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Sample records for candidate reference materials

  1. Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon Materials as Candidate Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method have been investigated in order to establish a thermal diffusivity standard. In many cases, thermal-conductivity values of bulk materials are calculated from the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density. The thermal diffusivity is one of the transport properties. It depends on the material and is sensitive to the structure. So, it is important to measure the thermal diffusivity of each material. The laser-flash method is one of the most popular methods for thermal-diffusivity measurements of bulk materials above room temperature. Because the method realizes a short-time method and is a non-contact method, it is very suitable for practical use. And it is known as a highly reliable measurement since one-dimensional heat diffusion phenomena observed in these measurements are simple. On the other hand, more reliable values measured by the method are important in the view of thermal design. According to the background, there is a need of a standard for thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method to obtain reliable thermal diffusivities. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in AIST has established reference materials for the laser-flash method and is supplying them. However, they are not sufficient to cover the whole range of thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thus, some candidate materials have been investigated to establish another reference material. Carbon materials are considered since it is preferable for the laser-flash method that the material is optically nontransparent and dark colored (ideally black). In this study, the thermal diffusivity of a pyrolytic graphite that is expected to be a candidate reference material for the laser-flash method is investigated. It was found that the intrinsic thermal diffusivities can be determined along the in-plane and cross-plane directions. The high thermal diffusivity of the in-plane direction, 1.19 × 10^{-3} m2

  2. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  3. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as "sufficient homogeneity", was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue.

  4. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  5. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  6. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. PMID:25704713

  7. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della W M; Chan, Pui-kwan; Cheung, Samuel T C; Wong, Yee-Lok; Wong, Siu-kay; Mok, Chuen-shing; Wong, Yiu-chung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC-HRIDMS and GC-IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg(-1) and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14μg kg(-1). The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation. PMID:22405308

  8. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z. Q. J.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Wong-Ng, W.; Zhang, W.; Thomas, E. L.; Otani, M.; Green, M. L.; Tran, T. N.; Caylor, C.; Dilley, N. R.; Downey, A.; Edwards, B.; Elsner, N.; Ghamaty, S.; Hogan, T.; Jie, Q.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Nolas, G.; Obara, H.; Sharp, J.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Willigan, R.; Yang, J.; Tritt, T.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  9. Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Urpi Bertran, Raquel; Latza, Andreas; Andörfer-Lang, Katrin; Hügelschäffer, Claudia; Pöhlein, Manfred; Puchta, Ralph; Placht, Christian; Maid, Harald; Bauer, Walter; van Eldik, Rudi

    2015-04-01

    Candidate reference materials (RM) for the analysis of phosphorus-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers were prepared using a self-made mini-extruder. Due to legal requirements of the current restriction for the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, focus now is placed on phosphorus-based flame retardants instead of the brominated kind. Newly developed analytical methods for the first-mentioned substances also require RMs similar to industrial samples for validation and verification purposes. Hence, the prepared candidate RMs contained resorcinol-bis-(diphenyl phosphate), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphine oxide as phosphorus-based flame retardants. Blends of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene as well as blends of high-impact polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide were chosen as carrier polymers. Homogeneity and thermal stability of the candidate RMs were investigated. Results showed that the candidate RMs were comparable to the available industrial materials. Measurements by ICP/OES, FTIR and NMR confirmed the expected concentrations of the flame retardants and proved that analyte loss and degradation, respectively, was below the uncertainty of measurement during the extrusion process. Thus, the candidate RMs were found to be suitable for laboratory use. PMID:25410641

  10. Speciation measurements by HPLC-HGAAS of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine in three candidate lyophilized urine reference materials.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, R; Zhang, X; Mees, L; Christensen, J M; Byrialsen, K; Dyrschel, C

    1998-12-01

    Speciation measurements of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB) in three candidate lyophilized urine reference materials are described. The measurements were based on cation-exchange liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with on-line digestion of the organic. As species by alkaline persulfate solution aided by ultraviolet radiation. Arsenic concentrations as DMA were significantly different in the three samples. The mean values for the three samples were 4.1 +/- 0.3, 55.3 +/- 1.2 and 134.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms l-1, respectively. No significant differences in AsB concentrations were observed among the three samples. The mean As concentrations as AsB in the three samples were 17.4 +/- 0.4, 17.7 +/- 0.2 and 17.5 +/- 0.3 micrograms l-1, respectively. By off-line digestion of the urine samples, total As concentrations in the three materials were also obtained. The mean values were 23.4 +/- 0.3, 76.6 +/- 1.6 and 151.3 +/- 1.8 micrograms l-1, respectively. These results correlated well with the results obtained by neutron activation analysis in our laboratory (r = 0.999; p < 0.0001). PMID:10435351

  11. Characterization of candidate reference materials for bone lead via interlaboratory study and double isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Verostek, Mary Frances; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Four candidate ground bone reference materials (NYS RMs 05-01 through 04), were produced from lead-dosed bovine and caprine sources, and characterized by interlaboratory study. The consensus value ( X ) and expanded standard uncertainty (UX ) were determined from the robust average and standard deviation of the participants’ data for each NYS RM 05-01 through 04. The values were 1.08 ±0.04, 15.3 ±0.5, 12.4 ±0.5, and 29.9 ±1.1 μg g−1 Pb, respectively. Youden plots of z-scores showed a statistically significant correlation between the results for pairs of NYS RM 05-02 through 04, indicating common sources of between-laboratory variation affecting reproducibility. NYS RM 05-01 exhibited more random variability affecting repeatability at low concentration. Some participants using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) exhibited a negative bias compared to the all-method consensus value. Other methods used included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and ICP atomic (optical) emission spectroscopy (-OES). The NYS RMs 05-01 through 04 were subsequently re-analyzed in house using double ID-ICP-MS to assign certified reference values (C ) and expanded uncertainty (UC ) of 1.09 ± 0.03, 16.1 ± 0.3, 13.2 ± 0.3 and 31.5 ± 0.7, respectively, indicating a low bias in the interlaboratory data. SRM 1486 Bone Meal was analyzed for measurement quality assessment obtaining results in agreement with the certified values within the stated uncertainty. Analysis using a primary reference method based on ID-ICP-MS with full quantification of uncertainty calculated according to ISO guidelines provided traceability to SI units. PMID:23087531

  12. Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Prokisch, J; Zeleny, R; Trapmann, S; Le Guern, L; Schimmel, H; Kramer, G N; Pauwels, J

    2001-08-01

    Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special importance if the reference material is prepared by dry mixing, a dilution technique which is used for the production of the new and third generation of genetically modified (GMO) plant certified reference materials. For the production of dry mixed PMON 810 maize reference material a computer program was developed to calculate the theoretically smallest uncertainty for a selected sample intake. This model was used to compare three differently milled maize samples, and the effect of dilution on the uncertainty of the DNA content of GMO maize was estimated as well. In the case of a 50-mg sample mass the lowest achievable standard deviation was 2% for the sample containing 0.1% GMO and the minimum deviation was less than 0.5% for the sample containing 5% GMO. PMID:11569879

  13. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  14. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Updated candidate list for engineered barrier materials

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes candidate materials to be evaluated over the next several years during advanced design phases for the waste package to be used for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes at the Yucca Mountain facility.

  16. Contamination analysis of SSF candidate materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    NASA's In Situ Contamination Effects Facility, Marshall Space Flight Center, has been used to test several candidate materials for use upon Space Station Freedom. Optical measurements were made in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) as test mirrors were contaminated by materials in a space-like environment. This was done to determine the effects of the contamination and subsequent exposure to VUV radiation upon optical components that will be used upon the space station.

  17. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Wan, Hongjian; Chen, Fadi; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Zhaolei

    2010-09-01

    The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11) emerged as the most suitable reference genes. Across different tissues, ACT11 and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha) exhibited a stable expression pattern. ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11. PMID:20452325

  18. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  19. Surface erosion effects of candidate fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Navinsek, B.

    1984-09-01

    Some candidate fusion materials such as nickelbase alloys and graphites were studied, because of their importance as first wall components in CTR devices. Polycrystalline samples of Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Nimonic alloy PE 16, nuclear grade graphite ATJ and pyrolytic graphite were investigated. Results for surface damage and topography, blistering, flaking, ion erosion and sputtering yields are reported for irradiations with low energy He/sup +/ ions (5-12 keV) at room temperature, using total ion doses up to 2 x 10/sup 19/ ions cm/sup -2/. SEM, TEM and AES analyses were used to identify surface damage, structure and compositional changes after irradiation. Comparative studies of the ion erosion yield of nickel-base alloys, as measured by the step-height technique, were made. Total sputtering yields were determined dynamically for sputtered films of these alloys using a quartz crystal microbalance. The yields were studied as a function of ion dose, energy and surface roughness.

  20. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  2. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  3. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  4. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  5. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs. PMID:21744516

  6. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…

  7. Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

  8. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  9. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  10. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., amendment 1 (2011). Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  11. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., into § 173.417. (2) Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  12. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  13. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  14. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  15. Ionic Liquids as a Reference Material Candidate for the Quick Performance Check of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometers for the Low Energy Range below 1 keV

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are proposed as simple and efficient test materials to evaluate the performance of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) in the low energy range below 1 keV. By only one measurement, C Kα, N Kα, O Kα, and F Kα X-ray lines can be excited. Additionally, the S Kα line at 2.3 keV and, particularly, the S L series at 149 eV complete the picture with X-ray lines offered by the selected ILs. The well-known (certifiable) elemental composition of the ILs selected in the present study can be used to check the accuracy of results produced with the available EDS quantification routines in the low energy range, simultaneously, for several low atomic number elements. A comparison with other reference materials in use for testing the performance of EDS in the low energy range is included. PMID:27336962

  16. Fossils as candidate material for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Pesenti, Hector; Leoni, Matteo; Motta, Antonella; Scardi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic powders from fossil deposits were thoroughly characterized from the material point of view and sintered to produce massive components. The raw material, a mixture of apatite minerals, feldspars, and quartz, seems ideally suitable to obtain a biologically compatible glass ceramic. Preliminary in vitro tests of proliferation and adhesion of MG63 human osteoblast-like cell line on a selected sample are encouraging. Results are correlated with sintering conditions and phase composition: the fossil can be sintered to almost full density at temperatures as low as 900 °C and seems to quickly promote cell activation with respect to hydroxylapatite. PMID:20089607

  17. Reference Materials: Significance, General Requirements, and Demand.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-05-01

    Reference materials play an important part in the quality control of measurements. Rapid development of such new scientific disciplines as proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics also necessitates development of new reference materials. This is a great challenge due to the complexity of the production of new reference materials and difficulties associated with achieving their homogeneity and stability. CRMs of tissue are of particular importance. They can be counted among the matrices that are most complex and time consuming in preparation. Tissue is the place of transformation and accumulation of many substances (e.g., metabolites, which are intermediate or end products resulting from metabolic processes). Trace amounts of many substances in tissues must be determined with adequate precision and accuracy. To meet the needs stemming from research and from problems and challenges faced by chemists, analysts, and toxicologists, the number of certified reference materials should be continuously increased. PMID:26042643

  18. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  19. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, meth...

  20. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  1. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Table 2 of § 94.5—ISO Materials Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines—Exhaust emission measurement—Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA,...

  2. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Table 2 of § 94.5—ISO Materials Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines—Exhaust emission measurement—Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA,...

  3. Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    Thorium-232 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. A task was undertaken by the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) to prepare some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/g. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 +- 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 +- 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 +- 0.3 pCi/g.

  4. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  5. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  6. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil

    PubMed Central

    Poster, Dianne L.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil. PMID:27308183

  7. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  9. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  10. Characterization of reference materials for the Barrier Materials Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.A.; Aden, G.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Jones, T.E.; Lane, D.L.; Noonan, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    Initial characterization of the geologic and engineered barrier materials for a nuclear waste repository in basalt has been completed. Data have been obtained on the characteristics of the reference waste forms which are being studied for eventual disposal in such a repository. Reference basalt entablature, colonnade, and flow top specimens have been selected from the Umtanum flow, which is the primary basalt flow under consideration for repository siting. Material from the Mabton Interbed Stratum, Pomona Flow basalt, smectite clay from the Pomona Flow, a potassium clinoptilolite, Beverly sandstone and tuff, and Grande Ronde groundwater are also included in the suite of reference geologic materials. Reference engineered barrier materials include sodium bentonite and canister metals such as carbon steel, cupronickel, Hastelloy and Inconel alloys. Spent fuel, borosilicate glass, and supercalcine ceramic comprise the reference waste forms. Analyses were made for physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics using techniques ranging from simple observations of color to sophisticated ultrastructural analysis in the electron microscope. Analyses of the elemental and phase chemistries for most of the reference materials have been completed on typical samples. Determinations of material homogeneity are currently being performed.

  11. Mycotoxins: regulations, quality assurance and reference materials.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, H P

    1995-01-01

    Some 60 countries have currently enacted or proposed regulations for control of mycotoxins (primarily the aflatoxins) in food and animal feed. Various factors influence the establishment of limits for certain mycotoxins, but there is no consistent rationale for setting limits or for enforcement control. The enforcement of the regulations requires monitoring of suspected commodities. Many laboratories perform large numbers of determinations of mycotoxins, in particular aflatoxins, and consider their results to be reliable. Nevertheless, it often happens that laboratories find quite different analytical results on samples that have been especially homogenized for interlaboratory studies. The application of Quality Assurance principles contributes to the reliability of mycotoxin measurements. Quality Assurance is focused on the organizational process and the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and archived. This is, in itself, an important contribution to the scientific value of a study. A Quality Assurance programme should include various elements, including (certified) reference materials, if available. Certified reference materials are stable, homogeneous products with certified values of the analyte(s) of interest. Various certified reference materials for mycotoxins have been prepared by the European Commission's Community Bureau of Reference, in co-operation with several European laboratories (aflatoxin M1 in milk powder, aflatoxins B1 B2, G1, and G2 in peanut butter, aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal and compound feed, deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize flour). Other reference materials are in a well-advanced development stage (ochratoxin A in wheat flour and pig kidney, fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize). PMID:7664922

  12. Electron Radiation Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Hollerman, William A.; Hubbs, Whitney S.; Gray, Perry A.; Wertz, George E.; Hoppe, David T.; Nehls, Mary K.; Semmel, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this propulsion method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the irradiation of candidate solar sail materials to energetic electrons, in vacuum, to determine the hardness of several candidate sail materials.

  13. NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, Patrick; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud; Manoj, Chandrasekharan

    2015-05-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is a model of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation, produced every 5 years from candidate models proposed by a number of international research institutions. For this 12th generation IGRF, three candidate models were solicited: a main field model for the 2010.0 epoch, a main field model for the 2015.0 epoch, and the predicted secular variation for the five-year period 2015 to 2020. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has produced three candidate models for consideration in IGRF-12. The 2010 main field candidate was produced from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite data, while the 2015 main field and secular variation candidates were produced from Swarm and Ørsted satellite data. Careful data selection was performed to minimize the influence of magnetospheric and ionospheric fields. The secular variation predictions of our parent models, from which the candidate models were derived, have been validated against independent ground observatory data.

  14. Degradation mode surveys of high performance candidate container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project`s high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion and of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessment of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition, concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250{degree}C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluating candidate lost circulation materials for geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Loeppke, G.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' Geothermal Technology Development Division is working to advance the state of the art of lost circulation prevention and control. For this purpose, a large-scale lost Circulation Test Facility was designed and built. This paper addresses the evaluation of candidate lost circulation materisl using this facility and also using the recommended practice of API RP 131. Test results from these facilities are compared and discussed for the materials tested.

  16. 15 CFR 230.3 - New Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New Standard Reference Materials. 230... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS General Information § 230.3 New Standard Reference Materials. When new...

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Park, J.Y.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.; Diercks, D.R.

    1990-11-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS), Type 316L SS, Incology 825, P-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7% Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks, and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in simulated Well J-13 water which is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site has been completed, and crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests are also being conducted under the same environmental conditions. 13 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Relative sliding durability of candidate high temperature fiber seal materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative sliding durability behavior of six candidate ceramic fibers for high temperature sliding seal applications is reviewed and compared. Pin on disk tests were used to evaluate potential seal materials by sliding a tow or bundle of the candidate ceramic fiber against a superalloy test disk. Tests were conducted in air under a 2.65 N load, at a sliding velocity of 0.025 m/sec and at temperatures from 25 to 900 C. Friction was measured during the tests and fiber wear, indicated by the extent of fibers broken in the tow or bundle, was measured at the end of each test. For most of the fibers, friction and wear increase with test temperature. The relative fiber durability ranking correlates with tensile strength, indicating that tensile data, which is more readily available than sliding durability data, may be useful in predicting fiber wear behavior under various conditions. A dimensional analysis of the wear data shows that the fiber durability is related to a dimensionless durability ratio which represents the ratio of the fiber strength to the fiber stresses imposed by sliding. The analysis is applicable to fibers with similar diameters and elastic moduli. Based upon the results of the research program, three fiber candidates are recommended for further study as potential seal materials. They are a silicon based complex carbide-oxide fiber, an alumina-boria-silica and an aluminosilicate fiber.

  19. Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Nehls, Mary; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted ot a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar, Teonex, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were characterized

  20. 77 FR 20886 - Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions...

  1. LEO effects on candidate solar cell cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984, the LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) was placed in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) for a mission planned to last approximately one year. Due to a number of factors, retrieval was delayed until 1990. An experiment, prepared under the direction of JPL, consisted of a test plate with thirty (30) individual thin silicon solar cell/cover samples. The covers consisted of conventional cerium doped microsheet platelets and potential candidate materials, such as FEP Teflon, silicon RTV's, glass resins, polyimides, and a silicone-polyimide copolymer encapsulant. The effects of the LDEF mission environment (micrometeorite/debris impacts, atomic oxygen, UV, and particulate radiation) on the samples are discussed.

  2. Developing Potential New Reference Materials for Light Isotopes in Foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Van Hale, Robert; Clarke, Dianne; Abrahim, Aiman; Resch, Christian; Mayr, Leopold; Cannavan, Andrew; Gröning, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of subtle variations in stable isotope ratios provide the means for verifying food integrity in numerous ways. Adulterants usually have different isotopic composition so their presence in a food is readily detectable. Stable isotope measurements can also be used to determine the region of production of the food. In most cases the ability of stable isotope measurements to verify, or otherwise reject, the authenticity of the food is greatly enhanced by comparison of a result to a reference database. The more high-quality data in the database, the more statistical power is afforded by the comparison. A serious weakness at present is the lack of reference materials in food matrices available to the community. Thus researchers have to rely on in-house standards for calibration and quality assurance. The result is that there are numerous datasets published that may be internally consistent but it is exceedingly difficult to combine these datasets into a cohesive database. This is particularly important for measurements of the hydrogen isotopes. Here we present a survey of the stable isotope (^2H, ^13C and ^15N) composition of 12 Reference Materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency catalogue. All but one of these materials are plant matter and have been developed as reference materials for other applications such as radionuclide or trace element measurements. Thus they have been verified as suitable materials in terms of stability and homogeneity for those tests. The purpose of this work is to ascertain if they are similarly suitable as stable isotope reference materials. The results from our survey show that there is a wide range in elemental and isotopic composition among these materials. For example, the ^15N values range from-13.5‰ to +18.6‰ and the nitrogen elemental composition range is from 0.7% to 9.7%. The ^13C values range from -20‰ to -40‰ and the carbon elemental composition ranges from 15% to 47%. We are now in the process of

  3. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  4. Characterization of Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Stanaland, Tesia; Altstatt, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure and provide a source of spacecraft propulsion. The pressure can be increased, by a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic front layer, a thin polymeric substrate, and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail materials to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to a simulated Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) radiation environment. The technique of radiation dose verses material depth profiling was used to determine the orbital equivalent exposure doses. The solar sail exposure procedures and results of the material characterization will be discussed.

  5. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.

  6. 47 CFR 0.411 - General reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General reference materials. 0.411 Section 0... Information Printed Publications § 0.411 General reference materials. The following reference materials are... finding aids. See 1 CFR appendix C. (2) The Federal Register. As rules are adopted, amended, or...

  7. 15 CFR 230.2 - Identification of Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of Standard Reference Materials. 230.2 Section 230.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS...

  8. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  9. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  10. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  11. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  12. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  13. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  14. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  15. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.

    1992-06-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS). Type 316L SS, Incoloy 825, phosphorus-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks. and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)- A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) and fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests was performed at 93{degree}C and 1 atm of pressure in simulated J-13 well water. This water is representative, prior to the widespread availability of unsaturated-zone water, of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. Slow-strain-rate tests were conducted on 6.35-mm-diameter cylindrical specimens at strain rates of 10-{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}8} s{sup {minus}1} under crevice and noncrevice conditions. All tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strain of 1--4%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed some crack initiation in virtually all the materials, as well as weldments made from these materials. A stress- or strain-ratio cracking index ranks these materials, in order of increasing resistance to SCC, as follows: Type 304 SS < Type 316L SS < Incoloy 825 < Cu-30%Ni < Cu and Cu-7%Al. Fracture-mechanics CGR tests were conducted on 25.4-mm-thick compact tension specimens of Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS) and Incoloy 825. Crack-growth rates were measured under various load conditions: load ratios M of 0.5--1.0, frequencies of 10{sup {minus}3}-1 Hz, rise nines of 1--1000s, and peak stress intensities of 25--40 MPa{center_dot}m {sup l/2}.

  17. Localized corrosion of candidate container materials in ferric chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.K.; Fleming, D.L.; Lum, B.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Localized corrosion behavior of candidate inner- and outer-container materials of current nuclear waste package design was evaluated in aqueous solutions of various concentrations of ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) at 30 C, 60 C and 90 C using the electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique. Materials tested include A 516 carbon steel (UNS K01800), and high-performance UNS N08825, UNS N06985, UNS N06030, UNS N06455, UNS N06625, UNS N06022, and UNS R53400. A 516 steel suffered from severe general and localized attack including pitting and crevice corrosion. High-nickel UNS N08825 and N06985 also became susceptible to severe pitting and crevice corrosion. The extent of localized attack was less pronounced in UNS N06030 and N06455. UNS N06625 experienced severe surface degradation including general corrosion crevice corrosion and intergranular attack. In contrast, only slight crevice corrosion tendency was observed with nickel-base UNS N06022 in solutions containing higher concentrations of FeCl{sub 3} at 60 C and 90 C. UNS R53400 was immune to localized attack in all tested environments. The test solutions showed a significant amount of precipitated particles, especially at higher temperatures.

  18. Localized corrosion of candidate container materials in ferric chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, D L; Lum, B Y; Roy, A K

    1998-10-01

    Localized corrosion behavior of candidate inner and outer container materials of currently-designed nuclear waste package was evaluated in aqueous solutions of various concentrations of ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) at 30 C, 60 C and 90 C using the electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique. Materials tested include A 5 16 carbon steel and high-performance alloys 825, G-3, G-30, C-4, 625. C-22, and Ti Gr-12. A 516 steel suffered from severe general and localized attack including pitting and crevice corrosion. High-nickel alloys 825 and G-3 also became susceptible to severe pitting and crevice corrosion. The extent of localized attack was less pronounced in alloys G-30 and C-4. Alloy 625 experienced severe surface degradation including general corrosion, crevice corrosion and intergranular attack. In contrast, only a slight crevice corrosion tendency was observed with nickel-base alloy C-22 in solutions containing higher concentrations of FeCl{sub 3} at 60 C and 90 C. Ti Gr-12 was immune to localized attack in all tested environments. The test solutions showed significant amount of precipitated particles during and after testing especially at higher temperatures.

  19. Biocompatibility of candidate materials for the realization of medical microdevices.

    PubMed

    Pouponneau, Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine; Merhi, Yahye; Epure, Laura Mery; Martel, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    The propulsion of ferromagnetic micro-carriers in the blood vessels by magnetic gradients generated from a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system is of special interest for targeted interventions such as chemotherapy or chemo-embolization. As such, Fe-Co alloys for its highest magnetization saturation, and single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga powder and Terfenol-D for their deformation in magnetic field are evaluated for their biocompatibility. The toxicity of these materials is evaluated with MTT cell viability tests. The tests show that Fe-Co (Permendur and Vacoflux 17) alloys are toxic within 24 hours while the single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga powder becomes toxic after 48 hours. The Terfenol-D, despite its high degradation, has 90% cell viability after 72 hours. These results indicate that such candidate materials to be considered in untethered micro-carriers or devices in the blood vessels would require, depending upon the time spent in the blood vessels, further processes to be viable for such applications. PMID:17946952

  20. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels 1065.701 ASTM D6985-04a,...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... of the International System of Units (SI), Barry N. Taylor, Physics Laboratory 1065.20,...

  2. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  3. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  4. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard reference materials. 200.104..., PROCEDURES, AND FEES § 200.104 Standard reference materials. Often the performance of a device or structure... response to a stable, homogeneous reference specimen which has been well-characterized with regard to...

  5. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Tingting; Qu, Daixin; Zhao, Xu; Yu, Lixia; Gao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide (LRP) following laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to identify site-specific protein biomarker candidates. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models, both intact and infarcted brain tissue was collected by LCM, followed by on-film digestion and semi-quantification using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four unique peptides were detected for the verification of 12 proteins in both tissue homogenates and LCM-captured samples. Six insoluble proteins, including neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL), alpha-internexin (INA), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), were found to be site-specific. Soluble proteins, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1), and some insoluble proteins, including neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and tubulin β-3 chain (TUBB3), were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that some insoluble protein biomarkers for stroke are site-specific, and would make excellent candidates for the design and analysis of relevant clinical studies in the future. PMID:26110384

  6. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tingting; Qu, Daixin; Zhao, Xu; Yu, Lixia; Gao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide (LRP) following laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to identify site-specific protein biomarker candidates. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models, both intact and infarcted brain tissue was collected by LCM, followed by on-film digestion and semi-quantification using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four unique peptides were detected for the verification of 12 proteins in both tissue homogenates and LCM-captured samples. Six insoluble proteins, including neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL), alpha-internexin (INA), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), were found to be site-specific. Soluble proteins, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1), and some insoluble proteins, including neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and tubulin β-3 chain (TUBB3), were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that some insoluble protein biomarkers for stroke are site-specific, and would make excellent candidates for the design and analysis of relevant clinical studies in the future. PMID:26110384

  7. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  8. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  9. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  10. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  11. Compatibility of ITER candidate materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K.

    1995-09-01

    Corrosion tests have been conducted to determine the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) first wall/blanket systems, e.g., Type 316 stainless steel (SS), Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr. The results indicate that Type 316 SS is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400 C, corrosion rates for Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy are {approx} 4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr, respectively. Iron, nickel, and chromium react rapidly with gallium. Iron shows greater corrosion than nickel at 400 C ({ge} 88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively). The present study indicates that at temperatures up to 400 C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The growth of intermetallic compounds may control the overall rate of corrosion.

  12. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  13. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  14. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

    PubMed

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G; Baylis, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  15. Reproducibility of polycarbonate reference material in toxicity evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A specific lot of bisphenol A polycarbonate has been used for almost four years as the reference material for the NASA-USF-PSC toxicity screening test method. The reproducibility of the test results over this period of time indicate that certain plastics may be more suitable reference materials than the more traditional cellulosic materials.

  16. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, or http://www.imo.org, or 44-(0)20-7735-7611. (1) Revised...

  17. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  18. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  19. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  20. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  1. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  2. AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) Reference Materials Database.

    PubMed

    Zink, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) of AOAC INTERNATIONAL recommends policy and criteria to facilitate the development and use of reference materials (RMs) in the validation, implementation, and routine use of AOAC INTERNATIONAL methods. To aid analysts in these areas, TDRM has developed a searchable online database to identify RMs suitable for use with AOAC Official Methods of Analysis(SM) (OMA). RMs can be queried by analyte, by analyte and matrix, or by the selection of an OMA, based on analytes and matrixes described within the scope of the selected method. Only essential information is included in the database, to maximize usefulness and minimize the effort required to keep information current. Additional information, such as measurement uncertainty and purchasing instructions, is available through a link to the producer's Web site, when that information is available online. Data sets are solicited on a voluntary basis from National Metrology Institutes and accredited producers. Consideration of ease-of-use and ease-of-operation is a guiding principle in this database, as is cost management. PMID:27619655

  3. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Including Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles, June 2010, IBR approved for § 86.1811-04(n... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone... page 170 (13.170)), IBR approved for §§ 86.111-94; 86.1311-94. (2) SAE J1634, Electric Vehicle...

  5. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  6. Development of new reference materials for the determination of cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead in polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Jae; Lee, Yeo Jin; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Youn Sung; Heo, Soo Bong

    2013-01-01

    Reference materials for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in polycarbonate were developed. Reference materials with two concentration level of elements were prepared by adding appropriate amounts of chemicals to a blank polycarbonate base material. It was shown that ten bottles with triplicate analysis are enough to demonstrate the homogeneity of these candidate reference materials. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in both short-term stability test for four weeks and long-term stability test for twelve months. The certification of the four elements was carried out by isotope-dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with microwave-assisted digestion. Certification of candidate reference materials in a single laboratory was confirmed with interlaboratory comparison participated by a certain number of well-recognized testing laboratories in Korea. The certified values and expanded uncertainties (k=2) for the candidate reference material with low level and the one with high level were (51.7±2.1)mgkg(-1) Cd, (103.8±2.9)mgkg(-1) Cd, (98.8±4.5)mgkg(-1) Cr, (1004±49.8)mgkg(-1) Cr, (107.4±4.6)mgkg(-1) Hg, (1133±50.7)mgkg(-1) Hg, (94.8±3.7)mgkg(-1) Pb and (988.4±53.6)mgkg(-1) Pb, respectively. The reference materials developed in this study demonstrated their suitability for the quality assurance in Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb analysis for the implementation of RoHS Directive. PMID:23245892

  7. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  8. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  9. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    A consolidated reference of materials for downhole equipment used in geothermal energy exploitation is nearing completion. The reference is a summary of recent developments in the areas of tubular goods materials, highly alloyed metals, high temperature cements, high temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downwell pumps. A brief overview is presented in this paper.

  10. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  11. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. The...

  12. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section 430.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS General Provisions § 430.3 Materials incorporated by reference. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 78848, Dec. 16, 2010. (a) General. We...

  13. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. We incorporate...

  14. Initial Estimates of Optical Constants of Mars Candidate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousch, Ted L.; Brown, Adrian Jon; Bishop, Janice L.; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Data obtained at visible and near-infrared wavelengths by OMEGA on Mars Express and CRISM on MRO provide definitive evidence for the presence of phyllosilicates and other hydrated phases on Mars. A diverse range of both Fe/Mg-OH and Al- OH-bearing phyllosilicates were identified including the smectites, nontronite, saponite, and montmorillonite. To constrain the abundances of these phyllosilicates, spectral analyses of mixtures are needed. We report on our effort to enable the quantitative evaluation of the abundance of hydrated-hydroxylated silicates when they are contained in mixtures. We include two component mixtures of hydrated/ hydroxylated silicates with each other and with two analogs for other Martian materials; pyroxene (enstatite) and palagonitic soil (an alteration product of basaltic glass, hereafter referred to as palagonite). For the hydrated-hydroxylated silicates we include saponite and montmorillonite (Mg- and Al-rich smectites). We prepared three size separates of each end-member for study: 20-45, 63-90, and 125-150 micron.

  15. [Review of normal spectral emissivity standard reference materials].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement, standard reference materials of spectral emissivity as the dissemination of quantity in spectral emissivity measurement are used for the calibration of spectral emissivity measurement apparatus. In the present paper, firstly the standard reference materials data proposed by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology are introduced, and some underlying standard reference materials suggested by some metering departments in Europe are analyzed in detail For the standard reference material Armco iron and SiC proposed by some researchers, the advantages and disadvantages were explored. Finally, the characteristics of standard reference materials are summarized, and the future development of spectral emissivity measurement standard is prospected. PMID:23387148

  16. Isotopic Compositions of Uranium Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, B.; Borg, L. E.; Williams, R. W.; Brennecka, G.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in 238U/235U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of ~1.3‰ are now being observed in 238U/235U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The 238U/235U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed 233U-236U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. This tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured 238U/235U ratios of ~0.03. The values obtained for 238U/235U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 ± 0.020 (n=15), SRM950a = 137.870 ± 0.018 (n=8), and CRM112a = 137.866 ± 0.030 (n=16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. Our measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 ± 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified 238U/235U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for 234U/235U are: SRM950a = (7.437 ± 0.043)x10-3 (n=18), and CRM112a = (7.281 ± 0.050)x10-3 (n=16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for 236U/235U in SRM950a was determined to be (8.48 ± 2.63)x10-6, whereas 236U was not detected in CRM112a. We are currently obtaining the U isotopic composition of

  17. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF URANIUM REFERENCE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, B; Borg, L; Williams, R; Brennecka, G; Hutcheon, I

    2009-09-03

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of {approx} 1.3{per_thousand} are now being observed in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed {sup 233}U-{sup 236}U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. this tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios of {approx} 0.03. The values obtained for {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 {+-} 0.020 (n = 15), SRM950a = 137.870 {+-} 0.018 (n = 8), and CRM112a = 137.866 {+-} 0.030 (n = 16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. The measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 {+-} 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U are: SRM950a = (7.437 {+-} 0.043) x 10{sup -3} (n = 18), and CRM112a = (7.281 {+-} 0.050) x 10{sup -3} (n = 16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for

  18. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  19. Permeability of Candidate Stirling Heater Head Materials Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Marc R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are evaluating high-temperature materials for Stirling heater heads for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems that would help to increase the system efficiency to 30 to 35 percent and the system specific power to 8 to 10+ W/kg. Ceramic materials could make it possible for the convertor hot-end temperature to be increased to 1050 to 1200 C, in comparison to the current 650 C with an Inconel 718 heater head. A hermetically sealed Stirling heater head must retain a constant internal pressure of nearly 400-psi helium (He) throughout its useful life (120,000 hr) at the design operating temperature. Therefore, He permeability was measured for eight potential materials and compared with the permeability of the current heater head material, Inconel 718. The eight materials included silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon dioxide (SiO2), both sintered and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3), two types of melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composites, and a carbon/SiC composite (C/SiC). Glenn submitted samples of each material to Porous Materials, Inc., Ithaca, New York, for permeability analysis. At room temperature and 30-psi He, four materials--Si3N4, Al2O3, SiO2, and sintered SiC--demonstrated lower permeability than Inconel 718. The CVD SiC and all the composite materials were significantly more permeable to He than the baseline material.

  20. Sexuality Education. Selected Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This annotated bibliography describes materials from the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (NCEMCH) reference collection. The 125 items focus on children and sexuality education. Most materials about preventing AIDS/HIV, adolescent pregnancy prevention, and school health education in general, however, are omitted because…

  1. Preparation and characterization of ``exhausted electrowinning electrolyte'' reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arana, G.; Amigo, J. M.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L. A.; Raposo, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    The number of available reference materials of complex matrices is continuously growing but it is still far from ideal. There are too many different matrices which are of interest for too many different analytes. The certified reference materials are expensive and are intended for the validation of methods or for the assurance of traceability of the analytical result. However, many determinations are carried out on a daily basis and the quality control for these determinations requires the use of reference materials, although not certified but laboratory reference materials. These materials are not certified but must be homogeneous and stable with respect to the concentration of the analytes of interest and they must have a similar matrix compared to the samples to be analysed, in order to be able to perform the quality control of the analytical determinations. The reference material herein presented is an exhausted electrowinning electrolyte from a local copper producing company. The analytical determination of the metals in the solution was performed using ICP-AES with a multivariate calibration procedure. The analytes are the following : As, Ca, Cu, Fe, Na, Ni, Sb and Zn.

  2. Evaluation and ranking of candidate ceramic wafer engine seal materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    Modern engineered ceramics offer high temperature capabilities not found in even the best superalloy metals. The high temperature properties of several selected ceramics including aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride are reviewed as they apply to hypersonic engine seal design. A ranking procedure is employed to objectively differentiate among four different monolithic ceramic materials considered, including: a cold-pressed and sintered aluminum oxide; a sintered alpha-phase silicon carbide; a hot-isostatically pressed silicon nitride; and a cold-pressed and sintered silicon nitride. This procedure is used to narrow the wide range of potential ceramics considered to an acceptable number for future detailed and costly analyses and tests. The materials are numerically scored according to their high temperature flexural strength; high temperature thermal conductivity; resistance to crack growth; resistance to high heating rates; fracture toughness; Weibull modulus; and finally according to their resistance to leakage flow, where materials having coefficients of thermal expansion closely matching the engine panel material resist leakage flow best. The cold-pressed and sintered material (Kyocera SN-251) ranked the highest in the overall ranking especially when implemented in engine panels made of low expansion rate materials being considered for the engine, including Incoloy and titanium alloys.

  3. Evaluation and ranking of candidate ceramic wafer engine seal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Steinetz, B.M.

    1991-05-01

    Modern engineered ceramics offer high temperature capabilities not found in even the best superalloy metals. The high temperature properties of several selected ceramics including aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride are reviewed as they apply to hypersonic engine seal design. A ranking procedure is employed to objectively differentiate among four different monolithic ceramic materials considered, including: a cold-pressed and sintered aluminum oxide; a sintered alpha-phase silicon carbide; a hot-isostatically pressed silicon nitride; and a cold-pressed and sintered silicon nitride. This procedure is used to narrow the wide range of potential ceramics considered to an acceptable number for future detailed and costly analyses and tests. The materials are numerically scored according to their high temperature flexural strength; high temperature thermal conductivity; resistance to crack growth; resistance to high heating rates; fracture toughness; Weibull modulus; and finally according to their resistance to leakage flow, where materials having coefficients of thermal expansion closely matching the engine panel material resist leakage flow best. The cold-pressed and sintered material (Kyocera SN{sup -251}) ranked the highest in the overall ranking especially when implemented in engine panels made of low expansion rate materials being considered for the engine, including Incoloy and titanium alloys.

  4. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  5. Characterization of Candidate Materials for Remote Recession Measurements of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bradley D.; Winter, Michael; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Danehy, Paul M.; Splinter, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.

  6. Reference materials and reference measurement systems in laboratory medicine. Harmonization of nomenclature and definitions in reference measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, R

    1995-12-01

    Reliability of clinical laboratory results is obtained through quality assurance in both their production and transmission. The former involves a reference measurement system of reference materials and reference measurement procedures with metrological and statistical verification of results. The latter requires that sender and receiver have access to a common terminology. Thus, two data banks are required. A plurilingual systematic vocabulary related to the reference measurement system, giving concepts with terms and definitions concerning measurement standards, reference measurement procedures, internal quality control, external quality assessment, probability and statistics-mainly based on existing authoritative publications. The material should be processed by standard scientific terminological procedure and offered to pertinent organizations and specialists for comment before finalization and authorization. A multilingual collection of systematic names for properties examined by the branches of Laboratory Medicine, such as clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical pharmacology, haematology and blood banking, and histochemistry and cytology. The database should function as a reference to consultation and as a link in the transmission of data between local laboratory "dialects". This should be based on the ongoing comprehensive IUPAC/IFCC project for forming names in collaboration with relevant scientific organisations and area specialists. The relational data base including "run-time" software would be accessed by e-mail (gopher or other storage medium). PMID:8845435

  7. Corrosion of candidate materials in Lake Rotokawa geothermal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Corrosion rates were determined for CDA 613, CDA 715, A-36 carbon steel, 1020 carbon steel, and Alloy 825 flat coupons which were exposed to geothermal spring water at Paraiki site number 9 near Lake Rotokawa, New Zealand. Qualitative observations of the corrosion performance of Type 304L stainless steel and CDA 102 exposed to the same environment were noted. CDA 715, Alloy 825, 1020 carbon steel, and other alloys are being considered for the materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste containers for the United States civilian radioactive waste disposal program. Alloys CDA 613 and CDA 102 were tested to provide copper-based materials for corrosion performance comparison purposes. A36 was tested to provide a carbon steel baseline material for comparison purposes, and alloy 304L stainless steel was tested to provide an austenitic stainless steel baseline material for comparison purposes. In an effort to gather corrosion data from an environment that is rooted in natural sources of water and rock, samples of some of the proposed container materials were exposed to a geothermal spring environment. At the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, currently under consideration for high-level nuclear waste disposal, transient groundwater may come in contact with waste containers over the course of a 10,000-year disposal period. The geothermal springs environment, while extremely more aggressive than the anticipated general environment at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, could have similarities to the environment that arises at selected local sites on a container as a result of crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), or the concentration of the ionic species due to repetitive evaporation or boiling of the groundwater near the containers. The corrosion rates were based on weight loss data obtained after six weeks exposure in a 90{degrees}C, low-pH spring with relatively high concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}.

  8. Certification of reference materials for the determination of alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Otsuka, Satoko; Iwasawa, Ryoko; Fujiki, Naomi; Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Kato, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are playing an increasingly important role in national and international standardizing activities. In Japan, primary standard solutions for analyses of endocrine disrupters are supplied under the national standards dissemination system named the Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS). For the traceability on reference materials used for preparation of the primary standard solutions based on the JCSS, the National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed and certified high-purity reference materials of alkylphenols as NMIJ CRMs, such as 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Thereafter, it is essential to determine the alkylphenols by using these solutions based on the JCSS for environmental monitoring and risk assessments because analytical values obtained by using the solutions can ensure the reliability and traceability of the chemical analyses. PMID:25656848

  9. Final recommendations for reference materials in black carbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Skjemstad, Jan O.

    Last summer, a symposium was held to discuss aspects of global biogeochemical cycles, including organic matter cycling in soils, rivers, and marine environments; black carbon particle fluxes and the biological pump; dissolved organic matter; and organic matter preservation. Seventy scientists from various disciplines, including oceanography, soil science, geology, and chemistry attended the 3-day meeting at the Friday Harbor Laboratories, a research station of the University of Washington.“New Approaches in Marine Organic Biogeochemistry” commemorated the life and science of a colleague and friend, John I. Hedges, who was also involved in several groups developing chemical reference materials. Part of this symposium included a workshop on chemical reference materials, where final recommendations of the Steering Committee for Black Carbon Reference Materials were presented.

  10. Development of Reference Materials for Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements by the Flash Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid materials used for thermal simulations and thermal designs can be obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density in many cases. The thermal diffusivity is usually measured by the flash method, and the specific heat capacity is usually measured by differential scanning calorimetry. In order to obtain reliable thermal conductivities for strict thermal design, it is necessary to measure the thermal diffusivity using the flash method, a well-validated apparatus. Reference materials are an effective means for validation of most practical measurement apparatus. For the flash method, isotropic graphite was selected as a candidate reference material. A batch of isotropic graphite samples was prepared and characterized in detail in order to be a certified reference material for thermal-diffusivity measurement. The detailed characterization ensures the traceability of the measurement results to the international system of units (SI). A convenient reference material for thermal conductivity was also obtained by using the known thermal-diffusivity measurements, specific heat capacity, and density of the material.

  11. Corrosion of candidate container materials in air-steam mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lutton, J.M.; Dewees, D.A.; Robinson, C.G.; Brehm, W.F.; Anantatmula, R.P.

    1987-11-01

    The environment during the operating period of a high-level nuclear waste repository in basalt is expected to be air saturated with steam. Liquid groundwater is not expected to be in contact with the container surface during that time. The report presents corrosion findings from tests conducted for one to twenty-five months in an air-steam environment. Tests were carried out with bare metal specimens exposed to an air atmosphere containing 12% moisture in chambers maintained at temperatures between 150/degree/C and 300/degree/C. Cast carbon steel exhibited total penetrations less than 0.002 mm for exposures up to 25 months. A ferritic alloy steel, Fe9Cr1Mo, showed corrosion results very similar to cast carbon steel. Unalloyed copper materials showed essentially linear corrosion rates, with total penetrations between 0.002 mm at 150/degree/C and 0.14 mm at 300/degree/C in 25 months. Cupronickel 90-10 exhibited total penetrations between 0.001 mm at 150/degree/C and 0.05 mm at 300/degree/C in 25 months. There was a tendency for the corrosion rate to increase with time for cupronickel at 250/degree/C and 300/degree/C possibly because of a mid-test change in the corrosion mechanism. Limited testing of specimens surrounded with bentonite/basalt packing material indicated that the presence of packing has no strong effect on the corrosion of iron-base materials; however, copper-base and cupronickel materials corroded at higher rates in the presence of packing, with a possible shift towards the lower bare specimen corrosion rates with increasing time. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Graphene oxide as an optimal candidate material for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-07-01

    Methane, the primary constituent of natural gas, binds too weakly to nanostructured carbons to meet the targets set for on-board vehicular storage to be viable. We show, using density functional theory calculations, that replacing graphene by graphene oxide increases the adsorption energy of methane by 50%. This enhancement is sufficient to achieve the optimal binding strength. In order to gain insight into the sources of this increased binding, that could also be used to formulate design principles for novel storage materials, we consider a sequence of model systems that progressively take us from graphene to graphene oxide. A careful analysis of the various contributions to the weak binding between the methane molecule and the graphene oxide shows that the enhancement has important contributions from London dispersion interactions as well as electrostatic interactions such as Debye interactions, aided by geometric curvature induced primarily by the presence of epoxy groups.

  13. Candidate areas for in situ ancient lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Morrison, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Results of high-speed impact cratering in quartz sand targets are reported. Dissection of the ejecta plumes of the craters revealed that they are relatively thin conical sheets. Further dissection showed the relationship between individual particle trajectories and the ejecta plume. A model of cratering, based on the experiments, was used to explain the inverted stratigraphy previously described in laboratory impact craters and in meteorite craters. Mantling of secondary craters in peripheral parts of the continuous deposits of Tycho Crater and in the downrange parts of certain Tycho secondary crater clusters is accounted for by the model. Model results indicate extensive mixing by secondary cratering when basin ejecta is emplaced. The study reveals certain areas on the lunar uplands that have been relatively uncratered by basin secondaries and unmantled by secondary crater debris surges and that may represent in situ ancient lunar materials.

  14. Irradiation creep of candidate materials for advanced nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Hoffelner, W.

    2013-10-01

    In the present paper, irradiation creep results of an intermetallic TiAl alloy and two ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are summarized. In situ irradiation creep measurements were performed using homogeneous implantation with α- and p-particles to maximum doses of 0.8 dpa at displacement damage rates of 2-8 × 10-6 dpa/s. The strains of miniaturized flat dog-bone specimens were monitored under uniaxial tensile stresses ranging from 20 to 400 MPa at temperatures of 573, 673 and 773 K, respectively. The effects of material composition, ODS particle size, and bombarding particle on the irradiation creep compliance was studied and results are compared to literature data. Evolution of microstructure during helium implantation was investigated in detail by TEM and is discussed with respect to irradiation creep models.

  15. Developing a matrix reference material for screening of transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) that are compatible with detection methods are needed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Screening is the first detection step in determining the possible presence of GMO ingredients in food or feed; however, screening has been hindered by the lack of GMO CRMs. In this study, transgenic rice materials were developed via the transformation of a construct harboring 11 commonly used screening elements. Digital PCR was utilized to identify a homozygous single-copy line termed SDrice. The qualitative detections of 11 elements in 21 transgenic materials demonstrated that the genomic DNA of the SDrice was suitable for use as a positive control in the screening of GMO ingredients. The suitability of SDrice as reference material was further checked by testing the sensitivity of 11 known conventional PCR assays, ranging from 10 to 50 copies of the SDrice genome. The standard curves that were created using SDrice DNA series as calibrators all exhibited good linearities in the relationships of the Ct values with the template copy numbers in these 11 real-time PCR assays. The LODs of the real-time PCR assays were estimated to be two to five copies of the SDrice genome. Comparisons of the SDrice with other GM rice revealed that significant differences existed in both the intercepts of the standard curves and the ΔCt values of the exogenous and reference genes for the P-35S, T-nos, HPT, T-35S, and Bar assays; the SDrice was not fit for quantification of other GM rice events. This study provided a matrix reference material (RM) that was suitable for screening GM rice, determination of sensitivity and a LOD of PCR assays, and overcame some of the drawbacks of plasmid DNA as reference material. PMID:26462921

  16. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization... AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  17. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization... AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  18. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  19. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  20. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  1. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  2. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  3. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  4. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  5. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section...

  6. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., 6th Floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section...

  7. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  8. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  9. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  10. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from...

  11. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.15 Section 431.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  12. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 572.110 Section 572.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male...

  13. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse...

  14. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  15. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  16. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  17. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  19. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  1. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.203 Section 431.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  2. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.63 Section 431.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  4. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  5. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  6. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section...

  7. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., ISSN 1041-2336. (c) Availability of references. The building...

  8. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials... Ice-Makers.” (2) American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of...

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  10. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.95 Section 431.95... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent... October 27, 2011 and updated by addendum 1 in December 2010 and addendum 2 in June 2011 (AHRI...

  11. Accurate determination of cobalt traces in several biological reference materials.

    PubMed

    Dybczyński, R; Danko, B

    1994-01-01

    A newly devised, very accurate ("definitive") method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials was validated by the analysis of several certified reference materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation and selective and quantitative postirradiation isolation of radiocobalt from practically all other radionuclides by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurement. The significance of criteria that should be fulfilled in order to accept a given result as obtained by the "definitive method" is emphasized. In view of the demonstrated very good accuracy of the method, it is suggested that our values for cobalt content in those reference materials in which it was originally not certified (SRM 1570 spinach, SRM 1571 orchard leaves, SRM 1577 bovine liver, and Czechoslovak bovine liver 12-02-01) might be used as provisional certified values. PMID:7710879

  12. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  14. Reference Materials for Reactor Neutron Fluence Rate and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.

    2003-06-01

    Certified reference materials are distributed by the European Commission through the BCR® programme (over 500 CRMs) including a series of activation and fission monitor materials originally proposed by the Euratom Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry. The current range (18 CRMs) includes materials to cover the complete energy spectrum, and suitable for different irradiation times. Fission monitors are 238UO2 or 237NpO2 in the form of microspheres. Activation monitors are high purity metals (Ni, Cu, Al, Fe, Nb, Rh, or Ti), certified for interfering trace impurities, or dilute aluminium-based alloys. Reference materials newly certified are IRMM-530R A1-0.1%Au, replacing the exhausted IRMM-530 material, used as comparator for k0- standardisation, and three new Al-Co alloys (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%Co). Others in the process of certification are A1-0.1%Ag and A1-2%Sc for thermal and epithermal fluence rate measurements and two uranium-doped glass materials intended for dosimetry by the fission-track technique. Various alloy compositions have been prepared for use as melt-wire temperature monitors with melting points ranging from 198 to 327ºC.

  15. Damage parameter comparison for candidate intense neutron test facilities for fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D.G.; Greenwood, L.R. ); Mann, F.M. )

    1990-07-31

    It is recognized worldwide that an intense source of fusion energy neutrons is needed to evaluate candidate fusion materials. At an International Energy Agency (IEA) workshop held in San Diego in February 1989, an Evaluation Panel recommended that three neutron source concepts be developed further. The panel also recommended that further comparisons were needed of their irradiation environments. In this paper, a comparison is made of damage parameters for beryllium, carbon, silicon, vanadium, iron, copper, molybdenum, and tungsten irradiated in spectra characteristic of di-Li, spallation, and beam-plasma (d-t) neutron sources and in a reference DEMO first wall spectrum. The treatment of neutron-induced displacement reactions is confined to the region below 20 MeV and transmutation reactions to below 50 MeV by the limited availability of calculational tools. The spallation spectrum is relatively soft; less than 2% of the neutrons are above 50 MeV. The transmutation results emphasize the need to define the neutron spectra at low, as well as high, energies; only the DEMO spectrum is adequate in this respect. Recommendations are given for further work to be performed under an international working group. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Preparation and stability of milk somatic cell reference materials.

    PubMed

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2016-09-01

    Our objectives were to develop a method to produce milk somatic cell count (SCC) reference materials for calibration of electronic somatic cell count (ESCC) using gravity separation and to determine the effect of refrigerated storage (4°C) and freeze-thaw stability of the skim and whole milk SCC reference materials. Whole raw milk was high-temperature short-time pasteurized and split into 2 portions. One portion was gravity separated at 4°C for 22 h and the second portion was centrifugally separated to produce skim milk that was also gravity separated with somatic cells rising to the surface. After 22 h, stock solutions (low SCC skim milk, high SCC skim milk, high SCC whole milk) were prepared and preserved (bronopol). Two experiments were conducted, one to compare the shelf-life of skim and whole milk SCC standards at 4°C and one to determine the effect of freezing and thawing on SCC standards. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Gravity separation was an effective approach to isolate and concentrate somatic cells from bovine milk and redistribute them in a skim or whole milk matrix to create a set of reference materials with a wider and more uniformly distributed range of SCC than current calibration sets. The liquid SCC reference materials stored using the common industry practice at 4°C were stable (i.e., fit for purpose, no large decrease in SCC) for a 2-wk period, whereas frozen and thawed reference materials may have a much longer useful life. A gradual decrease occurred in residual difference in ESCC (SCC × 1,000/mL) versus original assigned reference SCC over duration of refrigerated storage for both skim and whole milk SCC samples, indicating that milk ESCC of the preserved milks was gradually decreasing during 28 d of storage at 4°C by about 15,000 SCC/mL. No difference in the ESCC for skim milk was detected between refrigerated and frozen storage, whereas for whole milk the ESCC for frozen was lower than refrigerated samples. Future work is

  17. Primary certification of reference material for electrolytic conductivity of bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. F.; Gomes, M. R. F.; Cassini, G. C.; Faria, A. C. V.; Fraga, I. C. S.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays the preservation of the planet is spreading into the international scene with the use of renewable energy sources such as bioethanol. The challenge is to guarantee the quality of produced bioethanol, and the electrolytic conductivity (EC) is one of the specified parameters for this purpose. However, is necessary to demonstrate the metrological traceability of the measurement results for EC in this matrix. This study presents the certification of a reference material for EC in bioethanol by using only primary measurements. The value of primary certified reference material (CRM) is (0.77 ± 0.06) µS.cm-1, and its use will provide the metrological traceability needed for measurement results in laboratories.

  18. Methods to Characterize Ricin for the Development of Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sook-Kyung; Hancock, Diane K.; Wang, Lili; Cole, Kenneth D.; Reddy, Prasad T.

    2006-01-01

    Ricin is an abundant protein from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. Because of its high toxicity and the simplicity of producing mass quantities, ricin is considered a biological terrorism agent. We have characterized ricin extensively with a view to develop Reference Materials that could be used to test and calibrate detection devices. The characterization of ricin includes: 1) purity test of a commercial batch of ricin using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, 2) biological activity assay by measuring its ability to inhibit protein synthesis, 3) quantitation of protein concentration by amino acid analysis, 4) detection of ricin by an immunoassay using a flow cytometer, and 5) detection of ricin genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction using nine different primer sets. By implementing these five methods of characterization, we are in a position to develop a reference material for ricin. PMID:27274935

  19. Water as a source of errors in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Rückold, S; Grobecker, K H; Isengard, H D

    2001-06-01

    In the field of reference materials, long-term stability is of highest importance. Particularly for biological matrices, any kind of deterioration must be avoided during shelf-life. In the production precautions are taken to prevent these, but possible alterations caused by intensive drying have been underestimated until today. This presentation discusses several mechanisms of deterioration related to water activity and water content. Comparison of the results for water and moisture for six reference materials and their water sorption isotherms serve as a base to discuss the importance of accurate dry mass corrections for certified values. It is shown that the method chosen for dry mass correction influences certified contents significantly and a method description must be given. Furthermore, it is confirmed that for biological matrices optimal ranges of water activity and water content exist, where hygroscopicity is low without significant danger of product deterioration. Additionally, handling is facilitated in the optimised ranges. PMID:11451234

  20. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

  1. Clinical Biospecimens: Reference Materials, Certified for Nominal Properties?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report makes the case for clinical biospecimens to be certified for nominal properties, in particular the diagnosis, and to attain the level of Reference Materials. Clinical certified biospecimens that are collected, processed, characterized, stored, and distributed by biobanks are urgently needed to facilitate diagnostic test development, evaluation, and quality assurance. Four examples are provided to illustrate this purpose and the certification approaches that could be applied are proposed. PMID:24749878

  2. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material listed for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... follows: clauses 2, 3, 4.1, 6.1, 7, and 10, and Tables 1, 2 and 4, IBR approved for § 431.12. (d) IEEE...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1) IEEE Std...

  3. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Outola, I; Filliben, J; Inn, K G W; La Rosa, J; McMahon, C A; Peck, G A; Twining, J; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K; Smedley, P; Antón, M P; Gascó, C; Povinec, P; Pham, M K; Raaum, A; Wei, H-J; Krijger, G C; Bouisset, P; Litherland, A E; Kieser, W E; Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Hong, G H; Holm, E; Skipperud, L; Harms, A V; Arinc, A; Youngman, M; Arnold, D; Wershofen, H; Sill, D S; Bohrer, S; Dahlgaard, H; Croudace, I W; Warwick, P E; Ikäheimonen, T K; Klemola, S; Vakulovsky, S M; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certified values for the radionuclides, the median method was found to be the most representative technique. The certified values were provided for 13 radionuclides and information values were given for 15 more radionuclides. Results for the natural decay series showed disequilibrium in both the uranium and thorium series. PMID:16549359

  4. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, D. P.; Halloran, S. T.; Owings, R. R.; da Silva, F. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  5. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Pappas, D P; Halloran, S T; Owings, R R; da Silva, F C S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  6. A 2015 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) candidate model based on Swarm's experimental absolute magnetometer vector mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Pierre; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils; Léger, Jean-Michel; Jager, Thomas; Brocco, Laura; Sirol, Olivier; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lalanne, Xavier; Chulliat, Arnaud; Bertrand, François; Boness, Axel; Fratter, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Each of the three satellites of the European Space Agency Swarm mission carries an absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) that provides the nominal 1-Hz scalar data of the mission for both science and calibration purposes. These ASM instruments, however, also deliver autonomous 1-Hz experimental vector data. Here, we report on how ASM-only scalar and vector data from the Alpha and Bravo satellites between November 29, 2013 (a week after launch) and September 25, 2014 (for on-time delivery of the model on October 1, 2014) could be used to build a very valuable candidate model for the 2015.0 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A parent model was first computed, describing the geomagnetic field of internal origin up to degree and order 40 in a spherical harmonic representation and including a constant secular variation up to degree and order 8. This model was next simply forwarded to epoch 2015.0 and truncated at degree and order 13. The resulting ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model is compared to analogous models derived from the mission's nominal data and to the now-published final 2015.0 IGRF model. Differences among models mainly highlight uncertainties enhanced by the limited geographical distribution of the selected data set (essentially due to a lack of availability of data at high northern latitude satisfying nighttime conditions at the end of the time period considered). These appear to be comparable to differences classically observed among IGRF candidate models. These positive results led the ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model to contribute to the construction of the final 2015.0 IGRF model.

  7. Identification of Candidate Reference Genes in Perennial Ryegrass for Quantitative RT-PCR under Various Abiotic Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Xinquan; Qi, Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important technique for analyzing differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes is necessary to ensure accurate qRT-PCR assessment of expression in genes of interest. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is important forage and turf grass species in temperate regions, but the expression stability of its reference genes under various stresses has not been well-studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were evaluated for use as controls in qRT-PCR to quantify gene expression in perennial ryegrass under drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. Four approaches – Delta CT, geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder were used to determine the stability of expression in these reference genes. The results are consistent with the idea that the best reference genes depend on the stress treatment under investigation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4 alpha (eIF4A), Transcription elongation factor 1 (TEF1) and Tat binding protein-1 (TBP-1) were the three most stably expressed genes under drought stress and were also the three best genes for studying salt stress. eIF4A, TBP-1, and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) were the most suitable reference genes to study heat stress, while eIF4A, TEF1, and E2 were the three best reference genes for studying the effects of ABA. Finally, Ubiquitin (UBQ), TEF1, and eIF4A were the three best reference genes for waterlogging treatments. Conclusions/Significance These results will be helpful in choosing the best reference genes for use in studies related to various abiotic stresses in perennial ryegrass. The stability of expression in these reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of the transcript levels for studies of gene expression in such studies. PMID:24699822

  8. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  9. Development of a new cucumber reference material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for processing the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of processing and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the reference temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate reference material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix. PMID:25627789

  10. Material Spectral Emissivity Measurement Based on Two Reference Blackbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Yang, Yongjun; Liao, Li; Lyu, Guoyi

    2015-12-01

    Spectral emissivity is one of the important physical properties of materials. Emissivity measurement is critical for accurate temperature measurements and the evaluation of the stealth performance for materials. In this paper, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and an energy comparison method are used to study material emissivity measurements. Two reference blackbodies are employed for real-time measurement and correction of the spectrometer background function to enhance the emissivity measurement accuracy, to improve the design of a three-parabolic-mirror optical system, and to enlarge the optical field of view to meet the measurement requirements. The linearity of the system is measured using a mercury cadmium telluride detector and a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector. The results indicate that the linear range of the system meets the emissivity measurement requirements for the temperature range from 50°C to 1000° C. The effective radiation surface is introduced as a parameter of the reference blackbodies to reduce the influence of the measurement distance. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is used to measure the spectral emissivity of a conductive silica film and SiC, respectively, at different temperatures in the wavelength range of 1 \\upmu m to 25 \\upmu m. The expanded uncertainty is less than 5 %.

  11. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  12. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  13. Corrosion test on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curtis, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials in order to assist in selecting materials for package design and to help in designing longer-term corrosion tests. The corrosion solution was buffered near pH4, was in contact with air, and contained chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron absorber elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron absorber elements were studied.

  14. Fusible heat sink materials - An identification of alternate candidates. [for astronaut thermoregulation in EVA portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lomax, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. An extensive database search was undertaken to identify candidate materials with liquid solid transformations over the temperature range of -18 C to 5 C; and 1215 candidates were identified. Based on available data, 59 candidate materials with thermal storage capability, DeltaH values higher than that of water were identified. This paper presents the methodology utilized in the study, including the decision process used for materials selection.

  15. Molecularly uniform poly(ethylene glycol) certified reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Ehara, Kensei; Sakurai, Hiromu; Horikawa, Yoshiteru; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Bounoshita, Masao

    2015-02-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for poly(ethylene glycol) with no distribution in the degree of polymerization was developed. The degree of polymerization of the CRM was accurately determined to be 23. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used to separate the molecularly uniform polymer from a standard commercial sample with wide polydispersity in its degree of polymerization. Through the use of a specific fractionation system coupled with SFC, we are able to obtain samples of poly(ethylene glycol) oligomer with exact degrees of polymerization, as required for a CRM produced by the National Metrology Institute of Japan.

  16. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  17. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  18. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  19. Evaluation and selection of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  20. Purity Determination of Acetaldehyde in an Acetaldehyde Certified Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Watanabe, Takuro; Nakamura, Satoe; Kato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is regulated as a toxic substance in various fields, and the method for monitoring or analysis of acetaldehyde is important. However, handling is difficult because of the high reactivity and low boiling point of acetaldehyde. Therefore, a reference material for high purity acetaldehyde with high accuracy was not available. Although the measuring method of acetaldehyde as a reagent is published in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) where the specification of acetaldehyde purity is more than 80%, the analytical method described in JIS is not enough for an accuracy purity determination method. In this research, the high precision purity determination method for development of a certified reference material (CRM) of acetaldehyde was examined. By controlling the volatility and reactivity of acetaldehyde, we established the purity determination method of acetaldehyde with a relative standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. Furthermore, this method was applied to develop a high purity acetaldehyde CRM with an expanded uncertainty of 0.005 kg kg(-1) (k = 2). PMID:26063006

  1. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Eric S.; Carlton, Robert A.; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A.; Bright, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  2. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Eric S; Carlton, Robert A; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A; Bright, David S

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  3. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  4. Evaluation of Candidate Materials for a High-Temperature Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy; Ritzert, Frank; Freedman, Marc

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA have identified Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) as a candidate power system for use on long-duration, deep-space science missions and Mars rovers. One of the developments planned for an upgraded version of the current SRG design is to achieve higher efficiency by increasing the overall operating temperature of the system. Currently, the SRG operates with a heater head temperature of 650 C and is fabricated from the nickel base superalloy 718. This temperature is at the limit of Alloy 718's capability, and any planned increase in temperature will be contingent on identifying a more capable material from which to fabricate the heater head. To this end, an assessment of material candidates was performed assuming a range of heater head temperatures. The chosen alternative material candidates will be discussed, along with the development efforts needed to ensure that these materials can meet the demanding system requirements of long-duration operation in hostile environments.

  5. A candidate reference measurement procedure for quantifying serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ekaterina M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d 3-25(OH)D2 and d 6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9 and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4 and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.3% for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. Graphical abstract Bias assessment using NIST standard reference materials. Legend CDC mean mass fractions (ng/g) ± U 95 (6

  6. Fusible heat sink materials - Evaluation of alternate candidates. [for PLSS cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.; Lomax, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. Materials with greater thermal storage capability than water could enable both an extension of time between recharging and/or a reduction in size and/or mass. An extensive literature search identified 1,215 candidates with a solid-liquid transformation within the temperature range of -13 C to 5 C. Based on data available in the literature, several candidates with a cooling capacity significantly greater than water were identified. Measurements of the transformation temperature and enthalpy of transformation were then undertaken with a differential scanning calorimeter in order to confirm the accuracy of the literature. Laboratory measurements have thus far not been able to corroborate the extremely high values found from the literature. This paper presents the approach for materials selection utilized in this study, the experimental procedure, and the results of the measurements thus far undertaken.

  7. Application of a passive electrochemical noise technique to localized corrosion of candidate radioactive waste container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Korzan, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    One of the key engineered barriers in the design of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is the waste canister that encapsulates the spent fuel elements. Current candidate metals for the canisters to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain include cast iron, carbon steel, Incoloy 825 and titanium code-12. This project was designed to evaluate passive electrochemical noise techniques for measuring pitting and corrosion characteristics of candidate materials under prototypical repository conditions. Experimental techniques were also developed and optimized for measurements in a radiation environment. These techniques provide a new method for understanding material response to environmental effects (i.e., gamma radiation, temperature, solution chemistry) through the measurement of electrochemical noise generated during the corrosion of the metal surface. In addition, because of the passive nature of the measurement the technique could offer a means of in-situ monitoring of barrier performance.

  8. Preparation and Comprehensive Characterization of a Calcium Hydroxyapatite Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Milenko; Fowler, Bruce O.; Tung, Ming S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous biological and chemical studies involve the use of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. In this study detailed physicochemical characterization of HA, prepared from an aqueous solution, was carried out employing different methods and techniques: chemical and thermal analyses, x-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, scanning and transmission microscopies, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface-area method. The contents of calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (PO43−), hydroxide (OH−), hydrogenphosphate (HPO42−), water (H2O), carbonate (CO32−), and trace constituents, the Ca/P molar ratio, crystal size and morphology, surface area, unit-cell parameters, crystallinity, and solubility of this HA were determined. This highly pure, homogeneous, and highly crystalline HA is certified as a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material, SRM 2910. PMID:27366634

  9. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  10. Static and Dynamic Friction Behavior of Candidate High Temperature Airframe Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Morris, D. E.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    The following report describes a series of research tests to evaluate candidate high temperature materials for static to moderately dynamic hypersonic airframe seals. Pin-on-disk reciprocating sliding tests were conducted from 25 to 843 C in air and hydrogen containing inert atmospheres. Friction, both dynamic and static, was monitored and serves as the primary test measurement. In general, soft coatings lead to excessive static friction and temperature affected friction in air environments only.

  11. Production of Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; Robert S. Marshall

    1999-03-01

    Nondestructive waste assay (NDA) methods are employed to determine the mass and activity of waste-entrained radionuclides as part of the National TRU (Trans-Uranic) Waste Characterization Program. In support of this program the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Mixed Waste Focus Area developed a plan to acquire capability/performance data on systems proposed for NDA purposes. The Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was designed to evaluate the NDA systems of commercial contractors by subjecting all participants to identical tests involving 55 gallon drum surrogates containing known quantities and distributions of radioactive materials in the form of sealed-source standards, referred to as working reference materials (WRMs). Although numerous Pu WRMs already exist, the CEP WRM set allows for the evaluation of the capability and performance of systems with respect to waste types/configurations which contain increased amounts of {sup 241}Am relative to weapons grade Pu, waste that is dominantly {sup 241}Am, as well as wastes containing various proportions of depleted uranium. The CEP WRMs consist of a special mixture of PuO{sub 2}/AmO{sub 2} (IAP) and diatomaceous earth (DE) or depleted uranium (DU) oxide and DE and were fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The IAP WRMS are contained inside a pair of welded inner and outer stainless steel containers. The DU WRMs are singly contained within a stainless steel container equivalent to the outer container of the IAP standards. This report gives a general overview and discussion relating to the production and certification of the CEP WRMs.

  12. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  13. Characterization of Candidate Solar Sail Material Exposed to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Hovater, Mary; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George; Hollerman, William; Gray, Perry

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the exposure of candidate solar sail materials to emulated space environmental effects including energetic electrons, combined electrons and Ultraviolet radiation, and hypervelocity impact of irradiated solar sail material. This paper will describe the testing procedure and the material characterization results of this investigation.

  14. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  15. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  16. Anorganic fluorescence reference materials for decay time of fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Klahn, J.; Korb, T.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Kynast, U.; Rupertus, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools, detection methods and imaging applications for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for steady state fluorescence diagnostics, a method having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers such as absorption/excitation cross sections and quantum yield. This has been done for different types of dopands in different materials such as glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Samples doped with several fluophores of different emission wavelengths and decay times are required for fluorescent multiplexing applications. Decay times shorter than 100 ns are of special interest. In addition, a proper knowledge is necessary of quantum efficiency in highly scattering media. Recently, quantum efficiency in YAG:Ce glass ceramics has been successfully investigated. Glass and glass ceramics doped with threefold charged rare earth elements are available. However, these samples have the disadvantage of emission decay times much longer than 1 microsecond, due to the excitation and emission of their optical forbidden electronic transitions. Therefore first attempts have been made to produce decay-time standards based on organic and inorganic fluophores. Stable LUMOGEN RED pigments and YAG:Ce phosphors are diluted simultaneously in silicone matrices using a wide range of concentrations between 0.0001 and 2 wt%. Organic LUMOGEN RED has decay times in the lower nanosecond range with a slight dependency on concentration

  17. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Biologically-Induced Micropitting of Alloy 22, a Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Horn, J

    2003-11-03

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment (or microcosm) consisting of crushed rock (tuff) from the Yucca Mountain repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years at room temperature and 30 C. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Room temperature, biotically-incubated coupons show a wide distribution of pores covering the coupon surface, while coupons incubated at 30 C show the pores restricted to polishing ridges.

  20. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B R; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M; Chang, Christopher C; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T; Zaranek, Alexander W; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X Y; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S; Mudivarti, Patrice A; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  2. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Justin M.; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E.; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B.R.; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M.; Chang, Christopher C.; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T.; Zaranek, Alexander W.; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M.; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X.Y.; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S.; Mudivarti, Patrice A.; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  3. Transportation of reagents, reference materials and samples: the international perspective.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E; Edwards, S

    2006-01-01

    The International Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, reference material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met. PMID:17058481

  4. Standard reference material 2036 near-infrared reflection wavelength standard.

    PubMed

    Choquette, Steven J; Duewer, David L; Hanssen, Leonard M; Early, Edward A

    2005-04-01

    Standard Reference Material 2036 (SRM 2036) is a certified transfer standard intended for the verification and calibration of the wavelength/wavenumber scale of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers operating in diffuse or trans-reflectance mode. SRM 2036 Near-Infrared Wavelength/Wavenumber Reflection Standard is a combination of a rare earth oxide glass of a composition similar to that of SRM 2035 Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard and SRM 2065 Ultraviolet-Visible-Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard, but is in physical contact with a piece of sintered poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The combination of glass contacted with a nearly ideal diffusely reflecting backing provides reflection-absorption bands that range from 15% R to 40% R. SRM 2036 is certified for the 10% band fraction air wavelength centroid location, (10%)B, of seven bands spanning the spectral region from 975 nm to 1946 nm. It is also certified for the vacuum wavenumber (10%)B of the same seven bands in the spectral region from 10 300 cm(-1) to 5130 cm(-1) at 8 cm(-1) resolution. Informational values are provided for the locations of thirteen additional bands from 334 nm to 804 nm. PMID:15901335

  5. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan; Thron, Jonathan L; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey; Razinkov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and displays the three unclassified attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass > 2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) < 0.1.' The AVNG was tested using a number of reference material (RM) sources with masses and isotopic ratios above and below these thresholds. The AVNG was demonstrated in June 2009 using several of these sources in addition to detector calibration sources. Since the AVNG was designed to measure multi-kg plutonium sources, the RM was manufactured specifically for use with this system. In addition, the RM was used to test the thresholds in the AVNG, so the size and composition of each RM was certified prior to use. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  7. Development of a southern oceanic air standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Brailsford, Gordon; Possolo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In 2009, the United States Congress charged the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with supporting climate change research. As part of this effort, the Gas Sensing Metrology Group at NIST began developing new gas standard mixtures for greenhouse gas mixtures relevant to atmospheric measurements. Suites of gravimetrically prepared primary standard mixtures (PSMs) were prepared at ambient concentration levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-air balance. In parallel, 30 gas cylinders were filled, by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand, to high pressure from pristine southern oceanic air at Baring Head, New Zealand, and shipped to NIST. Using spectroscopic instrumentation, NIST analyzed the 30 cylinder samples for mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Certified values were assigned to these mixtures by calibrating the instrumentation with the PSM suites that were recently developed at NIST. These mixtures became NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1721 Southern Oceanic Air and are certified for ambient mole fraction, the first of their kind for NIST. The relative expanded uncertainties corresponding to coverage intervals with 95% probability are no larger than 0.06% of the certified values, representing the smallest uncertainties to date ever assigned to an NIST gas SRM. PMID:26650733

  8. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Thron, Jonathan; MacArthur, Duncan W.; Livke, Alexander; Bulatov, M; Kondratov, Sergey; Leplyavkina, M; Razinkov, Sergey; Sivachev, D; Tsybryaev, S; V'yushin, A

    2010-07-09

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. An attribute measurement system (A VNG) was developed and fabricated at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, Russia, under contract with LANL, USA. The A VNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and compares the data analysis results with the specified threshold values for three unclassified attributes; plutonium is present or absent, plutonium mass is greater than or less than the specified threshold value and plutonium isotopic ratio 240Pu to 239Pu) is greater than or less then the threshold value. A set of reference materials (RMs) was specially manufactured for the A VNG with masses and isotopic ratios above and below the selected thresholds. The set of RMs was certified in compliance with the Russian metrological requirements. The RMs were used to debug and test the A VNG and to demonstrate the A VNG operation to an American delegation in June 2009. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  9. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  10. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  11. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  12. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.6 Standard Reference Materials out of stock....

  13. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.6 Standard Reference Materials out of stock....

  14. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  15. Post-Irradiation Properties of Candidate Materials for High-Power Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, H.G.; Ludewig, H.; Mausner, L.F.; Simos, N.; Thieberger, P.; Hayato, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; McDonald, K.T.; Sheppard, J.; Trung, L.P.; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2006-03-15

    The desire of the high-energy-physics community for more intense secondary particle beams motivates the development of multi-megawatt, pulsed proton sources. The targets needed to produce these secondary particle beams must be sufficiently robust to withstand the intense pressure waves arising from the high peak-energy deposition which an intense pulsed beam will deliver. In addition, the materials used for the targets must continue to perform in a severe radiation environment. The effect of the beam induced pressure waves can be mitigated by use of target materials with high-yield strength and/or low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). We report here first results of an expanded study of the effects of irradiation on several additional candidate materials with high strength (AlBeMet, beryllium, Ti-V6-Al4) or low CTE (a carbon-carbon composite, a new Toyota ''gum'' metal alloy, Super-Invar).

  16. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  17. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  18. Preliminary corrosion studies of candidate materials for supercritical water oxidation reactor systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Orzalli, J.C.

    1994-05-01

    An experimental test facility has been designed and constructed for investigation of the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in a supercritical water oxidation environment. The high temperatures (500 deg C) and high pressures (300 atm) required in this process, made the experimental apparatus construction and control a complex engineering problem. The facility consists of two systems. The first is an exposure autoclave internal volume 850 ml, with associated monitoring and control systems for conducting long term exposure testing of test coupons and U-bends. The second is an electrochemical cell with a potentiostat and frequency response analyzer for conducting Electronic Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in the supercritical water environment. Exposure testing of three candidate materials; Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276 and 316 stainless steel was conducted at three temperature regimes corresponding to three locations in a SCWO waste treatment system. Preliminary results are presented in an environment of demineralized water as a control. Experimental results indicate evidence of a film on the materials characterized by slight weight gain. Light and confocal laser light microscopic evaluations revealed the presence of localized pitting corrosion on the Inconel 625.

  19. Potentiodynamic polarization studies of candidate container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.; Harper, W.V.

    1990-12-31

    Cortest Columbus is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level waste packages as part of the information needed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess the Department of Energy`s application to construct a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. In one task of the program, a cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique was used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the candidate container materials. In order to evaluate the expected range of environmental variables, a statistical experimental design approach was used. A Resolution 4 experimental design for 15 variables was selected. The variables included temperature, pH, species present in the groundwater, and those generated by radiolysis. Complete matrices of CPP tests, which consist of tests in 33 environments, were performed on two candidate container materials; Type 304L Stainless Steel and Incoloy Alloy 825. In these tests, both alloys exhibited a wide range of behavior; including passive behavior, pitting and active corrosion. For each alloy, the environmental variables that affected corrosion behavior were identified.

  20. Candidate Materials Evaluated for a High-Temperature Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy R.; Ritzert, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy and NASA have identified Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) as a candidate power system for use on long-duration, deep-space science missions and Mars rovers. One of the developments planned for an upgraded version of the current SRG design is to achieve higher efficiency by increasing the overall operating temperature of the system. Currently, the SRG operates with a heater head temperature of 650 C and is fabricated from the nickel-base superalloy 718. The current operating temperature is at the limit of alloy 718 s capability, and any planned increase in temperature will be contingent on identifying a more capable material from which to fabricate the heater head. To this end, personnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center are evaluating advanced materials for a high-temperature heater head to allow a higher convertor temperature ratio and, thus, increase the system efficiency. A generic list of properties that were used to screen the candidate materials follows: (1) creep, (2) fabricability, (3) helium gas containment, (4) long-term stability and compatibility, (5) ability to form a hermetical closeout seal, and (6) ductility and toughness.

  1. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G. T.; Finger, L. W.; Evans, H. T.; Gabe, E. J.; Enright, G. D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L. P.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material® for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies– are rhombohedral, with space group R3¯c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013 Å, and c = 12

  2. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment.

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Siegrist, T; DeTitta, G T; Finger, L W; Evans, H T; Gabe, E J; Enright, G D; Armstrong, J T; Levenson, M; Cook, L P; Hubbard, C R

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material(®) for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies- are rhombohedral, with space group [Formula: see text]. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013

  3. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  4. Sliding durability of candidate seal fiber materials in hydrogen from 25 to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1992-01-01

    Sliding durability studies of candidate ceramic fibers were conducted in hydrogen to support the high temperature seal development program at NASA LeRC. Pin-on-disk tests were used to measure the friction and durability of a tow or bundle of ceramic fibers in sliding against a superalloy disk. This procedure was used previously to test candidate fibers in an air environment. The fibers based upon mullite (Al2O3-SiO2) chemistry (Nextel 550, 440, and 312) exhibited better durability in hydrogen than in air. HPZ, a complex silicon carboxynitride fiber which showed good durabilty in air, however, showed a significant loss of durability in hot hydrogen. These results are consistent with recent thermodynamic and experimental studies of ceramic compatibility with hydrogen at elevated temperatures. These research results indicate that only oxide fibers display good durability in both air and hydrogen environments. Also, simple, low cost testing in air can provide an adequate data base for initial seal material screening and selection, especially for oxide fiber candidates. The findings of this research provide critical input to the seal design team.

  5. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ~3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  6. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  7. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Curtis, P.G.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel- and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron-absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. The stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on its chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high-chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. The results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  8. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved. PMID:25543146

  9. 11 CFR 100.148 - Volunteer activity for candidate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for exempt... costs of that candidate's campaign materials that include information on or any reference to a...

  10. 11 CFR 100.88 - Volunteer activity for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for exempt... the costs of that candidate's campaign materials that include information on or any reference to...

  11. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are <±0.06% of the certified values for CO2 and N2O and <0.2% for CH4, which represents the smallest relative uncertainties specified to date for a gaseous SRM produced by NIST. Agreement between the NOAA (WMO/GAW) and NIST values based on their respective calibration standards suites is within 0.05%, 0.13%, and 0.06% for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. This collaborative development effort also represents the first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST. PMID:26890890

  12. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2002-06-20

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB{sub 2} (a superconductor with T{sub c} = 39 K), B{sub 6}Si, B{sub 4}C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li{sub 12}Si{sub 7}, and Li{sub 7}Sn{sub 2}. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of {sup 10}B and {sup 6}Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lithium-based system. This project is concerned with the development of materials for use in a cryogenic neutron spectrometer and is complementary to work in progress by Labov at LLNL to develop a cryogenic gamma ray spectrometer. Refrigeration to 100 mK lowers the heat capacity of these materials to the point that the energy of absorbed gamma and x rays, nuclei scattered by fast neutrons, and ions from (n, {alpha}) reactions produce a measurable heat pulse, from which the energy of the incident radiation may be deduced. The objective of this project is the discovery, fabrication, and testing of candidate materials with which a cryogenic neutron spectrometer may be realized.

  13. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  14. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Environmental Protection.... Document number and name 40 CFR part 600 reference ASTM E 29-67 (Reapproved 1973) Standard Recommended... the U.S. and Canada), or at http://www.sae.org. Document No. and name 40 CFR part 600 reference...

  15. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Erosion Studies of EUVL Candidate Collector Mirror Materials in the Impact Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rokusek, D.L.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Nieto, M.

    2005-01-01

    The IMPACT (Interaction of Materials with charged Particles And Components Testing) experiment at Argonne National Laboratory was used to expose Pd, Ru, and Re-capped Ru candidate EUV light collector mirror materials to conditions similar to extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography source devices, in particular high-energy singly-charged Xe ions. Experiments measured both the time-dependent atomic surface concentration evolution of candidate single-layer mirror (SLM) samples and the Xe+-induced sputtering yield. Elemental surface information was acquired using low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and sputtering yields were acquired using an in-situ quartz crystal microbalance. Sputtering results show large erosion rates between 0.5 and up to 7.0 for Pd and Ru SLM samples for energies between 500 and 1000 eV of Xe+ irradiation at grazing incidence. Re-capped Ru SLM samples also demonstrated very high sputter yields. Time-dependent erosion rate measurements used with LEISS resulted in a high depth-resolution profile and led to the discovery of ion-induced recoil implantation of oxygen atoms to the Ru mirror surface. High concentration of oxygen throughout the Ru SLM may be detrimental to the reflectivity response of the collector mirror.

  17. W-Band Free Space Permittivity Measurement Setup for Candidate Radome Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Dion T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement system used for w-band complex permittivity measurements performed in NASA Langley Research Center's Electromagnetics Research Branch. The system was used to characterize candidate radome materials for the passive millimeter wave (PMMW) camera experiment. The PMMW camera is a new technology sensor, with goals of all-weather landings of civilian and military aircraft. The sensor is being developed under a NASA Technology Reinvestment program with TRW, McDonnell- Douglas, Honeywell, and Composite Optics, Inc. as participants. The experiment is scheduled to be flight tested on the Air Force's 'Speckled Trout' aircraft in late 1997. The camera operates at W-band, in a radiometric capacity and generates an image of the viewable field. Because the camera is a radiometer, the system is very sensitive to losses. Minimal transmission loss through the radome at the operating frequency, 89 GHz, was critical to the success of the experiment. This paper details the design, set-up, calibration and operation of a free space measurement system developed and used to characterize the candidate radome materials for this program.

  18. Candidate materials for high-strength fastener applications in both the aerospace and automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    There are many commercially available titanium alloys that have exhibited the capability of achieving high strength. Many of these alloys have not been seriously considered for fastener applications due to their cost or availability as coil or bar product. However, because new designs, increased material requirements, and larger aircraft are being built, the need to reduce weight and improve performance continues to be a major issue. The possibility of reducing weight by replacing currently used steel or Ni-based fasteners in various sizes is a great incentive. Over the past few years, many of these titanium alloys have been processed to bar and coil products to evaluate their capabilities as potential fastener materials. This article will review and summarize the mechanical properties, tensile, shear, notch tensile, and available fatigue, as well as the microstructure of these candidate alloys.

  19. Accelerator-Based PIXE and STIM Analysis of Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerman, W.A.; Stanaland, T.L.; Boudreaux, P.; Elberson, L.; Fontenot, J.; Gates, E.; Greco, R.; McBride, M.; Woodward, A.; Edwards, D.

    2003-08-26

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. A totally reflective sail experiences a pressure of 9.1 {mu}Pa at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. One of the current challenges is to develop strong, lightweight, and radiation resistant sail materials. This paper will discuss initial results from a Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) analysis of candidate solar sail materials.

  20. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the U.S... below: (b) ASTM. The following material is available from the American Society for Testing and Materials. Copies of these materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials,...

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  3. Selection and evaluation of inner material candidates for Spanish high level radioactive waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Francesc; Dies, Javier; Sevilla, Manuel; Pablo, Joan de; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Miralles, Lourdes; Martinez-Esparza, Aurora

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste canister for long term storage. The preliminary repository design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, corrosion allowing steel canisters and glass bead filling between the fuel assemblies and canister walls. This filling material will have the primary role of avoiding the possibility of a criticality event, which becomes an issue of major importance once the container is finally breached by corrosion and flooded by groundwater. In the first place, a complete set of requirements have been devised as evaluation criteria for candidate materials examination and selection; resulting in a compilation of demands significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other similar work found in literature, including over 20 requirements and some other general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Secondly, eight materials or material families (cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine) have been chosen and examined in detail, extracting some relevant conclusions. Either cast iron, borosilicate glass, spinel or depleted uranium are considered to look quite promising for the mentioned purpose. (authors)

  4. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  5. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51...://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S....

  6. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any.... Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ...

  7. [Reference ranges of 9 plasmatic proteins in Tunisian population based on the new IFCC reference material CRM 470].

    PubMed

    Znazen, Raja; Ben Ayed, Mourad; Gargouri, Jalel; Bel Hadj Hmida, Youssef; Kassis, Mondher; Damak, Jamel; Masmoudi, Hatem

    2003-04-01

    The interpretation of biological exam results requires the knowledge of physiological variation factors and reference values for every parameter. Following the preparation and the diffusion by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) of a new reference material for the dosage of plasmatic proteins (CRM470) and in order to take part in the international effort of standardization of these dosages, we established reference ranges in the tunisian population for 9 plasmatic proteins: the Immunoglobulines G, A and M, complement factors C3 and C4, albumin, transferrin, haptoglobin and the a 1-glycoprotéin acid. Our sample of 211 healthy blood donors aged between 18 and 63 years. Reference limits 0.95 that we obtained are located within variation of most reference values lately found in the literature. PMID:12848010

  8. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used. PMID:10676473

  9. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reference. (1) Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Standard 210/240-2003 published in 2003, “Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment,” IBR approved for § 431.96. (2) ARI Standard 340/360-2004, “Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat...

  11. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to...

  12. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... Test Methods for Single- and Three-Phase Small Motors, IBR approved for § 431.444. (2) (c) IEEE...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1)...

  13. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  14. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  15. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  16. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Fifth Edition, Approved March 26, 2009, IBR approved for § 430.2. (e) (f) ASHRAE. American Society of... Society of Mechanical Engineers, Service Center, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 07007,...

  17. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane,...

  18. 10 CFR 435.3 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performance standard listed in paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR Part 435 subpart A. The Director of... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Any subsequent amendment to....gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html (2) U.S. Department of...

  19. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1)...

  20. A Bibliography of Reference Materials for Evaluating Foreign Student Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefling, Robert, Ed.

    The Academic Advisory Staff (AAS) of the Office of International Training (OIT), Agency for International Development (AID) analyzes and interprets the academic credentials of AID participants from cooperating countries in terms of the educational system of the U. S. To carry out this service the AAS has developed a library of reference materials…

  1. An Annotated Bibliography of Day Care Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif, Nadine

    This annotated bibliography contains day care reference sources available through ERIC. Specific contents are: (1) After School Care; (2) Analysis; (3) Analysis, Cost; (4) Bibliographies; (5) Comprehensive Programs; (6) Community-Coordinated Child Care; (7) Demonstration Centers; (8) Programs for the Disadvantaged; (9) Effects of Day Care; (10)…

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  3. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Shiba, Kiyoyuki

    1994-12-31

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 or 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the test temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging than at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. Ferritic-martensitic steels are embrittled by the irradiation, and show the lowest toughness at room temperature.

  4. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technology candidates for the 1980's, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, R. E.; Maertins, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cost/benefit analyses to evaluate advanced material technologies projects considered for general aviation and turboprop commuter aircraft through estimated life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and development costs are discussed. Specifically addressed is the selection of technologies to be evaluated; development of property goals; assessment of candidate technologies on typical engines and aircraft; sensitivity analysis of the changes in property goals on performance and economics, cost, and risk analysis for each technology; and ranking of each technology by relative value. The cost/benefit analysis was applied to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business-type jet aircraft configured with two TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business type turboprop aircraft configured with two TPE331-10 turboprop engines. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was applied to a commercial turboprop aircraft configured with a growth version of the TPE331-10.

  5. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Thermo-Optical and Mechanical Property Testing of Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollerman, WIlliam A.; Stanaland, T. L.; Womack, F.; Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Semmel, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra-lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. Solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic front layer, a thin polymeric substrate, and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate sails to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to electrons. This poster will discuss the preliminary results of this research.

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  9. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  10. Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables.

  11. A Multimedia Reference Listing of Materials on Drug Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This multimedia resource guide provides a listing of various materials on drug education. The materials listed include the following: advertisements; charts; editorials; posters; audio and video tapes; audiovisual catalogs; bibliographies; books; drug education kits; essays; film reviews; films; filmstrips; general articles; pamphlets and…

  12. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a... Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (610)...

  15. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a..._federal_ regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at...

  16. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This material is also available for inspection at...

  17. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. ECUT energy data reference series: lightweight materials for ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  19. ECUT energy data reference series: Lightweight materials for ground transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarcar, R. B.; Hane, G. J.; Johnson, D. R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  20. Evaluation of C/C-SiC Composites as Potential Candidate Materials for High Performance Braking Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat

    2016-05-01

    This paper is aimed at evaluating the characteristic and performance of C/C-SiC composites as potential candidate materials for high performance braking system. A set of material specifications had been derived from specific engineering design requirements. Analysis was performed by formulating the function(s), constraint(s), and objective(s) of design and materials selection. Function of a friction material is chiefly to provide friction, absorb and dissipate energy. It is done while withstanding load and maintaining the structural adequacy and characteristic of tribology at high temperature. Objective of the material selection and design is to maximize the absorption and dissipation of energy and to minimize weight and cost. Candidate materials were evaluated based on their friction and wear, thermal capacity and conductivity, structural properties, manufacturing properties, and densities. The present paper provides a state of the art example on how materials - function - geometry - design, are all interrelated.

  1. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  2. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  3. Evaluations of candidate encapsulation designs and materials for low-cost silicon photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.; Sliemers, F. A.; Brockway, M. C.; Bunk, A. R.; Nance, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    Three encapsulation designs for silicon photovoltaic arrays based on cells with silk-screened Ag metallization have been evaluated: transparent polymeric coatings over cells laminated between two films or sheets of polymeric materials; cells adhesively bonded to a glass cover with a polymer pottant and a glass or other substrate component. Silicone and acrylic coatings were assessed, together with acrylic sheet, 0.635 mm fiberglass-reinforced polyester sheet, 0.102 mm polycarbonate/acrylic dual-layer film, 0.127 mm fluorocarbon film, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, low-iron glass, and several adhesives. The encapsulation materials were characterized by light transmittance measurements, determination of moisture barrier properties and bond strengths, and by the performance of cells before and after encapsulation. Silicon and acrylic coatings provided inadequate protection. Acrylic and fluorocarbon films displayed good weatherability and acceptable optical transmittance. Borosilicate, low-iron and soda-lime-float glasses were found to be acceptable candidate encapsulants for most environments.

  4. Reference data for thermocouple materials below the ice point.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, L. L.; Powell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Standard thermoelectric data have been determined for four thermocouple combinations used below the ice point: commercial types E, K, and T and the special combination of KP vs Au-0.07 at.% Fe. Power series coefficients necessary to generate E = f(T) data for these combinations are given. In addition, extensive tests were carried out to ascertain the variability between materials from different manufacturers. Typical wires processed for low-temperature usage often have slightly thermoelectric properties (up to 1%) from those, nominally identical, wires made for high-temperature applications. Generally, type E is the most satisfactory standardized commercial combination. The Au-0.07 at.% Fe material has been examined in particular detail, because it is not yet an ISA standard material. It has excellent sensitivity in the liquid helium/liquid hydrogen temperature range and a nearly linear thermovoltage at higher temperatures.

  5. Homogeneity and stability studies during the preparation of a laboratory reference material of soy leaves for the determination of metals.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Ana M P; Lima, Daniel C; de Jesus, Robson M; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2011-01-01

    The homogeneity and stability of metals were tested in a candidate laboratory reference material of soy leaves. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to quantify calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and vanadium. A 6 kg amount of the material, which was dried, ground, and classified as mesh 60, was distributed among 100 bottles. The between-bottle homogeneity test was established by analyzing two subsamples from nine bottles. For the within-bottle test, five determinations of each element of a single bottle were performed. The stability test was performed at temperatures of -10, +27, and +40 degrees C, and after storage times of 4, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. The obtained results indicated that the material was homogeneous and stable under the conditions studied. PMID:22320099

  6. 40 CFR 1045.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.810 What materials does this part reference?...

  7. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...

  8. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...

  9. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3...

  10. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for §...

  11. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for §...

  12. Collective Bargaining for Public Managers (State and Local): Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Labor Relations Training Center.

    The book contain pertinent articles on various subjects related to collective bargaining. It was developed and the materials specially written for use by instructors in a collective bargaining course designed to assist public sector managers in attaining a stable and productive labor relations environment. Each article has been keyed to the…

  13. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  14. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  15. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  16. Household Hazardous Materials and Their Labels: A Reference for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Lillian F.

    Household hazardous materials are products or wastes which are toxic, corrosive, reactive, and/or ignitable. Although common products such as pesticides, oils, gasoline, solvents, cleaners, and polishes are hazardous, students and adults are not always aware of potential dangers. This sourcebook contains definitions and examples of household…

  17. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... assembly drawing SA-150 M060, revision A, titled “Pelvis and Abdomen Assembly,” dated May 18, 1994....

  18. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S... http://www.ari.org/std/standards.html: (1) ARI Standard 1200-2006, Performance Rating of...

  19. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  20. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  1. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  4. SAND SPIKED WITH COPPER AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT MATERIAL FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTING: A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Routine use of solid-phase sediment toxicity tests for scientific and regulatory purposes necessitates the development of solid-phase reference toxicant materials. n order to evaluate an approach for developing such materials, 12 solid-phase 96-h reference toxicant tests were con...

  5. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part.... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box...

  6. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part.... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box...

  7. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  8. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL−1; (iii) 3 mg⋅mL−1; and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL−1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL−1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  9. Friction and Wear Characteristics of Candidate Foil Bearing Materials from 25 C to 800 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Laskowski, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of unlubricated metal/metal sliding couples was investigated to screen potential candidates for high temperature foil bearings. The tribo-tests were run in an induction-heated high temperature pin-on-disk tribometer in an air atmosphere at a load of 4.9 N and at a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. The friction and wear properties of several nickel based alloys (Rene'41, Inconel X-750, Inconel 713C), iron based alloys (MA956 and Inconel 909) and a ceramic (Al2O3) were tested at 25, 500, and 800 C. In general, at elevated temperatures the alloys oxidized and formed a tenacious and lubricous oxide surface film or layer. At 800 C, Inconel X-750 versus Rene'41 had the lowest friction coefficient (0.27) and at 500 C, Inconel X-750 versus Inconel 909 the lowest pin wear (2.84 x 10(exp -6)cu mm/N-m). Gouging and severe wear of the softer material occurred whenever a significant difference in hardness existed between the pin and disk specimens.

  10. Relative sliding durability of two candidate high temperature oxide fiber seal materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    A test program to determine the relative sliding durability of two candidate ceramic fibers for high temperature sliding seal applications is described. Pin on disk tests were used to evaluate potential seal materials. Friction during the tests and fiber wear, indicated by the extent of fibers broken in a test bundle or yarn, was measured at the end of a test. In general, friction and wear increase with test temperature. This may be due to a reduction in fiber strength, a change in the surface chemistry at the fiber/counterface interface due to oxidation, adsorption and/or desorption of surface species and, to a lesser extent, an increase in counterface surface roughness due to oxidation at elevated temperatures. The relative fiber durability correlates with tensile strength indicating that tensile data, which is more readily available than sliding durability data, may be useful in predicting fiber wear behavior under various conditions. A simple model developed using dimensional analysis shows that the fiber durability is related to a dimensionless parameter which represents the ratio of the fiber strength to the fiber stresses imposed by sliding.

  11. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

  12. Reference materials and intercomparison samples available from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, E.J.; Laska, P.R.

    1985-06-01

    Reference materials and intercomparison samples may be obtained by laboratories involved in the analysis of environmental samples containing radioactivity, pesticides, toxic inorganic species, or toxic organic species. These reference materials and intercomparison samples are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Quality Assurance Division located at the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). These materials are useful for incorporation into a laboratory's quality control program for the evaluation of the precision and accuracy of analytical work. Media used for radiation reference materials are pitchblende, Monazite ore, uranium mill tailings, Mancos shale, fly ash, and water spiked with radionuclides. Radioactivity intercomparison samples consist of water, milk, air, urine, and a simulated diet slurry spiked with radionuclides. Media available for toxic organic reference materials are sludge, shale oil, and rag oil, and for intercomparison samples are soil and water. Characterized fly ash, foundry sludge, and river sediment serve as reference materials for toxic inorganics, while spiked soil and water serve as intercomparison samples. Finally, spiked adipose tissue, blood plasma, urine, and water comprise the pesticide intercomparison samples, and, after the disclosure of the true pesticide compositions and concentrations of these samples, the laboratory can use the samples as reference materials. The reference materials are generally available continuously, but the intercomparison samples are distributed on a scheduled basis and in some cases only to certain laboratories. 9 tables.

  13. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  14. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9N, 2.7ms) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via a secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed in these

  15. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the US Government`s Certifying Authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. Environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, difficulties in transporting nuclear materials, and International factors, including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection of excess US nuclear materials, are all contributing influences. During these changing times, ft is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  16. Candidate qRT-PCR reference genes for barley that demonstrate better stability than traditional housekeeping genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transcript expression analysis is a useful tool for correlating gene activity with plant phenotype. For these studies, an appropriate reference gene is necessary to quantify the expression of target genes. Classic housekeeping genes have often been used for this purpose, but may not be consis...

  17. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  18. Expression Stabilities of Candidate Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) under a Variety of Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Jiaodi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Mengjun

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for evaluating patterns of gene expression. Jujube whole-genome sequencing has been completed, and analysis of gene function, an important part of any follow-up study, requires the appropriate selection of reference genes. Indeed, suitable reference gene selection for RT-qPCR is critical for accurate normalization of target gene expression. In this study, the software packages geNorm and NormFinder were employed to examine the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes under a variety of conditions. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ACT1), Histone-H3 (His3), and Polyadenylate-binding protein-interacting protein (PAIP) were determined to be the most stably expressed genes during five stages of fruit development and ACT1, SiR-Fd, BTF3, and Tubulin alpha chain (TUA) across different tissues/organs. Whereas ACT1, Basic Transcription factor 3 (BTF3), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), and PAIP were the most stable under dark conditions. ACT1, PAIP, BTF3, and Elongation factor 1- gamma (EF1γ) were the most stably expressed genes under phytoplasma infection. Among these genes, SiR-Fd and PAIP are here first reported as stable reference genes. When normalized using these most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of four target genes were found to be in accordance with physiological data, indicating that the reference genes selected in our study are suitable for use in such analyses. This study provides appropriate reference genes and corresponding primers for further RT-qPCR studies in Chinese jujube and emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under variable experimental conditions. PMID:27116123

  19. Expression Stabilities of Candidate Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) under a Variety of Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bu, Jiaodi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Mengjun

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for evaluating patterns of gene expression. Jujube whole-genome sequencing has been completed, and analysis of gene function, an important part of any follow-up study, requires the appropriate selection of reference genes. Indeed, suitable reference gene selection for RT-qPCR is critical for accurate normalization of target gene expression. In this study, the software packages geNorm and NormFinder were employed to examine the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes under a variety of conditions. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ACT1), Histone-H3 (His3), and Polyadenylate-binding protein-interacting protein (PAIP) were determined to be the most stably expressed genes during five stages of fruit development and ACT1, SiR-Fd, BTF3, and Tubulin alpha chain (TUA) across different tissues/organs. Whereas ACT1, Basic Transcription factor 3 (BTF3), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), and PAIP were the most stable under dark conditions. ACT1, PAIP, BTF3, and Elongation factor 1- gamma (EF1γ) were the most stably expressed genes under phytoplasma infection. Among these genes, SiR-Fd and PAIP are here first reported as stable reference genes. When normalized using these most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of four target genes were found to be in accordance with physiological data, indicating that the reference genes selected in our study are suitable for use in such analyses. This study provides appropriate reference genes and corresponding primers for further RT-qPCR studies in Chinese jujube and emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under variable experimental conditions. PMID:27116123

  20. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  1. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  2. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the U.S. Government`s certifying authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. New challenges include: environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, and difficulties in transporting nuclear materials and international factors, including IAEA influences. During these changing times, it is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  3. Reference Materials for Secondary School Library Media Centers. Library Resources #2 [and] Selected Bibliography of Elementary Reference Materials. Library Resources #25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Bettie

    These two annotated bibliographies list reference materials for the secondary school and elementary school levels. Each bibliography contains entries arranged alphabetically by title under Dewey Decimal Classification headings, i.e., 000s through 900s. Entries consist of the title, author/published, publication date, and cost; elementary-level…

  4. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  5. Towards a Fundamental Astrometric Reference System behind the Magellanic Clouds: Spectroscopic Confirmation of New Quasar Candidates Selected in the Near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. D.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Bekki, K.; de Grijs, R.; Emerson, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Kamath, D.; van Loon, J. Th.; Piatti, A. E.; For, B.-Q.

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-stellar objects (quasars) located behind nearby galaxies provide an excellent absolute reference system for astrometric studies, but they are difficult to identify because of fore- and background contamination. We have embarked on a programme to expand the quasar reference system behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Magellanic Bridge and Magellanic Stream. Hundreds of quasar candidates were selected, based on their near-infrared colours and variability properties from the ESO VISTA Magellanic Clouds (VMC) Public Survey. A subset of 49 objects was followed up with optical spectroscopy with FORS2. We confirmed the quasar nature of 37 objects (34 new identifications) that span a redshift range from z ~ 0.5 to 4.1.

  6. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  7. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  8. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (PRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALYTICAL REFERENCE MATERIALS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA programs in pesticides, toxics, and hazardous waste require analytical reference materials. This project emphasized the collection of and analysis of urine, fat, and blood for ultimate use as reference samples. Another objective of the project concerned the practicality of us...

  9. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and 2 carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more ana...

  10. Evaluation of glucoiberin reference material from Iberis amara by spectroscopic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Jaki, Birgit; Sticher, Otto; Veit, Markus; Fröhlich, Roland; Pauli, Guido F

    2002-04-01

    Increasing worldwide regulations require increased efforts toward validation of analytical and pharmacological reference materials. A detailed survey of glucoiberin, a prototype lead constituent of therapeutic value, using 1D/2D NMR, MS, and X-ray spectroscopy provided precise phytochemical data for structure assignment. Quantitative reference validation was achieved by the recently proposed qNMR method. PMID:11975492

  11. Optical Constants of Mars Candidate Materials used to Model Laboratory Reflectance Spectra of Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Brown, Adrian Jon; Blake, D.; Bristow, T.

    2014-01-01

    Data obtained at visible and nearinfrared wavelengths by OMEGA on MarsExpress and CRISM on MRO provide definitive evidence for the presence of phyllosilicates and other hydrated phases on Mars. A diverse range of both Fe/Mg-OH and Al- OH-bearing phyllosilicates were identified including the smectites nontronite, saponite, and montmorillonite. To constrain the abundances of these phyllosilicates, spectral analyses of mixtures are needed. We report on our effort to enable the quantitative evaluation of the abundance of hydrated-hydroxylated silicates when they are contained in mixtures. Here we focus on two component mixtures of the hydrated/ hydroxylated silicates, saponite and montmorillonite (Mg- and Al-rich smectites) with each other and with two analogs for other Martian materials; pyroxene (enstatite) and palagonitic soil (an alteration product of basaltic glass, hereafter referred to as palagonite). We prepared three size separates of each end-member for study: 20-45, 63-90, and 125-150 micron. Here we focus upon mixtures of the 63-90 m size fractions.

  12. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers; Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview.

  13. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  14. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  15. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  16. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  17. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  19. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  20. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  1. Soiled-based uranium disequilibrium and mixed uranium-thorium series radionuclide reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology has assigned the Technical Measurements Center (TMC), located at the DOE Grand Junction Colorado, Projects Office and operated by UNC Geotech (UNC), the task of supporting ongoing remedial action programs by providing both technical guidance and assistance in making the various measurements required in all phases of remedial action work. Pursuant to this task, the Technical Measurements Center prepared two sets of radionuclide reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. A total of six reference materials, two sets comprising three reference materials each, were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides using mill tailings materials, ores, and a river-bottom soil diluent. One set (disequilibrium set) contains varying amounts of uranium with nominal amounts of radium-226. The other set (mixed-nuclide set) contains varying amounts of uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series nuclides. 14 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. Characterization of high-fired PuO/sub 2/ as a certified reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Legeled, M.A.; Cacic, C.G.; Crawford, D.W.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1984-07-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), U.S. Department of Energy, has certified a plutonium dioxide reference material, CRM 122, for plutonium assay and isotopic composition. The PuO/sub 2/ standard, one of several certified Pu reference materials currently being developed at NBL for use in instrumentation calibration and measurement control for safeguards, establishes traceability to the national measurement base. This plutonium reference material in the oxide form provides more directly demonstrable traceability than metal because it undergoes the same chemical treatment for dissolution as PuO/sub 2/ fuel materials. Various tests for achieving a constant weight and for dissolving CRM 122 high-fired PuO/sub 2/ were conducted. Results of these tests as well as the certification data generated by controlled-potential coulometry for plutonium assay and by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic composition will also be presented and discussed.

  3. NBS/EPA (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: STATUS REPORT 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A traceability procedure has been established which allows specialty gas producers to prepare gaseous pollutant Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The accuracy, stability and homogeneity of the CRMs approach those of NBS Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Part of this proced...

  4. NBS/EPA (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A traceability procedure has been established which allows specialty gas producers to prepare gaseous pollutant Certified Reference Materials (CRM's). The accuracy, stability and homogeneity of the CRM's approach those of NBS Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). As of October 19...

  5. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k0-NAA and ICP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniël; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-08-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis ( k0-NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k0-NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF.

  6. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of polymeric standard reference materials for monitoring the performance of X-ray photoelectron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Brian R.

    1991-04-01

    The use of standard reference materials is a common practice in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA). Recently, several polymeric standard reference materials have become available for monitoring various performance aspects of ESCA spectrometers. These reference materials include polyethylene (PE), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and dimethyl silicon (DMS). The advantages and disadvantages encountered when using these materials as standards were investigated in this study. Results indicated that PEG, PTFE and DMS are useful standards for checking or determining relative elemental sensitivity factors for C, O, F and/or Si. These three materials can also be used for monitoring the linearity and stability of the instrumental binding energy scale. However, in general, metallic standards such as gold, silver and/or copper are superior to the polymeric standards for this purpose, because their photoelectron lines cover a wider binding energy range and their respective peak positions are much better known. Although PE exhibits a fairly narrow C1s line that can be used to monitor variations in the instrumental energy resolution, the FWHM observed for the C1s line is much broader that the FWHM values obtained from the appropriate lines of sputtered-cleaned metals. Results also indicated that the use of PTFE as a standard reference material must be done with caution, because PTFE readily degrades with time under X-ray exposure.

  8. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Maerschalk, Claude; Barling, Jane; de Jong, Jeroen; Williams, Gwen A.; Hanano, Diane; Pretorius, Wilma; Mattielli, Nadine; Scoates, James S.; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Friedman, Richard M.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2006-08-01

    The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at the University of British Columbia has undertaken a systematic analysis of the isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions and concentrations of a broad compositional range of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, including basalt (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2), andesite (AGV-1, 2), rhyolite (RGM-1, 2), syenite (STM-1, 2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2, 3). USGS rock reference materials are geochemically well characterized, but there is neither a systematic methodology nor a database for radiogenic isotopic compositions, even for the widely used BCR-1. This investigation represents the first comprehensive, systematic analysis of the isotopic composition and concentration of USGS reference materials and provides an important database for the isotopic community. In addition, the range of equipment at the PCIGR, including a Nu Instruments Plasma MC-ICP-MS, a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS, and a Thermo Finnigan Element2 HR-ICP-MS, permits an assessment and comparison of the precision and accuracy of isotopic analyses determined by both the TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods (e.g., Nd isotopic compositions). For each of the reference materials, 5 to 10 complete replicate analyses provide coherent isotopic results, all with external precision below 30 ppm (2 SD) for Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (27 and 24 ppm for TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively). Our results also show that the first- and second-generation USGS reference materials have homogeneous Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS agree to within 15 ppm for all reference materials. Interlaboratory MC-ICP-MS comparisons show excellent agreement for Pb isotopic compositions; however, the reproducibility is not as good as for Sr and Nd. A careful, sequential leaching experiment of three first- and second-generation reference materials (BCR, BHVO, AGV) indicates that the heterogeneity in Pb isotopic compositions

  9. CD Reference Materials Fabricated on Monolithic 200 mm Wafers for Automated Metrology Tool Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Guthrie, William F.; Shulver, Byron J. R.; Bunting, A. S.; Stevenson, J. T. M.; Walton, Anthony J.

    2007-09-01

    Recently, prototype isolated-line, single-crystal critical dimension (CD) reference materials (SCCDRMs) with linewidths as narrow as 40 nm±1.5 nm have been reported. These reference materials, designated NIST Prototype Reference Material (RM) 8111, were configured as 10 mm by 11 mm silicon test chips mounted in 200 mm carrier wafers. The RM 8111 chips were fabricated using microelectromechanical (MEMS) process techniques, which assure the alignment of the sidewalls of the features to silicon (111) lattice planes, and were calibrated in a sequence involving atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) metrology. This paper reports initial results on SCCDRMs fabricated on 200 mm bulk wafers; this monolithic approach would eliminate the need for carrier wafers.

  10. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  11. Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for Genetic Testing: Focus on Public Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Lisa V; Datta, Vivekananda; Williams, Mickey; Zook, Justin M; Salit, Marc L; Han, Jin Yeong

    2016-11-01

    Characterized reference materials (RMs) are needed for clinical laboratory test development and validation, quality control procedures, and proficiency testing to assure their quality. In this article, we review the development and characterization of RMs for clinical molecular genetic tests. We describe various types of RMs and how to access and utilize them, especially focusing on the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (Get-RM) and the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) Consortium. This review also reinforces the need for collaborative efforts in the clinical genetic testing community to develop additional RMs. PMID:27578503

  12. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  13. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stéphane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterisation of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots. This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a 'reference material' (ISO Guide 30:2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of 'representative test material' (ISO TS 16195:2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to representative test material or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use.

  14. Candidate targets for Multilocus Sequence Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi: validation using parasite stocks from the Chaco Region and a set of reference strains.

    PubMed

    Lauthier, Juan J; Tomasini, Nicolás; Barnabé, Christian; Rumi, María M Monje; D'Amato, Anahí M Alberti; Ragone, Paula G; Yeo, Matthew; Lewis, Michael D; Llewellyn, Martin S; Basombrío, Miguel A; Miles, Michael A; Tibayrenc, Michel; Diosque, Patricio

    2012-03-01

    A Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme was designed and applied to a set of 20 Trypanosoma cruzi stocks belonging to three main discrete typing units (T. cruzi I, V and VI) from a geographically restricted Chagas disease endemic area in Argentina, 12 reference strains comprising two from each of the six main discrete typing units of the parasite (T. cruzi I-VI), and one T. cruzi marinkellei strain. DNA fragments (≅400-bp) from 10 housekeeping genes were sequenced. A total of 4178 bp were analyzed for each stock. In all, 154 polymorphic sites were identified. Ninety-five sites were heterozygous in at least one analyzed stock. Seventeen diploid sequence types were identified from 32 studied T. cruzi stocks (including the reference strains). All stocks were correctly assigned to their corresponding discrete typing units. We propose this MLST scheme as provisional, with scope for improvement by studying new gene targets on a more diverse sample of stocks, in order to define an optimized MLST scheme for T. cruzi. This approach is an excellent candidate to become the gold standard for T. cruzi genetic typing. We suggest that MLST will have a strong impact on molecular epidemiological studies of Chagas disease and the phylogenetics of its causative agent. PMID:22210092

  15. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  16. Assessment of international reference materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the number of international measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic reference materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic reference materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary international measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.

  17. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Candidate Materials for PAIDAE Inflatable Aeroshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Liles, Kaitlin A.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The Program to Advance Inflatable-Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is a NASA project tasked with developing and evaluating viable inflatable-decelerator aeroshell geometries and materials. Thermal analysis of material layups supporting an inflatable aeroshell was completed in order to identify expected material response, failure times, and to establish an experimental test matrix to keep barrier layer materials from reaching critical temperature limits during thermal soak. Material layups were then tested in the 8- foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT), where they were subjected to hypersonic aerothermal heating conditions, similar to those expected for a Mars entry. This paper presents a broad overview of the thermal analysis supporting multiple materials, and layup configurations tested in the 8'HTT at flight conditions similar to those that would be experienced during Mars entry trajectories. Direct comparison of TPS samples tested in the 8'HTT verify that the thermal model accurately predicted temperature profiles when there are up to four materials in the test layup. As the number of material layers in each test layup increase (greater than 4), the accuracy of the prediction decreases significantly. The inaccuracy of the model predictions for layups with more than four material layers is believed to be a result of the contact resistance values used throughout the model being inaccurate. In addition, the harsh environment of the 8'HTT, including hot gas penetrating through the material layers, could also be a contributing factor.

  18. Development and certification of green tea-containing standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Bedner, M; Tims, M C; Yen, J H; Duewer, D L; Porter, B; Christopher, S J; Day, R D; Long, S E; Molloy, J L; Murphy, K E; Lang, B E; Lieberman, R; Wood, L J; Payne, M J; Roman, M C; Betz, J M; NguyenPho, A; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A

    2012-01-01

    A suite of three green tea-containing Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 3254 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Leaves, SRM 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract, and SRM 3256 Green Tea-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. The materials are characterized for catechins, xanthine alkaloids, theanine, and toxic elements. As many as five methods were used in assigning certified and reference values to the constituents, with measurements carried out at NIST and at collaborating laboratories. The materials are intended for use in the development and validation of new analytical methods, and for use as control materials as a component in the support of claims of metrological traceability. PMID:22127575

  19. GeoReM: A new Geochemical Database for Reference Materials and Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Nohl, U.; Herwig, K.; Lammel, E.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a new geochemical database GeoReM (http://georem.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de) for reference materials and standards. Reference samples include amongst others USGS, GSJ, GIT-IWG rock powders, synthetic and natural NIST, USGS, MPI-DING reference glasses, mineral standards (e.g., 91500 zircon), isotope standards (e.g., LaJolla, E&A, NIST SRM 981), river water and seawater. GeoReM complements the GEOROC, NavDAT and PetDB databases. GeoReM is a relational database, which strongly follows the concept of the three EARTHCHEM databases [1]. It contains published analytical and compilation values (major and trace element concentrations, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios), important metadata about the analytical values, such as uncertainty, uncertainty type, method and laboratory. Sample information and references are also included. Three different queries are possible: (1) Sample names or materials, (2) Chemical criteria, and (3) Bibliography. Querying by sample names the database provides ranges of published data for concentrations and isotope ratios. To get more detailed information, all primary data and metadata can be shown and downloaded. It is also possible to query by material type (powder, glass, solution, mineral, gas, metal) and material (e.g., basalt, komatiite, seawater). To query by chemistry, element concentrations and isotope ratios can be selected. As a result, a list of suitable reference materials fulfilling all selected chemical criteria is shown. Now it is possible to choose one or more samples. The database provides tables with all analytical data for these samples or data only for the selected items. Furthermore, the number of analytical data can be reduced by selecting one or more materials, material types and/or methods. Four bibliographic queries are possible, by author or coauthor(s), journal, keywords, and by GeoReM number. The GeoReM number, which unambiguously assigns to the reference, may be useful for citation purposes. GeoReM now

  20. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  1. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  2. 11 CFR 109.23 - Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., distribution, or republication of campaign materials is a coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.21 or a party coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.37. (b) Exceptions. The following uses of campaign... under 11 CFR 100.73 or 11 CFR 100.132; (4) The campaign material used consists of a brief quote...

  3. 11 CFR 109.23 - Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., distribution, or republication of campaign materials is a coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.21 or a party coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.37. (b) Exceptions. The following uses of campaign... under 11 CFR 100.73 or 11 CFR 100.132; (4) The campaign material used consists of a brief quote...

  4. 11 CFR 109.23 - Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disseminated, distributed, or republished in a news story, commentary, or editorial exempted under 11 CFR 100..., or republication of campaign materials is a coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.21 or a party coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.37. (b) Exceptions. The following uses of campaign materials do...

  5. 11 CFR 109.23 - Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., distribution, or republication of campaign materials is a coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.21 or a party coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.37. (b) Exceptions. The following uses of campaign... under 11 CFR 100.73 or 11 CFR 100.132; (4) The campaign material used consists of a brief quote...

  6. 11 CFR 109.23 - Dissemination, distribution, or republication of candidate campaign materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 11 CFR 100.73 or 11 CFR 100.132; (4) The campaign material used consists of a brief quote of..., distribution, or republication of campaign materials is a coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.21 or a party coordinated communication under 11 CFR 109.37. (b) Exceptions. The following uses of...

  7. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials FY 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Xie, YuLong; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    This annual report presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Dr. Fei Gao. This project is divided into three tasks, namely (1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; (2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and (3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonlinearity, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the findings and insights obtained in each of these three tasks are provided in this report. Additionally, papers published this fiscal year or currently in review are included in Appendix together with presentations given this fiscal year.

  9. Use of gelatin gels as a reference material for performance evaluation of meat shear force measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing standards for meat tenderness based on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) is complicated by the lack of methods for certifying WBSF testing among texture systems or laboratories. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of using gelatin gels as a reference material ...

  10. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  11. Field-Tested Reference Materials: A Survey of What Has Worked Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brenda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 33 reference items--including several CD-ROM products--published during 1991-92 that were recommended by librarians. Materials are listed in the following areas: general works; business, science, and technology; fine arts; history and genealogy; medicine and health; and social sciences and humanities. A…

  12. [Effect of emotional content and self reference of learning materials on recall performance].

    PubMed

    Spies, K

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that high affective value and high self-reference of learning material help to improve memory performance as these factors allow better memory consolidation (activation hypothesis) or better integration of the new material into existing knowledge structures (extent-of-processing hypothesis). To test this assumption, 60 subjects were shown 16 short advertising films characterized by low vs. high affective value and low vs. high self-reference. Both factors were varied within subjects. After the films had each been presented twice, subjects had to recall the product names and answer two questions to each film. Results showed for both dependent variables that films with high affective values were better remembered than films with low affective values. The same held true--though to a lower extent--with respect to self-reference. According to the expected linear trend, performance was best for material scoring high on affective value as well as on self-reference, while it was worst for material scoring low on both factors. PMID:7754642

  13. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  14. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENTS IN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of analytical data and have been used extensively in the USDA's ongoing National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP), which generates contract analytical food composition data for inclusion in the USDA Nation...

  15. New matrix-free reference material for ethene in the form of optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Słomińska, Marta; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    Reference materials are indispensable in the quality control and quality assurance of analytical measurements. One novel approach to the generation of standard gaseous mixtures of toxic, reactive, volatile, labile, and malodorous substances involves thermal decomposition or rearrangement, under defined temperature conditions, of compounds immobilized, by chemical bonding, on the surface of an appropriate carrier to release specific amounts of a volatile compound. In this technique the type of support used to immobilize the compound is extremely important, because the amount of analyte released depends directly on the choice of material. In this paper we report the novel preparation of a matrix-free ethene standard in the form of glass fibres coated with a thin layer of aluminium, the surface of which is modified by reaction with a specific compound. As a result of thermal decomposition of this compound, gaseous ethene is formed. In this paper we present the results obtained from tests of stability and homogeneity, two properties of crucial importance in the preparation of reference materials, by comparison of a series of results obtained for randomly chosen samples of the reference material. Interlaboratory comparative studies resulted in determination of a reference value for the ethene formed after thermal decomposition of the surface compound ((2.12 ± 0.14) ng per fibre). PMID:23239177

  16. URBAN AEROSOL ACIDS: ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL 1649

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air particulate matter, collected from Washington, D.C. and certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as Standard Reference Material 1649, was extracted and fractionated into acid, base and neutral fractions. ach fraction was tested for biologic...

  17. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section lists... Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to §...

  18. DIRECT CALIBRATION OF GC/MS SYSTEMS USING SRM (STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL) GAS CYLINDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cryogenic trapping system has been developed for use in calibrating GC/MS systems for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. This system provides for direct Standard Reference Material (SRM) traceability on data generated on gaseous samples. The cryogenic trap is a coil of...

  19. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section...

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are available to ship freight? (a) The following is a partial list of handbooks and guides available from...

  1. Reference Materials for Food and Nutrition Metrology: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970’s the first “biological” RM of Bowens Kale, as well as Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver SRMs, from the ...

  2. UPDATED ESTIMATES OF THE SELENOMETHIONINE CONTENTS OF NIST WHEAT REFERENCE MATERIALS BY GC-IDMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Updated estimates of the selenomethionine contents of four NIST wheat reference materials have been obtained using a revised gas chromatography-stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry method. The revised method makes use of digestion with methanesulfonic acid, providing a more complete accounting ...

  3. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  4. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90{degrees}C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys.

  5. An Annotated Bibliography of Reference Materials for Use in a Junior-Senior High School Library Media Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitely, Faye McConnell

    Designed to assist the librarian and/or teacher by serving as a checklist for a basic collection of reference materials, this annotated bibliography presents a list of reference sources that are appropriate for Alabama students in grades 7 through 12. The reference materials are intended to support the curriculum of a comprehensive public…

  6. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    PubMed Central

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a “reference material” (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of “representative test material (RTM)” (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use. PMID:26539428

  7. Status of candidate materials for full-scale tests in the 737 fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supkis, D.

    1979-01-01

    The test program has the objectives to: (1) increase passenger evacuation time to a minimum of five minutes from commercial aircraft in case of a fire; (2) prevent an external fire from entering closed cabins for five minutes by using fire barrier materials in the exterior wall; (3) demonstrate that a closed cabin will not reach 400 F; and (4) prove that a fire near a cabin opening will not propagate through the cabin for a minimum of five minutes. The materials status is outlined for seat cushions, upholstery and associated seat materials, wall and ceiling panels, floor panels, carpet and carpet underlay, windows, cargo bay liners, insulation bagging, and thermal acoustical insulation.

  8. Evaluation of New Geological Reference Materials for U-Series Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Nunn, A. J.; Ui Chearnaigh, K.; Amato, R.; Murrell, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium-series analytical measurements are widely used in geochemistry, geochronology, paleoclimatology, volcanology, environmental risk assessment and other fields. Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques e.g. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS present numerous opportunities for the geoanalytical community. As with other analytical techniques, the quality of the elemental concentration and isotopic data obtained through microanalytical techniques is dependent on the accurate characterization of suitable reference materials. Even for the case of fs-laser ablation applications, a range of well-characterized standards are required for high precision U-series work. Advances have been made in evaluating existing standard reference materials for U-series isotopic analysis, but this work is ongoing as more reference materials become available. In this study we present MC-TIMS and MC-ICP-MS results for uranium and thorium isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations measured in a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of chemical compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite and a soil. U concentrations for these glasses range from ≈2 to 14 μg/g and [Th]/[U] ratios range from ≈4 to 6. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data will also be presented for rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru, which can be used as a rhyolitic reference material. These high-precision and high-accuracy ratios, from a suite of standards that exhibit a range of natural, non-basaltic compositions, will complement data from existing standards and expand the catalogue of reference materials that are appropriate for in situ U-series work. These results can be used to assess the performance of microanalytical techniques and will facilitate inter-laboratory comparison of data within the broader geoscience community.

  9. The electrical conductivities of candidate beam-waveguide antenna shroud materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The shroud on the beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna at DSS 13 is made from highly magnetic American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A36 steel. Measurements at 8.42 GHz showed that this material (with paint) has a very poor electrical conductivity that is 600 times worse than aluminum. In cases where the BWG mirrors might be slightly misaligned, unintentional illumination and poor electrical conductivity of the shroud walls can cause system noise temperature to be increased significantly. This potential increase of noise temperature contribution can be reduced through the use of better conductivity materials for the shroud walls. An alternative is to attempt to improve the conductivity of the currently used ASTM A36 steel by means of some type of plating, surface treatment, or high-conductivity paints. This article presents the results of a study made to find improved materials for future shrouds and mirror supports.

  10. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  11. Report on Reactor Physics Assessment of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials in LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Jeffrey J.; George, Nathan; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Worrall, Andrew

    2015-08-28

    This work focuses on ATF concepts being researched at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), expanding on previous studies of using alternate cladding materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The neutronic performance of two leading alternate cladding materials were assessed in boiling water reactors (BWRs): iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based composite cladding. This report fulfills ORNL Milestone M3FT-15OR0202332 within the fiscal year 2015 (FY15)

  12. Development of NIST standard reference material 2373: Genomic DNA standards for HER2 measurements.

    PubMed

    He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Steffen, Carolyn R; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    NIST standard reference material (SRM) 2373 was developed to improve the measurements of the HER2 gene amplification in DNA samples. SRM 2373 consists of genomic DNA extracted from five breast cancer cell lines with different amounts of amplification of the HER2 gene. The five components are derived from the human cell lines SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, and BT-474. The certified values are the ratios of the HER2 gene copy numbers to the copy numbers of selected reference genes DCK, EIF5B, RPS27A, and PMM1. The ratios were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and digital PCR, methods that gave similar ratios. The five components of SRM 2373 have certified HER2 amplification ratios that range from 1.3 to 17.7. The stability and homogeneity of the reference materials were shown by repeated measurements over a period of several years. SRM 2373 is a well characterized genomic DNA reference material that can be used to improve the confidence of the measurements of HER2 gene copy number. PMID:27335805

  13. Development of laboratory reference material: Soil 1. Baseline and highly elevated concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, K; Konieczka, P; Namieśnik, J

    2011-01-01

    Reference materials play a key part in systems of inspection and quality control of results of analytical measurements. The main limitation in using certified reference materials (CRM) is their high price, which results from the long and costly process of producing the reference material. An alternative to costly CRM materials is the employment of laboratory reference materials, particularly for interlaboratory control of measurement results and procedures. Under the auspices of the Chair of Analytical Chemistry at the Chemical Department of Gdansk University of Technology, research on the development of new reference materials is being conducted. At present, the research is aimed at producing a new laboratory reference material (LRM): 'Soil 1. Baseline and Highly Elevated Concentrations of Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' - LRM soil 1. This paper presents the production stages of the developed laboratory reference material: acquisition of raw material from soil samples taken from the environment of the Tri-city (in Polish, Trójmiasto Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) bypass road, homogenization and subsequent dosage into appropriate containers, tests of homogeneity of sampled material within one container and between containers, based on the results of the determination of selected parameters (total carbon, content of optional metals - Hg, Fe, Cu Zn, Mn, Mg, water content, content of PAH-group analytes). The obtained results of homogeneity tests of the proposed future laboratory reference material have confirmed the homogeneity of soil samples within a container and between containers. Currently, interlaboratory tests are being carried out to determine the reference value. PMID:21473281

  14. Mechanical properties testing of candidate polymer matrix materials for use in high performance composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, R. S.; Adams, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanical properties of four candidate neat resin systems for use in graphite/epoxy composites are characterized. This includes tensile and shear stiffnesses and strengths, coefficients of thermal and moisture expansion, and fracture toughness. Tests are conducted on specimens in the dry state and moisture-saturated, at temperatures of 23C, 82C and 121C. The neat resins tested are Hexcel HX-1504, Narmco 5245-C, American Cyanamid CYCOM 907, and Union Carbide ERX-4901A (MDA). Results are compared with those obtained for four other epoxy resins tested in a prior program, i.e., Hercules 3502, 2220-1, and 2220-3, and Ciba-Geigy Fibredux 914, as well as with available Hercules 3501-6 data. Scanning electron microscopic examination of fracture surfaces is performed to permit the correlation of observed failure modes with the environmental test conditions. A finite element micromechanics analysis is used to predict unidirectional composite response under various test conditions, using the measured neat resin properties as input data.

  15. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials: FY 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.

    2014-10-01

    This annual reports presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project is divided into three tasks: 1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; 2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and 3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonproportionality, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the three tasks is provided in this Annual Report. Furthermore, peer-reviewed articles published this FY or currently under review and presentations given this FY are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  16. Relativistic electron gas: A candidate for nature's left-handed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wave vector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical-potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain the following: (i) for ω =0 , generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; (ii) for ω ≠0 , Drude-type responses at zero temperature. The latter implies that both the electric permittivity ɛ and the magnetic permeability μ may be simultaneously negative, a behavior characteristic of metamaterials. This unambiguously indicates that the relativistic electron gas is one of nature's candidates for the realization of a negative index of refraction system. Moreover, Maxwell's equations in the medium yield the dispersion relation and the index of refraction of the electron gas. Present results should be relevant for plasma physics, astrophysical observations, synchrotrons, and other environments with fast-moving electrons.

  17. Evaluation of some candidate materials for automobile thermal reactors in engine-dynamometer screening tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen materials were evaluated in engine screening tests on full-size thermal reactors for automobile engine pollution control systems. Cyclic test-stand engine operation provided 2 hours at 1040 C and a 20-minute air-cool to 70 C each test cycle. Each reactor material was exposed to 83 cycles in 200 hours of engine testing. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and distortion, the best materials included two ferritic iron alloys (Ge 1541 and Armco 18S/R), several commercial oxidation-resistant coatings on AlSl 651 (19-9 DL), and possibly uncoated AISI 310. The best commercial coatings were Cr-Al, Ni-Cr, and a glass ceramic.

  18. Preparation and characterization of standard reference material 1849 infant/adult nutritional formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Lindstrom, Richard M; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Karen W; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M; Spatz, Rabia O; Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Turk, Gregory C; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H

    2010-01-01

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a replacement for SRM 1846 Infant Formula, issued in 1996. Extraction characteristics of SRM 1846 have changed over time, as have NIST's analytical capabilities. While certified mass fraction values were provided for five constituents in SRM 1846 (four vitamins plus iodine), certified mass fraction values for 43 constituents are provided in SRM 1849 (fatty acids, elements, and vitamins) and reference mass fraction values are provided for an additional 43 constituents including amino acids and nucleotides, making it the most extensively characterized food-matrix SRM available from NIST. PMID:20922961

  19. Fe-Au and Fe-Ag composites as candidates for biodegradable stent materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Cheng, Jian; Bian, Dong; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Fe-Ag and Fe-Au composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy using spark plasma sintering. Their microstructures, mechanical properties, and biocorrosion behavior were investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electronic microscopy, compressive test, electrochemical measurements, and immersion tests. Microstructure characterization indicated that the as-sintered iron-based materials obtained much finer grains than that of as-cast pure iron. Phase analysis showed that the Fe-Ag composites were composed of α-Fe and pure Ag phases, and Fe-Au composites consisted of α-Fe and Au phases. Compressive test showed that the improved mechanical strengths were obtained in as-sintered iron-based materials, among which the Fe-5 wt %Ag exhibited the best mechanical properties. The electrochemical and immersion tests revealed that the addition of Ag and Au could increase the corrosion rate of the iron matrix and change the corrosion mode into more uniform one. Based on the results of cytotoxicity evaluation, it was found that all the experimental material extracts performed no significant toxicity on the L-929 cells and EA. hy-926 cells, whereas a considerable inhibition on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells was observed. The hemocompatibility tests showed that the hemolysis of all the experimental materials was within the range of 5%, which is the criteria value of biomaterials with good hemocomaptibility. The amount of platelet adhered on the surface of as-sintered iron-based materials was lower than that of as-cast pure iron, and the morphology of platelets kept smoothly spherical on the surface of all the experimental materials. PMID:25727071

  20. Dimensional-stability studies of candidate space-telescope mirror-substrate materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerke, J. M.; Platt, R. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of aging, vacuum exposure, and thermal cycling on the dimensional stability of mirror-substrate materials, fused silica, Cer-Vit, Kanigen-coated beryllium, polycrystalline silicon, and U.L.E. fused silica were investigated. A multiple-beam interferometer was used to determine nonrecoverable surface-shape changes of the 12.7-cm-diameter mirrors with substrates of these materials. Thermal cycling and aging in vacuum produced the largest changes, but only a few were as large as 1/30 wavelength, where the wavelength was 632.8 nm.

  1. Development of a new sodium diclofenac certified reference material using the mass balance approach and ¹H qNMR to determine the certified property value.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raquel; Garrido, Bruno C; Borges, Ricardo M; Silva, Gisele E B; Queiroz, Suzane M; Cunha, Valnei S

    2013-02-14

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools to guarantee the metrological traceability of measurement results to the International System of Units (SI), which means the accuracy and comparability of results over time and space. In the pharmaceutical area, only a few CRMs are available and the use of (non-certified) reference materials is a much more common practice. In this paper, the studies on a new candidate CRM of sodium diclofenac based on the ISO Guides 34:2009 and 35:2005 are described. The project steps included characterization, homogeneity test, stability studies, and uncertainties estimation. In the characterization, the mass fractions of organic, inorganic, and volatile impurities were determined, and the results were cross-checked by independent reference methods or interlaboratorial study. The API mass fraction was calculated by mass balance and cross-checked by quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H qNMR). The paper also presents a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the measurement uncertainty as an approach to validate the GUM results in ¹H qNMR. The homogeneity between batch units was verified, and the candidate CRM stability under transport and storage conditions was evaluated in short- and long-term stability studies. The CRM certified property value and corresponding expanded uncertainty, obtained from the combined standard uncertainty multiplied by the coverage factor (k=2), for a confidence level of 95%, was (999.76+0.10) mg g⁻¹. PMID:23220339

  2. Consensus Characterization of 16 FMR1 Reference Materials: A Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Amos Wilson, Jean; Pratt, Victoria M.; Phansalkar, Amit; Muralidharan, Kasinathan; Highsmith, W. Edward; Beck, Jeanne C.; Bridgeman, Scott; Courtney, Ebony M.; Epp, Lidia; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Hjelm, Nick L.; Holtegaard, Leonard M.; Jama, Mohamed A.; Jakupciak, John P.; Johnson, Monique A.; Labrousse, Paul; Lyon, Elaine; Prior, Thomas W.; Richards, C. Sue; Richie, Kristy L.; Roa, Benjamin B.; Rohlfs, Elizabeth M.; Sellers, Tina; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Siegrist, Karen A.; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, which is caused by expansion of a (CGG)n repeat in the FMR1 gene, occurs in approximately 1:3500 males and causes mental retardation/behavioral problems. Smaller (CGG)n repeat expansions in FMR1, premutations, are associated with premature ovarian failure and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. An FMR1-sizing assay is technically challenging because of high GC content of the (CGG)n repeat, the size limitations of conventional PCR, and a lack of reference materials available for test development/validation and routine quality control. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Molecular Pathology, together with the genetic testing community, have addressed the need for characterized fragile X mutation reference materials by developing characterized DNA samples from 16 cell lines with repeat lengths representing important phenotypic classes and diagnostic cutoffs. The alleles in these materials were characterized by consensus analysis in nine clinical laboratories. The information generated from this study is available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Coriell Cell Repositories websites. DNA purified from these cell lines is available to the genetics community through the Coriell Cell Repositories. The public availability of these reference materials should help support accurate clinical fragile X syndrome testing. PMID:18165276

  3. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  4. Interlaboratory comparison program for nondestructive assay of prototype uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Trahey, N.M.; Smith, M.M.; Voeks, A.M.; Bracey, J.T.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBS), designed and administered an interlaboratory comparison program based on the measurement of NBL-produced prototype uranium nondestructive assay (NDA) reference materials for scrap and waste. The objectives of the program were to evaluate the reliability of NDA techniques as applied to nuclear safeguards materials control and accountability needs and to investigate the feasibility of providing practical NDA scrap and waste reference materials for use throughout the nuclear safeguards community. Fourteen facilities representing seven DOE contractors, four US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees, one EURATOM Laboratory, and NBL, participated in this program. Three stable, well-characterized uranium reference materials were developed and certified for this program. Synthetic calcined ash, cellulose fiber, and ion-exchange resin simulate selected uranium scrap and waste forms which are often encountered in fabrication and recovery operations. The synthetic calcined ash represents an intermediate density inorganic matrix while the cellulose fiber and ion-exchange resin are representative of low-density organic matrices. The materials, containing from 0 to 13% uranium enriched at 93% /sup 235/U, were sealed in specially selected containers. Nineteen prototype reference samples, plus three empty containers, one to accompany each set, was circulated to the participants between August 1979 and May 1984. Triplicate measurements for /sup 235/U on each of the 19 filled containers were required. In addition, participants could opt to perform modular configuration measurements using containers from Sets IIA and IIB to simulate non-homogeneously dispersed uranium in waste containers. All data were reported to NBL for evaluation.

  5. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Introduction, history, and current candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is to evaluate Yucca Mountain for its suitability as a potential site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been occupied for a number of years with developing and evaluating the performance of waste packages for the potential repository. In recent years this work has been carried out under the guidance of and in collaboration with the Management and Operating contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., which in turn reports to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes the history of the selection and characterization of materials to be used in the engineered barrier system for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, describes the current candidate materials, presents a compilation of their properties, and summarizes available corrosion data and modeling. The term ``engineered materials`` is intended to distinguish those materials that are used as part of the engineered barrier system from the natural, geologic materials of the site.

  6. Shear punch testing of candidate reactor materials after irradiation in fast reactors and spallation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloy, S. A.; Romero, T. J.; Hosemann, P.; Toloczko, M. B.; Dai, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steels and nickel-base superalloys are potential materials for use in spallation targets and fusion and fast reactors. To investigate the effects of irradiation on these materials, tests were performed after irradiation in the high energy proton beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP), 570 MeV), as well on specimens obtained from a driver duct irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Dose accumulations were up to 18 dpa for STIP irradiations (at 147-406 °C) and up to 155 dpa in FFTF (at 383-505 °C). The helium/dpa ratios ranged from 0.2 to 80 appm/dpa. Mechanical testing was performed at 25 °C. Increases in shear yield and shear maximum stress with increasing dose mirrored the results observed from companion tensile tests.

  7. Testing of candidate waste-package backfill and canister materials for basalt. [Cupronickel 90/10

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Anderson, W.J.; Aden, G.D.

    1982-09-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is developing a multiple-barrier waste package to contain high-level nuclear waste as part of an overall system (e.g., waste package, repository sealing system, and host rock) designed to isolate the waste in a repository located in basalt beneath the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The three basic components of the waste package are the waste form, the canister, and the backfill. An extensive testing program is under way to determine the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of potential canister and backfill materials. The data derived from this testing program will be used to recommend those materials that most adequately perform the functions assigned to the canister and backfill.

  8. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  9. Identification of Crystalline Material in Two Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainsforth, Zack; Simionovici, Alexandra; Brenker, Frank E.; Schmitz, Sylvia; Burghammer, Manfred; Cloetens, Peter; Lemelle, Laurence; San Tresseras, Juan-Angel; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Sole, Vicente A.; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Achilles, Cheri; Allen, Carlton; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, Sasa; Bassim, Nabil; Bastien, Ron S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's interstellar collector from the Stardust mission captured several particles that are now thought to be of interstellar origin. We analyzed two of these via nanodiffraction at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and found them to contain crystalline components. The unit cell of the crystalline material is determined from the diffraction patterns and the most likely mineral components are identified as olivine and spinel.

  10. k0-NAA, a valuable tool for reference-material producers.

    PubMed

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Pauwels, J

    2001-06-01

    The main concern of producers of certified reference materials (CRM) is the preparation of high-quality products with demonstrated homogeneity and stability, combined with a well established set of certified characteristics. CRM producers must, furthermore, comply with other constraints imposed by the ISO Guide 34: production processes, production control, and certification analyses should be performed by expert laboratories, using validated protocols documented in their respective quality assurance manuals; laboratory mean values and the corresponding "expanded" uncertainties, must be used for the determination of the certified values, as recommended by the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurements (GUM); and when possible, traceability of the certified value to the SI units, using appropriately validated and/or primary methods, must be ensured. k0-NAA, i.e. neutron activation analysis with k0 standardization, is one of the analytical techniques implemented at the Reference Material Unit of IRMM; it meets the first two requirements. PMID:11451247

  11. Development of green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Mizukoshi, Kazushi; Nakamura, Munetomo; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2011-08-24

    Green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for the analysis of pesticide residues were issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Green onion and cabbage samples were grown so as to contain several kinds of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides, and those were collected from a field in the Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The certification was carried out by using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, etofenprox, and permethrin for green onion and chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, and permethrin for cabbage) were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values of target pesticides were 0.96-13.9 and 2.41-6.9 mg/kg for green onion and cabbage, respectively. These are the first green onion and cabbage powder certified reference materials in which organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides are determined. PMID:21774469

  12. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  13. The production and certification of a plutonium equal-atom reference material: NBL CRM 128

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.W. . Office of Safeguards and Security); Gradle, C.G.; Soriano, M.D. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the design, production, and certification of the New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium equal-atom certified reference material (CRM), NBL CRM 128. The primary use of this CRM is for the determination of bias corrections encountered in the operation of a mass spectrometer. This reference material is available to the US Department of Energy contractor-operated and government-operated laboratories, as well as to the international nuclear safeguards community. The absolute, or unbiased, certified value for the CRM's Pu-242/Pu-239 ratio is 1.00063 {plus minus} 0.00026 (95% confidence interval) as of October 1, 1984. This value was obtained through the quantitative blending of high-purity, chemically and isotopically characterized separated isotopes, as well as through intercomparisons of CRM samples with calibration mixtures using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 32 tabs.

  14. Reference Materials for Calibration of Analytical Biases in Quantification of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hannah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Yang, Inchul

    2015-01-01

    Most contemporary methods for the quantification of DNA methylation employ bisulfite conversion and PCR amplification. However, many reports have indicated that bisulfite-mediated PCR methodologies can result in inaccurate measurements of DNA methylation owing to amplification biases. To calibrate analytical biases in quantification of gene methylation, especially those that arise during PCR, we utilized reference materials that represent exact bisulfite-converted sequences with 0% and 100% methylation status of specific genes. After determining relative quantities using qPCR, pairs of plasmids were gravimetrically mixed to generate working standards with predefined DNA methylation levels at 10% intervals in terms of mole fractions. The working standards were used as controls to optimize the experimental conditions and also as calibration standards in melting-based and sequencing-based analyses of DNA methylation. Use of the reference materials enabled precise characterization and proper calibration of various biases during PCR and subsequent methylation measurement processes, resulting in accurate measurements. PMID:26368560

  15. Aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal reference materials: intercomparisons of methods.

    PubMed

    Van Egmond, H P; Wagstaffe, P J

    1989-01-01

    The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is preparing a series of animal feed reference materials to provide a basis for analytical quality assurance for aflatoxin B1 analysis, a problem of particular importance in view of Community legislation. Before reference values can be assigned to the reference materials the major errors in the underlying measurements must be identified and reduced. This paper presents the results of two intercomparison exercises involving some 20 European laboratories who applied a wide variety of analytical methods. It is shown that the major source of error and discrepancy is connected with incomplete extraction and/or losses during clean-up and that, provided correction for recovery/background interference is made, many methods can achieve acceptable accuracy. Sources of error and their control are discussed, and essential details of the methods used are presented. It is concluded that analytical QA is more important than the use of standardized methods when a high degree of accuracy and comparability are required. PMID:2498137

  16. Metrological approaches to organic chemical purity: primary reference materials for vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael A; Bedner, Mary; Lang, Brian E; Toman, Blaza; Lippa, Katrice A

    2015-11-01

    Given the critical role of pure, organic compound primary reference standards used to characterize and certify chemical Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), it is essential that associated mass purity assessments be fit-for-purpose, represented by an appropriate uncertainty interval, and metrologically sound. The mass fraction purities (% g/g) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reference standards used to produce and certify values for clinical vitamin D metabolite CRMs were investigated by multiple orthogonal quantitative measurement techniques. Quantitative (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) was performed to establish traceability of these materials to the International System of Units (SI) and to directly assess the principal analyte species. The 25(OH)D standards contained volatile and water impurities, as well as structurally-related impurities that are difficult to observe by chromatographic methods or to distinguish from the principal 25(OH)D species by one-dimensional NMR. These impurities have the potential to introduce significant biases to purity investigations in which a limited number of measurands are quantified. Combining complementary information from multiple analytical methods, using both direct and indirect measurement techniques, enabled mitigation of these biases. Purities of 25(OH)D reference standards and associated uncertainties were determined using frequentist and Bayesian statistical models to combine data acquired via qNMR, liquid chromatography with UV absorbance and atmospheric pressure-chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (LC-UV, LC-ACPI-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Karl Fischer (KF) titration. PMID:26345446

  17. Development of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes certified gaseous reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, M. C.; Sobrinho, D. C. G.; Fagundes, F. A.; Oudwater, R. J.; Augusto, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    The work describes the production of certified gaseous reference materials of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in nitrogen from the gravimetric production up to the long term stability tests followed by the certifying step. The uncertainty in the amount fractions of the compounds in these mixtures was approximately 4% (relative) for the range studied from 2 to 16 µmol/mol. Also the adsorption of the BTEX on the cylinder surface and the tubing were investigated as potential uncertainty source.

  18. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached andmore » an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  19. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  20. Software Management Environment (SME) release 9.4 user reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, R.; Kistler, D.; Manter, K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains user reference material for the Software Management Environment (SME) prototype, developed for the Systems Development Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of management tools that can be used by software development managers in their day-to-day management and planning activities. This document provides an overview of the SME, a description of all functions, and detailed instructions concerning the software's installation and use.

  1. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  2. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Calibration of Critical Dimension (CD) Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    ALLEN, RICHARD A.; CRESSWELL, MICHAEL W.; EVERIST, SARAH C.; GHOSHTAGORE, RATHINDRA N.; HEADLEY, THOMAS J.; LINHOLM, LOREN W.

    1999-09-21

    NIST and Sandia have developed a procedure for producing and calibrating critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials. These reference materials will be used to calibrate metrology instruments used in semiconductor manufacturing. The artifacts, with widths down to 100 nm, are produced in monocrystalline silicon with all feature edges aligned to specific crystal planes. A two-part calibration of these linewidths is used: the primary calibration, with accuracy to within a few lattice plane thicknesses, is accomplished by counting the lattice planes across the sample as-imaged through use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The secondary calibration is the high-precision electrical CD technique. NIST and Sandia are developing critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials for use by the semiconductor industry. To meet the current requirements of this rapidly changing industry, the widths of the reference features must be at or below the widths of the finest features in production and/or development. Further, these features must produce consistent results no matter which metrology tool (e.g., scanning electron microscope, scanned probe microscope, electrical metrology) is used to make the measurement. This leads to a requirement for the samples to have planar surfaces, known sidewall angles, and uniform material composition. None of the production techniques in use in semiconductor manufacturing can produce features with all these characteristics. In addition, requirements specified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors indicate that the width of the feature must be accurately calibrated to approximately 1-2 nm, a value well beyond the current capabilities of the instruments used for semiconductor metrology.

  3. Compositional Analysis of Biomass Reference Materials: Results from an Interlaboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. The major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  4. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  5. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  6. Collection and characterization of a bulk PM2.5 air particulate matter material for use in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Heller-Zeisler, S F; Ondov, J M; Zeisler, R

    1999-01-01

    A contemporary PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter) aerosol material from an urban site has been collected for the production of a new standard reference material that will be made available for the development of new PM2.5 air quality standards. Air particulate matter corresponding to the PM2.5 fraction was collected at an established Environmental Protection Agency monitoring site in Baltimore, Maryland. The air-sampling system that has been constructed for this collection separates fine particles with a cyclone separator and deposits them onto an array of Teflon membrane filters. The fine air particulate material is removed by ultrasonication or by mechanical means and collected for further preparation of standards. The composition of the collected PM2.5 aerosol, as well as the composition of the deposited PM2.5 aerosol, are determined by instrumental nuclear activation analysis and other techniques. PMID:10676493

  7. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

  8. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  9. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of the NIST mAb reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Liu, Yun; Krueger, Susan; Curtis, Joseph

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of great interest to the biopharmaceutical industry because they can be engineered to target specific antigens. Due to their importance, the biomanufacturing initiative at NIST is developing an IgG1 mAb reference material `NIST mAb', which can be used by industry, academia, and regulatory authorities. As part of this collaborative effort, we aim at characterizing the reference material using neutron scattering techniques. We have studied the small-angle scattering profile of the NIST mAb in a histidine buffer at 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate an ensemble of structures and calculate their theoretical scattering profile, which can be directly compared with experimental data. Moreover, we analyze the structure factor to understand the effect of solution conditions on the protein-protein interactions. Finally, we have measured the solution scattering of the NIST mAb, while simultaneously performing freeze/thaw cycles, in order to investigate if the solution structure was affected upon freezing. The results from neutron scattering not only support the development of the reference material, but also provide insights on its stability and guide efforts for its development under different formulations.

  10. Effect of temperature and gap opening rate on the resiliency of candidate solid rocket booster O-ring materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    In the redesign of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor following the Challenger accident, the field and nozzle-to-case joints were designed to minimize gap opening caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for these joints were designed both to accommodate structural deflections and to promote pressure assisted sealing. The resiliency behavior of several candidate O-ring materials was evaluated for the effects of temperature and gap opening rates. The performance of three of the elastomeric materials was tested under the specific redesign gap opening requirement. Dynamic flexure conditions unique to launch produce low frequency vibrations in the gap opening. The effect of these vibrations on the ability of the O-ring to maintain contact with the sealing surface was addressed. The resiliency of the O-ring materials was found to be extremely sensitive to variations in temperature and gap opening rate. The top three elastomeric materials tracked the simulated solid rocket booster (SRB) field joint deflection at 75 and 120 F. The external tank/SRB attach strut load vibrations had a negligible effect on the ability of the O-ring to track the simulated SRB field joint deflection.

  11. A NIST standard reference material (SRM) to support the detection of trace explosives.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William A

    2009-09-01

    SRM 2905 Trace Particulate Explosives was developed to simulate the residues produced by handling plastic and military explosives. A series of nine candidate materials were prepared by coating chromatographic supports with either Composition C-4 (containing RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine)) or TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). Criteria for selection of the best material for the SRM included: coating efficiency, extractability with organic solvents, thermal storage stability, consistency of the particle size with fingerprint residues, and suitability for calibration of trace explosives detectors. The final base material selected for the SRM was octadecylsilane-modified silica (C(18)) with a nominal 20-30 microm particle size. Four materials comprise the SRM, with two nominal concentrations of explosive, 0.01% and 0.1% (mass fraction) for both C-4 and TNT, respectively. The final certified concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet absorbance detection (LC/UV) and a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method using negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization (APCI(-)) with an acetate ionization additive that improves quantitation. The SRM was tested on a table-top field explosives detector based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). PMID:19637901

  12. Fretting of Secondary-Seal-Ring Candidate Materials in Air at Temperatures to 816 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Superalloys containing chromium showed decreasing fretting damage with increasing temperature of 816 C. This trend was related to the ability of the alloys to generate self-protecting oxide films. The damage at 816 C was one-third to one-tenth of that at 23 C. Osmium, chromium, and chromium carbide platings were fretted at 23 and 450 C. Osmium was extremely protective at 23 C but oxidized excessively at 450 C. Chromium and chromium carbide gave about the same protection at 450 C as the oxide films that formed on the superalloys. High graphite and low graphite carbons were fretted at 23 and 327 C. High graphite carbon was superior at 327 C, but low graphite carbon was the best material examined at 23 C.

  13. Graphene oxide as a candidate material for natural gas storage: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Rajiv Kumar; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-03-01

    Alternative sources of clean energy will be much in demand in the coming days. To store methane (CH4) in sorbent materials at ambient conditions for on-board vehicular usage, minimum adsorption energy of 18.8 KJ/mol is desirable. In this work, we have investigated methane adsorption on graphene oxide using first principles calculations. To accurately capture the weak interactions between CH4 and the substrate we have included van der Waals interactions in our calculations. We show that the adsorption energy falls within the target range. Careful analysis of the various contributions to the binding shows that the enhancement in adsorption energy on going from graphene to graphene oxide arises from a subtle synergy between various effects. Funding agencies CSIR, India, DST Nanomission and JNCASR. Computational facilities provided by TUE-CMS, JNCASR.

  14. Hot carrier solar cell absorbers: investigation of carrier cooling properties of candidate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conibeer, G.; Shrestha, Santosh; Huang, Shujuan; Patterson, Robert; Xia, Hongze; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Gupta, Neeti; Smyth, Suntrana; Liao, Yuanxun; Lin, Shu; Wang, Pei; Dai, Xi; Chung, Simon; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The hot carrier cell aims to extract the electrical energy from photo-generated carriers before they thermalize to the band edges. Hence it can potentially achieve a high current and a high voltage and hence very high efficiencies up to 65% under 1 sun and 86% under maximum concentration. To slow the rate of carrier thermalisation is very challenging, but modification of the phonon energies and the use of nanostructures are both promising ways to achieve some of the required slowing of carrier cooling. A number of materials and structures are being investigated with these properties and test structures are being fabricated. Initial measurements indicate slowed carrier cooling in III-Vs with large phonon band gaps and in multiple quantum wells. It is expected that soon proof of concept of hot carrier devices will pave the way for their development to fully functioning high efficiency solar cells.

  15. A standard reference for chamber testing of material VOC emissions: Design principle and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yinping; Xiong, Jianyin; Li, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental chambers are widely used to test formaldehyde and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor materials and furniture. However, there is a lack of a proven method to assess the precision of the test results of the chamber system. In this paper, we describe a new standard reference, LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission), to address this problem. This reference has the following salient features: (1) Constant emission rate, with less than 3.0% change with an ambient airflow speed (>0.014 m/s) at furniture emission range (0.1-1.0 mg/m 3 in a 30 m 3 chamber with air change rate of 1/h) under standard chamber test conditions as specified by ISO 16000-9 (23 °C, 50% RH); (2) Long duration of emissions, on the order of 1000 h; (3) Easy to store, apply and maintain. The design principle and criteria of the LIFE reference are presented. An analytical model and dimensionless analysis were applied to optimize the factors influencing the emission rate, and experiments were conducted to validate the analytical results. In addition, the equivalent emission parameters of the reference, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, were determined through a three-parameter optimizing regression. This can then be used to check the reliability of a chamber method for testing these three parameters. The developed standard reference should prove useful for calibrating chamber systems for indoor material/furniture VOC emissions tests.

  16. Exploration of optical fibres as a carrier for new benzene and toluene matrix-free reference materials.

    PubMed

    Słomińska, Marta; Marć, Mariusz; Szczygelska-Tao, Jolanta; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    To meet high expectations concerning precision and accuracy of reference materials, preparation of matrix-free reference materials using thermal decomposition-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was proposed in this study. In the paper, the results obtained in preparation of the new reference materials for benzene and toluene are presented, based on the thermal decomposition technique of compounds chemically bound to the surface of optical fibre segments. The results obtained at various stages of the research procedure (homogeneity, stability) confirmed the possibility of using prepared laboratory samples of materials as reference materials for benzene and toluene. For the prepared batch of materials, reference values 1.26 ± 0.91 (ng/fibre) for benzene and 11.3 ± 7.4 (ng/fibre) for toluene were determined. PMID:25976396

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Dengue Virus Type 1 to 4 Strains Used for the Development of CBER/FDA RNA Reference Reagents and WHO International Standard Candidates for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A.; Volkova, Evgeniya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most common and clinically significant arbovirus in the world and is endemic in more than 100 countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of four DENV serotypes used in the development of the CBER/FDA RNA reference reagents and WHO International Standard candidates for nucleic acid testing. PMID:26868382

  18. Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal: a new candidate host material for the ytterbium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeqing; You, Zhenyu; Zhu, Zhaojie; Xu, Jinlong; Li, Jianfu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Tu, Chaoyang

    2013-10-01

    A disordered laser crystal Yb3+-doped Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique. The characterized room temperature polarized spectra, re-absorption possibility and laser performance showed that this crystal should be a promising gain material, not only suitable for diode pumping, but also a good candidate for the generation of tunable and short pulse lasers. End pumped by a diode laser at 976 nm in plano-concave and plano-plano cavity, a 3.65 W output power with a slope efficiency of 65% was achieved by using a c-cut Yb3+:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal. The output laser wavelength shifted from 1042 to 1062 nm.

  19. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  20. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schäfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

  1. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C

    2013-11-19

    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions. PMID:24102115

  2. Validation of reference materials for uranium radiochronometry in the frame of nuclear forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Varga, Z; Mayer, K; Bonamici, C E; Hubert, A; Hutcheon, I; Kinman, W; Kristo, M; Pointurier, F; Spencer, K; Stanley, F; Steiner, R; Tandon, L; Williams, R

    2015-08-01

    The results of a joint effort by expert nuclear forensic laboratories in the area of age dating of uranium, i.e. the elapsed time since the last chemical purification of the material are presented and discussed. Completely separated uranium materials of known production date were distributed among the laboratories, and the samples were dated according to routine laboratory procedures by the measurement of the (230)Th/(234)U ratio. The measurement results were in good agreement with the known production date showing that the concept for preparing uranium age dating reference material based on complete separation is valid. Detailed knowledge of the laboratory procedures used for uranium age dating allows the identification of possible improvements in the current protocols and the development of improved practice in the future. The availability of age dating reference materials as well as the evolvement of the age dating best-practice protocol will increase the relevance and applicability of age dating as part of the tool-kit available for nuclear forensic investigations. PMID:26043276

  3. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination VIII: Identification of crystalline material in two interstellar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainsforth, Zack; Brenker, Frank E.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Schmitz, Sylvia; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Cloetens, Peter; Lemelle, Laurence; Tresserras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Solé, Vicente A.; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Westphal, Andrew J.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Changela, Hitesh; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Srama, Ralf; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; von Korff, Joshua; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements, we identified crystalline material in two particles of extraterrestrial origin extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. The first particle, I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook), consisted of a mosaiced olivine grain approximately 1 µm in size with internal strain fields up to 0.3%. The unit cell dimensions were a = 4.85 ± 0.08 Å, b = 10.34 ± 0.16 Å, c = 6.08 ± 0.13 Å (2σ). The second particle, I1043,1,30 (Orion), contained an olivine grain ≈ 2 µm in length and >500 nm in width. It was polycrystalline with both mosaiced domains varying over ≈ 20° and additional unoriented domains, and contained internal strain fields < 1%. The unit cell dimensions of the olivine were a = 4.76 ± 0.05 Å, b = 10.23 ± 0.10 Å, c = 5.99 ± 0.06 Å (2σ), which limited the olivine to a forsteritic composition >Fo65 (2σ). Orion also contained abundant spinel nanocrystals of unknown composition, but unit cell dimension a = 8.06 ± 0.08 Å (2σ). Two additional crystalline phases were present and remained unidentified. An amorphous component appeared to be present in both these particles based on STXM and XRF results reported elsewhere.

  4. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials for space applications in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Difilippo, Frank; Brady, Joyce; Dever, Therese; Hotes, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for polyimide (Kapton) solar array blanket protection and graphite-epoxy stroctural member protection was performed in an RF plasma asher. Protective coatings on Kapton from various commercial sources and from NASA Lewis Research Center were exposed to the air plasma; and mass loss per unit area was measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface, but metal-oxide-fluoropolymer coatings provided the best protection by exhibiting very little degradation after 47 hr of asher exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite-epoxy structural members. Mica appeared to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen, but only offered limited protection as a paint. this is believed to be due to the paint vehicle ashing underneath the mica leaving unattached mica flakes lying on the surface. The protective coatings on Kapton evaluated so far are promising but further research on protection of graphite-epoxy support structures is needed.

  5. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for Fuel Cladding in Canadian SCWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yimin; Guzonas, David

    2016-02-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative next generation reactor that offers many promising features, but the high-temperature high-pressure coolant introduces unique challenges to the long-term safe and reliable operation of in-core components, in particular the fuel cladding. To achieve high thermal efficiency, the Canadian SCWR concept has a coolant core outlet temperature of 625°C at 25 MPa with a peak cladding temperature as high as 800°C. International and Canadian research programs on corrosion issues in supercritical water have been conducted to support the SCWR concept. This paper provides a brief review of corrosion in supercritical water and summarizes the Canadian corrosion assessment work on potential fuel cladding materials. Five alloys, SS 347H, SS310S, Alloy 800H, Alloy 625 and Alloy 214, have been shown to have sufficient corrosion resistance to be used as the fuel cladding. Additional work, including tests in an in-reactor loop, is needed to confirm that these alloys would work as the fuel cladding in the Canadian SCWR.

  6. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  7. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Bismuth Chalcohalides: Candidate Photovoltaic Materials with Easily, Continuously Controllable Band gap.

    PubMed

    Kunioku, Hironobu; Higashi, Masanobu; Abe, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Although bismuth chalcohalides, such as BiSI and BiSeI, have been recently attracting considerable attention as photovoltaic materials, the methods available to synthesize them are quite limited thus far. In this study, a novel, facile method to synthesize these chalcohalides, including BiSBr1-xIx solid solutions, at low temperatures was developed via the substitution of anions from O(2-) to S(2-) (or Se(2-)) using bismuth oxyhalide precursors. Complete phase transition was readily observed upon treatment of BiOI particles with H2S or H2Se at surprisingly low temperatures of less than 150 °C and short reaction times of less than 1 h, producing BiSI and BiSeI particles, respectively. This method was also applied for synthesizing BiSBr1-xIx, where continuous changes in their band gaps were observed depending on the ratio between iodine and bromine. The composition of all elements (except oxygen) in the chalcohalides thus produced was almost identical to that of the oxyhalide precursors, attributed to the suppressed volatilization of halogens at such low temperatures. All chalcohalides loaded on FTO clearly exhibited an anodic photocurrent in an acetonitrile solution containing I(-), attributed to their n-type nature, e.g., the BiSI electrode exhibited high IPCE (64% at 700 nm, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). PMID:27600662

  8. Thermophysical and heat transfer properties of phase change material candidate for waste heat transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizawa, Akihide; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Atsushi; Kamano, Hiroomi; Jozuka, Tetsuji; Senda, Takeshi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2008-05-01

    A waste heat transportation system trans-heat (TH) system is quite attractive that uses the latent heat of a phase change material (PCM). The purpose of this paper is to study the thermophysical properties of various sugars and sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) as PCMs for a practical TH system and the heat transfer property between PCM selected and heat transfer oil, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a heat storage tube. As a result, erythritol, with a large latent heat of 344 kJ/kg at melting point of 117°C, high decomposition point of 160°C and excellent chemical stability under repeated phase change cycles was found to be the best PCM among them for the practical TH system. In the heat release experiments between liquid erythritol and flowing cold oil, we observed foaming phenomena of encapsulated oil, in which oil droplet was coated by solidification of PCM.

  9. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Bismuth Chalcohalides: Candidate Photovoltaic Materials with Easily, Continuously Controllable Band gap

    PubMed Central

    Kunioku, Hironobu; Higashi, Masanobu; Abe, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Although bismuth chalcohalides, such as BiSI and BiSeI, have been recently attracting considerable attention as photovoltaic materials, the methods available to synthesize them are quite limited thus far. In this study, a novel, facile method to synthesize these chalcohalides, including BiSBr1−xIx solid solutions, at low temperatures was developed via the substitution of anions from O2− to S2− (or Se2−) using bismuth oxyhalide precursors. Complete phase transition was readily observed upon treatment of BiOI particles with H2S or H2Se at surprisingly low temperatures of less than 150 °C and short reaction times of less than 1 h, producing BiSI and BiSeI particles, respectively. This method was also applied for synthesizing BiSBr1−xIx, where continuous changes in their band gaps were observed depending on the ratio between iodine and bromine. The composition of all elements (except oxygen) in the chalcohalides thus produced was almost identical to that of the oxyhalide precursors, attributed to the suppressed volatilization of halogens at such low temperatures. All chalcohalides loaded on FTO clearly exhibited an anodic photocurrent in an acetonitrile solution containing I−, attributed to their n-type nature, e.g., the BiSI electrode exhibited high IPCE (64% at 700 nm, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). PMID:27600662

  10. Evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials for space applications in LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, S.; Banks, B.; Difilippo, F.; Brady, J.; Dever, T.; Hotes, D.

    1986-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for polyimide (Kapton) solar array blanket protection and graphite-epoxy stroctural member protection was performed in an RF plasma asher. Protective coatings on Kapton from various commercial sources and from NASA Lewis Research Center were exposed to the air plasma; and mass loss per unit area was measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface, but metal-oxide-fluoropolymer coatings provided the best protection by exhibiting very little degradation after 47 hr of asher exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite-epoxy structural members. Mica appeared to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen, but only offered limited protection as a paint. this is believed to be due to the paint vehicle ashing underneath the mica leaving unattached mica flakes lying on the surface. The protective coatings on Kapton evaluated so far are promising but further research on protection of graphite-epoxy support structures is needed.

  11. Tellurite glass as a waste form for a simulated mixed chloride waste stream: Candidate materials selection and initial testing

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-02-02

    Tellurite glasses have been researched widely for the last 60 years since they were first introduced by Stanworth. These glasses have been primarily used in research applications as glass host materials for lasers and as non-linear optical materials, though many other uses exist in the literature. Tellurite glasses have long since been used as hosts for various, and even sometimes mixed, halogens (i.e., multiple chlorides or even chlorides and iodides). Thus, it was reasonable to expect that these types of glasses could be used as a waste form to immobilize a combination of mixed chlorides present in the electrochemical separations process involved with fuel separations and processing from nuclear reactors. Many of the properties related to waste forms (e.g., chemical durability, maximum chloride loading) for these materials are unknown and thus, in this study, several different types of tellurite glasses were made and their properties studied to determine if such a candidate waste form could be fabricated with these glasses. One of the formulations studied was a lead tellurite glass, which had a low sodium release and is on-par with high-level waste silicate glass waste forms.

  12. Transient Scuffing of Candidate Diesel Engine Materials at Temperatures up to 600oC

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.

    2003-06-20

    This milestone report summarizes the general characteristics of scuffing damage to solid surfaces, then describes transient effects on scuffing observed during oscillating sliding wear tests of candidate material pairs for high-temperature diesel engine applications, like waste-gate bushings in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. It is shown that oxidation and the formation of wear particle layers influence the friction of such components. In the case of metallic materials in cylindrical contacts where there is a generous clearance, debris layers can form which reduce the torque over time. For ceramic combinations, the opposite effect is observed. Here, the accumulation of wear debris leads to an increase in the turning torque. High-temperature transient scuffing behavior is considered in terms of a series of stages in which the composition and morphology of the contact is changing. These changes are used to explain the behavior of 11 material pairs consisting of stainless steels, Ni-based alloys, Co-based alloys, and structural ceramics.

  13. Reference Material Kydex(registered trademark)-100 Test Data Message for Flammability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database contains, as an engineering resource, a large amount of material test data carefully obtained and recorded over a number of years. Flammability test data obtained using Test 1 of NASA-STD-6001 is a significant component of this database. NASA-STD-6001 recommends that Kydex 100 be used as a reference material for testing certification and for comparison between test facilities in the round-robin certification testing that occurs every 2 years. As a result of these regular activities, a large volume of test data is recorded within the MAPTIS database. The activity described in this technical report was undertaken to mine the database, recover flammability (Test 1) Kydex 100 data, and review the lessons learned from analysis of these data.

  14. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  15. Preparation and certification of standard reference material 3278 tocopherols in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Catherine A; Putzbach, Karsten; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C; Yen, James H

    2012-07-11

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3278 Tocopherols in Edible Oils has been issued for use as a quality assurance tool in the measurement of tocopherols. Like other natural-matrix SRMs, this material can be used in method validation or in assignment of tocopherol values to in-house quality control materials. Because most edible oils contain one predominant tocopherol isoform, the SRM is a blend of sunflower, soy, canola, and safflower oils to provide roughly comparable chromatographic peak heights of the two main tocopherols, γ and α, with smaller amounts of δ and β. The four tocopherol isoforms were determined by three independent liquid chromatography methods with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Various chromatographic and detection modes are used for assignment of certified values because biases inherent to one method should not be present in the other, and the existence of bias can therefore be identified. PMID:22686411

  16. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  17. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:23371533

  18. Isotopic composition ( 238U/ 235U) of some commonly used uranium reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel J.; McLean, Noah; Noble, Stephen R.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2010-12-01

    We have determined 238U/ 235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, and HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U- 236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. Total uncertainty on the 238U/ 235U determinations is estimated to be <0.02% (2σ). These natural 238U/ 235U values are different from the widely used 'consensus' value (137.88), with each standard having lower 238U/ 235U values by up to 0.08%. The 238U/ 235U ratio determined for CRM U500 and IRMM 184 are within error of their certified values; however, the total uncertainty for CRM U500 is substantially reduced (from 0.1% to 0.02%). These reference materials are commonly used to assess mass-spectrometer performance and accuracy, calibrate isotope tracers employed in U, U-Th and U-Pb isotopic studies, and as a reference for terrestrial and meteoritic 238U/ 235U variations. These new 238U/ 235U values will thus provide greater accuracy and reduced uncertainty for a wide variety of isotopic determinations.

  19. History of reference materials for food and nutrition metrology: As represented in the series of BERM Symposia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970s the first “biological” Reference Material (RM) of Bowens Kale, Orchard Leaves, and Bovine Liver from ...

  20. Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-30

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables.

  1. Development and Certification of a Standard Reference Material for Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Seruma

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Karen W.; Bedner, Mary; Tai, Susan S.-C.; Vamathevan, Veronica V.; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Wise, Stephen A.; Yen, James H.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Coates, Paul M.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum. SRM 972 Vitamin D in Human Serum consists of four serum pools with different levels of vitamin D metabolites and has certified and reference values for 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Value assignment of this SRM was accomplished using a combination of three isotope-dilution mass spectrometry approaches, with measurements performed at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chromatographic resolution of the 3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 proved to be essential for accurate determination of the metabolites. PMID:22141317

  2. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  3. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  4. Development of apple certified reference material for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2013-06-01

    An apple certified reference material for the analysis of pesticide residues was issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides were sprayed on apples, and these were used as raw materials of certified reference material. The harvested apples were cut into small pieces, freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved, placed into 200 brown glass bottles (3g each), and sterilized by γ-irradiation. Stability and homogeneity assessment was performed, and the relative uncertainties due to instability (for an expiry date of 32 months) and inhomogeneity were 10.3-25.0% and 4.0-6.8%, respectively. The characterization was carried out using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values were 2.28 ± 0.82 mg/kg for diazinon, 3.14 ± 0.79 mg/kg for fenitrothion, 1.55 ± 0.81 mg/kg for cypermethrin, and 2.81 ± 0.70 mg/kg for permethrin. PMID:23411239

  5. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-12-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  6. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  7. Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: Molybdenites HLP and JDC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, A.; Wu, S.; Sun, D.; Wang, Shaoming; Qu, W.; Markey, R.; Stain, H.; Morgan, J.; Malinovskiy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two Re-Os dating reference material molybdenites were prepared. Molybdenite JDC and molybdenite HLP are from a carbonate vein-type molybdenum-(lead)- uranium deposit in the Jinduicheng-Huanglongpu area of Shaanxi province, China. The samples proved to be homogeneous, based on the coefficient of variation of analytical results and an analysis of variance test. The sampling weight was 0.1 g for JDC and 0.025 g for HLP. An isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Re and Os. Sample decomposition and preconcentration of Re and Os prior to measurement were accomplished using a variety of methods: acid digestion, alkali fusion, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of Re and 187Os concentration and isotope ratios. The certified values include the contents of Re and Os and the model ages. For HLP, the Re content was 283.8 ?? 6.2 ??g g-1, 187Os was 659 ?? 14 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 221.4 ?? 5.6 Ma. For JDC, the Re content was 17.39 ?? 0.32 ng g-1, 187Os was 25.46 ?? 0.60 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 139.6 ?? 3.8 Ma. Uncertainties for both certified reference materials are stated at the 95% level of confidence. Three laboratories (from three countries: P.R. China, USA, Sweden) joined in the certification programme. These certified reference materials are primarily useful for Re-Os dating of molybdenite, sulfides, black shale, etc.

  8. Identification and quantitation of arsenic species in a dogfish muscle reference material for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Bednas, M.E.; Berman, S.S.; McLaren, J.W.; Siu, K.W.M.; Sturgeon, R.E.

    1988-10-15

    The arsenic species present in a dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1) have been identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS), thin-layer chromatography, and electron impact mass spectrometry and quantified by using HPLC/ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The major species is arsenobetaine (15.7 +/- 0.8 ..mu..g of As/g of DORM-1), constituting about 84% of the total arsenic. For this species, the HPLC/ICP-MS detection limit was 0.3 ng of As.

  9. Evaluation of the sulfur isotopic composition and homogeneity of the Soufre de Lacq reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmody, R.W.; Seal, R.R., II

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic analysis of the elemental sulfur reference material Soufre de Lacq, prepared as silver sulfide by chromous chloride reduction and as copper sulfide by sealed-tube synthesis, indicates that Soufre de Lacq is isotopically homogeneous across different size fractions to within analytical uncertainty (??0.15???). The sulfur isotopic composition of aliquots of Soufre de Lacq prepared by these two techniques are identical to within analytical uncertainty. The mean sulfur isotopic composition for Soufre de Lacq prepared as silver sulfide and copper sulfide (relative to VCDT) is +16.20 ?? 0.15??? (1??).

  10. Feasibility study for the development of certified reference materials for specific migration testing. Part 2: estimation of diffusion parameters and comparison of experimental and predicted data.

    PubMed

    Stoffers, N H; Brandsch, R; Bradley, E L; Cooper, I; Dekker, M; Störmer, A; Franz, R

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the second part of a project whose main objective was to develop the know-how to produce certified reference materials (CRMs) for specific migration testing. Certification parameters discussed are the diffusion coefficient, D(P), the respective polymer-specific coefficient, A(P), of the migrant polymer combinations and the partitioning coefficient, K(P,F), describing the partitioning of the migrant between the polymer and a food simulant. The parameters were determined for 16 preliminary candidate CRMs. Each parameter was determined by one laboratory. The six materials most suitable as reference materials were selected and the parameters then determined by four laboratories. The coefficients resulting from this small-scale interlaboratory comparison study can be regarded as the most reliable values available to date. These coefficients were applied for a comparison of experimental and predicted migration data. The experimental migration data arose from the same project and were determined by one laboratory for the first 16 materials and subsequently by four laboratories for the six materials selected in the second phase. Overall, experimental and predicted migration data fit together quite well. Roughly half of the predicted data were within +/-10%; almost all predicted data were within +/-40% compared with the experimental data. PMID:15864868

  11. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-09-22

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

  12. High-strength reaction-sintered SiC: a new candidate material for large spaceborne telescope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Yukari Y.; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Tange, Yoshio

    2004-11-01

    The high-strength reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) developed and manufactured by Toshiba and NEC-Toshiba Space Systems, NT-SiC, is one of the most promising, excellent and feasible candidates for light-weighted large-diameter space-borne optics that are applied to geostationary earth observations and astronomical observations. Small NT-SiC sample mirrors were manufactured to study basic physical parameters and features, and optical performances of the material, such as the surface conditions of polished NT-SiC, the condition of inner crystal grains, the correlation between the surface roughness and polishing, scattering characteristics, absorbance of solar light and infrared emissivity, and adhesiveness of metal coating. The current state of the art of the development of the NT-SiC mirror and the feasibility of light-weighted large-diameter NT-SiC mirrors for space-borne optics are described. Although technical challenges to achieve the surface roughness that is applicable to ultraviolet mirrors still remain, the optical performance and the physical properties of the present NT-SiC show that it is one of the most excellent mirror material in optical-infrared wavelength region.

  13. Reference Materials for Trace Element Microanalysis of Carbonates by SIMS and other Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Today, many areas of geochemical research utilize microanalytical determinations of trace elements in carbonate minerals. In particular, there has been an explosion in the application of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to studies of marine biomineralization. SIMS provides highly precise determinations of Mg and Sr at the concentration levels normally encountered in corals, mollusks or fish otoliths. It is also a highly effective means for determining a wide range of other trace elements at ppm levels (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, Ba, REE, Pb, Th, and U) in a variety of naturally occurring calcite and aragonite matrices - and so is potentially valuable in studies of diagenesis, hydrothermal fluids and carbonatitic magmas. For SIMS, modest time per spot (often <5 min), lateral spatial resolution (<10 μm), sample volume consumption (<10 ng) and overall reproducibility compare extremely favorably with other microanalytical techniques for these applications. However, accuracy and reproducibility are currently wholly limited by the homogeneity of available solid reference material - which is far inferior to the tenths of a percent levels of precision achieved by SIMS. Due to variation in the sputtered ion yields of most elements with the major element composition of the sample matrix, accuracy of SIMS depends intimately on matrix-matched solid reference materials. Despite its rapidly increasing use for trace element analyses of carbonates, there remains a dearth of certified reference materials suitable for calibrating SIMS. The pressed powders used by some analysts to calibrate LA-ICP-MS do not perform well for SIMS - they are not perfectly dense or homogeneous to the desired level at the micron scale of sampling. Further, they often prove incompatible with the sample high vacuum compatibility requirement for stable SIMS analysis (10-8 to 10-9 torr). Some naturally occurring calcite has apparent utility as a reference material. For example, equigranular calcite from some

  14. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  15. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. PMID:24291528

  16. Mica Mountain Muscovite: A New Silicate Hydrogen Isotope Standard Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonero, A.; Larson, P. B.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    A new standard reference material consisting of finely ground muscovite flakes has been developed and utilized at Washington State University to calibrate hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) measurements to the VSMOW scale. This standard was prepared from a single crystal 'book' of a muscovite-bearing pegmatite near Deary, ID. The value we obtained for this muscovite standard (MMM) is: δD VSMOW = -79.1 ± 2.0‰ relative to NBS-30 biotite at -65.7‰ compared to a VSMOW value of 0.00‰. This mean value was determined for the muscovite and has been used as our working standard. There have been many recent geological applications to continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. When hydrogen isotope ratios are of interest, a suitable standard for hydrogen in silicate systems often is not available. With supplies of the older NBS-30 biotite standard exhausted, much D/H data measured on silicate minerals have been linked to the VSMOW scale via non-silicate reference materials which may not behave similarly to minerals under study. Some recent studies have shown the NBS-30 standard to have poor intra-laboratory agreement with that material's measured and accepted isotopic values (Qi et al., 2014). Many laboratories which would measure D/H in silicate minerals would benefit from using a silicate-based standard for hydrogen. With further characterization, this muscovite may also be useful as a standard for silicate oxygen ratios as well as for some major element cations. This muscovite standard gives consistent values and it is easy to work with and does not leave much combustion residue. Also, because muscovite contains little iron, metal-hydride formation and associated fractionation factors is greatly reduced during the sample combustion. A new silicate-hydrogen standard is needed by the community, and this work represents an example of what a replacement standard material could look like.

  17. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  18. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Phinney, Karen W; Keller, Jennifer M

    2011-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C(8) stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods. PMID:21912833

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Scatterometry Signatures for Optical Critical Dimension Reference Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Heather J.; Germer, Thomas A.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Bishop, Michael

    2007-09-01

    We use an optical critical dimension (OCD) technique, matching modeled to measured scatterometry signatures, to obtain critical dimension linewidth of lines in grating targets fabricated on SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) substrates using the single-crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRM) process. We first compare experimentally obtained reflectance signatures for areas of the unpatterned substrate with signatures modeled using Fresnel theory, and show that the buried oxide (BOX) layer of the SIMOX is not well described optically by a single homogeneous layer of SiO2, but can be so described if a mixed Si-SiO2 boundary layer is included between the Si wafer and the BOX layer. We then obtain linewidths from OCD measurements on a series of grating targets with a range of design linewidths and pitches, and show that the linewidth obtained from the OCD technique is linearly related to the linewidth obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with a slope near unity and zero offset. While these results are very promising, further work in improving the fit of the simulated signatures to the measured signatures for some of the targets, reducing the target line roughness, and analyzing the uncertainties for potential optical critical dimension reference materials, is anticipated.

  20. Enantiomer fractions of polychlorinated biphenyls in three selected Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joshua A; Bleackley, Derek S; Warner, Nicholas A; Wong, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    The enantiomer composition of six chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in three different certified Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 1946 (Lake Superior fish tissue), SRM 1939a (PCB Congeners in Hudson River Sediment), and SRM 2978 (organic contaminants in mussel tissue--Raritan Bay, New Jersey) to aid in quality assurance/quality control methodologies in the study of chiral pollutants in sediments and biota. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, and 183 were measured using a suite of chiral columns by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of target analytes were in agreement with certified values. Target analyte EFs in reference materials were measured precisely (<2% relative standard deviation), indicating the utility of SRM in quality assurance/control methodologies for analyses of chiral compounds in environmental samples. Measured EFs were also in agreement with previously published analyses of similar samples, indicating that similar enantioselective processes were taking place in these environmental matrices. PMID:16777177