. Heterobasidion species are at different levels on the saprotroph-necrotroph gradient, and the same individual can switch from one mode to the other. This offers a unique opportunity to study how genomic structure, gene expression, and genetic trade-offs may all interact with environmental factors to determine the life mode of the organism. The abilities of Heterobasidion spp. to infect stumps as saprotrophs and to spread to neighboring trees as pathogens have resulted in significant damages to timber production in managed forests. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, evolution, and management of these species and is based on classical and modern studies. PMID:23642002

  11. In control of biology: of mice, men and Foxes

    PubMed Central

    Wijchers, Patrick J. E. C.; Burbach, J. Peter H.; Smidt, Marten P.

    2006-01-01

    Forkhead proteins comprise a highly conserved family of transcription factors, named after the original forkhead gene in Drosophila. To date, over 100 forkhead genes have been identified in a large variety of species, all sharing the evolutionary conserved ‘forkhead’ DNA-binding domain, and the cloning and characterization of forkhead genes have continued in recent years. Forkhead transcription factors regulate the expression of countless genes downstream of important signalling pathways in most, if not all, tissues and cell types. Recent work has provided novel insights into the mechanisms that contribute to their functional diversity, including functional protein domains and interactions of forkheads with other transcription factors. Studies using loss- and gain-of-function models have elucidated the role of forkhead factors in developmental biology and cellular functions such as metabolism, cell division and cell survival. The importance of forkhead transcription factors is underlined by the developmental defects observed in mutant model organisms, and multiple human disorders and cancers which can be attributed to mutations within members of the forkhead gene family. This review provides a comprehensive overview of current knowledge on forkhead transcription factors, from structural organization and regulatory mechanisms to cellular and developmental functions in mice and humans. Finally, we will discuss how novel insights gained from involvement of ‘Foxes’ in the mechanisms underlying human pathology may create new opportunities for treatment strategies. PMID:16792526

  12. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  13. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump.

    PubMed

    Herndl, Gerhard J; Reinthaler, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior is termed the biological pump. In recent decades it has become clear that the composition of the phytoplankton community in the surface ocean largely determines the quantity and quality of organic matter that sinks to depth. This settling organic matter, however, is not sufficient to meet the energy demands of microbes in the dark ocean. Two additional sources of organic matter have been identified: non-sinking organic particles of debated origin that escape capture by sediment traps and exhibit stable concentrations throughout the dark ocean, and microbes that convert inorganic carbon into organic matter. Whether these two sources can together account for the significant mismatch between organic matter consumption and supply in the dark ocean remains to be seen. It is clear, however, that the microbial community of the deep ocean works in a fundamentally different way from surface water communities. PMID:24707320

  14. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  15. Mechanization and Control Concepts for Biologically Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Slominski, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that MAV designs of the future will exploit flapping flight in order to perform missions that require extreme agility, such as rapid flight beneath a forest canopy or within the confines of a building. Many of nature's most agile flyers generate flapping motions through resonant excitation of an aeroelastically tailored structure: muscle tissue is used to excite a vibratory mode of their flexible wing structure that creates propulsion and lift. A number of MAV concepts have been proposed that would operate in a similar fashion. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts with application to resonant flapping MAVs are being explored. Structural approaches, mechanical design, sensing and wingbeat control concepts inspired by hummingbirds, bats and insects are examined. Experimental results from a testbed capable of generating vibratory wingbeat patterns that approximately match those exhibited by hummingbirds in hover, cruise, and reverse flight are presented.

  16. Controlled flight of a biologically inspired, insect-scale robot.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kevin Y; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Fuller, Sawyer B; Wood, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Flies are among the most agile flying creatures on Earth. To mimic this aerial prowess in a similarly sized robot requires tiny, high-efficiency mechanical components that pose miniaturization challenges governed by force-scaling laws, suggesting unconventional solutions for propulsion, actuation, and manufacturing. To this end, we developed high-power-density piezoelectric flight muscles and a manufacturing methodology capable of rapidly prototyping articulated, flexure-based sub-millimeter mechanisms. We built an 80-milligram, insect-scale, flapping-wing robot modeled loosely on the morphology of flies. Using a modular approach to flight control that relies on limited information about the robot's dynamics, we demonstrated tethered but unconstrained stable hovering and basic controlled flight maneuvers. The result validates a sufficient suite of innovations for achieving artificial, insect-like flight. PMID:23641114

  17. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Laurent; Rombaut, Geert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  18. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, L; Rombaut, G; Sorgeloos, P; Verstraete, W

    2000-12-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  19. The biological control on Si cycling in the Okavango Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struyf, Eric; Mosimane, Keotshepile; Van Pelt, Dimitri; Murray-Hudson, Mike; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Schoelynck, Jonas; Gondwé, Mangaliso; Wolski, Piotr; Conley, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the role of vegetation and hydrology in the Si cycle in the Okavango Delta (Botswana). Our results show a large storage of biogenic Si (BSi) in vegetation and the sediments. The biological storage is among the highest observed so far for any ecosystem worldwide. Floodplain vegetation accumulates similar amounts of BSi in both the temporary floodplains and the permanent floodplains, with most values observed between 20-100 g Si m-2. This vegetation Si, after litterfall, contributes to a large biogenic Si storage in the sediments. In temporary floodplains, sediments contain less BSi (375 -1950 g Si m-2 in the top 5 cm) than in the permanent floodplains (1950 - 3600 g Si m-2 in the top 5 cm). BSi concentrations in the floodplain sediments decline exponentially indicating rapid dissolution. In the occasional and seasonal floodplains, unidirectional solute transfer from floodplains to tree covered islands removes Si from the riverine systems. The hydrology of many tropical wetlands is undergoing major changes due to human alteration of river morphology and watersheds. Model predictions also project substantial future changes in hydrology and climate . This will have implications for flooding extent and seasonality, factors that may induce changes in Si storage in the Okavango Delta. Recently, annual BSi uptake in global vegetation was estimated at about 85 Tmole. Of this, the total surface of wetlands worldwide contributes approximately 4.16 Tmole a-1. Our conservative vegetation BSi production estimate of 0.02 Tmole of Si a-1 would represent about 0.4% of total annual uptake in wetland vegetation worldwide within the Okavango Delta alone, despite it covering only about 0.1% of global wetland area. Tropical rivers deliver about 70-80% of the global Si load into the ocean , implying it is crucial to assess environmental factors that can influence its transport. Our data and the limited available literature data available clearly show that wetlands and

  20. Screening Spanish isolates of steinernematid nematodes for use as biological control agents through laboratory and greenhouse microcosm studies.

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are one of the best non-chemical alternatives for insect pest control, with native EPN strains that are adapted to local conditions considered to be ideal candidates for regional biological control programs. Virulence screening of 17 native Mediterranean EPN strains was performed to select the most promising strain for regional insect pest control. Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Rioja strain produced 7%, 91% and 33% larval mortality for the insects Agriotes sordidus (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Elateridae), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively, and was selected as the most promising strain. The S. feltiae Rioja strain-S. littoralis combination was considered the most suitable to develop the Rioja strain as a biocontrol agent for soil applications. The effect of soil texture on the virulence of the Rioja strain against S. littoralis was determined through dose-response experiments. The estimated LC(90) to kill larvae in two days was 220, 753 and 4178 IJs/cm(2) for soils with a clay content of 5%, 14% and 24%, respectively, which indicates that heavy soils produced negative effects on the virulence of the Rioja strain. The nematode dose corresponding to the LC(90) for soils with a 5% and 14% clay content reduced insect damage to Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants under greenhouse microcosm conditions. The results of this research suggest that an accurate characterization of new EPN strains to select the most suitable combination of insect, nematode and soil texture might provide valuable data to obtain successful biological control under different ecological scenarios in future field applications. PMID:19073191

  1. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them. PMID:18165253

  2. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  3. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  4. Controlled aspiration and positioning of biological cells in a micropipette.

    PubMed

    Zhang, XuPing; Leung, Clement; Lu, Zhe; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Manipulating single cells with a micropipette is the oldest, yet still a widely used technique. This paper discusses the aspiration of a single cell into a micropipette and positioning the cell accurately to a target position inside the micropipette. Due to the small volume of a single cell (picoliter) and nonlinear dynamics involved, these tasks have high skill requirements and are labor intensive in manual operation that is solely based on trial and error and has high failure rates. We present automated techniques in this paper for achieving these tasks via computer vision microscopy and closed-loop motion control. Computer vision algorithms were developed to detect and track a single cell outside and inside a micropipette for automated single-cell aspiration. A closed-loop robust controller integrating the dynamics of cell motion was designed to accurately and efficiently position the cell to a target position inside the micropipette. The system achieved high success rates of 98% for cell detection and 97% for cell tracking (n = 100). The automated system also demonstrated its capability of aspirating a single cell into a micropipette within 2 s (versus 10 s by highly skilled operators) and accurately positioning the cell inside the micropipette within 8 s (versus 25 s by highly skilled operators). PMID:22231148

  5. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  6. Preclinical assessment of abuse liability of biologics: In defense of current regulatory control policies.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, David V; Zimmermann, Zachary J; Baird, Theodore J

    2015-10-01

    Current regulatory policies of both the US Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration do not delineate automatic exceptions for biologics with respect to preclinical assessments for abuse liability of all new entities. As defined in current guidance documents and drug control policies, an exception may be given upon thorough review of available data, therapeutic target and in consultation with the Controlled Substances Staff within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research of the FDA, but a blanket exception for all biological entities is not currently available. We review the abuse liability testing of four known biologics with definitive positive abuse liability signals in the three core abuse liability assays, self-administration, drug discrimination, and dependence potential described in the FDA draft guidance document. Interestingly, while all four examplars have positive abuse liability signals in all three assays, two of these biologics are controlled under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act (CSA, 1970) and the other two are not currently controlled. Admittedly, these four biologics are small molecule entities. However, there is no reference to "molecular size" in the legally-binding statutory definition of biologics under the FD&C act or in the Controlled Substances Act. Neither of these drug control policy mandates have a bifurcated control status in which to make exceptions based solely on molecular size. With the current pharmaceutical focus on new technologies, such as "Trojan Horses", targeting the active transport of large molecule entities directly into the CNS, an argument to automatically exempt new molecular entities solely on molecular size is untenable. We argue that for the safety and health of general public the current regulatory control status be maintained until definitive criteria for exceptions can be identified and amended to both the FD&CA and CSA, if warranted. PMID:26107292

  7. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Increased Genetic Load of Islet-Expressed and Cytokine-Regulated Candidate Genes Predicts Poorer Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Caroline A; Nielsen, Lotte B; Andersen, Marie Louise; Kaur, Simranjeet; Bergholdt, Regine; Hansen, Lars; Mortensen, Henrik B; Pociot, Flemming; Størling, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D). As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease progression. Two-thirds of 46 GWAS candidate genes examined were expressed in human islets, and 11 of these significantly changed expression levels following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β + IFNγ + TNFα) for 48 h. Using the GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from each locus, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that several of the 11 candidate genes have overlapping biological functions and interact in a common network. Our results may help predict disease progression in newly diagnosed children with T1D which can be exploited for optimizing treatment. PMID:26904692

  8. Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.

    PubMed

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

  9. A Correlation of Biology Teachers' Pupil Control Ideology and Their Classroom Teaching Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; Blankenship, Jacob W.

    The Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI Form) and the Biology Classroom Activity Checklist (BCAC) were used to determine the relationship between teachers' stated pupil control ideology and the extent to which their students reported the use of inquiry methods in the classroom. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 168 teachers and…

  10. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to license control. (a) If a drug has an approved license under section 351 of the Public...

  11. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to license control. (a) If a drug has an approved license under section 351 of the Public...

  12. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biologics; products subject to license control. 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to license control. (a) If a drug has an approved license under section 351 of the Public...

  13. Trans-Atlantic Opportunities for Collaboration on Classical Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In North America, introduced invasive weeds are having catastrophic effects on agricultural and natural, wild ecosystems. Many of these weeds have been introduced from Eurasia, and the only economically feasible means for controlling them is through classical biological control. This situation is th...

  14. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the importation of highly specific inse...

  15. Mutual benefits through formalized international collaboration on biological control of weeds with plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., introduced invasive weeds have catastrophic effects on agricultural, aquatic, rangeland, riparian, and natural ecosystems. Often the only economically feasible means for controlling these weeds is classical biological control through the introduction of natural enemies, including plant ...

  16. Biological control of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (Hydrocharitaceae), a submersed aquatic macrophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survey and testing of potential Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle biological control agents has been conducted in China from 2006 to the present. Several new species of insects have been discovered and tested to determine their suitability for release in the US to control this invasive weed. The beet...

  17. Conservation biological control of rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) in eastern North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the potentially serious damage rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera: Aphididae), can cause to apple fruit and branch development, prophylactic insecticides are often used for control. If biological control could be relied on, the amount of pesticide applied in or...

  18. Applying molecular-based approaches to classical biological control of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern advances in molecular techniques are only recently being incorporated into programs for the classical biological control of weeds. Molecular analyses are able to elucidate information about target weeds that is critical to improving control success, such as taxonomic clarification, evidence o...

  19. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  20. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-09-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity.

  1. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  2. Thermal and biological treatments to control psychrotrophic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, B W; Schuman, J D

    1996-09-01

    Over the past decade, advances in egg processing technologies have permitted commercial production of ultrapasteurized liquid whole egg (LWE) products with a shelf-life of greater than 10 wk at 4 C. The inactivation and control of psychrotrophic pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila in extended shelf-life LWE and conventionally pasteurized egg products is an ongoing food safety concern. This manuscript reports on the common features of these two psychrotrophic pathogens, their incidence in egg products, and their survival, growth potential, and heat resistance in liquid egg. Furthermore, this manuscript reports in detail on the results of two specific studies conducted in our laboratory whose objectives were: 1) to determine the heat resistance (D-values) of A. hydrophila in LWE using a low-volume immersed sealed glass capillary tube (ISCT) procedure; 2) to assess the impact of methodology (i.e., ISCT procedure vs a conventional capped test tube procedure) on the apparent thermal resistance of A. hydrophila; and 3) to report on the use of the bacteriocin nisin to restrict the survival of L. monocytogenes in ultrapasteurized LWE stored at refrigeration temperatures. PMID:8878273

  3. Ecosystem management: Controlling biological invasion in an Illinois nature preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Thelen, C.S.; Schulz, K.E.

    1995-12-01

    Understanding the nature and effects of human interaction with the landscape is an important aspect of environmental decisionmaking. Often, human action alters the composition and distribution of organisms. In the North American central Midwest, human occupation has decimated native woodlands, which endure as habitat islands in a highly fragmented natural landscape dominated by intensive agriculture and permeated by invasive exotic species. The alterations in the landscape have affected the structure and function of the few remaining intact forests by altering the environment experienced by tree and herb species. A frequent invader of forest understories throughout the central Midwest is Vinca minor, a horticultural groundcover, yet this species has not previously been studied as a woodland invader. We tested the hypothesis that native understory species were excluded from colonized areas, and that tree seedling growth was suppressed. Using study plots in Knobeloch Woods Nature Preserve, St. Clair County, Illinois, we measured the effect of Vinca colonization on understory composition and diversity, by comparing colonized and uncolonized plots. We also related understory characteristics to soil and canopy properties. Finally, to evaluate an ongoing program to control the invasion in the field, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous cutting and herbicide treatment had increased the diversity of native understory species. We hope with this study to provide fact-based recommendations for management of midwestern nature preserves experiencing exotic plant invasions.

  4. Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Scott C; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Ko, Albert I; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26996139

  5. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with the input power density on the dura mater membrane, thus allowing continued irradiation concentration to the deep lesion without damage to the dura mater. Multibeam inputs along different directions, or at different positions, can be guided to focus to the same spot behind the membrane, hence providing a similar gamma knife function in optical spectral range. Moreover, both the polarization and the phase of the input field can be recovered in the target area, allowing coherent field superposition in comparison with the linear intensity superposition for the gamma knife. PMID:26114042

  6. OMNIHAB - a controlled environmental system for application in gravitational biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, Ralf; Hilbig, Reinhard; Anken, Ralf; Lebert, Michael; Häder, Donat

    Several "closed" habitats have been designed in the past for experiments with unicellular organisms as well as with multicellular animals and plants under long-term microgravity. Some of these environmental systems were flown successfully. The bioregenerative C.E.B.A.S.- Minimodul allowed the maintenance of higher plants (Ceratophyllum sp.), mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata) and fish (swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus) under spaceflight conditions (STS-89, STS-90 Neurolab, STS-107). A much simpler and smaller system, the OMEGAHAB, was successfully employed on the FOTON M-3 flight, containing cichlid fish larvae and unicellular algae (Euglena gracilis). Further aquatic habitats are under development (e.g., AquaHab, another aquatic research module especially dedicated to ground based, application-oriented research). These systems tend to be specialized, minimal ecosystems with limited research potential. Therefore, we propose to develop a controlled, multi-modular hardware to increase the diversity of experimental species to be flown together. Currently, a variety of plant and animal species are used as model systems. Combining as many of them as possible (and conducting a most effective sample-sharing among the different working groups) will strongly improve the cost-benefit ratio and thus effectiveness of a space- flight experiment in utilising limited resources at the maximum. The concept of OMNIHAB, an aquatic life support system comprising exchangeable modules, will be presented at the meeting.

  7. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    SciTech Connect

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide (3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide) was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with /sup 14/C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution.

  8. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  9. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: An information-entropy-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeufle, D. F. B.; Günther, M.; Wunner, G.; Schmitt, S.

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I =32bits versus I =660bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  10. Using consumption rate to assess potential predators for biological control of white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pope, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Control of undesirable fishes is important in aquatic systems, and using predation as a tool for biological control is an attractive option to fishery biologists. However, determining the appropriate predators for biological control is critical for success. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of consumption rate as an index to determine the most effective predators for biological control of an invasive fish. Consumption rate values were calculated for nine potential predators that prey on white perch Morone americana in Branched Oak and Pawnee reservoirs, Nebraska. The consumption rate index provided a unique and insightful means of determining the potential effectiveness of each predator species in controlling white perch. Cumulative frequency distributions facilitated interpretation by providing a graphical presentation of consumption rates by all individuals within each predator species. Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, walleye Sander vitreus and sauger S. canadensis were the most efficient white perch predators in both reservoirs; however, previous attempts to increase biomass of these predators have failed suggesting that successful biological control is unlikely using existing predator species in these Nebraska reservoirs. ?? 2011 ONEMA.

  11. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GONATOCERUS TUBERCULIFEMUR FROM SOUTH AMERICA UNCOVERS DIVERGENT CLADES: PROSPECTIVE EGG PARASITOID CANDIDATE AGENT FOR THE GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We genetically characterized the prospective South American egg parasitoid candidate agent, Gonatocerus tuberculifemur, of the glassy-winged sharsphooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) [=H. coagulata (Say)] for a neoclassical biological control program in California. Two molecular methods...

  12. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  13. Biology and host specificity of Coelocephalapion gandolfoi Kissinger (Brentidae) a promising candidate for the biological control of invasive Prosopis species (Leguminosae) in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive Prosopis species (Leguminosae) (mesquite) pose a significant threat to biodiversity, pasture production, and water resources in South Africa. In an attempt to contain the spread of this noxious weed the South African authorities have supported the introduction of host-specific and damaging...

  14. Biology and host range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a candidate agent for biological control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lamaire) is an ornamental vine, native to eastern South Africa, that has escaped into natural areas in coastal California and Oregon, as well as in Hawaii and several other countries, displacing native vegetation. Extensive surveys in South Africa led to the discovery of t...

  15. Biology and host range of the moth Digitivalva delaireae as one of two candidate agents for biological control of Cape-ivy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata, Asteraceae), native to coastal floodplains and mountains in eastern South Africa, is an invasive vine in coastal riparian, woodland and scrub habitats in California and southern Oregon, as well as mid-elevation regions on some of the Hawaiian Islands. Cape-ivy smothers na...

  16. Phenrica littoralis a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides: redscription of the adult, first description of immature stages and biological notes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles of aliligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyne were frequently found on this weed. Phenric...

  17. BIOLOGY AND HOST SPECIFICITY OF PLECTONYCHA CORRENTINA LACORDAIRE (CHRYSOMELIDAE), A CANDIDATE FOR THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TENORE) STEENIS (BASELLACEAE) ”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis (Basellaceae) is a perennial climber native to southern South America. Known as Madeira vine, it has become a serious environmental weed in Australia, South Africa, Hawaii, New Zealand and other Pacific islands, where it forms mats over trees and shrubs disruptin...

  18. Biology and preliminary host range of Hydrotimetes natans Kolbe (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)a natural enemy candidate for biological control of Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae) in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae), otherwise known as cabomba or water fanwort, is a submerged, rooted macrophyte with heavily dissected leaves that produces flowers that extend above the water’s surface. It has been disseminated around the world through the aquarium trade and has become a nox...

  19. Biology and Host Range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mehelis, Christopher N; Balciunas, Joe K; Reddy, Angelica M; Van Der Westhuizen, Liame; Neser, Stefan; Moran, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lemaire) is an ornamental vine native to South Africa that has escaped into natural areas in coastal California and Oregon, displacing native vegetation. Surveys in South Africa led to the discovery of the leaf- and stem-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike and Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae: Acrolepiinae) as one of several common and damaging native herbivores on Cape-ivy. In greenhouse studies, adult female life span averaged 16 d (46 d maximum). Most (72%) mated females began laying eggs within 72 h of emergence. Females had an average lifetime fecundity of 52 eggs, with >70% laid on leaf laminae, and 89% of eggs were laid by the 15th day postemergence. Lifetime fertility (adult production) averaged three to four offspring per female. At 25 °C, egg hatch required 10 d, pupal formation 26 d, and adult emergence 41 d, while under variable greenhouse and laboratory conditions development to adult required 54-60 d. In four-way choice tests, involving 100 plant species other than Cape-ivy, including 11 genera and 37 species in the Asteraceae, subtribe Senecioninae from both native and invaded ranges, D. delaireae inflicted damage and produced pupae only on Cape-ivy. Leaf mining damage occurred on 30% of leaves of native Senecio hydrophilus in no-choice tests and on 2% of leaves in dual-choice tests, but no pupation occurred. If approved for field release in the continental United States, the moth D. delaireae is expected to produce multiple generations per year on Cape-ivy, and to pose little risk of damage to native plants. PMID:26313180

  20. Combining case-control and case-trio data from the same population in genetic association analyses: overview of approaches and illustration with a candidate gene study.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rivard, Claire; Mirea, Lucia; Bull, Shelley B

    2009-09-01

    In genetic association studies, investigators compare allele or genotype frequencies in unrelated case and control subjects or examine preferential allele transmissions from parents to affected offspring. In many genetic case-control studies, the collection of DNA material extends to relatives such as parents of cases. Thus, case-control and case-parent trio association analyses are possible. Whereas the goal of collecting genetic information from family members in a study initially designed as a case-control study is to enrich the genetic analysis, increase power, or address concern about population structure bias, methods of combining genetic data from unrelated case and control subjects with genetic trio data from the same study population are not well known. A number of hybrid approaches have been developed that utilize such data together. In this paper, the authors describe key features of genetic case-control and case-parent trio studies and review commonly used methods of genetic analysis for case-parent trio designs. In addition, they provide a pragmatic review of statistical methods and available software for existing hybrid approaches that combine various components of case-control and genetic trio data. The application of all methods is illustrated using a candidate gene study of childhood leukemia that included case-control subjects and their parents. PMID:19635737

  1. Biological control of invasive plant species: a reassessment for the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Seastedt, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    The science of finding, testing and releasing herbivores and pathogens to control invasive plant species has achieved a level of maturity and success that argues for continued and expanded use of this program. The practice, however, remains unpopular with some conservationists, invasion biologists, and stakeholders. The ecological and economic benefits of controlling densities of problematic plant species using biological control agents can be quantified, but the risks and net benefits of biological control programs are often derived from social or cultural rather than scientific criteria. Management of invasive plants is a 'wicked problem', and local outcomes to wicked problems have both positive and negative consequences differentially affecting various groups of stakeholders. The program has inherent uncertainties; inserting species into communities that are experiencing directional or even transformational changes can produce multiple outcomes due to context-specific factors that are further confounded by environmental change drivers. Despite these uncertainties, biological control could play a larger role in mitigation and adaptation strategies used to maintain biological diversity as well as contribute to human well-being by protecting food and fiber resources. PMID:25303317

  2. DNA assembly of nanoparticle superstructures for controlled biological delivery and elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Leo Y. T.; Zagorovsky, Kyryl; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2014-02-01

    The assembly of nanomaterials using DNA can produce complex nanostructures, but the biological applications of these structures remain unexplored. Here, we describe the use of DNA to control the biological delivery and elimination of inorganic nanoparticles by organizing them into colloidal superstructures. The individual nanoparticles serve as building blocks, whose size, surface chemistry and assembly architecture dictate the overall superstructure design. These superstructures interact with cells and tissues as a function of their design, but subsequently degrade into building blocks that can escape biological sequestration. We demonstrate that this strategy reduces nanoparticle retention by macrophages and improves their in vivo tumour accumulation and whole-body elimination. Superstructures can be further functionalized to carry and protect imaging or therapeutic agents against enzymatic degradation. These results suggest a different strategy to engineer nanostructure interactions with biological systems and highlight new directions in the design of biodegradable and multifunctional nanomedicine.

  3. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. PMID:27197053

  4. DNA vaccine prime and recombinant FPV vaccine boost: an important candidate immunization strategy to control bluetongue virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Junping; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Feng, Yufei; Lv, Shuang; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Wu, Donglai

    2015-10-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), an important sheep disease that caused great economic loss to the sheep industry. There are 26 BTV serotypes based on the outer protein VP2. However, the serotypes BTV-1 and BTV-16 are the two most prevalent serotypes in China. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing viral infections. Therefore, the need for an effective vaccine against BTV is urgent. In this study, DNA vaccines and recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines expressing VP2 alone or VP2 in combination with VP5 or co-expressing the VP2 and VP5 proteins of BTV-1 were evaluated in both mice and sheep. Several strategies were tested in mice, including DNA vaccine prime and boost, rFPV vaccine prime and boost, and DNA vaccine prime and rFPV vaccine boost. We then determined the best vaccine strategy in sheep. Our results indicated that a strategy combining a DNA vaccine prime (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) followed by an rFPV vaccine boost (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) induced a high titer of neutralizing antibodies in sheep. Therefore, our data suggest that a DNA vaccine consisting of a pCAG-(VP2+VP5) prime and an rFPV-(VP2+VP5) boost is an important candidate for the design of a novel vaccine against BTV-1. PMID:26048472

  5. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  6. Comparative analysis of the human hepatic and adipose tissue transcriptomes during LPS-induced inflammation leads to the identification of differential biological pathways and candidate biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) is accompanied by chronic low grade systemic inflammation, obesity, and deregulation of total body energy homeostasis. We induced inflammation in adipose and liver tissues in vitro in order to mimic inflammation in vivo with the aim to identify tissue-specific processes implicated in IR and to find biomarkers indicative for tissue-specific IR. Methods Human adipose and liver tissues were cultured in the absence or presence of LPS and DNA Microarray Technology was applied for their transcriptome analysis. Gene Ontology (GO), gene functional analysis, and prediction of genes encoding for secretome were performed using publicly available bioinformatics tools (DAVID, STRING, SecretomeP). The transcriptome data were validated by proteomics analysis of the inflamed adipose tissue secretome. Results LPS treatment significantly affected 667 and 483 genes in adipose and liver tissues respectively. The GO analysis revealed that during inflammation adipose tissue, compared to liver tissue, had more significantly upregulated genes, GO terms, and functional clusters related to inflammation and angiogenesis. The secretome prediction led to identification of 399 and 236 genes in adipose and liver tissue respectively. The secretomes of both tissues shared 66 genes and the remaining genes were the differential candidate biomarkers indicative for inflamed adipose or liver tissue. The transcriptome data of the inflamed adipose tissue secretome showed excellent correlation with the proteomics data. Conclusions The higher number of altered proinflammatory genes, GO processes, and genes encoding for secretome during inflammation in adipose tissue compared to liver tissue, suggests that adipose tissue is the major organ contributing to the development of systemic inflammation observed in IR. The identified tissue-specific functional clusters and biomarkers might be used in a strategy for the development of tissue-targeted treatment of insulin resistance

  7. Understanding the biology and control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae: a review.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, James; Kuster, Tatiana; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite capable of causing pathology in birds, amongst other animals. It is an increasingly important pathogen in egg layers and is responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Even though PRM poses a serious problem, very little is known about the basic biology of the mite. Here we review the current body of literature describing red mite biology and discuss how this has been, or could be, used to develop methods to control PRM infestations. We focus primarily on the PRM digestive system, salivary glands, nervous system and exoskeleton and also explore areas of PRM biology which have to date received little or no study but have the potential to offer new control targets. PMID:25895578

  8. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  9. Pre-release efficacy test of the prospective biological control agent Arytinnis hakani on the invasive weed Genista monspessulana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In weed biological control, conducting a pre-release efficacy test can help ascertain if prospective biological control agents will be capable of controlling the target plant. Currently, the phloem-feeding psyllid, Arytinnis hakani, is being evaluated as a prospective agent for the exotic invasive w...

  10. Conservation biological control of spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecolia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on apple by providing natural altervative food resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing biological control in orchards is an efficient way to control insect pests when effective. This study investigates the possibility of increasing biological control of spirea aphid by providing alternate food resources, in the form of peach extrafloral nectar, to adult Harmonia axyridis, t...

  11. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred m...

  12. Microarray Analysis and Mutagenesis of the Biological Control Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological control agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 suppresses seedling emergence diseases caused by soilborne fungi and Oomycetes. Pf-5 produces at least ten secondary metabolites. These include hydrogen cyanide, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, which have known funct...

  13. Challenges to evaluation of eriophyid mites for biological control of invasive plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant...

  14. Biological Control of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum, by the brown lygodium moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most problematic invasive weeds impacting natural areas in southern and central Florida. Management has proven difficult and expensive, which prompted interest in the development of biological control options. The brown lygodium moth, Neom...

  15. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-5 - Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Drugs, biologicals, and... shall be coordinated with local air and water pollution control authorities. (3) Destruction of surplus... regulated noncontrolled drugs, 40 CFR part 260 et seq., are sufficiently stringent to ensure that...

  16. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-5 - Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Drugs, biologicals, and... shall be coordinated with local air and water pollution control authorities. (3) Destruction of surplus... regulated noncontrolled drugs, 40 CFR part 260 et seq., are sufficiently stringent to ensure that...

  17. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  18. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  19. TERETRIUS NIGRESCENS AGAINST LARGER GRAIN BORER PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS IN AFRICAN MAIZE STORES: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AT WORK?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Problem. A great deal of work has been done to attempt to evaluate the importance of Teretrius nigrescens as a classical biological control of Prostephanus truncatus in Africa. Some workers have declared that T. nigrescens has solved the P. truncatus problem, while other workers are still reporti...

  20. Establishment of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis, a biological control agent of Arundo donax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The armored scale biological control agent, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi) (Hemiptera; Diaspididae) has established populations on the invasive weed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae; Arundinoideae) in Del Rio (Val Verde, Co.) and in field plots at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Moore Airbase, Edinburg (Hidalgo Co.)...

  1. Biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: goal-based assessment of success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Success means different things to different people. Unfortunately, successes in weed biological control projects are often determined after the fact by non-participants lacking knowledge of the original goals set out by project architects. The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia, which is an agg...

  2. Mass-rearing Bemisia parasitoids for support of classical and augmentative biological control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of efficient mass-rearing systems for Bemisia parasitoids was crucial for the implementation of the classical and augmentative biological control programs for this exotic pest. Early work relied on adapting methods for the production of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) for the greenhouse whi...

  3. Monitoring Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis for Biological Control of Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rust fungus Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis (P. jaceae) was first released as a classical biological control for yellow starthistle (YST) in California (CA) in 2003. At that time, a monitoring program was initiated to 1) determine the best time to release the agent, 2) determine if P. jaceae c...

  4. Biological control of common salvinia (Salvinia minima) in Louisiana using Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common salvinia, Salvinia minima Baker, is an aquatic invasive fern that obstructs waterways and impacts water quality throughout the southeastern United States. In an effort to establish populations for classical biological control, the weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands, was released a...

  5. Potential classical biological control of invasive Himalayan yellow raspberry, Rubus ellipticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus ellipticus is one of the world's worst invasive alien species. It is a serious problem in Hawaii and Queensland and has naturalized in many other countries. Biological control is being considered as a means to suppress it by introducing natural enemies from Asia, its native region. In this pap...

  6. Biological Control of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum - Recent progress with the brown lygodium moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most serious invasive weeds impacting natural areas in southern and central Florida. Management of this weed using traditional methods has proved difficult and expensive, and has prompted efforts to develop biological control options for t...

  7. A Quarter of a Century of Contributions from the FDWSRU in Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of foreign plant pathogens for biological control of weeds was initiated at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in the mid 1970s. Justification for locating this research effort at the Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit (FDWSRU), Ft. D...

  8. DEFOLIATING BROAD NOSED WEEVIL, Plectrophoroides lutra; NOT SUITABLE FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BRAZILIAN PEPPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adults of the weevil Plectrophoroides lutra were evaluated for potential as an agent for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius. Our Brazilian field observations indicated that the adults were only collected from S. terebinthifolius, however when tested on North American and other valued...

  9. Applying broadband spectra to assess biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Texas, natural resource managers, government officials, and scientists need effective means for monitoring biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) with the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadba spp.). This study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectra within visible, red-edge, and near-inf...

  10. Acquired natural enemies of the weed biological control agent Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian curculionid Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe was introduced into Florida during 1997 as a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake. Populations of the weevil increased rapidly and became widely distributed throughout much of the invasive tree’s adve...

  11. Larval dispersal of the weed biological control agent Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian weevil Oxyops vitiosa is a biological control agent of the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida, USA. Evidence suggests that the last instar drops from the canopy to the forest floor to pupate in the soil or leaf litter. This dispersal method preempts weevil population persi...

  12. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  13. Trophic cascades in a cranberry marsh: Can detritus-removal improve biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological pest control is predicated on the concept that plants are protected when carnivores suppress herbivore populations. However, many factors, including detritus-based food-chains, may re-shape the effectiveness of predators in a given agro ecosystem. The addition of detrital subsidies, such ...

  14. 2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

  15. POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AS BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS AGAINST THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance, pathogenicity and transmission studies of the fungi Metarhizium and Beauveria, show that biological control agents can enhance termite treatment flexibility. Subterranean termites cause significant damage to wood structures and trees, especially in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United ...

  16. Impact and Legacy of Raghavan Charudattan in Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Raghavan Charudattan has worked in the area of biological control of weeds with plant pathogenic fungi for nearly four decades. He has maintained his research program in this line throughout his career. The excellent scientific discoveries and contributions that he has made have been recognize...

  17. Russian olive – a suitable target for classical biological control in North America?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projects to develop biological control solutions against invasive plants are mid- to long-term endeavours that require considerable financial support over several years. Discussions of concerns and potential conflicts of interests often occur when biocontrol agents are first being proposed for rele...

  18. Conservation Biological Control of Pests in the Molecular Era: New Opportunities to Address Old Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Gurr, Geoff M.; You, Minsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate plant defense mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles. PMID:26793225

  19. The genetic consequences of a demographic bottleneck in an introduced biological control insect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined phylogeography and population genetics of the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae, which was introduced from Australia to Florida as a biological control agent of the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia. We sampled psyllids in the native and introduced ranges as well as indi...

  20. Biological Control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: Goal-based Assessment of Success.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Success means different things to different people. Unfortunately, the success or failure of weed biological control projects is often evaluated by non-participants lacking knowledge of the original goals set by project architects. The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia, which is an aggressive ...

  1. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

  2. Monitoring the rust fungus Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis for biological control of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is a noxious weed that infests over 7 million hectares of rangeland in California. The rust fungus Puccinia jaceae Otth var. solstitialis (P. j. solstitialis) was first released as a classical biological control for yellow starthistle in California in 2...

  3. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  4. Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biological control of fire blight of pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of biological control agents can be superior to individual agents in suppressing plant disease, providing enhanced efficacy and reliability from field to field relative to single biocontrol strains. Nonetheless, the efficacy of combinations of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a commercial bio...

  5. Employing spatial information technologies to monitor biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadha spp.) has shown promise as a biocontrol agent for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) invasions in the United States. In Texas, natural resource managers need assistance in monitoring biological control of invasive saltcedars. This study describes application of a medium fo...

  6. Selection of test plant list for weed biological control with molecular and biochemical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The initial steps of weed biological control programs involve the determination of the host range of a prospective agent prior to consideration for release. Accurately predicting the host range of a potential agent is fundamental to this process. This may be conducted first in the country of origin ...

  7. Commercial applications and future prospects for the use of biological control after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of postharvest diseases celebrated its first decade of commercial use last year. In the United States, BioSave is the only product that is currently being used. The original registration for postharvest application to pome and citrus fruits was expanded to include cherries, pota...

  8. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF RICE BACTERIAL BLIGHT BY PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA PRODUCING 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain plant-associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce the antimicrobial antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antihelminthic properties and has played a significant role in the biological control of tobacco, whe...

  9. Does phylogeny explain the host choice behaviour of potential biological control agents for Brassicaceae weeds?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four invasive Brassicaceae are currently being studied for biological control at the CABI Centre in Switzerland. A phylogenetic approach to host testing has so far been hampered by the fact that the evolutionary relationships of taxa within the Brassicaceae were unclear. Recently, a new phylogeny of...

  10. Promise versus performance: Working toward the use of Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control for wireworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Canadian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae has shown promise as a biological control for wireworms based on repeated success in laboratory and greenhouse studies but field efficacy has been inconsistent. Laboratory experiments designed to explain these mixed results have pointed to certain biotic...

  11. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on BT transgenic sweet corn with biologically based spray treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.), expressing a Cry1Ab toxi...

  12. Impact and legacy of R. Charudattan in biological control of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raghavan “Charu” Charudattan is highly regarded internationally as a scientist, professor, mentor, and friend. Charu has authored four books, more than 100 refereed manuscripts, 24 book chapters, and hundreds of other publications. He holds 11 patents in the area of biological control of weeds and s...

  13. Evaluation of Serangium parcesetosum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a biological control agent of the silverleaf whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coccinellid predator from India, Serangium parcesetosum Sicard, was studied as a potential biological control agent of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [also known as the sweetpotato whitefly, B. tahaci (Gennadius) Biotype B]. Studies were performed on prey prefere...

  14. Can a Pathogen Provide Insurance against Host Shifts by a Biological Control Organism?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae (L.), Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an icon in population ecology and biological control that has recently lost its shine based on evidence that (1) it is less effective than alternatives (such as the ragwort flea beetle Longitarsus jacobaeae (Waterhouse) (Coleoptera:...

  15. Physiological host range of Ceratapion basicorne, a prospective biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia has been proposed as a prospective classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), which is an important invasive alien weed in the western United States. Host plant specifi...

  16. Search for fungi as potential biological control agents of Echinochloa crus-galli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cockspur dace, Echinochloa crus-galli (family Poaceae), is the most widespread and harmful weed in Russian rice production. Heavy infestations of the weed cause rice-crop losses up to 50 percent. With the purpose of discovering pathogenic fungi as potential agents for biological control of E. crus-g...

  17. Augmentative biological control: research and methods to help make it work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essence of augmentative biological control is to repeatedly release an appropriate number of effective natural enemies into a particular place. In practice, especially in field situations, this is complex and faces challenges such as enemy dispersal, pest refugia and deleterious interactions wit...

  18. MICROBOTRYUM CARDUI, A POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CARDUUS THISTLES IN THE U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carduus species and the related thistles Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. and Onopordum acanthium L. are problematic invasive weeds in the USA and targets of classical biological control efforts. During a pathogen collection trip in June 2001, numerous smutted capitula of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. ...

  19. Effects of a biological control agent on the use of saltcedar habitat by passerine birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of native riparian habitats by saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the southwestern United States, has caused declines in population density of birds. The saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) has been released at several sites as a biological control agent. At two northern Nevada locations,...

  20. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  1. Trichogramma spp. as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  2. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-01-01

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. PMID:26466795

  3. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flávio R. M.; Ricalde, Marcelo P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. PMID:26466795

  4. Status of biological control projects on terrestrial invasive alien weeds in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cooperation with foreign scientists, we are currently developing new classical biological control agents for five species of invasive alien terrestrial weeds. Cape-Ivy. A gall-forming fly, Parafreutreta regalis, and a stem-boring moth, Digitivalva delaireae, have been favorably reviewed by TAG...

  5. DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS TO MANAGE AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF PRE-HARVEST MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent group of toxic compounds produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Maize (corn, Zea mays L.) and other crops are prone to aflatoxin contamination, which may cause severe health problems in humans and livestock. The pre-harvest biological control approach of...

  6. Finalizing host range determination of a weed biological control pathogen with BLUPs and damage assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. (CGS) is a facultative parasitic fungus being evaluated as a classical biological control agent of Russian thistle or tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L.). In initial host range determination tests, Henderson’s mixed model equat...

  7. Successful establishment of epiphytotics of Puccinia punctiformis for biological control of Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense, CT) is one of the worst weeds in temperate areas of the world. The rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis was first proposed as a biological control agent for CT in 1893. The rust causes systemic disease, is specific to CT, and is in all countries where CT is found. Despi...

  8. Nucler Polyhedrosis Virus as a Biological Control Agent for Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to damaging trees, the eastern tent caterpillar, (Malacosoma americanum (F.)) is implicated in early fetal loss and late-term abortion in horses. In a field study, we evaluated the potential biological control of eastern tent caterpillar using eastern tent caterpillar nuclear polyhedros...

  9. Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  10. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative...

  11. Genetic characterization for intraspecific hybridization of an exotic parasitoid prior its introduction for classical biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful establishment of an exotic parasitoid in the context of classical biological control of insect pests depends upon its adaptability to the new environment. In theory, intraspecific hybridization may improve the success of the establishment as a result of an increase in the available ge...

  12. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

  13. 21 CFR 310.4 - Biologics; products subject to license control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 310.4 Section 310.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS General Provisions § 310.4 Biologics; products subject to license control. (a) If a drug has an approved license under section 351 of the Public...

  14. Pheromone and host odor attractants for managing Diorhabda spp.: Biological control agents of saltcedar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent identification of the aggregation pheromone (Cossé et al., 2005, Journal of Chemical Ecology 26:1735-1748), and host odor attractant (Cossé et al., 2005, Journal of Chemical Ecology, in press) for the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata, a biological control agent of saltcedar, allowed for a m...

  15. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weedy Plants and Challenges for Future Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant...

  16. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weedy Plants and Challenges for Future Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. In the past 20 years 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation but only four have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species were success...

  17. Grape Berry Colonization and Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Indigenous Vineyard Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...

  18. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis. PMID:23976873

  1. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    PubMed

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  2. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  3. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wyatt I; Friedman, Jonathan M; Gaskin, John F; Norton, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others. PMID:24665340

  4. Biological control of Colletotrichum panacicola on Panax ginseng by Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hojin; Park, Hoon; Suh, Dong-Sang; Jung, Gun Ho; Park, Kyungseok; Lee, Byung Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological control of plant pathogens using benign or beneficial microorganisms as antagonistic agents is currently considered to be an important component of integrated pest management in agricultural crops. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent against Colletotrichum panacicola. Methods The potential of B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent for ginseng anthracnose was assessed. C. panacicola was inoculated to ginseng plants and the incidence and severity of disease was assessed to examine the efficacy of the bacterium as a biological control against C. panacicola. Results Inoculation of Panax ginseng plants with B. subtilis significantly suppressed the number of disease lesions of C. panacicola and was as effective as the chemical fungicide iminoctadine tris(albesilate). The antifungal activity of B. subtilis against C. panacicola was observed on a co-culture medium. Interestingly, treatment with B. subtilis did not significantly affect the diameter of the lesions, suggesting that the mechanism of protection was through the reduction in the incidence of infection related to the initial events of the infection cycle, including penetration and infection via spore germination and appressorium formation rather than by the inhibition of invasive growth after infection. Conclusion Our results suggest that B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 can be used as an effective and ecologically friendly biological control agent for anthracnose in P. ginseng. PMID:25378997

  5. Identification of α1-Antitrypsin as a Potential Candidate for Internal Control for Human Synovial Fluid in Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowei; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Li, Pengcui; Li, Kai; Wang, Dongming; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Western blot of synovial fluid has been widely used for osteoarthritis (OA) research and diagnosis, but there is no ideal loading control for this purpose. Although β-actin is extensively used as loading control in western blot, it is not suitable for synovial fluid because it is not required in synovial fluid as a cytoskeletal protein. A good loading control for synovial fluid in OA studies should have unchanged content in synovial fluids from normal and OA groups, because synovial fluid protein content can vary with changes in synovial vascular permeability with OA onset. In this study, we explore the potential of using α1-antitripsin (A1AT) as loading control for OA synovial fluid in western blot. A1AT level is elevated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Unlike RA, OA is a non-inflammation disease, which does not induce A1AT. In this study, we identified A1AT as an abundant component of synovial fluid by Mass Spectrometry and confirmed that the level of A1AT is relative constant between human OA and normal synovial fluid by western blot and ELISA. Hence, we proposed that A1AT may be a good loading control for western blot in human OA synovial fluid studies provided that pathological conditions such as RA or A1AT deficiency associated liver or lung diseases are excluded. PMID:26594594

  6. Feasibility Study of Two Candidate Reaction Wheel/thruster Hybrid Control Architecture Designs for the Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macala, Glenn A.; Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2012-01-01

    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. Cassini carries a set of three "fixed" reaction wheels and a backup reaction wheel (reaction wheel #4) is mounted on top of an articulable platform. If necessary, this platform could be articulated to orient the backup reaction wheel with the degraded wheel. The reaction wheels are used primarily for attitude control when precise and stable pointing of a science instrument such as the narrow angle camera is required. In 2001-02, reaction wheel #3 exhibited signs of bearing cage instability. As a result, reaction wheel #4 was articulated to align with reaction wheel #3. Beginning in July 2003, Cassini was controlled using wheel #1, #2, and #4. From their first use in the spring of 2000 until today, reaction wheels #1 and #2 have accumulated more than3.5 billions revolutions each. As such, in spite of very carefully management of the wheel spin rates by the mission operation team, there are some observed increases in the drag torque of the wheels' bearings. Hence, the mission operations team must prepare for the contingency scenario in which the reaction wheel #1 (in addition to wheel #3) had degraded. In this hypothetical fault scenario, the two remaining reaction wheels (#2 and #4) will not be able to provide precise and stable three-axis control of the spacecraft. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of controlling Cassini using the two remaining reaction wheels and four thrusters to meet the science pointing requirements for two key science operational modes: the Optical Remote Sensing and Downlink, Fields, Particles, & Waves operation modes. The performance (e.g., pointing control error, pointing stability, hydrazine consumption rate, etc.) of the hybrid controllers in both operations scenarios will be compared with those achieved

  7. Recombinant Marek's disease virus lacking the oncogene Meq as a candidate for future control of Marek's disease in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of Marek’ disease, but more virulent viruses are emerging and developing new control strategies is needed. We have used Marek’s disease virus (rMd5) cosmid clones to generate recombinant viruses for gene function studies. The Meq gene is a unique ge...

  8. Evaluation of a candidate control gene for Flavobacterium columnare expression analysis and expression profiles in four growth media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations into gene expression often yield important data that cannot be ascertained by other techniques. Studies of this nature hinge strongly on the reference or control gene. Primers and a fluorescent probe were designed to amplify the 16S ribosomal gene of Flavobacterium columnare. The 1...

  9. Biological control of Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs with Metarhizium anisopliae blastospores.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Selzer, Philipp; Steidle, Johannes L M; Mackenstedt, Ute

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biological pest control agent against various arthropod species, including ticks. However, the efficacy depends on tick species, tick stage and fungus strain. We studied the effect of M. anisopliae on engorged larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant tick species in Europe, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. A significant reduction of engorged larvae and nymphs could be shown under laboratory as well as under semi-field conditions. Only 3.5% of the larvae treated in the lab and only 18.5% kept under semi-field conditions were able to develop into nymphs compared to the recovered nymphs of the control groups, which were regarded as 100%. Only 7.1% of nymphs were recovered as adult ticks after fungal treatment under semi-field conditions compared to the control (100%). The efficacy of blastospores of M. anisopliae against engorged larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus under semi-field conditions was demonstrated in this study, showing their high potential as a biological control agent of ticks. Further studies will have to investigate the effect of this agent against other stages of I. ricinus as well as other tick species before its value as a biological control agent against ticks can be fully assessed. PMID:27005430

  10. Advances in biological control in relation to vectors of human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, J.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, increased knowledge of insect pathology and ecology and the development of insecticide-resistance have led to a revival of interest in biological methods of controlling insects that carry human diseases. The author of this paper reviews the information at present available with regard to the various pathogens, predators and parasites of insect vectors of human disease—cockroaches, lice, bugs, fleas, mosquitos, flies and ticks—and suggests lines of future research that might prove profitable. In this connexion he stresses that only a world-wide investigation of the diseases of medically important insects will yield data on which a balanced biological research programme can be based—a programme leading to the development of practicable control procedures and their integration with chemical and other methods of control. PMID:20604158

  11. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    PubMed Central

    Koch, R L

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator. PMID:15841248

  12. Alternative stable states explain unpredictable biological control of Salvinia molesta in Kakadu.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Shon S; Salau, Buck; Julien, Mic H; Ives, Anthony R

    2011-02-01

    Suppression of the invasive plant Salvinia molesta by the salvinia weevil is an iconic example of successful biological control. However, in the billabongs (oxbow lakes) of Kakadu National Park, Australia, control is fitful and incomplete. By fitting a process-based nonlinear model to thirteen-year data sets from four billabongs, here we show that incomplete control can be explained by alternative stable states--one state in which salvinia is suppressed and the other in which salvinia escapes weevil control. The shifts between states are associated with annual flooding events. In some years, high water flow reduces weevil populations, allowing the shift from a controlled to an uncontrolled state; in other years, benign conditions for weevils promote the return shift to the controlled state. In most described ecological examples, transitions between alternative stable states are relatively rare, facilitated by slow-moving environmental changes, such as accumulated nutrient loading or climate change. The billabongs of Kakadu give a different manifestation of alternative stable states that generate complex and seemingly unpredictable dynamics. Because shifts between alternative stable states are stochastic, they present a potential management strategy to maximize effective biological control: when the domain of attraction to the state of salvinia control is approached, augmentation of the weevil population or reduction of the salvinia biomass may allow the lower state to trap the system. PMID:21293376

  13. Separating physical and biological controls on evapotranspiration fluctuations in a teak plantation subjected to monsoonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Y.; Katul, G. G.; Kumagai, T.; Yoshifuji, N.; Sato, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tanaka, K.; Fujinami, H.; Chatchai, T.; Suzuki, M.

    2014-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), especially in the mainland of the Indochina peninsula, can impact and is impacted by the Asian monsoonal (AM) system, thereby prompting interest in its long-term variability. To separate physical and biological factors controlling ET variability in a tropical deciduous forest under the AM influence, 7-year eddy-covariance and ancillary measurements were collected and analyzed. The 7-year mean rainfall (Pr) and ET along with their standard deviations were 1335 ± 256 and 1027 ± 77.9 mm (about 77% of Pr), respectively, suggesting close coupling between these two hydrologic fluxes. However, other physical and biological drivers de-couple seasonal and annual variations of ET from Pr. To explore them, a big-leaf model complemented by perturbation analysis was employed. The big-leaf model agreed well with measured ET at daily to multi-year time scales, lending confidence in its skill to separate biological from physical controls on ET. Using this formulation, both first-order and second-order Taylor series expansion of total ET derivatives were applied to the big-leaf model and compare with measured changes in ET (dET). Higher-order and joint-terms in the second-order expansion were necessary for matching measured and analyzed dET. Vapor pressure deficit (D) was the primary external physical controlling driver on ET. The leaf area index (LAI) and bulk stomatal conductance (gs) were shown to be the main significant biological drivers on the transpiration component of ET. It can be surmised that rainfall variability controls long-term ET through physical (mainly D) and biological (mainly LAI and gs) in this ecosystem.

  14. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of hwh1 and hwh2, a set of complementary genes controlling hybrid breakdown in rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Chu, Sang-Ho; Piao, Rihua; Chin, Joong-Hyoun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Lee, Joohyun; Qiao, Yongli; Han, Longzhi; Piao, Zongze; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid breakdown (HB), a phenomenon of reduced viability or fertility accompanied with retarded growth in hybrid progenies, often arises in the offspring of intersubspecific hybrids between indica and japonica in rice. We detected HB plants in F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross between an indica variety, Milyang 23, and a japonica variety, Tong 88-7. HB plants showed retarded growth, with fewer tillers and spikelets. Genetic analysis revealed that HB was controlled by the complementary action of two recessive genes, hwh1 and hwh2, originating from each of both parents, which were fine-mapped on the short arm of chromosome 2 and on the near centromere region of the long arm of chromosome 11, respectively. A comparison of the sequences of candidate genes among both parents and HB plants revealed that hwh1 encoded a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase with one amino acid change compared to Hwh1 and that hwh2 probably encoded a putative hexose transporter with a six amino acid insertion compared to Hwh2. Investigation of the distribution of these alleles among 54 japonica and indica cultivars using candidate gene-based markers suggested that the two loci might be involved in developing reproductive barriers between two subspecies. PMID:18335199

  15. Design, modeling and control of a pneumatically actuated manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Rongjie; Branson, David T; Zheng, Tianjiang; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2013-09-01

    Biological tentacles, such as octopus arms, have entirely flexible structures and virtually infinite degrees of freedom (DOF) that allow for elongation, shortening and bending at any point along the arm length. The amazing dexterity of biological tentacles has driven the growing implementation of continuum manipulators in robotic systems. This paper presents a pneumatic manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures in some of their key features and functions, such as continuum morphology, intrinsic compliance and stereotyped motions with hyper redundant DOF. The kinematics and dynamics of the manipulator are formulated and identified, and a hierarchical controller taking inspiration from the structure of an octopus nervous system is used to relate desired stereotyped motions to individual actuator inputs. Simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the model and prototype where good agreement was found between the two. PMID:23851387

  16. Ocean biology could control atmospheric δ13C during glacial-interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Hofmann, Matthias; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2002-05-01

    Estimates of changes in the global carbon budget are often based on the assumption that the terrestrial biosphere controls the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 since terrestrial plants discriminate against the 13C isotope during photosynthesis. However, this method disregards the influence of 13C fractionation by the marine biota. Here an interpretation of the glacial-interglacial shifts in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and δ13CO2 measured in the Taylor Dome ice core [Smith et al., 1999] is given by accounting for possible changes in the ocean biology based on sensitivity simulations undertaken with the intermediate complexity model CLIMBER-2. With a combined scenario of enhanced biological and solubility pumps, the model simulates glacial atmospheric CO2 and δ13CO2 similar to those inferred from the ice core. The simulations reveal that a strengthening of the oceanic biological carbon pump considerably affects the atmospheric δ13CO2.

  17. Testing Protocol Proposal to Identify and Evaluate Candidate Materials to Substitute for Silverized Teflon in Thermal Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losure, Nancy S.

    1996-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) has been shown to be the primary cause of several glitches in spacecraft operations. It appears that charged particles encountered in the natural environment in certain orbits can collect on the outer surfaces of a spacecraft, building up a charge of several thousand volts. If the potential exceeds the breakdown voltage of the charged material, then an ESD will occur. ESD events involving relatively low voltages, on the order of 100 V, have been shown to damage electronic components. When ESD occurs, electronic and electrical components can be damaged, computer instructions can be garbled, and ablation of material from the spacecraft may occur; degrading both the performance of the thermal control blankets, and the cleanliness of any surfaces on which the detritus becomes deposited. There appear to be six ways to prevent or mitigate the effects of ESD: (1) Choose an orbit where charging is not a problem; (2) Carry extra electromagnetic shielding; (3) Provide redundancy in components and programming; (4) Provide for active dissipation of the charge, by generating a plasma with which to bathe susceptible surfaces; (5) Provide for passive dissipation from a plasma contactors on the susceptible surfaces; and (6) Provide thermal control blankets that do not hold a charge, i.e., that are conductive enough to bleed a charge off harmlessly. These six options are discussed in detail in Losure (1996). Of these six options, number 1 is not always practical, given other requirements of the mission; 2, 3, 4 and 5 will require that extra mass in the form of shielding, etc., be carried by the spacecraft. The most attractive option from a mass and energy point of view seems to be that of finding a material which matches the other performance characteristics of the current thermal control blankets without their tendency to build up an electrostatic charge. The goal of this paper is to describe and justify a testing program which will lead to the

  18. Adhesion control by inflation: implications from biology to artificial attachment device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dening, Kirstin; Heepe, Lars; Afferrante, Luciano; Carbone, Giuseppe; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for materials that incorporate advanced adhesion properties, such as an ability to adhere in a reversible and controllable manner. In biological systems, these features are known from adhesive pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, and the bush-cricket, Tettigonia viridissima. These species have convergently developed soft, hemispherically shaped pads that might be able to control their adhesion through active changing the curvature of the pad. Inspired by these biological systems, an artificial model system is developed here. It consists of an inflatable membrane clamped to the metallic cylinder and filled with air. Pull-off force measurements of the membrane surface were conducted in contact with the membrane at five different radii of curvature r c with (1) a smooth polyvinylsiloxane membrane and (2) mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructured membrane made of the same polymer. The hypothesis that an increased internal pressure, acting on the membrane, reduces the radius of the membrane curvature, resulting in turn in a lower pull-off force, is verified. Such an active control of adhesion, inspired by biological models, will lead to the development of industrial pick-and-drop devices with controllable adhesive properties.

  19. Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  20. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brabbs, Thomas; Collins, Debbie; Hérard, Franck; Maspero, Matteo; Eyre, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan, and fungal infection results in high mortality rates. Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments. Parasitoids: a parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitising up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs; some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents. Predators: two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin, have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests. The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora spp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible. PMID:25216358